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as prohibition essay Brown University Library. Providence, RI 02912. Developed hosted by. Brown University Library. Providence, RI 02912. Temperance and Prohibition Era Propaganda: A Study in Rhetoric. Juveniles! Beginnings: The Minister and the Physician Team Up. In 1805, Benjamin Rush, a physician from Philadelphia, wrote an essay titled The Effects of Ardent Spirits Upon Man. Rush's writing reflected the changing attitudes towards distilled alcohol at essay olaudah, the time, especially among the should juveniles as adults, US medical community. Rush's article drew upon equiano ideas from should juveniles, a century earlier; at the beginning of the eighteenth century, medical practitioners began taking a more scientific approach to medicine. Scientists and doctors like Rush felt that the American public needed to be made aware of the health hazards inherent in mfa photo, alcohol consumption.

Rush's argument against the consumption of should juveniles as adults ardent spirits was not only scientific, but also moral. At the end of his essay, Rush described the moral evils that resulted from the use of distilled spirits such as fraud, theft, uncleanliness and murder (Runes 339). Not long after Rush began writing about alcohol's detrimental effects on moral and essay about equiano, physical health, he began a correspondence with the Boston Minister Jeremy Belknap. The physician and the minister soon became collaborators, using a mixture of should juveniles as adults essay scientific and moral claims in their fight against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The teaming up of the minister and the physician is essay about emblematic of a century of rhetoric surrounding alcohol use and abuse in America. For over should juveniles be tried, a century, Americans argued for abstinence from alcohol using a combination of scientific and moral reasons. What made Rush and Belknap's writing compelling and persuasive for many Americans? Why did later propaganda continue to use Rush and Belknap's two-fold argument against a research, alcohol consumption?

In this paper I will address these questions by discussing the rhetorical methods used in essay, Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda. Anti-liquor Propaganda: A Study in Rhetoric. W. J. Rorabaugh, author of the 1979 book The Alcoholic Republic, wrote Temperance reformersflooded America with propaganda (196). Rorabaugh cited the American Tract Society as one example: by the color of water essay thesis 1851 the Society had distributed nearly five million temperance pamphlets (196). Pamphlets and propaganda were an as adults essay, essential aspect of the American antiliquor crusade, from the Temperance Movement through the Prohibition Era. Although these publications came in a variety of forms and styles, they all used two fundamental rhetorical techniques: logos and pathos. Logos is an appeal to logic; it includes scientific evidence, statistics, facts and other provable forms of on thomas presidency information.

Rush's use of scientific evidence in The Effects of be tried as adults essay Ardent Spirits Upon Man is an example of logos. A subcategory of logos is ethos or credibility. Not only should facts be provable, they must also come from the color essay thesis, a trustworthy and reliable source. The second rhetorical technique employed by anti-liquor propaganda is pathos or appeals to emotion. The final part of Rush's essay dealing with morals and value judgments is based in pathos. Both logos and pathos played an important role in should juveniles be tried essay, Temperance and Prohibition era propaganda, although ultimately, pathos proved to be the essay, most widely used rhetorical method. Temperance and Prohibition era propaganda appealed to emotion through religious language, drawing upon should juveniles as adults the prevalent morals and values of the times. Both the of water thesis, Temperance Movement and Prohibition Era coincided with periods of should juveniles be tried as adults essay intense religious fervor in essays started, the US. These religious revivals were steeped in Puritan moral codes which in turn served as the basis for the underlying ideology of antiliquor propaganda.

Temperance, Prohibition and the Puritans: A Brief History. Widespread religious fervor was a central feature of the Temperance and Prohibition eras. In the early nineteenth century, a religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening took the nation by should juveniles storm (284). As James Morone wrote in his recent book, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History, With preachers announcing that the millennium lay at hand, men and women began to swear off hard spirits; the yearning for perfection drew them until they were pledging total abstinence (284). Many of the original Temperance societies had religious affiliations, like the evangelical American Temperance Society which was founded in 1826.

Ten years later, at the evangelical American Temperance Society's height, one out of every ten Americans was a member (Morone 284). Roughly a century later, in the 1910s, there was conservative religious revival in the United States. The religious movements of the Prohibition Era promoted a back to basics approach with a clear, narrow definition of what it meant to be a faithful, observant Christian. Protestant fundamentalists warned of the approaching millennium and the Second Coming of Christ and criticized the nation's slack morals, 'creampuff' religions and 'godless social service nonsense' (Morone 335). Fundamentalist preachers like Billy Sunday told Americans that the path to heaven ran through a literal reading of the essays started, Bible (335). Should Juveniles! Prohibition provided political backing and legitimacy for the religious revivals of the essay, early twentieth century. While critics scoffed at the fundamentalists' stance on the coming millennium and interpretations of the bible, calling them backwards and extreme, Christian fundamentalists held their ground regarding their anti-drinking crusade. According to should juveniles be tried as adults essay Morone, Prohibition offered them [fundamentalists] their one link to national authority, the one public commitment to resisting moral decay (337). The morals and values that the religious revivals of the Temperance and Prohibition Eras promoted were steeped in Puritan ideology.

Who were the Puritans? What were their fundamental beliefs? Puritan ideology emerged as a response to the chaos of the English Reformation in the sixteenth century and seventeenth centuries. The original Puritans criticized the corruption in the Church of England and demanded a return to essay equiano religious purity. Critics mocked these people, calling them Puritans, and the name stuck. The Puritans were among the original English settlers of should be tried as adults essay North America; their first fleet arrived in Massachusetts in 1630. According to James Morone, No aspect of the Puritan world is more often recalled than the notion of a mission, an errand in the wilderness sealed by a covenant with God (35). Alzheimers! The mission of the Early American Puritans hinged upon the concepts of individual and communal responsibility. Should Be Tried! Individuals controlled their final destinies: salvation for the righteous and eternal damnation for the sinners, however, the mfa photo thesis show, Puritan covenant held the entire community responsible for sinners in be tried as adults, this life. God would punish all, saint and sinner alike, with disease, drought, famine and other misfortunes if a community did not reform its sinners. How could individuals and jefferson presidency, communities achieve success and salvation?

According to the Puritans, the answer lay in education, discipline and hard work. Puritans defined the home as the primary place of should as adults instruction and saw parents as the most important moral models and instructors for children. Industriousness was a virtue with positive outcomes in a research, this life and the afterlife. The Puritans' emphasis on juveniles as adults, the importance of hard work developed into what it commonly known as the Protestant work ethic (Morone 15). The Early American Puritan values of individual and communal salvation, hard work and the proper education of alzheimers research paper children are constant themes in Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda. I found five major categories of Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda: scientific pamphlets, religious pamphlets, posters, children's pamphlets and the fifth category, songs and poems. Using examples of these five forms of propaganda, I will discuss how Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda used logos and pathos and why these rhetorical techniques were effective. Scientific pamphlets presented facts and be tried essay, logical arguments against drinking alcohol, while religious pamphlets drew directly upon Christian doctrine, often citing biblical reasons for temperance. Although the terms scientific and religious seem to translate directly in logos and pathos, both types of propaganda used a mixture of essays on how world started rational and should be tried as adults essay, emotional appeals to promote abstinence from alcohol.

The scientific pamphlets claimed proven, scientific evidence and practical advice as the basis for essay about equiano their arguments. Titles such as Alcohol: Practical Facts for Practical People and Answers to Favorite Wet Arguments, both from the early 1900s, reinforced the idea that these pamphlets contained factual, objective truth. Should Juveniles Be Tried As Adults Essay! Most pamphlets also established their ethos or credibility by citing the research and conclusions of experts, including doctors and scientists. The names of the olaudah, associations distributing these pamphlets, such as the Scientific Temperance Federation of Boston, added to this air of scientific credibility. Scientific pamphlets also found truth in numbers, using statistics to prove that alcohol was harmful to should essay individuals and society. Pamphlets like The Cost of Beer (1880s) and A Way to Make Money - And a Better Way (early 1900s) discussed the personal and social expenses of drinking. First they appealed to logos, using statistical evidence. Alzheimers Research! These pamphlets calculated the cost of alcohol, from the price per gallon to the cost of yearly consumption in cities like New York. There is a social as well as economic concern underlying these pamphlets. For example, The Cost of Beer addressed pathos by claiming that alcohol consumption leads to noise, broils, stupidity and juveniles be tried as adults, drunkenness.

The underlying message of many of the scientific pamphlets was that an of water essay, individual must know all the facts in order to make an informed decision. Juveniles Be Tried! Yet, the information provided in these pamphlets pointed to only one viable option: temperance. To further the idea that abstinence was obviously the one true answer, a number of scientific temperance pamphlets had rhetorical questions as titles, such as these pamphlets from the early 1900s: Do you want to be efficient? Do you want to be powerful? and Do you want a better rating? Who could say no to these questions? These titles in the form of rhetorical questions likely piqued readers' interest, and, as in the case of The Cost of Beer, these pamphlets intertwined logical, moral and emotional appeals. A Research! The three pamphlets Do you want to be efficient? Do you want to be powerful? and Do you want to a better rating? addressed athletes and soldiers and initially gave logical, scientific reasons for temperance. The first reason was that alcohol is unhealthy. Do you want to be efficient? quoted a noted European psychiatrist who said that Alcohol in all forms and doses is a poison. Reasons regarding the health problems resulting from alcohol drew upon a variety of scientific fields including psychology, human biology, neuroscience and medicine.

These reasons led to the same conclusion: alcohol interferes with mental and physical processes, hurting the body and should juveniles as adults essay, putting the drinker at a disadvantage. For example, one of the section headings of Do you want a better rating? read Mere Physical Fitness Is Not All and included the following quotations: Physical fitness is a farce without self-control, judgment, and discretion, which are the three qualities of mind first to mfa photo thesis show be dulled by and made incompetent by the use of alcohol. - Dr. Haven Emerson One of the effects of alcohol is to should be tried interfere with the coordination of nerve and muscle. It has been repeatedly found that moderate amounts of alcohol interfere with skilled actions which depend on this co-ordination, such as rifle shooting and typing speed. - Dr. E. H. Derrick, M.D. These quotations not only a research, bring up the health reasons for temperance but also a second reason: abstainers are more industrious and productive. This is another form of logos which uses practical, rather than scientific, knowledge. While the scientific evidence was impressive because it drew upon information and juveniles be tried as adults, resources that may otherwise have been inaccessible to many readers, these more practical arguments were compelling because they were familiar, appealing to a deeply-ingrained value, the Protestant work ethic. Like The Cost of Beer, these three pamphlets addressed pathos by discussing social as well as physical health, an argument which hearkened to the Puritan idea of social welfare. The pamphlet Do you want to be powerful? stated: Experiment shows that drinking but one small bottle of world war one started beer or one glass of should be tried essay wine may impair a man's driving capacity Practically all the hit-run fatal accidents are caused by drunken drivers, says Frank A. Goodwin, Massachusetts Registrar of essay thesis Motor Vehicles. This common sense reasoning seems to be an appeal to logic: drinking interferes with one's ability to should juveniles be tried as adults essay drive.

Individual safety, however, was not the parsons thesis show, primary concern. The underlying message of this quotation was to alert drivers that their drinking could have harmful effects on should, others. Essays World War One! The example the quotation uses, hit-run accidents, is an appeal to pathos, because it conjures up the image of an innocent victim who is left injured while the driver speeds away. The implication is that people who drink and drive are irresponsible and hurt others, clearly disregarding the Puritan value of concern and should be tried as adults essay, consideration for members of one's community. Religious pamphlets used Christine Doctrine, especially references to the Bible, as the foundation for their argument against alcohol consumption. Essays On How Started! Pamphlets like The Holy Bible and Drink and Christian Temperance Catechism (both from the early 1900s) quoted passages from the bible that warned against juveniles as adults essay, the evils of drinking. Directly quoting the bible was taken from the Puritan tradition where emphasis is nearly always on the Bible, which they [the Puritans] saw in the color thesis, sharp contrast to tradition and to merely human ideas and usages (Emerson 46).

The Holy Bible and Drink presented twenty frequently asked questions about alcohol consumption from What about 'one will not hurt you'? to What about drunkards being saved? (2) and should juveniles be tried as adults essay, a list of pro-temperance answers in the form of quotations from the bible. Christian Temperance Catechism took a more step by step approach, using a series of the color thesis questions and answers which drew on Christian Doctrine and sometimes included quotations from the scriptures. Juveniles As Adults Essay! It began with the simplest and most innocuous seeming question and answer: What is temperance? The proper control of appetite (1). The questions and answers become more specific and emotionally charged throughout the essays on how world war one started, pamphlet, ending with question and answers like How can we work successfully against intemperance? By learning and by showing others how the should juveniles be tried as adults, use of intoxicants ruins soul and on thomas, body (8).

Although these pamphlets followed a logos structure with logical arguments citing evidence from an established source, i.e. the bible, their underlying messages appealed to pathos. For example, Christian Temperance Catechism mentioned alcohol as a major source of suffering in society, both spiritual and physical. According to should juveniles as adults essay this pamphlet, American society suffered more from parsons thesis, intemperance than all other forms of sin and claimed alcohol was a poison and the cause of three fourths of all of the disease and proverty [sic] and sorrow and crime in our land (2). Not all Religious pamphlets utilized a logos format to fight temperance. The early twentieth century pamphlet Don't Unwittingly Join The Enemy's Forces is should as adults a clear appeal to pathos. Taken from an address given by Bishop Nicholson of the Methodist Episcopal Church, this pamphlet draws upon the Puritan tradition of preaching. Research! The Puritans placed great emphasis on preaching and most insisted that 'human authorities' have no place in sermons (Emerson 45).

Religious leaders supporting the Temperance movement, like Bishop Nicholson, saw the fight against intemperance as a crusade, literally a holy war. The authority justifying and supporting this fight was not mere human beings, but God. In his address Bishop Nicholson appealed to deeply held American values and Puritan morals, describing intemperance as a threat to should be tried as adults democracy and morality. Nicholson, like many Temperance leaders, described the a research, struggle against liquor as a second American revolution; first Americans freed themselves from the British, now they must free themselves from alcohol. Juveniles Be Tried Essay! This argument drew upon the American value of liberty and Puritan morals concerning individual and communal responsibility and salvation. As in a crusade, there was a clearly defined enemy in Nicholson's address. Nicholson not only criticized his opposition, the wets or anti-Temperance supporters, he vilified them.

Nicholson inspired pathos by describing those who protested temperance as hateful, unprincipled and criminal men with unworthy motives. His argument was passionate and urgent. Not only was the fight against essays war one, intemperance the greatest struggle since the be tried as adults essay, Civil War for the effectuation of Democracy (2), it was a life and death struggle with the essay about, greatest single evil of the agesthe most unprincipled, the most unscrupulous, and the most Satanic forces possible to should essay conceive (5). Following in the tradition of Puritan preaching, Nicholson explained that the on how world, fight against intemperance was not merely a human endeavor, but God's mission: God expects every man and every woman to do his or her duty (5) He conflated divine and earthly aspirations, saying that people can take part in God's mission by voting against pro-liquor legislation. Nicholson then took his appeal to pathos a step further, claiming that those who do not actively fight intemperance were supporting the enemy, (hence the title of the juveniles essay, pamphlet Don't Unwittingly Join the about olaudah, Enemy's Forces) and therefore neglecting their responsibilities as American Patriots and Christians. He criticized voter apathy, describing those who do not vote as criminal and unpatriotic (5), because by not voting these people were effectively giving their vote to the enemy.

Although some religious pamphlets did contain appeals to logos in their structure or actual arguments, the overarching rhetorical technique in this form of propaganda was pathos. Religious pamphlets evoked emotional responses by should be tried essay appealing to people's deeply held religious values and patriotic sentiments. (All posters mentioned in this section are from 1913) In many ways, Temperance and alzheimers research paper, Prohibition Era posters offered a condensed version of the scientific and religious pamphlets, presenting their most striking and compelling arguments through images and sound bytes. Many of the posters took the Benjamin Rush approach, showing scientific and logical evidence to as adults prove that alcohol consumption was detrimental to both body and soul. Many posters referred to scientific studies and statistical information, citing medical and scientific experts for ethos. Like the titles of scientific pamphlets (ex.

Alcohol: Practical Facts for Practical People), the alzheimers research, headings of the posters purported indisputable information. Be Tried As Adults Essay! Poster headings like Deaths, Defect, Dwarfings in the Young of Alcoholized Guinea Pigs, Death Rate From Various Diseases in Drinkers and General Class and Insurance Records Show that Drink Shortens Life 11% with their graphs and charts hardly seem debatable. Despite their scientific and factual claims, many of the essays on how world war one, underlying messages of these posters were steeped in Puritan morality and should juveniles as adults, appeals to pathos. Temperance Era posters hinted both at the importance of responsible parenting and the Protestant work ethic, both deeply held Puritan values. A number of posters described how children of on thomas alcoholic parents suffered developmentally, both physically and emotionally, citing statistics and scientific studies as proof. Some described how parents who drink have a higher rate of defective children: Defective Children Increased with Alcoholization of Fathers, Drinkers' Children Developed More Slowly, Hand in Hand: Feeblemindedness and Alcoholism: More alcoholism found in parents of Feebleminded than those of Normal Children and juveniles be tried essay, Child Death Rate Higher in Drinkers' Families. Of Water Thesis! Others depicted the psychological problems drinking caused children: Drink the should be tried essay, Largest Cause of Unhappy Homes in Chicago, Children in Misery, Parent's Drink to Blame in at Least Three Cases Out of Every Four and Drink Burdens Childhood. A Research! Temperance and Prohibition Era posters described alcohol as the source of society's individual and social problems. Alcohol was the cause of laziness, inability to concentrate and other impediments to the ideals of juveniles be tried essay success and the Protestant work ethic as noted in the posters: Drink Impaired Scholarship, The Better Chances of the Sober Workman, Alcohol Impairs Muscle Work and Daily Drinking Impaired Memory. Like the scientific pamphlets, these posters used charts, percentages, results from studies and quotations from scientific and medical experts. Still other posters were more explicitly moralizing, like the following poster which drew upon parsons mfa photo thesis show the Puritan value of care for others: DRINK MAKES ONE MORE LIABLE TO ACCIDENT.

WHAT THE ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY SAYS: A man whose nerves have been made unsteady by a recent debauch or by the habitual use of alcohol, should not be permitted to operate dangerous machinery or to carry on should juveniles be tried essay, dangerous work. He endangers not only his own life, but the lives of others. The last line, He endangers not only his own life, but the parsons mfa photo, lives of others, is italicized, the implication being that individuals must care about the welfare of their fellow human beings. Should Juveniles Be Tried As Adults! A number of a research Temperance and Prohibition Era posters, like a number of the religious pamphlets, used a logos format to make a pathos appeal. These posters contained graphs and statistical information, presenting moral claims as factual information, such as Alcoholism and Degeneracy, Intemperance as a Cause of Poverty Greatly Reduced Since Prohibition and should be tried, Drink A Great Cause of Immorality. The poster Drink A Great Cause of Immorality showed the results of a study of 865 Immoral Inebriate Women, claiming that 40% of their immorality was due solely to drink, including as evidence a statement by a medical expert: There is no apparent reason why any of the personsshould have become immoral but for preceding alcoholism. Intemperance as a Cause of olaudah equiano Poverty Greatly Reduced Since Prohibition presented a graph that tracked the drop in should juveniles be tried as adults, poverty as a result of increased temperance, therefore conflating intemperance and immoral behavior with greater social ills like poverty. A Research! Posters are a powerful form of juveniles propaganda; their succinct and striking messages create a sense of urgency. In a poster, complex and extensive information must be condensed into a few words and images. Temperance and a research, Prohibition Era posters did just this, using startling information and making emotional appeals to Americans' most deeply held morals and values.

A significant amount of should juveniles as adults essay Temperance and of water essay thesis, Prohibition Era propaganda was targeted towards children. Should Juveniles! Since logical and scientific arguments may not have made sense to olaudah young children, the main rhetorical technique in children's pamphlets was pathos. This form of anti-liquor propaganda related children's emotional responses and experiences to moral issues. The large quantity of temperance pamphlets targeted towards children was likely a result of be tried essay Puritan ideology. According to the Puritans, children's moral education began at a research, home; as the Puritan minister and saint Richard Greenham, wrote in his essay Of the good education of children: If parents would have their children blessed at church and school, let them beware they give their children no corrupt examples at home by any carelessness, profaneness or ungodliness. Otherwise, parents will do them more harm at home than both pastors and schoolmasters can do them good abroad. (Emerson 152) Although these pamphlets are written for children, it is probable that they are also targeting parents. A central theme in many children's pamphlets is the role of parents in promoting temperance and should essay, how a child should react if his/her parent is intemperate. Children's pamphlets generally began with an illustration and a story about a child or an animal whose experiences served as a subtle or direct warning against intemperance. The next section would usually contain a poem, dialogue or mini-story which reinforced the parsons mfa photo thesis show, ideas presented in the first story. Many of these pamphlets also ended with advice, telling children to abstain from alcohol and to join the temperance crusade.

Two examples of be tried children's pamphlets are Grandmother's boy (1880s) and parsons mfa photo show, Look out for the trap! (1870s) The cover story of Grandmother's boy deals directly with Puritan values concerning salvation and good parenting. In the pamphlet's opening story, a little boy who has been raised by his pro-temperance grandmother pays his father a visit. Be Tried Essay! The father is a wealthy, educated man who is enjoying a bottle of wine with his friends. The son, who has taken the temperance pledge, embarrasses his father, asking him why he is drinking alcohol, and olaudah equiano, then says: 'If I'd known you drinked such stuff, I shouldn't wanted to should be tried essay come and essay presidency, see you. It makes folks drunkards, and juveniles as adults essay, makes them so wicked they can't go to heaven (3-4).' The child's reaction to his father's drinking appeals to pathos, especially fear, in mfa photo thesis show, two ways. First, it plays upon parents' fear that their children will lose respect for be tried as adults essay them and alzheimers, not want to spend time with them. Second, his statement refers to the Puritan idea that sinners who do not reform cannot be saved, a warning which uses intimidation to encourage self-improvement. The following section in the pamphlet Grandmother's boy is a poem titled Johnny's Soliloquy, which expresses the messages of the first story even more explicitly. The poem encourages children to serve as models to their parents, as in the phrase, The boy is father to the man (3) which is repeated throughout the be tried essay, poem.

By taking the temperance pledge of total abstinence from alcohol and encouraging their parents to do so, children modeled the Puritan ideal of saving oneself and others. The last two paragraphs of the Grandmother's Boy titled Stand Firm! make a stirring call to arms. Olaudah Equiano! Describing temperance as the way of be tried as adults truth and right (4), this section of the pamphlet reads like an excerpt from a passionate sermon. Jefferson! It draws upon the crusade concept, telling the reader that God will help us and that the should be tried as adults, struggle against temptation is a fight children can and must win. The children's pamphlet Look out for the trap! also warns against the dangers of temptation. This pamphlet begins with a picture and story of two squirrels. Essays! As in juveniles be tried as adults essay, an Aesop's fable, the two squirrels come into trouble as a result of their own foolishness - both fell prey to temptation - and there is a moral at the end of the story: Children, avoid temptation. Always be sure there is no trap beyond (2). In this story the parsons thesis show, trap beyond is set by Charlie Wood, who tempts the juveniles as adults essay, squirrels into his home with good food. Once Charlie slams the door shut, the squirrels realize that they were no longer their own masters (2). Essay Olaudah Equiano! Charlie's imprisonment of the squirrels is be tried essay analogous to, as temperance supporters would have put it, a drunkard's enslavement to on thomas drink.

The story of the juveniles be tried as adults essay, two squirrels ends with an essay, anecdote. The narrator switches from third person omniscient to a more conversational, first person, telling the should juveniles as adults, reader he saw a young boy give in to temptation. Worst of all, the a research, one who tempted him was his mother. This final appeal to pathos is meant to shock both children and parents and to show children that even though their parents may have the should juveniles as adults essay, best intentions, those intentions may be wrong and harmful. The second part of Look out for the trap! is research paper a short story titled Why Joseph Signed the Pledge.

The story draws upon a common theme in Temperance propaganda: a child living in should juveniles be tried, poverty whose father is a drunkard and therefore cannot provide for his family. The story evokes a great deal of pity for Joseph, the protagonist, who is taunted by a wealthier classmate. Oh! You needn't feel so big says the classmate, your folks are poor and your father is a drunkard (3). The story describes the Puritan ideal of redemption through self-improvement and helping others. Joseph's mother reminds him to depend upon his own energies, trust in research, God and remember that he is responsible only for his own faults (4). Joseph remembers his mother's advice and, through his hard work and determination achieves the epitome of the Protestant work ethic, becoming a useful and should juveniles essay, respected man. He follows the Puritan value of individual and communal improvement by helping his father become a sober man and 'respected by other folks' (4).

The boy who taunted Joseph in school, however, lives to see his wealthy father become poor and a drunkard. Alzheimers Paper! Joseph's story concludes with a piece of should be tried advice: Boys, never twit another for what he can not help (4). The moral of the story is a direct reference to the gold rule (i.e. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you) and appeals to human compassion, kindness and respect. Mfa Photo Show! Grandmother's boy, Look out for the trap and many other children's pamphlets present a dilemma whose solution is temperance. The dilemma is an extreme situation, often of pain, suffering or another intense emotion which must be immediately and directly addressed. Abstinence from alcohol is always the happy ending - as soon as the characters in the story swear off spirits they become successful, happy and achieve salvation. In Hellfire Nation, James Morone discusses one of America's earliest anthems, the jeremiad. Dating back to the seventeenth century, the jeremiad was a lament that the people have fallen into sinful ways and face ruin unless they swiftly reform (14).

The jeremiad described specific crimes which had invoked God's wrath, scolding Americans for their moral degeneracy, and reminding people of their mission with an juveniles as adults, immodest goal: redeem the world (Morone 42, 45). The poems and songs of the Temperance and Prohibition Eras were direct descendants of the jeremiad. Like the jeremiad, these poems and songs defined a specific problem, intemperance, its ruinous effects on both individual and society, and the need for essay jefferson presidency personal and communal responsibility and juveniles be tried, reform. Three central themes in Temperance era songs and poetry were the drunkard's story, the about equiano, crusade and temperance as a form of be tried as adults liberty. Although their themes were similar to other Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda, songs and alzheimers paper, poems had a distinct style and structure. Unlike scientific and religious pamphlets, posters, and juveniles as adults, children's pamphlets, which used text and images, songs and poems formed part of an oral tradition. While a reader can always re-read a complex argument or refer to a new fact or statistic in a text, a listener cannot re-hear a song or poem. Essay About Olaudah Equiano! As a result, the songs and poems are more repetitive and direct, drawing upon common themes and widely accepted ideas rather than introducing new information.

Like children's pamphlets, Temperance and Prohibition Era songs and poems use pathos more or less exclusively. Many songs and poems speak specifically to the plight of drunkards, both as an example of the dangers of intemperance and to encourage people to join the juveniles be tried essay, temperance crusade. Religious references are especially prevalent: alcohol is described as an evil temptation and the devil's agent. Mfa Photo! Drunkards are those who have fallen from grace; they have lost control of their lives and should be tried, sunk to ruin and damnation. A Research! According to these poems and songs, alcohol is to blame for should juveniles be tried as adults most of society's ills. Once complete abstinence is achieved, prisons will empty, crime will cease, humanity will be saved and the kingdom of research heaven will reign on earth. The poems The Curse of should juveniles be tried as adults Rum (1800s) and The Face Upon the a research, Floor (early 1900s) and the song The Drunkard's Fall (early 1900s) depict the as adults, dangers of drinking and the plight of the drunkard. The Curse of Rum draws upon common religious themes in order to demonize alcohol. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Presidency! The poem describes rum as the serpent from the Garden of Eden, a soul destroyer (1) that has destroyed the paradise of the home by bringing disease and sin into society. The underlying message in should juveniles as adults essay, these songs and poems is not to take the about olaudah, first drink, because once people begin, they lose control and cannot stop.

According to The Face Upon the should juveniles as adults, Floor and The Drunkard's Fall, even the most successful and promising individuals can fall prey to parsons mfa photo show alcohol's evils once they take their first drink. The Face Upon the juveniles as adults essay, Floor depicts a penniless, filthy, wretched drunkard who wanders into a bar and tells a group of young men his story, from wealth, good looks and a loving wife to how drinking led him to equiano current state, and then falls to the floor dead. The Drunkard's Fall, whose subtitle reads a warning for all college men wherein is declared how a Yale man was fired yesterday for over-cutting describes how even the should juveniles be tried as adults essay, best and the brightest fall to ruin once they take to drinking. As the refrain states: He was a Yale man, but he done all wrong. The young man becomes apathetic, lazy and eventually goes insane from drinking. Neither he nor the drunkard in The Face Upon The Floor can achieve the goals of the Protestant work ethic or reach spiritual salvation. Their alcohol abuse has taken away their capabilities for alzheimers paper productivity and as adults essay, success, both on earth and in the world to come. Songs and poetry make more direct appeals to pathos than other types of temperance propaganda because of their oversimplification and use of a research hyperbole. Juveniles Essay! Oftentimes the title of a song or poem is enough to evoke a strong emotional response, as in the case of the the color of water thesis, song title Father's a Drunkard and Mother is Dead (1866). Song and poem titles may give a clear warning or command, like the songs Girls, Wait For A Temperance Man (1867) and should as adults essay, Help The Fallen Brother (mid to late 1800s).

The first song is a reference to the Puritan ideal of good parenting and addresses both children's' and parents' fears that children will not be taken care of and even abandoned. Help The Fallen Brother is a clear appeal to compassion and the Puritan idea that everyone must be reformed in order for a community to parsons mfa photo thesis show achieve success and salvation. The solution to as adults these individual and on how, social ills, as mentioned in other types of should juveniles essay Temperance Propaganda, was the essay on thomas presidency, crusade. The first verse and chorus of the Anti-Saloon Battle Hymn (1907) for example, provides a rousing call to arms: The might are gathering for conflict; / The right is arrayed against wrong; / The hosts of the righteous are singing, / And this is the voice of juveniles be tried as adults their song: Cho. The Saloon, it must go! Do you hear us?/ Repeat it again and equiano, again. They strive to make millions of money;/ We strive to as adults save hundreds of men! As in Bishop Nicholson's address, the enemy, in this case the saloon, is clearly defined and its motives are proclaimed immoral and unjust. The battle hymn describes the saloon as an awful, unspeakable monster and asks God to free the research paper, people of the United states from its shackles. Should Be Tried As Adults Essay! Metaphors of essays on how world war one started slavery and liberation and their relationship to the temperance crusade are a significant aspect of Temperance era songs and poetry.

The song Emancipation (1914) speaks of America as a nation with True liberty so grand,/ that makes men free and alcohol as a monster that enslaves Americans. Should Juveniles Essay! The song conflates the a research, crusade's mission with Puritan ideals of personal and communal salvation, ending with the as adults essay, stanza: This is the hope of all / To see the traffic fall, / And not one slave. Essays World Started! Then wave from sea to sea, / By union temperance plea, / Old Glory's jubilee, / Our nation free! Even the most convincing anti-temperance supporter would have been hard pressed to refute the stanza above. It makes a powerful appeal to pathos, addressing many Americans' pride in their freedom and faith. How could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen? Despite Benjamin Rush's efforts, his widely circulated warnings had little influence upon the consumption of alcohol (Rorabaugh 187). In fact, alcohol consumption actually rose during Rush's anti-liquor crusade and did not begin to decrease until the early 1830s (Rorabaugh 187). W.J.

Rorabaugh explains in The Alcoholic Republic that historians are still unsure as to why Rush's anti-liquor crusade failed while later temperance efforts had great success (187). I propose that the answer lies in the rhetoric. Should Juveniles! Benjamin Rush took a logos approach to promoting temperance, noting the thesis show, harmful physiological effects of alcohol. He did not appeal to pathos until the end of The Effect of juveniles essay Ardent Spirits Upon Man, when he described the moral depravity and social ills caused by alcohol consumption. Rush's use of pathos may have been too little too late. The weakness of the color essay using a logical argument is that it can be refuted, either with other logical explanations, new information or emotional appeals. It is harder to question people's emotions and deeply held morals and should juveniles be tried, values. To do so would not only be considered offensive, it would also be futile. As I wrote earlier, how could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen?

Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda were founded on pathos. Although a number of pamphlets drew upon both logos and pathos, many forms of propaganda, including children's pamphlets, songs and poems, used only emotional appeals. Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda appealed to deeply held beliefs, based upon Puritan ideology and all-American values. While Rush's more scientific arguments could be disputed or ignored, most Americans would not question the importance of God, hard work, personal and communal salvation and freedom. Alcohol Impairs Muscle Work. Boston, MA and essay olaudah, Westerville, Ohio: Scientific Temperance Federation and should be tried as adults essay, American Issue Publishing Company, 1913.

Alcohol, Temperance and Prohibition: A Brown University Library Digital Collection. Written in partial fulfillment of the color of water thesis requirements for should juveniles as adults UC 116: Drug and Alcohol Addiction in the American Consciousness (Professor David Lewis Fall 2004)

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Providing System Management Information: phone: (970) 898-2423) phone: (970) 898-7893) Fax: (970) 898-2423. 3404 East Harmony Rd. Ft. Collins, CO 80525. One of the biggest challenges presented to systems administrators and systems integrators is the ability to access distributed heterogeneous system management data from should as adults essay, a single point. Today, the Desktop Management Interface (DMI) provides a consistent RPC-based set of interfaces for retrieving system management information. The calls are the same regardless of mfa photo thesis whether a remote machine or a local machine is being accessed. A component interface is also available to developers of instrumentation data.

Other DMI components include a format (Management Information Format ? MIF) for describing the characteristics of managed information, and a service provider entity that manages communications between components and management applications. DMI is readily available on Win9x, NT, and many Unix platforms. This paper focuses on the current implementation of essay DMI on HP-UX. We discuss information made available by HP-UX?s two components, namely, the HP-UX component instrumentation, and the software component instrumentation. We cover the benefits provided to systems administrators by existing tools such as the log viewer, the jefferson browser, and the OpenView ITO integration kit, and by emerging technologies such as the System Configuration Repository (SCR). Part of HP-UX?s DMI offering is the Software Development Kit (SDK) which provides all the should juveniles be tried necessary libraries, header files, and tools that allow a software developer to create either management applications or component instrumentation.

We provide an essay equiano, overview of the DMI architecture and as adults essay how the SDK is used to develop DMI-enabled software. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the a research reader to Hewlett-Packard Company?s offering of the Desktop Management Interface (DMI) technology. Originally designed as a standard for managing desktop computers, DMI has emerged as one of the essential and most widely used industry standards in management middleware today. The Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF) is chartered with the development and support of the DMI standard, which today covers not only the desktop space, but also hardware, software, and peripheral specifications being implemented on Unix environments. Developing DMI-enabled applications has allowed vendors to concentrate on providing value-add to their products without the as adults essay additional worry of a research identifying a suitable middleware technology. With DMI, vendors are assured of providing the most agnostic instrumentation possible today.

We first describe the juveniles be tried as adults essay DMI architecture as defined by the DMTF. This provides a solid base of the technology to the reader. We then go on to expand on essays on how world war one the architecture to describe what Hewlett-Packard Company provides in terms of should component instrumentation, support for software developers, and tools for systems administrators. DMI is a layer of abstraction between management applications, and instrumentation providers. Management applications fall under many categories, including configuration management tools that allow the administrator to view and about olaudah change information on systems, as well as reactive monitoring and operations tools that allow administrators to be notified of events and act on them. DMI supports both. Should Juveniles Be Tried As Adults? Components are the logical entities on a system such as hardware, software, etc. that can be managed by DMI. Developers use the Component Interface (CI) to describe access to management information, thus enabling the component to be managed by DMI management applications. Likewise, developers use the essay olaudah equiano Management Interface (MI) to access and manage components. These interfaces provide the should be tried essay necessary abstraction mechanism that shields developers from knowing how to access or provide information on different operating systems.

All DMI-enabled management applications can access any component on any system that implements DMI. Mediation between these interfaces is provided by resident code (a daemon), which handles communications (local or remote), security, serialization of requests, registration, delivery of events, and any other services that control the flow of information between them. On HP-UX this daemon is called dmisp and is started at a research, boot time and respawned by init . All the should juveniles be tried as adults essay components, and dmisp exist within a single system. Management applications can run on any DMI-enabled system, and communicate with dmisp via DCE RPC. The dmisp can handle many-to-many relationships. Any number of management applications can post requests to a dmisp , which in turn can access any number of components registered on the system.

Within DMI, all information about components is represented using the Management Information Format (MIF), and stored within DMI in a lightweight database. Each component has a corresponding MIF file that describes its manageable characteristics and how to obtain this data. The dmisp uses this model to make sense of the available data, and essay on thomas jefferson thus understand how to get at this data. This section describes the data model that DMI uses, and the two types of should juveniles as adults data that the Component Interface (CI) supports. The CI is an optional procedural interface implemented by HP.

It is fully synchronous, and serializes all requests to components, thus alleviating the need to produce re-entrant code by component developers. Component developers create a model of the entity they want to manage and describe it using the Management Information Format (MIF) syntax. This model is referred to as a component. For every component, there is a MIF file. Much like in the object model, the attributes that represent the managed entity are collected into essay thesis named groups, however, none of the typical characteristics associated with object oriented models such as references, inheritance, or polymorphism, are supported by the MIF language. Groups may be scalar, where all the should as adults attribute values represent a single instantiation of the group itself, or they may have multiple instantiations. In the latter case, groups are called tables, and certain attributes are designated as key attributes in order to differentiate between the rows of the table. Data stored by attributes can be either dynamic or static.

Dynamic data constantly changes, for example, the number of users logged into a system. Dynamic data requires component instrumentation, and the values of the attributes do not reside in the DMI database. When the data is requested by a management application, dmisp knows to paper query the correct component. Static data never or rarely changes, for example, the name of the company manufacturing a particular component. Juveniles? Static data does not require component instrumentation, and all attribute values reside in the database. When the data is requested by a management application, dmisp only needs to access the MIF database. At this time, HP provides two components with its DMI offering. They are the HP-UX Standard Groups Definition Component and on thomas the HP-UX Installed Software Component.

HP-UX Component Instrumentation (hpuxci) It is should be tried as adults, beyond the essay on thomas jefferson presidency scope of this paper to describe all the groups and attributes in the HP-UX Standard Groups Definition MIF. For detailed information on the definition of this component refer to http://www.dmtf.org/tech/apps.html which contains links to all DMTF standard components including the UNIX Standard Groups Definition. The purpose of this component is to provide base information about the HPUX system. This component provides the following groups. A brief description follows each group name telling the information provided in the group. Component information (required) System general information; system name, etc. System Contact Information.

System contacts; list of contacts. Operating system information; OS name, version, etc. Dynamic system information; uptime, number of users, number of processors etc. Host Physical Memory. Main memory size. Logical storage devices; list of storage information. Device information; list of should juveniles be tried as adults devices.

Processor information; list of processors. Main System Caches; cache level, speed, size, etc. Disk information; list of disk devices. Host File System. File system configuration; list of essays on how war one started file systems.

Network Adapter Port. Attributes associated with a system?s network adapater; list of should as adults essay network adaptor ports. Network Adapter Device Driver. Attributes associated with a system?s network adapter device driver; list of device drivers related to above. Information on running processes; list of the color all processes on the system.

Table 1 . Juveniles Be Tried Essay? HPUXCI Information. HP-UX Software Component Instrumentation (swci) Again, it is beyond the scope of equiano this paper to describe all the groups and should be tried as adults essay attributes of this component. The purpose of essays on how war one started this component is to be tried as adults provide information found in the POSIX.1387.2 software distributor. The sw suite of commands found on HP-UX is used to install, update, and remove software. Research? This component provides a standard (DMI) way to get at most of the information found using the swlist command. Juveniles? The following lists all the groups in research, the HP-UX Installed Software MIF and a brief description of the group. Component information (required) The installed location of the software. List of vendors associated with installed software. List of bundles installed on this system.

Software specifications of should juveniles be tried essay installed bundles. List of a research products installed on this system. Software specifications of installed products. Product Control Files. List of each products control files. List of subproducts installed on this system. List of filesets installed on this system. Control file names that make up the should juveniles be tried fileset definition. List of fileset dependancies.

Fileset Control files. List of vendor-supplied control files. List of all installed files. Table 2 . SWCI Information. The software development kit provides all the parsons mfa photo thesis necessary support required by developers to implement either management applications, or component instrumentation. It is comprised of a set of libraries, namely libdmi_mi.sl, which contains the management and indication interfaces, and juveniles essay libdmi_ci.sl, which contains the component interfaces. The SDK also contains all the necessary header files, and some example code to help developers understand the parsons mfa photo thesis show basic skeleton of these applications. The following sections cover the should juveniles be tried essay major areas pertaining to developing either components or applications. Component developers are required to create a MIF file that describes the entity they want managed. Application developers benefit from looking at MIF files so that they can get a good understanding of what a component provides.

For application developers, this is not essential, as most administrative tools allow the browsing of components. During initialization, dmisp detects if the database is corrupt o not there, and creates a new database containing the dmisp MIF file (default), and any other MIF files in the /usr/dmi/mif/C directory. If a component has MIF files residing on other directories, then it is the developer?s responsibility to re-register the MIF files with dmisp . Each MIF file contains one, and jefferson only one component definition, which has the following syntax: In addition, a MIF file contains additional definitions for groups, paths, enumeration, and attributes. For example, the following is a MIF file from one of the examples provided with the SDK. Developers have the option of developing direct interface components, or overlay components. Direct interface components are separate applications that run in should essay, their own process space, and the color of water essay thesis are loaded into as adults memory independently of dmisp . On HP-UX these are daemon applications, and research paper are the should essay recommended method for developing instrumentation, especially when the of water thesis amounts of dynamic data are high. Overlay components are implemented as shared libraries that are loaded by dmisp into the same process space.

All overlay components must reside in be tried as adults essay, /usr/dmi/overlay to run. Overlay components are advantageous when the overhead to get and set attributes is low, however they can cause dmisp to crash if they receive segmentation violations, or perform illegal operations. The following is a simple pseudo code algorithm that describes the major steps in essay presidency, building a component. For a thorough understanding we recommend that you look through the should juveniles be tried as adults examples provided by Hewlett-Packard. To develop components, the developer must link its instrumentation with libdmi_mi.sl , and with libdmi_ci.sl. To write management applications a developer needs to about have a system that is DCE RPC enabled. The interface is procedural, and allows developers to access, set, and manage any system that has DMI capabilities.

The following is a simple pseudo code algorithm that describes the major steps in building management applications. For a thorough understanding we recommend that you look through the examples provided by Hewlett-Packard. DMI allows components to generate events, and applications to catch those events of interest. Events are known as indications and make up part of the management interface API. In order for a management application to receive indications, it must first register with the dmisp running on the host of interest. Registration is accomplished by calling the DmiRemoteRegister() API, then creating a DCE endpoint via DmiIndicationListen(), adding the should be tried as adults correct entries in the color, the appropriate dmisp tables, and finally registering the procedural entry points for the monitored indications. When dmisp running on the host generating indications needs to should be tried essay communicate such an event, it needs certain information.

First, dmisp needs addressing information of management applications registered to receive indications, and second, dmisp needs to know the components and groups that are of interest to a research the management applications. All the information needed by should juveniles as adults essay, dmisp is available under two tables. The SP Indication Subscription table contains addressing information of essays on how started management applications registered with this node, and the SP Filter Information table contains a certain number of component and group entries that are associated to entries in the former. When a management application registers to should as adults receive indications it sets up a set of callbacks that the indication server calls in response to the remote events sent via the indication client. A management application can register for any one of the following types of events: DmiComponentAdded ? Generated when a new component is parsons mfa photo thesis show, added to the MIF database. DmiComponentDeleted ? Generated when a component is should juveniles as adults, deleted from the MIF database. DmiDeliverEvent ? Passed from the instrumentation to dmisp , which then generates the event. DmiGroupAdded ? Generated when a new group is added to research paper the MIF database. DmiGroupDeleted ? Generated when a group is deleted from the MIF database. DmiLanguageAdded ? Generated when a new language is added to a component in as adults, the MIF database.

DmiLanguageDeleted ? Generated when a language is deleted from the color essay, a component in juveniles, the MIF database. Essays On How World? DmiSubscriptionNotice ? Generated when subscription dates with dmisp are about to expire. The management application sets up a DmiIndicationsFuncs_t data structure that has pointers to callback functions to juveniles as adults handle each of the events. Once the structure is filled out, a call to thesis DmiSetIndicationCallbacks() is issued to complete the process. Hewlett-Packard provides three levels of security as part of its solution for DMI 2.0. Juveniles? First, you must be the root user when administering dmisp , or any essential DMI files such as the database. Second, as the root user, you must set up the about olaudah /var/dmi/dmiMachines file to provide access to remote systems. In this file you essentially provide machine level access to remote hosts by juveniles be tried essay, just adding their fully qualified domain names, or IP addresses.

And finally, there is a group level security mechanism for finer granularity within components. The group level security mechanism is essays on how world, based on the management application providing a security token to the component instrumentation. The token is passed as part of the keylist for the operation. If the as adults management application does not hold the correct token, then all access to the group is essay on thomas presidency, denied. DMTF has released the new DMI 2.0s specification that accounts for the security shortcomings of the original release. DMI 2.0s implements all the should as adults interfaces of DMI 2.0 plus some additional logging interfaces and relies on the security mechanisms implemented by RPCs, and the operating system. Hewlett-Packard is essays on how world war one, currently investigating the implementation of be tried as adults this specification. A number of administrative tools are available to help facilitate the management of components on a single system. These tools are intended to aid with simple tasks only. They are not enterprise tools per se, however some of these simple tools do provide remoting capabilities.

The DMI Log Viewer is a graphical application that allows a system administrator to view the many messages logged by dmisp . Messages can be viewed by time range, user range, or message levels. About? The actual location of the log file is /var/dmi/log/dmisp_log , and is invoked with the command /usr/dmi/bin/dmilog_viewer . The DMI Browser is be tried essay, a graphical application designed for viewing the contents of dmisp ?s database. Essays World War One Started? The administrator can connect to as adults essay a local or remote database and view its contents. On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? The browser is invoked by the /usr/dmi/bin/browser command. Initially, only the local system?s database is available for viewing, but by as adults, using the on how world war one Actions menu, you can connect to multiple systems. Clicking on should be tried as adults the icon that represents a system, displays the list of components on essay thesis the system, and similarly clicking on a component lists its groups, which eventually allow the administrator to display attribute values. The DMI Browser is a read-only application and does not permit any user to should be tried essay change the the color of water state of a system, nor the should be tried as adults essay dmisp ?s database. The OpenView ITO Integration Kit is paper, a set of files with static configuration information that allows an juveniles as adults essay, ITO administrator to launch the the color essay thesis DMI Browser and should be tried the DMI Log Viewer remotely.

The kit also allows the remote monitoring of dmisp via its log file, dmisp_log . An ITO agent runs on the system being monitored, and parses the essays war one log file to look for certain patterns using regular expressions. The agent is configured to detect component added, deleted, registered, and unregistered messages. Should Juveniles Be Tried? When either of parsons show these messages is matched, the agent sends a message to the ITO Event Browser that displays the message along with a number of additional attributes. An administrator has the option to ignore, manually or automatically perform an action, or launch a tool such as the DMI Browser to further investigate the situation. System Configuration Repository (SCR) The System Configuration Repository (SCR) is an application that tracks changes in a system's configuration over time. SCR can take snapshots of system configuration information periodically or manually before and after major configuration changes. SCR provides tools to filter and should juveniles essay compare snapshots from different times or from different machines. The information that is stored in snapshots comes from DMI, and is stored in a database. Currently, the configuration information available through DMI includes system information such as devices, volume groups, file systems, kernel parameters, etc. and information about software products including information such as bundles and filesets. (Developers can write their own DMI instrumentation in order to expand the information stored in SCR.)

SCR is highly configurable and can be used in many ways. For example, SCR can be used to maintain c onsistency on a system or across systems, or to about equiano a recover a machine's configuration information in juveniles essay, case of disaster, or to maintain consistency between test systems and production systems. As DMI technology becomes more pervasive, we expect to provide more components and a more robust set of tools for presidency, administrators and developers. We also expect more partners to begin enabling their products for DMI. Both, providers of component instrumentation and management applications benefit from this middleware heterogeneous technology by investing time in their products, waning the need to juveniles be tried as adults worry about which APIs need to be supported, and which tools can access their technologies. Examples of new technologies using DMI include the System Configuration Repository (SCR) as described in the previous section. The integration with ITO provides the ability to monitor events from an enterprise console, and more enhancements are possible to provide true indications monitoring. For developers, further enhancements are being investigated, such as a skeleton code generator, a MIF parser, command line interfaces, etc. Hewlett-Packard Company is an active participant of the DMTF, and as new standards emerge, such as the security specification for DMI (version 2.0s), they will continue to be enforced in our offering of HP-UX. Desktop Management Interface Specification.

Desktop Management Task Force, Inc. The Color Of Water Essay Thesis? (1998). Version 2.0s. HP-UX DMI 2.0 Developer?s Guide. Hewlett-Packard Co. (1998). John Shirley, Wei Hu, David Magid. (1994). Guide to Writing DCE Applications. Second Edition.

O?Reilly Associates, Inc. Robin Lee Peters. (1998). Managing System Configuration Changes. InterWorks ?99.

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Climate change , Coal , Fossil fuel 954 Words | 3 Pages. Alternative fuels , also known as non- renewable sources, are substances that can be used as fuels , other than conventional . fuels . Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, propane, and natural gas), and nuclear materials such as uranium. [ 1] The fuels we use now are finite, meaning they have a limited life expectancy. This along with the toxic waste they produce has made environmentalist and government officials alike take precautionary steps so that we do not. Biofuel , Carbon dioxide , Coal 463 Words | 3 Pages. Fossil Fuels Have you ever thought about where your electricity comes from? What the petroleum your car runs on is made of? What produces . The Color Essay. all the energy you see? Coal, oil, and natural gas make up the should juveniles, list of major fossil fuels . Almost all energy produced in the United States comes from burning these highly important fuels . That energy powers almost all of alzheimers research paper our electricity and should be tried all of our transportation. We as the people of this very planet are currently in a crisis because fossil fuels are non-renewable;.

Carbon dioxide , Coal , Fossil fuel 1082 Words | 3 Pages. Alternative Fuel 1 Alternative Fuel Sources Priscilla Townsend Unit 4 Environmental Science Everest University Sherry . About Olaudah. Ogg September 4, 2010 Alternative Fuel 2 For many years automobile companies have been coming up with new ideas for gasoline alternatives to fuel vehicles. These alternatives have the tendency to be better on the environment and somewhat energy efficient. Of three of the many alternatives to using gasoline to power vehicles are ethanol, electric vehicles and solar. Alternative energy , Automobile , Electric vehicle 848 Words | 3 Pages. Name Teacher Class Date Alternative Fuels Today’s environment is polluted with many carbon and other pollutions harmful to humans and should juveniles be tried the . environment. Many of these pollutions are mostly from transportation vehicles. A Research. More dangers are rising, causing global warming and health risks to be increased at a higher probability of it occurring. With gasoline becoming scarce and an abundant amount of pollution in the environment, transportation companies need to enforce and search for better ways that. Automobile , Carbon dioxide , Electric vehicle 2222 Words | 6 Pages. Fossil Fuel “The clear and present danger of climate change means we cannot burn our way to . prosperity.

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In many scenarios, they need it to fuel their c. Coal , Energy development , Fossil fuel 1625 Words | 6 Pages. Alternative Fuels This day in age, one of the should juveniles, world's main concerns is mfa photo show, energy. Currently, we rely on juveniles be tried essay petroleum to run our cars, and . household central heat, and electricity in our homes. Petroleum is not only limited, but it is also dirtying up the world's air, and depleting the ozone layer as it is burned. Alternative fuels are one of the worlds most talked about issues, and the color of water essay many solutions have been brought forth, yet none of them have been sophisticatedly acted upon.

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Agriculture , Edaphology , Environmental soil science 2107 Words | 7 Pages. OIL CONSERVATION In view of the need to reduce the ever-increasing gap between demand and indigenous supply of crude oil and petroleum . A Research. products the Government has accorded top priority to conservation of petroleum products. Towards this end various steps to promote conservation of petroleum products in the transport, industrial, agricultural and domestic sectors have been initiated. These include adoption of measures and should be tried as adults essay practices which are conducive to increase fuel efficiency and training. Carbon , Compressed natural gas , Diesel fuel 1055 Words | 4 Pages. Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using less of an research, energy service. Should Juveniles Be Tried Essay. Energy conservation differs from efficient . energy use, which refers to using less energy for a constant service. Research. For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation . Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is an should essay, example of energy efficiency. Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction techniques. Even though energy conservation reduces energy services, it can result in. Efficient energy use , Energy conservation , Energy policy 1805 Words | 6 Pages.

Running head: ENERGY CONSERVATION Energy Conservation Energy Conservation With energy a scarce resource . people across the world need to look at paper lifestyle changes to protect it around the globe. From driving less, to turning off a light in a room that is deserted, there are simple steps that can be taken to should as adults aid the cause. Conservation methods take thought, commitment and changes in every day lives to make a difference. In order to conserve energy, consumers need to on how world war one be aware of their. Conservation , Conservation of should juveniles be tried as adults essay energy , Energy conservation 1300 Words | 4 Pages. Brandi Voyles BIO-220 March 3, 2012 Professor Corona Global Warming Essay What is global warming, and how does human activities create . an impact on global warming? Many people do not understand the full concept of global warming.

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Energy Conservation Jessica Goode Axia College of University of research Phoenix We all use energy each and every day. We use energy for . entertainment, cooking, transportation, lighting, heating, cooling, manufacturing, as well as many other things. According to the Webster Dictionary (2009), energy is defined as just being active. If that is truly the case, then anytime we are doing anything we are being active and using up energy. Should As Adults Essay. Shouldn't we try to conserve more energy if that is the case? According. Energy , Energy development , Fossil fuel 1513 Words | 5 Pages.

Biodiesel Fuel The biggest problem the United States faces today when we talk about becoming energy independent is replacing the gas . we use to power our vehicles. Alzheimers Research. When we talk about replacing gasoline as the fuel we use to power our vehicles, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells are the three most talked about alternatives. Biomass, which is juveniles be tried as adults, organic material made from plants and animals, contains stored energy from the sun. Essays On How. Biomass in the form of bio fuels can be used to make the same products. Carbon dioxide , Energy , Energy development 1263 Words | 4 Pages. ?Coal, gas and oil are fossil fuels . Fossils fuels are fuels that are extracted from should juveniles be tried essay organic remains of essay about equiano dead plants . and animals.

Coal is mined on the ground, oil is drilled and gas is juveniles be tried as adults, extracted by drilling deep into the earth’s crust. The main use of fossil fuels is to generate electricity for the national grid. They are also used to heat homes and workplaces. Coal is a fossil fuel that is parsons mfa photo thesis show, obtained by mining. Coal is essay, then crushed into fine dust then burnt to heat water. Steam is produced that. Coal , Fossil fuel , Natural gas 1510 Words | 5 Pages. Water Conservation Will there be enough water for a more crowded world?

The adult human uses on average about 100 gallons of water a day. . Only about 2.5% of earth’s water is fresh and only 1% is mfa photo thesis show, actually attainable for should be tried usage. On Thomas Presidency. The available water on should juveniles be tried earth has not changed. Parsons Mfa Photo Thesis Show. The same water we have today has been recycled for millions of years, we are not gaining any more. The time to do something is now. In this essay I would like to remark on the past, present, and future of should juveniles be tried water conservation . . Desalination , Drinking water , Water crisis 733 Words | 3 Pages. Natural Resources and Its Conservation. Natural Resources Although I am late in alzheimers research asking for should as adults essay it but I request all seniors to please assess my essay outline and give me your valuable . comments. I hope you would spare couple of minutes from THE busy hour :-) Topic:Pakistan is rich in natural resources but very poor in on thomas presidency their management.

Outline: 1.Introduction 2.Overview of should juveniles as adults natural resources and alzheimers mismanagement 3.Current scenario in Pakistan 4.Natural resources of juveniles as adults Pakistan • Water • Natural gas • Oil • Coal • Minerals • Precious. Energy development , Fossil fuel , Industrial Revolution 601 Words | 3 Pages. ?Joe Garcia PTAC-1308 Energy Conservation It would be hard to imagine a life without the use of mfa photo thesis show energy. So many of the products that we . Should Be Tried As Adults Essay. use on a daily basis are powered because of electricity, which in turn is generated because of energy. American’s use a mixture of different energy sources to cool and heat our homes, offices, and means of transportation. We also use energy sources to illuminate and power these same places. Essay Thesis. Oil has provided the United States with less than 50% of energy needs. Coal , Energy development , Fossil fuel 2381 Words | 7 Pages. seeds of should juveniles essay energy conservation can be sown. Energy conservation has become one of the most hotly debated subjects in the . world.

Old power plants are struggling to keep up, sometimes causing power shortages or “brown outs”, and of water essay new power plants are being built, but most of the new plants still use the same technology as their predecessors. Some have even been ‘repackaged’ to appear cleaner in respect to exhaust, but they still pollute the atmosphere and use a dwindling source of fuel . Still others. Alternative energy , Coal , Electricity generation 2055 Words | 7 Pages. What is Alternative Fuels Alternative Fuels come from resources other than petroleum. Alternative fuel uses . sources like corn, vegetable oils, animal fats, natural gas, propane and hydrogen. As Adults Essay. Various Alternative Fuels are produced domestically, thus reducing our dependence on paper imported oils and some are derived from renewable sources. Alternative fuel produces less pollution than normal gasoline or diesel (U.S.

Department of Energy, n.d. ). Alternative fuel is should essay, produce for a variety of vehicles. Alternative energy , Alternative fuel , Automobile 1706 Words | 5 Pages. for future generations. In addition, energy conservation is important because when nonrenewable energy sources are consumed this impacts the . environment. The combustion of oil, gas, and coal in power stations produces carbon dioxide and contributes to global warming. The conservation of energy is a research, important to the environment, future generations, every living organism, and human being on earth. The nonliving sources that contribute to energy conservation are sunlight, land, water, and precipitation. Efficient energy use , Energy , Energy conservation 808 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Alternative Sources of Energy. ESSAY ON ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY The law of juveniles essay conservation says that energy is world, neither created nor destroyed.

When we use . energy, it doesn’t disappear. We change it from one form of be tried as adults energy into another. A car engine burns gasoline, converting the chemical energy in gasoline into essays war one mechanical energy. Solar cells change radiant energy into electrical energy. Energy changes form, but the total amount of energy in should be tried as adults essay the universe stays the same. Scientists at the Department of Energy think they have. Alternative energy , Energy development , Energy policy 1932 Words | 6 Pages. Essay : Forests Need For Conservation Trees are mankinds lifeline.

If they are destroyed, there is no way that human beings can . survive. Mfa Photo Show. From the oxygen that we breathe in, the food that we eat, to the clothes we wear, we owe it all to the trees. Not only should juveniles as adults, this, trees act as purifiers of air and receptacles of our waste products. Trees have great economic value too. We get fuel , fodder, timber, medicines and numerous other valuable products from the trees. On How World War One Started. It is, therefore, not surprising that trees. Agriculture , Deforestation , Ecology 877 Words | 3 Pages. ?The purpose of wildlife conservation is to protect wild flora and fauna against the encroachment of expanding human activity. The planet’s . Should As Adults Essay. human population grew by research paper, 1.6 billion people, between 1990 and 2010 (30% growth rate). Be Tried Essay. The ever increasing amount of commercial activity that this brings with associated use and abuse of the earth’s resources damages the prospects of survival of wild flora and fauna.

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Towards achieving this many legislation have been enacted in should juveniles be tried essay India and elsewhere. At the. Conservation , Forest , Human 1572 Words | 4 Pages. Essay: Role of equiano Youth in Promoting Oil Conservation. Essay : Role of should be tried as adults essay youth in promoting oil conservation Youths are the a research, people who are most flexible and able to learn. Young people . can learn habits that are less dependent on fuel than the habits we older people have. Young people, then, can grow up with better habits and should juveniles be tried essay make conservation of oil something that is a research, just normal for everyone. This is why youth has a major role in promoting oil conservation . Juveniles As Adults. The first rule of fuel conservation would be to travel judiciously and curtail wasteful driving.

Alternative fuel , Automobile , Carpool 698 Words | 2 Pages. Energy Conservation Amanda Foshee SCI/275 March 24, 2013 Jocelyn Hunt CET, MPA Energy Conservation . Energy conservation should be one of the most research and implemented things we have in essays started our homes today. Should Juveniles Be Tried As Adults. When we think about energy conservation we think about solar, wind, and water to provide energy. These three renewable energy sources are answers to a lot of questions and help with cutting down on using the nonrenewable sources like coal, natural gas, and oil. With energy.

Alternative energy , Energy , Energy conservation 1966 Words | 6 Pages. due to human activities and the reason for conservation of biodiversity will be discussed in details with respect to its aesthetic value, . medicinal importance and its ecological value. The concept of biodiversity is important in building awareness, knowledge, information, ethics, and other complex mixture of agriculture, protected areas, etc. Figure 1 shows how these fit into the society together to achieve a common objective which is the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biological. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Deforestation 1396 Words | 4 Pages. Conservation of Natural Resources. Soils Conservation : Easier - Soil is the loose top layer of our planet's crust. It is dirt or earth in alzheimers research paper which plant life can grow. Harder - . Soil covers a major portion of the earth's land surface. It is an important natural resource that either directly or indirectly supports most of the planet's life. Life here depends upon soil for food.

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Energy development , Fossil fuel , Nuclear power 1070 Words | 3 Pages. PCRA The Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) was set up in 1976 as part of the mfa photo, Government’s response to the oil crisis of . Juveniles Essay. early seventies. It undertakes studies for identifying the on how world started, potential and to make recommendations for achieving conservation of petroleum products in various sectors of the economy. The PCRA was also entrusted with the task of sponsoring RD activities for the development of fuel -efficient devices and running a multimedia campaign for creating mass awareness. Automobile , Internal combustion engine , Petroleum 514 Words | 2 Pages. The Conservation of should be tried essay Races W.E.B. Du Bois The United States of America, since its commencement, has been a “melting pot” of different . nationalities. About Olaudah Equiano. While the term melting pot sounds forthcoming, this is not the case in reality.

Many times cultures collide due their differences in ideology, culture, and geographical proximity. Should As Adults Essay. Such culture clashes have marked the essay, history of the United States. Race is usually thought of in the physical sense with difference in skin color, hair, facial features, and. African American , Black people , Booker T. Washington 1087 Words | 3 Pages. undisturbed habitat, it is mainly sand and rocks, but with small areas of permanent vegetation. Should Essay. In this desert ecosystem habitats may be altered by human . War One Started. activity, previously existing tree cover has often been removed for fuel and fodder by nomadic pastoralists and traders. From a conservations perspective the Sahara desert is not well protected, this could be due to the low population and should juveniles be tried as adults essay impracticality of defining borders over this large area. There are fewer than 2 million inhabitants throughout the entire.

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BIO FUELS – CASE STUDY There is several risk identification to be asked in this projects, those are as follows: 1. Should Juveniles Be Tried. Environmental risk * . This is particularly in connection with natural resources, there is alzheimers, a risk that the natural resources, raw materials, or other factors of productions necessary for should successful operation may become depleted or unavailable during the life of project * Does the company engage the independent consultant to do the assessment and research of a research conservation of should be tried the. Biofuel , Biogas , Ethanol fuel 846 Words | 3 Pages. Fossil fuels - political implication. ?Fossil Fuels are the most important energy sources in our world today. Mfa Photo Thesis. Due to the importance of fossil fuels , it made a huge . impact on political issues.

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Conservation is very important to all living things. The environment where. Air pollution , Ecology , Environmentalism 496 Words | 2 Pages. Alternative Fuels – Data By: Denise Claire Tan Yet Nee Structure and physical properties of Molecules Nowadays, there are a lot of . alternative fuels which have discovered by human beings in order to a research replace the depleting non-renewable fossil fuels supply. In fact, organic chemistry has successfully proved that organic compounds can be served substitution of juveniles fossil fuel supply. The structure and physical properties of of water essay thesis organic molecules are characteristics that aid them to become useful fuels for.

Carbon dioxide , Coal , Gasoline 1507 Words | 4 Pages. Role of should juveniles as adults essay Youth in Oil Conservation. would pass it on to coming generations. Our next generation is the one which will have to deal with either the loss of oil as a resource (assuming oil . Of Water. does not self-replenish) or of a world where use of fossil fuels is essay, becoming more and more harmful. Parsons Mfa Photo Thesis Show. We must educate about alternative fuels ; not just solar and wind -- those are too inefficient to be more than a feel-good solution at the moment -- but safe nuclear fusion utilizing Thorium. Breakthroughs in engine design and efficient motors can reduce. Energy development , Fossil fuel , Hydrocarbon 995 Words | 3 Pages. existing plants; 4. Note the results of the World Ocean Conference and Coral Triangle Initiative in be tried Manado, Indonesia and essays world started encourage the parliaments and . governments of the Asian countries to develop environmentally sound strategy for long-term conservation , management and sustainable use of marine living resources and coastal habitats based on reliable scientific assessments and internationally agreed goals, particularly for the most vulnerable communities that fully depend on marine resources for. Climate change , Developing country , Global warming 1212 Words | 6 Pages. Importance of should as adults essay Forest Conservation.

and many others are in danger of about equiano extinction. India has a forest policy since 1894. It was revised in 1952 and again in 1988. The policy aims at protection, . conservation and development of forests. Its main objectives are— (i) Maintenance of should be tried as adults essay environmental stability through preservation and restoration of essay about equiano ecological balance; (ii) Conservation of natural heritage (iii) Check on soil erosion and denudation in catchments areas of essay rivers, lakes and a research reservoirs; (iv) Check on extension of sand dunes in. Deforestation , Ecosystem , Erosion 1284 Words | 4 Pages. School Chemistry essay The Fossil Fuels in juveniles be tried as adults essay Our Life Class INTRODUCTION Fossil fuels are . A Research. fuels that are formed by natural processes.

The process responsible for should be tried essay the formation is mostly anaerobic decomposition of the color essay buried dead organisms. As Adults Essay. Fossil fuels have a high percent of carbon atoms. It takes millions of essays years for should juveniles as adults the dead animals to decompose to fossil fuels . [1] FORMATION OF FOSSIL FUELS Coal is formed form dead plant material. Crude oil and natural gas are formed form dead marine. Coal , Energy development , Fossil fuel 2343 Words | 6 Pages. Fuel Systems PT- 264 By: Bobbie Day . 3/28/2005 In this report I will explain the on thomas presidency, fuel systems in should be tried essay an automobile. I will cover different parts and essay thesis how they work. First thing to do is explain how the fuel system works. Be Tried As Adults Essay. The purpose of the fuel system is to store and supply fuel to the cylinder chamber where it can be mixed. Atmospheric pressure , Carburetor , Diesel engine 968 Words | 4 Pages.

?Water conservation refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, . and a research agricultural irrigation. Water conservation programs are typically initiated at the local level, by either municipal water utilities or regional governments. Common strategies include public outreach campaigns, tiered water rates (charging progressively higher prices as water use increases), or restrictions on outdoor water use such as lawn watering. Climate , Conservation movement , Irrigation 820 Words | 3 Pages. Conservation of water Water conservation refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for different . purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and agricultural irrigation.

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Energy conservation is a reduction or elimination of unnecessary energy use. Conservation , Conservation of energy , Efficient energy use 1552 Words | 5 Pages.

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Human Resources Dissertation Topics. A dissertation on Human Resources (HR) can encompass a wide range of should essay, topics, therefore it is vital to start wide and then focus in on a specific subject area. This can either be presented as a case study approach, which will compare an actual organisation (or organisations) to the literature on the subject, or as study of the contemporary research. The case study approach adds depth to the paper, introducing real life scenarios and how organisations identify and react to them. The following are only suggestions of Human Resources Dissertation Topics and a research, can be adapted to meet individual needs and preferences for a Human Resources Management (HRM) dissertation. Theory of should as adults essay, Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There are fundamental differences in the approach to Human Resources (HR), for example the ‘hard’ and `soft’ versions of Human Resources Management (HRM). The ‘hard’ version places little emphasis on workers’ concerns and, therefore, within its concept, any judgments of the a research effectiveness of Human Resources Management would be based on business performance criteria only.

In contrast, ‘soft’ Human Resources Management, while also having business performance as its primary concern, would be more likely to advocate a parallel concern for workers’ outcomes. These models of Human Resource theory, will give explanation for the increase in this management practice. It has been defined as “mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibility”. The ‘psychological contract’ under this unitarist, high commitment model is one of mutuality, but it is a mutuality strictly bounded by the need to operate within an essentially unitary framework. The following are some suggestions within the area of Human Resources (HR) Theory that you could base your human resources dissertation topics on. Comparison of models HR in practice, a modern study Can HR provide all the answers to people issues The dark side of HR Trade unions’ place in juveniles be tried as adults essay, the organisation HR behind closed doors Can line a manager execute HR policies, or does it dilute the essay about olaudah equiano practice?

HR as a shared service HR and control practices Taylorism versus HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Challenging HR “The Workers Verdict” This was a very compelling and powerful article published in 1999 by D Guest in the Human Resources Management journal.

Good human resources dissertation topics would be to re-visit this article and then compare this to be tried essay, employee’s current opinion of the intervention. This article claimed Human Resources was another management tool to control the workforce, and in the wrong hands would bring back control and command management practices. It questioned the ability of essay, management to acquire the soft skills needed to implement Human Resources in its purist form. This article is one of the most damming written on the HR practice, therefore a good dissertation could either conclude after nearly ten years of practice since, practitioners are delivering value for all or the should juveniles as adults workers verdict of the practice is still negative. With all the sections there are numerous areas that can be reviewed. I have discussed one area and thesis show, then added suggestions on how to focus the research. For an individual dissertation paper any controversial or contentious article can be used as a framework to explore the theory within. This can be tested against individual’s feelings, experiences and beliefs. Challenging HR is a subject close to many workers hearts and would make for a compelling human resources management dissertation. Theory in juveniles be tried essay, action (an example and study of the theory in practice). Essays Started! Is the Human Resource valued?

Can the HR function always drive change? Outsourcing (can the should as adults gate keeper of culture be outsourced?) Outsourcing, what do we do now? Who pushed who out (a decline of the unions with the increase in HR practices). Employee bargaining power. Does HR work?

Managing the HR function. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Training and Development of essays on how world, Human Resources Dissertation Topics. Recognition of the importance of Human Resources has increased in recent years; this is be tried as adults essay a result of competition from overseas economies. Essay About! In countries, for example Japan, Germany and Sweden, investment in employee development is higher than in the UK. This has led to some organisations reviewing their policies on training, introducing continuous investment in their employees. The latest recession’s impact on business is the credit crunch and whether this will have an impact on training and development. Juveniles Be Tried As Adults! It is essays on how war one started well discussed within literature that the “ training budget is first budget cut during hard times”, although theorist do not believe in general that this is the best action for the Human Resources department, and the long term benefits of juveniles be tried essay, training outweigh the short term monetary savings. With the alzheimers research credit crunch a year old, an should organisation, for example in financial services, could be studied to see the essay about olaudah effect on their training budget.

To add context two organisations could be compared, with a small section on should juveniles be tried as adults their financial performance to test the thesis statement above. Below are some suggestions as to should juveniles be tried essay, how to narrow your human resources dissertation topics on training and development down to a specific topic. How do organisations survive economic crisis (from the training and development perspective)? Does training and development really impact on the bottom line? What skills are needed for today’s turbulent climate?

Who trains the trainers? Is training a Panacea? Soft skills, who needs them? Training on a budget. Where now, post disaster survival? Soft versus hard skills. Can poor selection processes be remedied through training and the color of water, development? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive.

Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. HR as the should juveniles essay last competitive advantage Dissertation Topics. This could be based on simply “If you snooze you lose”. This is a strange statement for on how started, Human Resources, but there is should juveniles so much written in contemporary literature that preaches that Human Resource is the final competitive edge for organisations; therefore those that have not introduced this practice are at a disadvantage. This paper could compare two organisations, for show, example one operating a best practice HR policy and be tried essay, the other with little or no HR policies. This would identify what added value there is in best practice Human Resources, and if this adds the same value to essay on thomas jefferson, all organisations. Juveniles As Adults Essay! The organisations for alzheimers research paper, the study would need to be in juveniles be tried as adults essay, similar markets and employ the same number of employees. Change is endemic, and the Human Resources department should be a forefront of change, driving it though the organisation.

Suggested topics you could choose as human resources dissertation topics could include: If you snooze you lose. Keeping up with change, how do organisations cope with change? HR replaced personnel, what can replace HR? Value, how do you assess the mfa photo thesis show HR value? Why bother, I will catch the next fad. A study on as adults an organisation to advise them of their options. A study of change in an organisation. Change for change sake (is new always best?). Benefits of HR.

Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Performance Management Dissertation Topics. Reward systems that are implemented under the umbrella of Human Resources are frequently a tool used to raise commitment, competence and alzheimers research, equivalence, and these instruments are extremely cost effective when executed correctly. Today the individualism of contract gives employees more control on should juveniles their reward. At the basic level this can motivate, and at the higher level can introduce self-esteem and self worth. Performance reward or incentive pay is a tool that can be used to set targets and then reward when theses targets are met. Performance management consists of parsons, a cycle, consisting of five parts (1) setting of performance objectives (2) measuring the outcomes (3) feedback of should juveniles be tried as adults essay, results (4) reward linked to the outcomes and (5) amendments to objectives and activities. The Color Of Water Essay! There are many companies that use performance management strategies, and use them in different ways, giving you different topics to research and companies to compare and should juveniles as adults essay, contrast.

Some ideas for good human resources dissertation topics are listed below. Is performance management effective? Can skills be increased through performance management? Is it possible to manage all? Can wages be capped through performance management? Do individuals have control over presidency, their reward? Upskilling.

Reviewing and reacting on results. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. A topic area could be the subjectivity of the should juveniles be tried as adults essay appraiser.

Performance management is widely used to assess employees’ capabilities and to thesis, set targets for the next year. The main contentious issues with performance management are the appraisals; they are conducted with the subjectivity of the appraiser, who will often enter the appraisal interview with pre-conceived conclusions of both the appraisee and the interview. The gravity of this is juveniles be tried immense as it forms the foundations of performance management. Of Water! If they are not conducted fairly, there are no beneficial outcomes to should juveniles essay, either the jefferson presidency appraisee or the as adults essay organisation. A paper on essay on thomas jefferson presidency the “Subjectivity of the Appraiser” could be based on the theory from psychology and management practice, and reviews methods and techniques to reduce bias from the appraisal interview. If you are interested on basing your human resources management dissertation on appraisals, there are some suggested human resources dissertation topics below. Can subjectivity be removed? Halo, what Halo? Was that fair?

A comparison. Can I have a pay rise? Are they honest? 360 degree appraisals. Public sector appraisals and the spinal pay reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive.

Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. In theory a motivated worker is a productive worker. Contained within the should juveniles be tried as adults essay function of all organisations are numerous individual interrelated components (including the human aspect), which have a direct impact on the organisational performance. It is widely recognised that the “human resource” is regarded as the a research most valuable resource an should as adults organisation has. However, this resource does not always receive the attention, respect and the financial recognition to develop, to allow the employees’ full potential to be realised. The complex relationship between employee and alzheimers research, employer has been studied from both a psychological and sociological aspect. The findings from both these fields of research have identified four main categories of theories on employees’ motivation. (1) Economic needs of be tried as adults, man, money is the motivator for example: Taylorism (2) Social man from the research Hawthorne studies: (3) Self actualisation – this extended the be tried essay results from the Hawthorne studies to mfa photo, include psychological issues: (4) The contingency approach – this identifies that individual motivation is influenced by a number of should juveniles essay, variables. If you are keen to discuss motivation within your dissertation, here are some human resources dissertation topics to get you started. Contemporary versus traditional theory.

HR and motivation. Motivation and job satisfaction. Of Water! Cross organisation comparison, who gets it right? HRM is a motivator. Link between motivation and performance. Motivation and retention levels. Does motivated work force increase productivity?

Motivation versus total reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for should as adults essay, only ?39.99. Strategic Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There has been a significant rise in the interest of parsons thesis, strategic Human Resource Management in the past decade. These contemporary theories on strategic Human Resource Management introduce different levels of integration within organisations. Although there are various differences in models, most commentators agree that Strategic Human Resource Management increases the organisation’s value. With the global economy and the increase in competition this brings, the human resource is juveniles be tried viewed as the mfa photo show last competitive edge.

It is how this resource is should juveniles be tried as adults essay managed and started, the value that is should juveniles essay place on a research it, that makes a difference between organisations. Should Juveniles Be Tried As Adults Essay! When the organisational strategy has not considered the implications to the human resource i.e. are there enough trained employees or do we need to employ more, the strategy runs a high risk of failure. Therefore it is vital to align the human resource with the a research organisation’s strategy. Strategic HRM lends some interesting human resources dissertation topics for you to discuss. Does HR sit and fit on the board? Future planning or fire fighting?

Reactive or proactive? Future planning or justifying role? Can HR be strategic? SHRM, another new fad? HR driving the organisation. Operations or planning the HR function? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. The underlying assumption is the way “things get done” in the organisation and that individuals know how to behave. When an assumption is should be tried essay broken, it is questioned by equiano, members of the organisation.

This helps to maintain the culture (Phelan 2005). The culture is significant and important to an organisation and its members. For the individual and group member, culture is the “social glue that helps hold the organisation together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do”. Consequently, the culture will reduce an employee’s uncertainty and anxiety about expected behaviour. This behaviour is individual to the organisation, and is difficult to transfer. The organisation’s culture differentiates it from others, and partly explains why employees are attracted to one employer versus other employers. Should As Adults Essay! The culture of an organisation can reduce uncertainty and essay about olaudah, complexity, providing a consistent outlook that its values make possible. Should Juveniles Essay! This is visible in the decision-making process, co-ordination and control. Excellent leaders are not merely aware of the essay about olaudah organisation’s basic assumptions, they also know how to take actions and be tried as adults essay, mould and refine them.

To discuss culture in you dissertation, some human resources dissertation topics are suggested below. Gatekeeper or owner? Placing values in the organisation. Culture is the organisation. It’s the way we do it around here. Inducting new employees into alzheimers, the culture. Recruiting to should juveniles be tried as adults essay, change the culture. Managing cultural change.

Training and culture. Change agent. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99.

Over the past few decades the nature and the composition of the work force has been changing. There are numerous challenges and opportunities for organisations within the new formation. In reply, diversity management has become an essential component of human resource management (HRM). Diversity management is a relatively new, but significant area of HRM. This new area of management brings learning and challenges to the individuals that supervise and manage employees. Diversity management does assume different forms and models in practice, but is defined as an organisation’s active investment in the integration, development, and advancement of jefferson presidency, individuals who collectively represent the work force. When developing an organisational strategy, diversity is placed in the culture, policies, and practices which support respect and communication, as well as individual, team and organisational performance in a diverse environment.

Possible human resources dissertation topics on juveniles as adults diversity are: Differences between diversity and discrimination. Jefferson Presidency! Managing the new workforce. Cross national diversity. Be Tried! Can discrimination be removed?

Managing diversity and cultural differences. A Research! Training for should juveniles be tried, diversity. Alzheimers Research! The line and diversity. Diverse and cosmopolitan. The global village. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99.

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