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The Introduction - Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

Research paper s introductions

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The Introduction - Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

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The Introduction - Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

mit thesis dspace Associate Director for paper s introductions, Technology. Senior Business Strategist. HP External Engagement Manager. DSpace User Support Manager. DSpace Systems Manager. Senior Business Strategist. For the past two years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries and Hewlett-Packard Labs have been collaborating on the development of an open source system called DSpace#153; that functions as a repository for rfid research, the digital research and educational material produced by members of a research university or organization. Running such an institutionally-based, multidisciplinary repository is increasingly seen as a natural role for the libraries and archives of research and teaching organizations. As their constituents produce increasing amounts of original material in digital formats#151;much of which is never published by traditional means#151;the repository becomes vital to protect the significant assets of the institution and its faculty.

The first part of s introductions, this article describes the DSpace system including its functionality and writers block, design, and its approach to various problems in digital library and archives design. The second part discusses the implementation of DSpace at MIT, plans for federating the system, and issues of research s introductions, sustainability. DSpace Definition, Features and Functionality. In March 2000, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) awarded $1.8 million to the MIT Libraries for what in the abstract thesis, an 18-month collaboration to build DSpace#153;, a dynamic repository for research s introductions, the intellectual output in digital formats of multi-disciplinary research organizations. HP Labs and MIT Libraries released the system worldwide on November 4, 2002, under the what to include in the abstract terms of the BSD open source license [1], one month after its introduction as a new service of the MIT Libraries. As an open source system, DSpace is now freely available to research s introductions, other institutions to run as-is, or to modify and extend as they require to rocket contest, meet local needs. From the outset, HP and MIT designed the system to be run by institutions other than MIT, and to support federation among its adopters, in research paper s introductions both the technical and the social sense. The DSpace Federation will be explored in boys essay contest a later section. So what is DSpace? It is an attempt to address a problem that MIT faculty have been expressing to the Libraries for the past few years.

As faculty and other researchers develop research materials and scholarly publications in increasingly complex digital formats, there is a need to collect, preserve, index and distribute them: a time-consuming and expensive chore for individual faculty and their departments, labs, and centers to research s introductions, manage themselves. The DSpace system provides a way to manage these research materials and publications in for movie titles in essays a professionally maintained repository to give them greater visibility and research paper s introductions, accessibility over time. DSpace was built breadth-first: it supports every function that a research organization needs to run a production digital repository service, but as simply as possible. The project focus was on building a production quality system. Causes Essay. It complements and research, was influenced by previous research in computer science and digital library architectures [2]. Our goals were to build a system that: would be immediately useful at MIT, and hopefully at other institutions; could be expanded and improved over time; and could serve as a platform for research paper, future research. With the help of developers at other institutions that adopt DSpace under its open source license, we will work to add features and improve the research paper different functions of the dissertation block system as we learn what users actually want, and how to best support such complex requirements as digital preservation and digital rights management. DSpace is designed to make participation by depositors easy.

The system's information model is built around the idea of organizational Communities#151;natural sub-units of an institution that have distinctive information management needs. In the case of MIT (a large research university) Communities are defined to be the schools, departments, labs, and centers of the Institute. Each Community can adapt the system to meet its particular needs and manage the submission process itself. DSpace uses a qualified Dublin Core metadata standard for describing items intellectually (specifically, the Libraries Working Group Application Profile). Only three fields are required: title, language, and submission date, all other fields are optional. Research S Introductions. There are additional fields for document abstracts, keywords, technical metadata and thesis, rights metadata, among others. Research Paper S Introductions. This metadata is displayed in the item record in DSpace, and is indexed for browsing and searching the rfid research system (within a collection, across collections, or across Communities). For the Dissemination Information Packages (DIPs) of the OAIS framework, the system currently exports metadata and digital material in a custom XML schema while we work with the research s introductions METS [3] community to develop the necessary extension schemas for writers block, the technical and rights metadata about research paper, arbitrary digital formats. DSpace's current user interface is web-based. For Movie. There are several interfaces: one for submitters and others involved in the submission process, one for end-users looking for information, and one for system administrators. The end-user or public interface supports search and retrieval of items by browsing or searching the metadata (all fields for now, and specific fields in the near future).

Once an item is located in the system, retrieval is accomplished by clicking a link that causes the archived material to be downloaded to the user's web browser. Web-native formats (those which will display directly in a web browser or with a plug-in) can be viewed immediately; others must be saved to the user's local computer and viewed with a separate program that can interpret the file (e.g., a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, an SAS dataset, or a CAD/CAM file). DSpace is the first open source digital repository system to tackle the complex problem of how to accommodate the differing submission workflows needed for a multidisciplinary system. S Introductions. In other words, different DSpace Communities, representing different schools, departments, research labs and centers, have very different ideas of how material should be submitted to DSpace, by whom, and for movie in essays, with what restrictions. Who is allowed to deposit items? What type of paper, items will they deposit? Who else needs to writers, review, enhance, or approve the submission? To what collections can they deposit material? Who can see the paper s introductions items once deposited? All of these issues are addressed by custom writing service australia, the Community representatives, working together with the research Libraries' DSpace user support staff, and are then modeled in a workflow for each collection to enforce their decisions.

The system models e-people who have roles in the workflow of rfid research, a particular Community in the context of a given collection. Individuals from the Community are registered with DSpace, then assigned to research s introductions, appropriate roles. For example, a department may choose to have two collections: one for working papers and what in the abstract, another for datasets. They may then decide that any member of the paper s introductions faculty can deposit items to either collection directly, and that any member of the general public can have access to these collections. In this example the workflow is very simple, and the only role is that of submitter. In a more complex example, the same department may have a working paper collection that requires tight editorial control by the head of the department.

In this case, they may choose to again designate all faculty as submitters, but also designate a small group of rocket boys contest, people as reviewers, an administrative staff person as a metadata editor, and s introductions, the head of the department as the final coordinator. An item deposited by a faculty member would then go through a process of review, cleanup and approval before finally being deposited to the relevant DSpace collection. Each person with a role to play in this process is essay australia, notified of the new submission, and goes to a personal workspace in the system to research paper, perform their assigned task. What Of A Thesis. Items that do not make it through the process are not archived in the system. DSpace was developed to be open source, and in such a way that institutions and organizations with minimal resources could run it. The system is designed to research paper, run on the UNIX platform, and comprises other open source middleware and tools, and programs written by the DSpace team. All original code is in rules in essays the Java programming language. Other pieces of the technology stack include a relational database management system (PostgreSQL), a Web server and Java servlet engine (Apache and Tomcat, both from the Apache Foundation), Jena (an RDF toolkit from HP Labs), OAICat from OCLC, and several other useful libraries. All leveraged components and libraries are also open source software.

Libraries are bundled where possible (exceptions are described in the installation instructions). The system is paper s introductions, available on SourceForge [4], linked from both the DSpace informational web site [5] and the HP Labs site [6]. While DSpace is open source and freely available, neither MIT Libraries nor HP offer formal support for rules for movie, DSpace adopters. It is our assumption that institutions that use DSpace will have resources to use the system, including adequate hardware that runs the UNIX operating system, and a UNIX systems administrator to research paper s introductions, install and dissertation writers block, configure the system [7]. Most institutions using DSpace will also want the services of research paper s introductions, a Java programmer who can localize and customize for them, or enhance it, although this is not absolutely necessary to run the system. As DSpace continues to for movie titles, be improved by paper, staff at HP, the MIT Libraries, and other institutions that adopt it during the block coming year, MIT will take responsibility for research, evaluating and reincorporating these improvements into the main open source system available to the public.

Plans for titles, building a more sustainable open source maintenance strategy through the DSpace Federation will be discussed later. The DSpace architecture is a straightforward three-layer architecture, including storage, business, and application layers, each with a documented API to paper, allow for causes essay stress, future customization and research, enhancement. The storage layer is implemented using the research file system, as managed by PostgreSQL database tables. The business layer is where the DSpace-specific functionality resides, including the research s introductions workflow, content management, administration, and search and browse modules. Each module has an API to allow DSpace adopters to replace or enhance that function as desired. Finally, the application layer covers the interfaces to the system: the web UI and batch loader, in particular, but also the rocket boys contest OAI support and Handle server for resolving persistent identifiers to DSpace items. This is the layer that will get much of the research paper s introductions attention in future releases, as we add web services for new features (e.g., to support interoperation with other systems) and define Federation services across the range of institutions adopting DSpace. To further its goal of supporting interoperability with other DSpace adopters, and with other digital repositories, preprint, and e-print servers, the system has implemented the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for essay stress, Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) [8]. DSpace used the research paper s introductions OCLC OAICat [9] to contest, accomplish this, and is currently exposing Dublin Core metadata for paper, every item in the system. For material that is restricted to local access, the writing australia item metadata is exposed to s introductions, OAI harvesters but the system will enforce the restriction when a user requests the rules for movie in essays associated bitstream(s).

DSpace at MIT has recently been added to the OAI registry, and as the system is deployed at other institutions, we intend to investigate what added-value services might be built on top of this promising piece of infrastructure to s introductions, work across the Federation. Dissertation Writers. For example, we may examine the possibility of research paper, defining and building preprint and e-print collections for a particular academic discipline with individual items distributed among many institutionally-based multidisciplinary repositories, all OAI compliant. One goal of persistent digital repositories is that it be possible to find and retrieve deposited items far into the future. Essay. In particular, it is considered crucial that citations to research s introductions, archived material, whether found in rocket boys contest printed articles or online, remain valid for long periods. To this end, DSpace chose to research paper s introductions, implement CNRI handles [10] as the persistent identifier associated with each item.

The Handle System® covers assignment, management, and resolution of these persistent identifiers (or handles). Although CNRI has not registered with the IETF for an official namespace, handles are compliant with the IETF's Uniform Resource Name (URN) specification. Handle resolution can be done using a special client, or handles can be packaged in the form of URLs and a proxy server used to rules for movie in essays, resolve these into the handle form, which is, in turn, resolved to the local system location for the item. This second approach is the one we have taken in DSpace. The main alternative to using handles is to use persistent URLs with HTTP redirection to allow items to paper, move around over custom writing australia time. The long-term viability of these alternatives is not yet sufficiently understood.

We plan to discuss this decision and its implications with other institutions adopting DSpace over paper the coming year, to see if the DSpace Federation can support other systems of rules titles, persistent identification while supporting distributed services. MIT Libraries' DSpace Implementation. DSpace is a system, a tool, and s introductions, a platform for collecting, managing, indexing, and distributing digital items. Exactly how it is used, for what sort of digital material, by rfid research paper, whom, for how long, and paper, so on, are policy issues to be decided by each organization adopting the rocket essay system. In order to make the difference between system and policy more transparent, and to help other institutions get started, MIT is openly sharing its own policy decisions with regard to DSpace. It is our hope that, while we acknowledge that our policies may not work well for other institutions, and will certainly evolve over time, they may offer guidance to others regarding the depth and breadth of issues that should be considered. At MIT, the original goal of DSpace was to capture the research paper s introductions faculty's intellectual output in rocket essay digital formats: research papers, other documents, datasets, images, audio/visual material, databases, or any other format they deem important. This goal led to two important policies: only faculty research would be accepted (not student material, not institutional records, and not material from non-faculty researchers without sponsorship from faculty), and faculty would choose what would be submitted (within certain general constraints set by the Libraries and paper, Archives). As a result of discussions with faculty, early adopter Communities, and others, the goal is unchanged but the policies have evolved.

The first change was in what could be submitted. If a DSpace Community defines a collection that, in order to be useful, should include material authored by non-faculty (or non-MIT faculty) then it can be deposited by rules titles, that Community as long as the necessary copyright permissions are obtained. The second change was to accommodate material from the MIT Libraries and Archives. We will create a Libraries and Archives Community to hold digital collections of material such as e-theses and reformatted images#151;material that is paper s introductions, heavily used and represents valuable assets of the institution. Beyond faculty-authored documents and data, another category of material has taken the spotlight for rocket boys contest, possible support by research, DSpace: educational material, or Learning Objects.

As course web sites and online teaching and learning environments proliferate, faculty are increasingly creating new and valuable digital material to support their teaching activities. These can take the form of traditional lecture notes, sample exams, and course calendars, but also include things like complex simulations and research paper, visualizations, multimedia presentations, or videos of key lectures. As a matter of local policy, the MIT Libraries will accept this type of material and is actively collaborating with two MIT-based projects in research s introductions this area: the to include in the of a thesis Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI) [11] and research paper, OpenCourseWare (OCW) [12]. Dissertation Writers. For OKI, DSpace could serve as an paper, active repository of course content items#151;those items of essay, persistent, ongoing value (e.g., a physics simulation used regularly in various courses). The OKI project is developing APIs to support interoperability across OKI-compliant course management systems and OKI-compliant digital repositories. Paper S Introductions. For OCW, DSpace will collect older course web sites so that courses can be examined and course material found after the course is no longer actively taught. Causes Stress. Many questions remain about the appropriate relationship between digital repositories like DSpace and burgeoning online teaching environments, but this area is of such importance to faculty that it cannot be ignored. There are several ways to describe the value of an institutional repository to the faculty who will contribute material, and the administration that will support the effort.

And it is critical to explain those benefits, and to market the service, to both constituencies. As a multidisciplinary repository that represents the scholarship of MIT, DSpace at MIT showcases the international prominence of s introductions, our faculty both individually and collectively. The interdisciplinary content of the archive should attract a wider audience than a repository dedicated to one individual discipline would; moreover it provides currently lacking service to the growing body of interdisciplinary research efforts. Causes Stress. The ability to distribute research results quickly will emphasize the cutting-edge nature of MIT's research, and supports the mission of the Institute to generate, disseminate, and preserve knowledge [13]. The MIT faculty's research output will be valuable to researchers far into the future, but preserving digital material (publications, datasets, images, visualizations, and research paper s introductions, so on) is extremely difficult.

To ensure long-term access to what to include abstract of a thesis, this important scholarship the MIT Libraries will manage DSpace as a preservation archive, keeping this material accessible, and often immediately usable, far into the future. The Libraries provide guidance in establishing new Communities, and assistance to s introductions, faculty and others in using the system. DSpace was envisioned by the MIT Libraries as a continuation of their mission to block, collect, make available, and preserve important scholarly material of all kinds, especially that of MIT's own faculty and s introductions, research community. The Libraries are working to extend their services in the digital era, to reflect current trends in scholarly communication and education, and to offer new means of distributing research material that are enabled by writing service australia, network technology. Over the past few years MIT has been placing new emphasis on educational technology with initiatives such as OpenCourseWare and paper, Open Knowledge Initiative. Faculty are investing a lot of time and effort in creating online educational materials that are valuable assets. DSpace is collaborating with the major educational technology initiatives at the Institute, including OpenCourseWare, so that storing, relocating, reusing and custom essay service, repurposing course content becomes reliable and easy. Faculty accustomed to finding documents online, whether published or pre-publication, expect to continue to work with discipline-defined collections. DSpace can store and deliver preprints and eprints from the research paper host institution and could support virtual collections from different academic disciplines by means of federation across large numbers of writers, participating institutions. Where disciplinary archives already exist for an academic community (e.g., the arXiv system at Cornell University [14]) DSpace could be made to automatically submit copies of relevant documents to these centralized archives during the local deposit process.

Transition Team and Business plan. From the fall of 2001 until spring of 2002, the Libraries formed a DSpace Transition Team consisting of project staff and senior library staff from key departments (e.g., the Archives, collection services, public services, and research paper, the systems department). Stress. This group was charged with figuring out how to deploy DSpace as a new service of the paper s introductions MIT Libraries: the necessary policies, staffing requirements, communications strategies, management and custom essay writing service australia, governance structures, training plans, and operational requirements. Participation in this group proved to be a useful vehicle for the library staff to become more familiar with the system, and discussions of these various issues were invaluable to the development of the production DSpace service. Participating in research the Transition Team group were two senior business consultants funded by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to write a formal business plan for a sustainable DSpace system at MIT. Their work consisted of compiling the rocket boys essay contest results of the paper transition team deliberations and to include of a thesis, decisions, incorporating the work into detailed cost information for system operation, and outlining possible revenue options. The major conclusion of this planning process was that DSpace at MIT would be offered as a combination of paper, subsidized core services (built into the Libraries' operating budget), and cost-recovered premium services that would allow the Libraries to meet varying unique needs for DSpace from what to include in the thesis, particular Communities (e.g., exceptional amounts of disk storage, assistance with metadata creation, or conversion of s introductions, files to supported formats). With this strategy we have insured that DSpace is an affordable undertaking for the MIT Libraries without compromising the service that can be offered [15]. Recent discussions of digital preservation focus on at least two levels: bit preservation, where a digital file is carefully preserved exactly as it was created without the slightest change, and what we'll refer to as functional preservation, where the digital file is rules for movie in essays, kept useable as technology formats, media, and paradigms evolve.

In the first case, it's very unlikely that the file could still be read or processed by research, software after five or ten years have passed, but we assume it's possible for boys essay contest, digital archeologists to work with the file to try to unlock its secrets many years later, especially if they have some additional information about the format (e.g., a specification, creation or processing program, user documentation, etc.). Paper. In the latter case the material is always kept immediately useable (viewable, playable, searchable, or whatever you could do with it originally). Rfid. Obviously, functional preservation is the more desirable level, but it will come with a price. As a community, our understanding of functional digital preservation is at an interesting juncture: we know how important the research paper s introductions need is, we know how it can be done at an abstract level (e.g., format migrations or complex system emulation and so on). But few institutions have actually had to do functional preservation in a production setting on large quantities of heterogeneous material. So we have very little information about actual production strategies, costs, user reaction to information loss, or how much technical metadata is needed to support all of this. How does this all relate to service, DSpace?

The system captures minimal technical metadata to support digital bit preservation (file format, MD5 checksum, creation date), and provides descriptive fields to record more information when available. With this metadata and proper production procedures (e.g., high-quality servers and storage devices, good backup and disaster recovery plans), DSpace can support bit preservation so that the material deposited can be delivered to future users exactly as it was originally received. For some digital formats this may be the best option available#151;for example, an executable program for which no corresponding source code was provided or a format that's so rare (or proprietary) that the DSpace host institution has no way of knowing how to provide functional preservation. However, functional preservation is s introductions, currently a matter of rfid, institutional policy, and will only be implemented more thoroughly in DSpace when we understand more about the production techniques, user requirements, and research paper, cost/benefit tradeoffs. In the meantime, each institution running DSpace will develop its own preservation policies which will depend on their submission policies (i.e., whether they accept all file formats or only standard formats like TIFF or AIFF). MIT plans to provide functional preservation for a list of supported formats, listed on the web site and essay stress, shown to users during the deposit process. Research S Introductions. Supported formats include those that are documented standards (e.g., TIFF, AIFF, XML) or have published specifications (e.g., PDF, RIFF). The other two categories of support for MIT's DSpace are known and unsupported. Known formats are those that are common enough to be familiar and usually quite popular, but which are proprietary in that there are no published specifications on what to include of a thesis which to base functional preservation. Unsupported formats are those that are either unknown to the Libraries or are extremely rare (e.g., a compiled program, a commercial CAD/CAM file, etc.).

The reason for distinguishing between known and unsupported is that for the former we expect to research, see commercial conversion programs become available as these formats become obsolete since there are so many files in these formats in existence with many industries dependent on them. If and when such commercial conversion programs emerge, MIT will move these formats into the supported category and offer functional preservation for them. Since the very beginning, the custom essay DSpace project intended to make its system open source and to actively promote it to other institutions. Why? There are many reasons for taking this approach: Developing a critical corpus of content that represents the research intellectual output of the boys essay contest world's leading research universities Promoting the continued development of the DSpace service through the open source community Promoting interoperability of archival repositories and long-term preservation of scholarly work. In 2002, MIT formed collaborative partnerships with a small number of other academic research institutions in the US, UK, and paper s introductions, Canada, to rocket boys essay, address some specific questions such as: what will it take to successfully deploy the system at another institution? How much localization, how much customization, and how much time and effort are needed? What services can be defined to leverage the research paper s introductions digital collections of these institutions, and how can they be implemented in DSpace? What sort of organization will the Federation become: A consortium? A new membership organization?

An informal and loose collaboration? Should it reside inside MIT, at another institution, or as a completely separate organization? These official partners include: Cambridge University (UK), Columbia University (US), Cornell University (US), Rochester University (US), and rocket contest, the Universities of Ohio (US), Toronto (Canada), and Washington (US). In addition to research paper, these formal collaborations, many organizations have downloaded the DSpace system (almost 1,500 since early November) and research paper, many of these are in the process of evaluating it for adaptability to their local requirements. Paper S Introductions. Clearly there is rocket essay, great need for a system like DSpace, and as we explore the definition of the research s introductions DSpace Federation over the coming year, we hope to get feedback and advice from many of these institutions about how the system should evolve and how to make it sustainable beyond MIT.

Moving forward from here, there are many, many questions remaining, but we feel that great progress has been made, and we are eager to see how things develop. At MIT we are very pleased and excited to have a platform to begin exploring these issues, both within the Institute and writers block, with other institutions that want to research, advance the agendas of open access to scholarly information and the management and preservation of digital material. At HP we are excited by the role that DSpace can play as a vehicle for exploring and developing standards, and for ongoing research in digital asset management, archival, and preservation systems. Together we anticipate that DSpace will play an important role in the future of academic libraries and archives, and we look forward to productive collaboration with other institutions in this area. The authors would like to thank our sponsors: the Hewlett-Packard/MIT Alliance and rules for movie, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. We would also like to thank the previous members of the DSpace project team whose contributions were invaluable, including Eric Celeste, Bill Cattey, Dan Chudnov, Peter Breton, Peter Carmichael, and Joyce Ng.

Finally, we would like to research paper, thank the many colleagues at HP, MIT, and the Libraries in particular, who made this project possible. [7] Since the system is written in java in can, in theory, run on other platforms than UNIX but this is what abstract of a thesis, untested by the DSpace development team.

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Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Research Paper S Introductions! Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Research Paper! Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Research! Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Causes! Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst.

De nettowinst is research s introductions, de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of causes essay stress, VOF. Paper! In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Rules For Movie Titles! Het salaris is een kostenpost voor de BV. De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting.

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Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Causes Essay Stress! Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. S Introductions! Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. Rocket Essay Contest! Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is het in paper, de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over een bepaalde periode. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Rocket Boys Essay Contest! Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of vrachtwagens in de loop van de jaren afnemen. Research! De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of dissertation writers block, afschrijvingskosten genoemd.

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Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to rfid research paper it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to s introductions believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to writers block the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it).

Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is research paper, largely groundless and mildly insulting. Abstract Of A Thesis! To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of paper, American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the custom writing great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the paper politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for essay stress the history of college. Throughout the research modern age, the to include in the of a role college played in research s introductions the national debate was minimal.

To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). To Include In The Of A Thesis! And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at research s introductions, its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in for movie titles the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is research paper, too great. Writing! Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is research paper, his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of what abstract thesis, college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning.

For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to research paper s introductions change the culture. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr.

Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the stress purpose of college, that college is s introductions, created to train the what abstract of a thesis elites to paper s introductions do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of stress, college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans.

Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the research paper increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from causes, their original goal of graduating. The importance of research paper, education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and what to include abstract of a thesis, billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to paper see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and essay writing, 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of research s introductions, obtaining a career after graduation.

Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in rfid paper attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and s introductions, regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the rocket boys essay contest people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in s introductions 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and dissertation writers, keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Dropping out paper also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out.

Entering in dissertation a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to research paper stick to and graduate once enrolled. Essay Contest! The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paper paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to in essays pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in research s introductions order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by for movie change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to paper s introductions make noise. Dissertation Block! When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for paper an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Custom Service Australia! Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and research s introductions, “don’t leave”.

Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Dissertation Writers! Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the research paper will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of causes, restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is research paper s introductions, within arm’s length.

I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in essay writing service my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and paper s introductions, medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into boys essay contest the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. Research! I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. Dissertation Block! College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in paper s introductions a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the for movie titles biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. Research Paper! It is important to essay realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care.

If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from s introductions, being invoked with the boys spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Research! Nihilism will do that to rfid paper everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the paper s introductions problems really are. The mentality when speaking to dissertation block college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. S Introductions! So apathy also plays a role. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an rules titles in essays, option in American society, and s introductions, it’s hardly a privilege at that.

In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is dissertation, a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of paper, that funding goes towards expensive college visits. For Movie! Not only does the child want to research s introductions go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is to include abstract of a thesis, going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at research, Vietnam. My father, a student at causes essay stress, the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students.

There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. Research Paper S Introductions! When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against dissertation writers, the war in research s introductions their honor. He also remembers reading the boys essay names of the dead soldiers with the paper rest of paper, his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and research, forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about australia them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible.

The internet has taken so much of this away from paper, current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on causes stress which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to research s introductions falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at titles in essays, it; notice its size and color in particular.

Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. Paper S Introductions! But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the for movie titles intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and research paper, how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised.

Most kids in rfid research paper my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Research! Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into for movie a good college had been seared into s introductions us and serious attention had to rfid paper be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to paper s introductions be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants.

As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. For Movie! Kids went there and paper, were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and research paper, then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to paper a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college.

I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of dissertation block, Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is research, making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. Rocket Boys! That we’re missing out. Research Paper S Introductions! He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He’s right about boys essay that, but that is research s introductions, nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone.

We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. In The Thesis! We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of research paper, a lot of essay writing, my peers, I wish it were still that way.

College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Research Paper! Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway?

Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for titles the next semester. To be honest, when it came to research s introductions college, most of what to include in the abstract thesis, us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of research, “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important.

As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an custom service, appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to s introductions my thoughts here and now, but young and research paper, impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. Research! But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. For Movie Titles! Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to s introductions read. Children live at causes essay, school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school.

College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by research themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and what in the abstract thesis, they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters.

Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. Research Paper! In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is block, important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of research, his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans.

What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to dissertation writers remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for paper s introductions standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of custom essay writing service australia, darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community.

One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Research! Academics wonder why they are allowed to writers block be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the research s introductions mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the abstract university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. Research Paper! This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the causes essay values we shared were not strong enough to unite us.

From the research time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Dissertation Block! Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by research paper the English instructors; but what the essay writing service australia two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. This is largely because specialists in s introductions any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at rfid, least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for research paper academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to what of a a professor’s job, teaching. Research Paper S Introductions! This requirement creates a dilemma for boys essay contest many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at research s introductions, the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the to include in the abstract of a students may not share. Research S Introductions! Thus, they (and the boys essay students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues.

In searching for paper s introductions the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to rules in essays everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the s introductions university . Titles In Essays! . . says he believes . . . Research! that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is writers block, because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the s introductions power to unite the students and causes essay stress, faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond.

Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by research paper s introductions their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)

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How to Write a Research Introduction (with Sample Intros)

COPD - nursing care and research paper implications for nursing. 10 September, 2002. Some nurses will be actively involved in helping diagnose COPD by carrying out spirometry and reversibility testing, while others, particularly in writers block, secondary care, will be less involved in this diagnostic process. VOL: 98, ISSUE: 37, PAGE NO: 43. JUDITH McALLISTER, MA, RN, Respiratory Specialist Nurse, North Peterborough Primary Care Trust; Regional Trainer, Asthma and COPD, National Respiratory Training Centre, Warwick. Sponsored by PFIZER. Some nurses will be actively involved in paper, helping diagnose COPD by rules for movie titles carrying out paper, spirometry and reversibility testing, while others, particularly in to include of a, secondary care, will be less involved in this diagnostic process. Good patient preparation is needed for accurate spirometry and, as it becomes a more routine test in both primary and secondary care, nurses working with COPD patients need to understand why and how it is carried out. Research Paper S Introductions. Patients tend to dissertation block, dislike spirometry as it is very hard work and often induces coughing. A sympathetic approach is needed while ensuring that the patient blows to his/her maximum ability.

Nurses who are carrying out reversibility tests should ensure that they have a patient group direction to cover the administration of any drugs they use (HSC, 2000). Once the diagnosis has been established, nursing care is very much aimed at supporting the patient and his/her family, helping them to come to terms with the diagnosis and stay as well as possible. Some patients may feel that the disease is self-inflicted and be reluctant to seek help, fearing the disapproval of research healthcare professionals, particularly if they have been unable to stop smoking. Those who have already stopped smoking may feel angry that, having ‘done the custom writing, right thing’, they should not have to suffer now. Paper. A positive approach by the nurse is for movie in essays, therefore needed, focused on maintaining day-to-day function while minimising symptoms as much as possible. Much of the nurse’s role will be centred on helping patients adjust to their condition and teaching self-management skills. One of the most important tasks of the nurse is to teach patients how to use their inhaler devices correctly. Regular checking of the inhaler technique of research s introductions patients in primary care and of those in titles in essays, secondary care before they are discharged is also vital. The importance of good inhaler technique should never be forgotten, even for research, patients who mostly use nebuliser therapy. However severe the disease, smoking cessation will lengthen life (BTS, 1997), as cessation slows the accelerated decline in lung function. Essay. Unfortunately, lost lung function cannot be regained, so patients need to be aware that stopping smoking will not return them to health.

Some patients may feel that the years gained may not be worth the effort, especially if they are already severely disabled. Smoking cessation is difficult, and most smokers try several times before they succeed. Nicotine replacement therapy and research paper s introductions bupropion do increase success rates (Silagy et al., 2002) and custom service australia both are now readily available on prescription. Most nicotine replacement products are safe to use in COPD. The inclusion of smoking cessation services as part of the National Service Framework for research s introductions, Coronary Heart Disease has benefited respiratory patients considerably (DoH, 2000). These services have developed over the past three years, and smoking cessation clinics and specialist advisers have now been established in for movie, every health authority.

Smoking cessation guidelines (Raw et al., 1998; West et al., 2000) give clear and structured guidance for health professionals: all patients should be asked if they smoke, advised to quit if they do, offered help with quitting, and followed up. Helping COPD patients to stop smoking is a vital part of the paper s introductions, nurse’s role even if that help is referring the patient to specialist services. Many practice nurses have been trained in smoking cessation techniques and can offer patients a great deal of support. Similar skills are now developing in secondary care, although it may be more difficult to what to include in the abstract of a, offer ongoing support in hospital. Think Point: What smoking cessation services exist in research s introductions, your area of work? Are you comfortable with asking COPD patients about their smoking habits?

You may wish to custom essay writing service australia, contact your local smoking cessation specialist and find out what services they offer. Do they visit housebound patients? Can they provide training for research paper s introductions, health professionals? Many patients with advanced COPD are underweight, while some are overweight. Obesity increases the workload of what to include in the abstract of a thesis breathing, and reducing weight will help patients cope with disability (BTS, 1997). Measuring body mass index (BMI) is simple and should be a routine part of assessing patients with COPD. A low BMI suggests a poorer prognosis (Landbo et al., 1999), especially in those whose disease is advanced, while an increase in BMI with treatment improves prognosis (Schols et al., 1998). Paper S Introductions. Why patients lose weight is causes stress, not clear, although it is research s introductions, widely accepted that weight loss occurs when energy demands exceed energy intake.

Dietary supplementation may help, but this should not replace a normal diet. Patients with severe disease should be advised to eat little and often, particularly if eating increases the sensation of breathlessness. Keeping active maintains general fitness and wellbeing. Breathlessness is very distressing, and the natural reaction is to stop the activity causing the breathlessness. Patients need to rocket boys essay, be reassured that, although it is distressing, breathlessness is not dangerous, and they should carry on with activities and s introductions interests (BTS, 1997).

Many patients with moderate disease will be able to continue to work and should be encouraged to do so. Patients may need advice on pacing their activities, and housebound patients need to be encouraged to essay stress, maintain upper and research paper lower limb strength through simple exercise programmes so that simple but important tasks such as going to the toilet are manageable. Think Point: A patient with COPD tells you that his wife wants him to stop playing bowls as he gets very breathless and tired. However, he enjoys his bowls but doesn’t want his wife to dissertation writers, worry. What advice could you give? Prevention and management of research exacerbations of the disease. Exacerbations are common, particularly in the wintertime, and it is for movie titles in essays, sensible to recommend an annual influenza vaccination (Calman, 1993). Many COPD patients are offered pneumoccocal immunisation despite the lack of evidence of its effectiveness in COPD (BTS, 1997).

Teaching patients how to recognise exacerbations and to s introductions, seek help early may reduce the need for hospital admission. The symptoms of an exacerbation of COPD are listed in titles, Fig 1. Treatment should be aimed at maximising bronchodilation, treating any underlying infection and reducing inflammation. Although most exacerbations are not bacterial in origin, antibiotics are commonly used. Research. Short courses of oral steroids reduce recovery times and improve lung function during an exacerbation, and are recommended for all patients with an acute exacerbation who do not have significant contraindications (MacNee, 2002). Some patients may wish to have a supply of antibiotics and oral steroids at home. In such cases, clear written guidance must be given on how and when to start treatment and whom to essay, contact if advice is wanted at any time. Patients with worsening symptoms and signs may need to be admitted to hospital, so the importance of seeking advice needs to be explained.

In-patient management is similar, but allows assessment of blood gases and closer monitoring and support. Research S Introductions. Pulse oximetry can provide a useful means of monitoring oxygen levels but it will not detect hypercapnia. The question of providing ventilatory support may arise for some patients, and it can be helpful to know if they have any views on dissertation this aspect of their care. Patients with end-stage disease may not wish to paper, be ventilated, although the development of non-invasive ventilation provides a less frightening alternative. It may become apparent during admission of a patient to hospital that he/she needs to be considered for long-term oxygen therapy. Assessment for this treatment, which involves having supplemental oxygen for dissertation, a minimum of 15 hours a day (Medical Research Council Working Party, 1981) should be carried out on research paper two separate occasions when the patient is stable, usually four to six weeks post-admission. The criteria for long-term oxygen therapy are listed in Fig 2. Patients who use long- or short-term oxygen therapy should not smoke, as this negates any treatment benefit and, moreover, is a fire hazard.

Oxygen concentrators rather than oxygen cylinders should be used if possible, as these offer a much cheaper and more convenient means of to include of a providing oxygen. While many patients with moderate COPD are able to continue working, those with more severe disease may not. Financial hardship is paper, not uncommon, although many patients may be reluctant to ask for help. The burden of caring often falls on research the spouse, who is likely to be of a similar age and may have his/her own health problems. Tactful inquiry about ability to cope is needed. Financial help may be available, and research paper simple modifications to essay contest, the home may make life easier for both the patient and the carer. Referral to social services can be offered both in hospital and at home. Living with COPD can be an isolating experience for both patient and carer. Research Paper. Some patients will enjoy the opportunity to meet others with the same disease.

The British Lung Foundation has groups all over the country (Breathe Easy groups) which meet regularly. Support from a number of organisations is available for people suffering from all types of lung disease (see Fig 3 for rules titles, a list of addresses and websites). Think Point: Is there a local Breathe Easy group in your area? Familial risk - Advice to families. COPD appears to run in families, and patients will often report a family history of chest problems. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the only known genetic risk factor, causing 1% of COPD, yet most of those with a family history of research COPD do not have this abnormality. Silverman et al. (1998) found that relatives of patients with early onset COPD were found to have reduced lung function if they had a history of current or past smoking, suggesting some genetic risk. Barnes (1999) has suggested that many genes are likely to be involved.

However, the most important environmental insult to the lungs comes from stress, smoking, and advice to s introductions, families should be to stop smoking or never start. Where alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is identified, families should be screened and offered genetic counselling, as they are likely to essay australia, develop severe emphysema at an early age even if they do not smoke. Smoking greatly intensifies the disease and research paper s introductions all family members should be advised not to smoke. Patients who have alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency which leads to severe disease in early life may be suitable for lung transplantation (BTS, 1997). Continuing to smoke may reduce the likelihood of essay writing service australia being accepted onto a transplant programme. Pulmonary rehabilitation aims to reduce disability and improve the quality of life of patients with all types of lung disease.

By improving physical fitness, breathlessness is reduced and the ability to function independently increases. Little improvement in terms of lung function can be achieved, but exercise tolerance and health status (quality of life) improves markedly, and is sustained at 12 months (BTS, 2001). Research Paper S Introductions. Most programmes run from boys essay, six to eight weeks, with twice-weekly group exercise and research paper s introductions education sessions. The level of disability and rules in essays health status is assessed before and after the programme. Exercises should be carried on research paper at home between visits, and after the to include in the thesis, programme has been completed. Many different formats for pulmonary rehabilitation have been developed, but at least some supervised sessions seem to be necessary. Education for patients and their family is generally included in the session, so that by s introductions the end of the programme patients will have developed their understanding of rfid research COPD and its treatment, and have acquired management skills such as relaxation techniques and being able to recognise exacerbations. Unfortunately, despite the research, success of rehabilitation, there are too few programmes to stress, accommodate the number of patients who could benefit.

Consequently, rehabilitation is offered late in research paper s introductions, the disease process. Most patients already have severe disease by the time they undergo rehabilitation and while these patients show marked benefits, those with less severe disease might show even greater improvements. Think Point: Is there a pulmonary rehabilitation programme in rfid research paper, your area? Is there open access? What difficulties might patients have in paper, attending rehabilitation sessions?

The role of the nurse in caring for patients with COPD is, to a large extent, dependent on her area of work. Many nurses will have few contacts with these patients, while those in primary care and in respiratory wards will have frequent contacts. Although medical interventions are limited, nurses have a huge role in promoting healthy behaviour in patients with COPD. Rules In Essays. For example, they provide advice and support to patients and their families and, at the same time, educate and encourage patients to manage their disease proactively. Because change in lung function in response to interventions is minimal, nurses should be assessing response in terms of improvements in patients’ ability to mange their daily life.

Using simple assessments of disability such as the oxygen cost scale discussed in Part 2 lends a degree of objectivity to research s introductions, measuring the effectiveness of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological inter-ventions and provides evidence of benefits that are of considerable value to the patient. A new, long-acting anticholinergic drug is awaiting licensing in the UK. Causes Essay. The drug (tiotropium) has been shown to paper s introductions, give benefit in research, terms of improvements in lung function when compared to ipratropium (van Noord et al., 2000) and, more importantly, in health status as well as lung function when compared with salmeterol (Donohue et al., 2002). Although tiotropium will not improve breathlessness dramatically, any intervention which offers benefit is welcome. Despite the high prevalence of paper s introductions COPD and the huge healthcare cost, there is little prospect of this disease being given the priority it deserves through a national service framework. However, evidence-based guidelines for both pulmonary rehabilitation (BTS, 2001) and boys essay non-invasive ventilation (BTS, 2002) provide support for these newer interventions. The high cost of COPD hospital admission has led to the development of nurse-led early discharge schemes and acute respiratory assessment services which offer safe and research cheaper means of contest managing exacerbations (Davies et al., 2000). Such services are highly acceptable to patients. Most patients with COPD will be managed in primary care. Paper S Introductions. One of the biggest challenges for what to include in the abstract of a thesis, primary care nurses is to be aware of the s introductions, numbers of patients who will present with COPD and of the equipment and causes stress training that is available that makes diagnosis possible (Calverley and Bellamy, 2000).

Although most COPD presents in patients in later life, those with undiagnosed COPD will be seen mostly in the winter. Referral of at-risk patients for spirometry would identify disease at research an earlier stage, and provide an for movie opportunity to intervene (Elkington and White, 2002). When a diagnosis of COPD has been confirmed, management should follow the guidelines provided by research the British Thoracic Society (BTS, 1997) (see Fig 4). Bronchodilator therapy can improve but not abolish symptoms, and the success of dissertation block treatment needs to be measured in research paper, terms of improvements in disability and health status, rather than changes in lung function parameters. COPD is a progressive and disabling condition: nurses play a key role in educating and supporting patients and their families. While the disease is irreversible, it should never be viewed as hopeless. Bellamy, D., Booker, R. (2000) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Primary Care. London: Class Publishing.

Esmond, G. (ed). To Include In The Of A Thesis. (2001) Respiratory Nursing. London: Bailliere Tindall. Morgan, M., Singh, S. (eds) Practical Pulmonary Rehabilitation. London: Chapman and research Hall. Using individualised cognitive behavioural therapy as a treatment for people with COPD. This research study investigated whether individualised CBT was an effective intervention for patients with COPD for causes essay stress, psychosocial difficulties. Success for nurse-led Liverpool lung screening programme. A nurse-led screening programme in Liverpool has boosted early detection of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an research paper evaluation has found. First quality standards issued for use of adult home oxygen.

All patients who are being considered for long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) at home should have a thorough risk assessment delivered by trained staff, according to new national standards. Warning of too few specialist nurses for incurable lung disease. A lack of rocket boys contest access to specialist nurses is an important factor contributing to a crisis in care for patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), according to a charity report. Clinicians ‘failing to ask 75% of smokers’ about quitting. More than 25% of patients are not being asked by healthcare professionals if they smoke when they come into paper hospital in for movie titles, the UK, despite acute services having a higher concentration of research s introductions people dependant on tobacco than the rfid, general population, a respiratory doctor has warned. You must sign in to make a comment. Please remember that the submission of any material is governed by research paper our Terms and Conditions and by submitting material you confirm your agreement to custom writing service australia, these Terms and Conditions. Links may be included in your comments but HTML is not permitted. ?28 per hour + mileage + benefits. ?28 per hour + mileage + benefits. ?28 per hour + mileage + benefits.

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