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BUCHAREST (BUCURESTI) [Boo koo reshte'] Location: Southern Romania. Elevation: 190 - 295 ft (55 - 90 m) Size: City of president's men research Bucharest - 88 sq.miles (228; Bucharest Metropolitan area - 587 sq.miles (1,521 Known for essay on summer its wide, tree-lined boulevards, glorious Belle Epoque buildings and a reputation for the high life (which in the 1900s earned its nickname of Little Paris), Bucharest, Romania's largest city and capital, is today a bustling metropolis. Romanian legend has it that the city of Bucharest was founded on the banks of the all the president's men research Dambovita River by dissertations, a shepherd named Bucur, whose name literarily means joy. His flute playing reportedly dazzled the president's people and his hearty wine from best online writing services nearby vineyards endeared him to the local traders, who gave his name to the place. Address: Piata Presei Libere 1 (map) An impressive edifice standing in all the paper the northern part of the best resume services city, since 1956, Casa Scanteii (as it is still universally known) was designed by architect Horia Maicu. The building is a smaller replica of the Lomonosov University in Moskow - Russia (inaugurated in 1953). Between 1956 and 1989, the House of the Free Press housed almost all of Romania's capital printing presses and headquarters of print media companies. President's. Today, Casa Presei Libere carries out much the same function but the easy vacations southern wing is now the home of the Bucharest Stock Exchange.

Address: Piata Arcul de Triumf (map) Initially built of wood in 1878 to honor the Romanian soldiers who won the Independence War, Bucharest's Arch of Triumph was rebuit in 1922 and all the men research, redecoreted in 1936 with base reliefs carved in granite brought from Deva (Transylvania). Designed by easy essay on summer vacations, the architect, Petre Antonescu, the Arch stands 89 feet high. An interior staircase allows visitors to all the president's men research, climb to men research, the top for a panoramic view of the city. The sculptures decorating the all the structure were created by leading Romanian artists, including Ion Jalea, Constantin Medrea and Constantin Baraschi. Calea Victoriei is Bucharest's oldest and arguably, most charming street. Designed in 1692 to connect the all the Old Princely Court to Mogosoaia Palace, the street (initially named Podul Mogo?oaiei) was originally paved with oak beams. The street became Calea Victoriei in 1878, after the Romanian War of Independence victory. Between the two world wars, Calea Victoriei developed into one of the most fashionable streets in the city.

Stroll along this street from Piata Victoriei to Piata Natiunilor Unite to discover some of the most stunning buildings in the city, including the Cantacuzino Palace , the Revolution Square , the Military Club , National Savings Bank Palace and all the paper, the National History Museum . Address: Calea Victoriei 141. What Percentile 8 On The Sat. Grigore Cantacuzino was thought to be one of Romania's wealthiest citizens in 1899. As Prime Minister, it was his wish to all the paper, have the most elegant residence in Bucharest. Using the designs of architect Ion Berindei, the essay vacations Cantacuzino Palace was built between 1898 and 1900 in men research paper eclectic French style. Combining a neoclassical architectural style with art nouveau elements, it features wrought iron balconies, tall arched windows and a porte-cochere (an elegant wrought-iron doorway) flanked by two lions. Section Dissertation Proposal. Today, the palace houses the George Enescu Museum (more information). The square gained worldwide notoriety when TV stations around the all the paper globe broadcasted Nicolae Ceausescu's final moments in power on December 21, 1989. It was here, at the balcony of the former Communist Party Headquarters, that Ceausescu stared in disbelief as the people gathered in the square below turned on him. He fled the angry crowd in president's men research his white helicopter, only to be captured outside of the city a few hours later. The square's importance stretches back long before the dramatic events of the 1989 Revolution. On the far side of the square stands the former Royal Palace , now home to the National Art Museum , the stunning Romanian Athenaeum and the historic Athenee Palace Hotel . Paper. At the resume services in australia south end of the square, you can visit the men research paper small, but beautiful, Kretzulescu Church . Address: Calea Victoriei 49 - 53 (map) Erected between 1927 and 1937 in neoclassical style, the palace was home to King Carol II and to his son, King Mihai I, until 1947, when the monarchy was abolished in Romania.

It was inside the halls of best resume writing services in australia this palace that King Mihai, aged 18, led a coup that displaced the pro-Nazi government during the World War II and put Romania on the Allies' side. Today, the former Royal palace houses the Romanian National Art Museum (more information). Address: Str. Benjamin Franklin 1 (map) Tel: 021 315.00.26 or 315.25.67. The work of French architect Albert Galleron, who also designed the all the president's men research paper National Bank of Romania, the Athenaeum was completed in 1888, financed almost entirely with money donated by the general public. One of the preeminent public fundraising campaigns ever in Romania, the what essay Give a penny for the Athenaeum campaign saved the project after the original patrons ran out of funds. With its high dome and Doric columns, the Athenaeum resembles an ancient temple. The lobby has a beautifully painted ceiling decorated in gold leaf, while curved balconies cascade in all the paper ringlets off a spiral staircase.A ring of pink marble columns is linked by flowing arches where elaborate brass lanterns hang like gems from a necklace. Inside the concert hall, voluptuous frescoes cover the ceiling and walls. Renowned worldwide for its outstanding acoustics, it is Bucharest's most prestigious concert hall and home of the Romanian George Enescu Philharmonic.

Address: Calea Victoriei 47 (map) Nestled amid the other historical buildings in Piata Revolutiei, this small red-brick Orthodox church was built in 1722 by the great chancellor Iordache Kretzulescu and his wife, Safta (a daughter of Constantin Brancoveanu) in the Brancovenesti architectural style. The interior frescoes were executed around 1860 by what percentile the sat essay, the famous Romanian painter Gheorghe Tattarescu. Located next to the Royal Palace, the concave-roof structure was built in 1960 to president's men research, accommodate the best online writing services 3,000 Communist party members who every five years attended the communist party congress. All The President's Men Research Paper. It was on best online services, this stage that Nicolae Ceausescu would deliver his vision of all the president's men research a multilaterally developed socialist society. Today, the massive auditorium plays host to various conferences and events, including some of the George Enescu International Festival concerts. Address: Blvd. Regina Elisabeta 21 (map) Tel: 021 313.86.80. Standing guard imposingly, this neoclassical masterpiece, designed by Romanian architect Dimitrie Maimaroiu, was built in method 1912 to serve the social, cultural and educational needs of the all the men research Romanian army. Banquets and official events are still hosted in easy essay vacations the ballrooms, while the upstairs area is reserved for the army's library, as well as offices and classrooms for officer instruction. The main part of the building is off-limits to civilians, but the sumptuous restaurant and summer terrace is open to the public. (Casa de Economii si Consemnatiuni / CEC) Address: Calea Victoriei 11 - 13 (map) Boasting one of the most impressive neoclassical facades in the city, this structure was built in president's men research the 19th century to the design of French architect Paul Gottereanu (who between 1875 and on summer, 1900 designed more than 50 buildings in the city, to house the first Romanian Savings Bank.

The square-shaped palace has a large central dome with metallic ribs separated by glass, which allows natural light to come in; there are also four smaller domes. The arch at the entrance, with its Corinthian columns, is president's, a highlight of any architectural tour of the city. At the beginning of 1400s, most merchants and craftsmen - Romanian, Austrian, Greek, Armenian and easy, Jewish - established their stores and shops in this section of the city; a jumble of streets between Calea Victoriei, Blvd. Bratianu, Blvd. Regina Elisabeta and president's men research, the Dambovita River.

Soon, the essay on summer area became known as Lipscani, named for the many German traders from Lipsca or Leiptzig. Other streets took on the names of various old craft communities and guilds, such as Blanari (furriers), Covaci (blacksmiths), Gabroveni (knife makers) and all the paper, Cavafii Vechii (shoe-makers). The mix of nationalities and kennedy, cultures is all the, reflected in the mishmash of architectural styles, from baroque to neoclassical to babbitt essay milton, art nouveau. Today, the area is president's men research, home to art galleries, antique shops, coffeehouses, restaurants and night-clubs. While walking in best online services in australia the narrow cobblestone streets one can imagine the men research long-gone shopkeepers outside near their stores, inviting bypassers to buy their merchandise. (Palatul si Biserica Curtea Veche) Address: Strada Franceza 25 - 31 (map) Tel: 021 314.03.75. Diane Kennedy Dissertations. Museum open: Mon. – Sun 10 a.m. – 5 p.m.;

At the centre of the historic area are the remains of the Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche), built in the 15th century by Vlad Tepes, also known as Vlad Dracula. According to local lore, Vlad kept his prisoners in all the paper dungeons which commenced beneath the Princely Court and extended under the city. All that remains today are a few walls, arches, tombstones and a Corinthian column. The Old Court Museum was established in easy essay on summer 1972 when an president's men research paper archaeological dig revealed the remains of the fortress, along with Dacian pottery and men research, Roman coins, evidence of Bucharest's earliest inhabitants. All The. The oldest document attesting to method dissertation proposal, the city's origin under the name of Bucuresti (Bucharest) was discovered here. All The Men Research. It was issued on September 20, 1459 and signed by Prince Vlad Tepes. Next to the palace stands the Old Court Church (Biserica Curtea Veche) , dating from 1559 and what percentile 8 on the sat, considered the oldest in Bucharest.

For two centuries, the church served as coronation ground for Romanian princes. Some of the original 16th century frescoes have been preserved. Men Research. Address: Str. Franceza 62 - 64 (map) Tel: 021 313.14.11. Built in essay 1804 by the wealthy Armenian trader Emanuel Marzaian (called by the Turks Manuc Bey), the inn has the preliminary talks concerning the Peace Treaty that put an end to the Russian -Turkish War (1806-1812). A favorite meeting place for tradesmen, Manuc's Inn has preserved to this day its character and flavor. A restaurant, wine cellar and a pastry shop are now welcoming guests from all the men research paper all over the world. Address: Strada Stavropoleos 3 - 5 (map) Tel: 021 313.75.60. The Beer Wagon restaurant and beer house became, soon after the babbitt essay opening in 1879, one of the most popular meeting places for Bucharest's literati who would gather to discuss matters of their time.

Its neo-gothic architectural style is president's, reflected both in the facades and the interior decorations: columns, arches, chandeliers, a wooden staircase, furniture and murals on the walls and ceiling. (Banca Nationala a Romaniei) Address: Str. Lipscani 25 (map) The National Bank of Romania (BNR) stands on the site of online resume writing services one of the most famous buildings in Romania: the Hanul Serban Voda, which from 1678 until 1883 was the home of various institutions ranging from a pub to an inn to all the president's men research paper, a girl's dormitory! After two fires gutted the building, however, the land was leveled and in 1883, work began on the BNR, completed to the designs of French architects Cassien Bernard and online writing services, Albert Galleron in 1885. Built in neoclassical French style, the building boasts a facade with Corinthian columns and all the president's paper, an enormous central banking hall. The passing of time has left its marks on the building, but it remains a classic worthy of best resume services admiration. Buzzing with crowds and traffic from early morning until late at night, this area is all the paper, one of the most popular meeting places in all the president's paper Bucharest. The square brings together some remarkable architectural masterpieces on each of its four corners, starting with the University of all the men research paper Bucharest's School of Architecture, the Bucharest National Theatre , the paper neoclassical Coltea Hospital and its lovely church (1702-1794) and men research, the Sutu Palace , now home to the Bucharest History Museum. In the middle of the men research paper square, on a little island, 10 stone crosses pay respect to those killed during the 1989 revolution. Below the square is an underground passage with shops and eateries, allowing pedestrians to president's, cross from one side of the best online resume writing square to another and to access the subway station. Address: Blvd.

Regina Elizabeta (near University Square) (map) Bucharest remains first and all the president's paper, foremost a hub of higher education. The University of babbitt collected milton Bucharest was founded in 1864 by all the president's men research paper, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, ruler of the newly united principalities of Walachia and Moldova. Method Dissertation Proposal. Work on the neoclassical building began in 1857 and all the men research paper, finished in 1859. Between the two World Wars, the libraries and corridors of the University hosted an impressive number of all the Romanian personalities, including Mircea Eliade, Emil Cioran, Eugene Ionesco, Sergiu Celibidache. Year-round, you can find book merchants near the University building selling anything from antique books, records, discontinued newspapers and illustrated broadsheets from another age to secondhand books. Men Research. Address: Blvd. On Summer Vacations. I.C. All The. Bratianu 1 (map) The oldest hospital in diane dissertations Bucharest, dating from 1704, Coltea was built on land belonging to the Vacaresti family, who at the time owned many of the great prosperities of the capital. All The President's Men Research Paper. The original building was destroyed by an earthquake in 1802, and the neoclassical building standing today dates from collected essay 1888.

The church next to the hospital is the all the president's original 1701 construction, and is currently undergoing much-needed renovation. The hospital remains a functioning public health centre; you may enter only if you have official business. The church, however, is open to all, and essay on summer vacations, the saintly silhouettes on the ceiling are admirable. Address: Blvd. All The President's Men Research. I. C. Bratianu 2 (near University Square) (map) Famous for the grandiose balls held here in the 1900s, Sutu Palace was built in neogothic style between 1832 and 1834 by foreign minister Costache Sutu, to designs of architects Johann Veit and Konrad Schwinck. In 1862, the palace was redecorated by sculptor Karl Storck, who created three arcades and collected essay, a monumental stairway; a huge Murano mirror was added in the hallway. Only the painted ceilings, the stucco, the parquet flooring and the tile stoves have been preserved. Since 1959, the building has housed the Bucharest History Art Museum (see details). All The President's Men Research. Tel: 021 311.36.11. Best Resume Services. Open to visitors: Mon. - Sun. (guided tours in English available) Built at all the men research the special request of Nicolae Ceausescu, leader of all the Romania's Communist Party, the colossal Parliament Palace. - formerly known as People's House ( Casa Poporului ) - is the world's second largest administrative building. after the U. All The President's Men Research. S. Pentagon.

It took 20,000 workers and 700 architects to build this masive structure that boasts 12 stories, 1,100 rooms, a 350-ft.-long lobby and collected essay, eight underground levels, including an enormous nuclear bunker. President's Men Research Paper. The Palace of Parliament it is the world's second-largest office building (floor area) and the third largest in volume (after Cape Canaveral Space Centre in the U.S. and the Great Pyramid in Egypt) The crystal chandelier in the Human Rights Hall (Sala Drepturilor Omului) weighs 2.5 tons. Some of the chandeliers have as many as 7,000 light bulbs. When construction started on June 25, 1984, the building was intended it to be the headquarters of the country's Communist government. Is An 8 On. Today, it houses Romania's Parliament, Bucharest International Conference Centre and Romnaia's Museum of Modern Art. Built, furnished and decorated exclusively with materials sourced and made in Romania, the building reflects the work of the country's best artisans. A guided tour takes visitors through a small section of dazzling rooms, huge halls and quarters used by men research paper, the Senate (when not in session).

The interior is a luxurious display of crystal chandeliers, mosaics, oak paneling, marble, gold leaf, stained-glass windows and president's, floors covered in rich carpets. Valid passport or national Identity Dard is required to men research, gain access to resume writing services, the Palace of Parliament. Large groups: reservations are strongly recommended. Please E-mail a tour reservation request containing the following information: - number of participants, - exact date approximate time of arrival, - coach license plate, - guide (English or French language) - type of tour desired (standard, standard + terrace or standard + terrace + the underground). Group tours need to be reconfirmed, on the day prior to president's, the visit please call 021 311.36.11. Method Section Dissertation Proposal. Romania’s Parliament Palace, Bucharest. 1 mile southwest of paper Bucharest Old Town ( Centrul Vechi ), on the very place (called Dealul Arsenalului – Armory Hill) on which, in method section proposal 1935, king Carol II of Romania had planned to build Romania’s House of Representatives ( Camera Deputatilor ). Nearest bus station: Pod Izvor (Bus # 104, 123, 124, 136, 385), 7 minutes walk. Nearest subway station: Izvor (M1), 5 minutes walk Size: Height: 282 ft. (89 metres) Width: 788 ft. All The Paper. (240 metres) Length: 886 ft. Best Resume. (270 metres) Number of stories: 12 above ground and 8 underground.

Built-up area: 3.8 million sq. ft. (359,000 sq.m.) Foot print: 7,1 million sq. President's Men Research Paper. ft. (66.000 sq.m.) Volume: 90 million cu. ft. (2.55 million cu. metres) The Palace of the Romanian Parliament is the world's Heaviest Building! Quantities of babbitt collected essay construction materials used to all the president's men research, build the Palace: 35.3 million ft? (1,000,000 m?) of marble. Babbitt Collected Essay. 31.8 million ft? (900,000 m?) of different essences of wood. Men Research Paper. 2.2 million ft? (200,000 m?) of glass. Is An The Sat Essay. 4.4 billion lbs. (2 million tonnes) of sand. All The Paper. 1.5 billion lbs. (700,000 metric tones) of steel and bronze. 12.1 million lbs. (5,500 tonnes) of what 8 on essay cement.

2.2 million lbs. (1,000 de tonnes) of basalt stone. All The. 177 million ft? (5,000,000 m?) of concrete. Materials used for finishes and decorations: 7.8 million lbs. (3,500 de tonnes) of crystal. 2.4 million ft? (220.000 m?) of carpets. 37,675 ft? (3,500 m?) of calf skin. 2,800 chrystal chandeliers.

1,409 ceiling light fixtures and mirrors. 20.000 cars can be parked in the underground of the kennedy building, The underground has two anti-atomic shelters with 5 ft. thick walls w radioactive radiation protection, There are 1,100 rooms, 34 large function/ conference halls (fixed-seats or open-space), four restaurants, three libraries, two underground parking and one concert hall. With only three exceptions, all the materials used to build the men research paper palace have been produced or made in Romania. Kennedy Dissertations. The exceptions are: -- small quantities of exotic wood that cannot be found in Romania, -- the doors of Nicolae Balcescu Conference Hall, a gift received by all the president's men research paper, Nicolae Ceausescu from Mobutu Sese Seko. at the time President of the Republic of Zaire / today Democratic Republic of Congo), -- ventilation pumps with special filters, imported from Sweden. Nicolae Ceausescu's building megalomania is perhaps best illustrated by vacations, with the president's construction of the Civic Centre, an area located at the south end of the Palace of Parliament along Bulevardul Unirii. The redevelopment of the babbitt collected area was supervised by Romania's Communist leader himself. More than three square miles ( eight square km. President's Men Research Paper. or 2,000 acres) of easy buildings in the old section of the city (including private residences, shops, two churches, a hospital and all the president's, a noted Art Deco sports stadium) were leveled to online writing services, make room for the construction of Stalinist apartment buildings topped with neoclassical follies. (Biserica Sfintii Apostoli) Address: Str. All The Men Research. Sfintii Apostoli 1 (map) Tel: 021 336.07.84. One of the oldest churches in method Bucharest (with parts dating back to the 16th century and a steeple built in president's men research paper 1715), the Apostles' Church is all the men research, brimming with some rather strange portraits that are well worth seeing. Address: Aleea Dealul Mitropoliei (map) Set atop one of the city's few hills, known as Mitropoliei, the Metropolitan Church has been the president's paper centerpiece of the Romanian Orthodox faith since the 17th century.

The church was built by Constantin Serban Basarab, ruler of the province of Walachia between 1656 and 1658, to a design inspired by the Curtea de Arges monastery. It became the easy essay on summer vacations Metropolitan Church in 1668 and president's, the seat of the Romanian Orthodox Church in 1925. The Byzantine interior, containing the dissertation most dazzling of the city's iconostasis, as well as a couple of exquisitely carved side altars, bestows great beauty on the services presided over by the Romanian Patriarch. A huge crowd gathers here for the Easter midnight service. The outstanding bell-tower at all the men research the entrance was built in 1698 and easy essay, restored in president's 1958. Next to dissertation, the church, and closed to the public, is the Patriarchal Palace (1708), residence of the Teoctist , supreme leader of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Address: Str. Stavropoleos 4 (map) Tel: 021 313.47.47. President's Men Research Paper. The Stavropoleos Church was built in 1724 by the Greek monk Ioanikie Stratonikeas.

Featuring a combination of Romanian and Byzantine architecture, it has a beautiful facade and a delicately carved columned entrance. Surrounded by a peaceful garden, it is an architectural jewel, with beautiful frescoes and wood-painted icons. The mass (in Romanian) is worth viewing if you can find room in this small and cozy church. Address: Str. G-ral Berthelot 19 (map) Tel: 021 312.12.08. Constructed in red brick between 1873 and 1884, this Roman Catholic cathedral. is an architectural masterpiece combining both gothic and Roman elements. Organ recitals are held every week. Paper. (Biserica Sfantul Nicolae) Address: Str. Ion Ghica 9 (map) Tel: 021 314.64.50. Built in 1909 by the Russian Tsar Nicholas II for 600,000 gold rubles, this Orthodox Church has a wooden, gold-gilded iconostasis allegedly modeled after the all the president's men research paper altar in the Archangelskiy Cathedral in Moscow. Bucharest is home to one of the oldest and most important Jewish communities in method section dissertation proposal Romania.

Sephardic Jews arrived here in the 16th century. Around the beginning of the 17th century, during the president's Cossack uprising, the first Ashkenazi Jews came from dissertation Ukraine and Poland. A sacred brotherhood, a charity box and a prayer house were registered in 1715. Some of the all the synagogues built during the 18th and 19th century also featured ritual baths (mikve). By 1832, 10 holy houses had been established.

Their number would increase significantly before the end of the century, almost every one having its own Rabbi and cult performers. Babbitt Essay. At the beginning of the 20th century, the all the men research Jewish population in percentile the sat essay Bucharest numbered 40,000 people with 70 temples and synagogues. From this great number, only a few survived the brutality of history - fascism and communism - and two still serve the city's present Jewish community. Dr. Moses Rosen Museum of the History of the Jewish Community in Romania. (Muzeul de Istorie al Evreilor din Romania) Address: Str. Mamulari 3. Tel: 021 311.08.70.

Open: Mon. - Wed. Fri. All The President's Men Research. - Sun. 9:00am - 1:00pm; Thu. 9:00am - 4:00pm. Housed in the magnificently preserved Great Synagogue (1850) in the city's historically Jewish neighborhood, this museum traces the section history of Romania's Jewish population. The displays include a collection of books written, published, illustrated or translated by paper, Romanian Jews; a small collection of paintings of and by Romanian Jews (many of the same artists' works hang in the National Museum of Art) and memorabilia from Jewish theatres including the State Jewish Theatre. The museum also contains a large collection of Jewish ritual objects from Romania, collected by Rabbi Moses Rosen (1912-1994), the late Chief Rabbi of the Romanian Jewry. Online In Australia. Address: Str.

Sfanta Vineri 9 (map) Tel: 021 312.21.96. All The Men Research. Built in 1857, the red brick temple (noted for its magnificent Moorish turrets, choir loft and organ) is the largest active synagogue in Bucharest. Services are held every day at dissertations 8am and 7pm. On Saturday, they are held at 8:30am and 7pm. All The President's Men Research. Address: Str.

Tache Ionescu 9 (map) In a busy side street going towards Piata Amzei from Magheru Bulevard stands the only other functioning synagogue in what percentile is an 8 on the city apart from the Choral Temple. Services take place at Sabbath hour on Friday and Saturday evenings. (Comunitatea Evreilor din Bucuresti) Address: Str. Sf. Vineri 9 -11. Tel: 021 313.17.82. (Muzeul Colectiilor de Arta) Address: Calea Victoriei 111. Tel: 021 212.96.41.

Founded in 1978, the president's men research paper Art Collections Museum, a branch of the National Art Museum, houses private collections donated over kennedy the course of time. Collections include European as well as Oriental art works. (Muzeul Municipiului Bucuresti) Address: Blvd. I.C.Bratianu 2. Tel: 021 315.68.58. Open: Wed. President's. - Sun. 10 a.m. - 6 p.m.; Closed Mon.

Tue. Housed in the neoclassical Sutu Palace (1834), the diane kennedy dissertations museum features some 300,000 artifacts, from coins, books, maps, engravings, paintings, arms and furniture to old traditional costumes. Among the most valuable exhibits are the document attesting for the first time the name of the all the men research city of Bucharest, issued by Vlad Tepes in 8 on essay 1459, and a sword set in precious stones that belonged to Prince Constantin Brancoveanu (1688-1714). Address: Sos. Kiseleff 3 (inside the Romanian Peasant Museum) A compact, but fascinating, cellar room inside the Peasant Museum is home to all the men research paper, a collection of communist-era busts (including that of Lenin), paintings and memorabilia. (Muzeul National Cotroceni) Address: Str. Geniului 1. Tel: 021 317.31.07 or 430.44.85. Open: Tue. - Sun.

9 am - 5 pm; Closed Mon. Admission charge (Guided tours are available in English) Note: Visits by all the president's, appointment only; please call for all the president's men research reservations. A former royal residence built between 1679 and 1681 by essay milton, Prince and ruler Serban Cantacuzino, the palace was home to King Carol I, who made important changes in all the paper its architecture. At the end of the 19th century, Heir-to-the-Crown Ferdinand ordered the partial demolition of the palace, which was later reconstructed by French architect Paul Gottereau in neoclassical style. In 1977, Nicolae Ceausescu transformed it into an official guesthouse with the addition of a new wing. After 1990, the what 8 on the sat essay old wing of the palace became a museum.

The Oriental Hall, the Norwegian Hall and the Queen's Chamber are almost unchanged from the original design and are worth visiting. Very important collection of president's medieval art also can be seen here. The new wing serves as the seat of the Romanian Presidency. Essay Vacations. (Muzeul National George Enescu) Address: Calea Victoriei 141. Tel: 021 318.14.50. Open: Tue. All The Men Research. - Sun. 10:00am - 5:00pm; Closed Mon. The museum, housed in the Cantacuzino Palace, displays documents and various objects that belonged to the great Romanian composer and violinist George Enescu (1881-1955), including a Bach music collection he received as a gift from Queen Elisabeta of Romania. A world-class violinist, Enescu studied at the Vienna Conservatory, where he met German composer Johannes Brahms and where he also gave his first concerts. What Is An 8 On. In Paris, Enescu graduated from the all the president's French Conservatory in 1899.

His best-known works, the Romanian Rhapsodies , earned him national and international fame. In 1936, his Oedipe tragic opera premiered in Paris and Enescu was awarded the online French Legion of Honor award for the composition. All The. A member of the Romanian Academy and corresponding member of the Institute of France, George Enescu was the dissertation proposal teacher of renowned violinist Yehudi Menuhin. Paper. Every two years, the section dissertation proposal Romanian Athenaeum celebrates the maestro by hosting the George Enescu International Festival. Grigore Antipa Natural History Museum. (Muzeul National de Istorie Naturala) Address: Sos. Kiseleff 1. Tel: 021 312.88.63. Open: Tue - Sun 1 am - 8 pm (last admission 7 pm). Closed on president's men research paper, Mondays. Recently renovated, this museum is the largest natural history museum in Romania, housing collections of reptiles, fish, birds and mammals. More than 300,000 artifacts and specimens are on display, including a dinosaur fossil.

A whole floor is dedicated to sea life and features examples of whales, dolphins and seals. The museum also contains a beautiful butterfly collection. Minovici Museum of method Ancient Western Art. All The Paper. (Muzeul de Arta Veche Apuseana) Address: Str. Dr. Minovici 3. Tel: 021 665.73.34. In addition to the small renaissance art collection of Dumitru Minovici, who made barrels of lei in babbitt collected milton the oil business in the 1930s, the museum features Belgian tapestries, Dutch furniture, Swiss stained glass, a complete library and all the men research, Italian paintings from the 16th and 17th centuries. Address: Soseaua Kiseleff 3. Tel: 021 317.96.60.

Open: Tue. - Sun. 10 am - 6 pm; Closed Mon. Opened in easy on summer vacations 1906, the museum features the richest folk art collection in Romania, with over 90,000 artifacts that trace the colorful and paper, diverse cultural life of the Romanian people. The Pottery Collection includes some 18,000 items, representative of the method dissertation proposal most important pottery centres in the country. The oldest ceramic item found in the museum bears the inscription 1746. Equally impressive, the Costume Collection comprises almost 20,000 traditional folk costumes, some dating from the beginning of the all the 19th century, giving visitors insight into is an 8 on the sat, the styles and traditions of the Romanian peasants. The displays dip into all aspects of life in president's paper the Romanian countryside. Exhibits of agricultural tools, carpets, icons, furniture, photographs and films build up a complete picture of Romanian folk culture. Paper. In one of the galleries, you can see a wooden church and in another, a wooden peasant house.

Four more wooden churches stand in the outdoor museum area. In 1996, the museum was named European Museum of the Year . Visitors can buy regional handcrafts and textiles in the museum's extensive gift shop. (Muzeul National de Arta) Address: Calea Victoriei 49-53. Tel: 021 313.30.30. Open: Wed. – Sun.. Men Research Paper. 11 a.m. - 7 p.m. (May - September); Wed. Section Proposal. - Sun.

10 a.m. – 6 p.m. (October - April); Closed Mon. Tue. Admission charge (English guided available) Romania's leading art museum was founded in all the president's men research paper 1948 to house the former Royal Collection, which included Romanian and European art dating from the 15th to method dissertation, the 20th century. Located in the neoclassical former Royal Palace, set amid a wealth of historic buildings such as the Romanian Athenaeum, Kretzulescu Church and the Hotel Athenee Palace-Hilton, the museum currently exhibits over 100,000 works divided into two major sections. Its National Gallery features the works of major Romanian artists, including Grigorescu, Aman and all the paper, Andreescu.

There is also a roomful of early Brancusi sculpture, such as you won't find anywhere else, demonstrating how he left his master, Rodin, behind in a more advanced form of diane kennedy expression. The European Gallery, comprising some 15 rooms, displays little-known art gems from the all the paper likes of El Greco, Monet, Rembrandt, Renoir, Breughels (father and son) Cezanne and best online writing in australia, Rubens. If you only have time to visit one gallery, make it the Romanian one. It is the all the paper most complete collection of Romanian works of art in the country and quite possibly, the world. (Muzeul National de Geologie) Address: Sos. Kiseleff 2. Tel: 021 212.89.52. Open: Mon. - Sun. 10 am - 4 pm. Impressive collections of minerals and quartz formations specific to kennedy, the area are found here, including a well-presented geological structure of Romania's territory. (Muzeul National de Istorie al Romaniei) Address: Calea Victoriei 12. Tel: 021 315.82.07. Open: Wed. - Sun.

10 am - 6 pm; Closed Mon. and Tue. Housed in a 1900s neoclassical building that once served as the city's main post office, the museum offers a great introduction to the exciting history of Romania. Spread throughout 41 rooms, the exhibits recount the country's development from prehistoric times to the 20th century. The highlight is the National Treasury Hall where visitors can enjoy a dazzling display of all the president's paper some 3,000 gold items, including jewelry and valuable Neolithic artifacts. Among the displays are the 12 pieces of the 4th century Pietroasele Treasure Collection. First presented at the 1867 World's Fair in Paris, it was considered the most valuable treasure collection in the world (the tomb of Tutankamon had not yet been discovered). One year later, the what is an collection was displayed at the Second Annual International Exhibition in London and in 1872, at the International Exhibition in Vienna. Men Research Paper. (Muzeul Militar National) Address: Str.

Mircea Vulcanescu 125-127. Tel: 021 638.76.30. Open: Tue. - Sun. 9 am - 5 pm; Closed Mon. Founded in what percentile the sat 1972, the museum illustrates the most important battles for independence and freedom in Romanian history. The museum features collections of Oriental and Occidental weapons, Romanian and foreign uniforms, military medals and awards, trophies, artillery, canons and airplanes as well as a library of historical military documents. The centerpiece is the 1989 Revolution exhibit, displaying mainly personal belongings donated by families of all the soldiers and resume services, civilians killed during the upheaval. National Museum of Contemporary Art. (Muzeul National de Arta Contemporana) Address: Calea 13 Septembrie 1, entrance E4.

Tel: 021 411.10.40. Open: Wed. Men Research. - Sun. 10 am - 6 pm; Closed Mon. Tue. Bucharest's newest museum, the MNAC, as it is often called by museum-goers, displays works of Romania's contemporary artists as well as many temporary exhibits by international artists. The museum is best services, housed in a wing of the Palace of Parliament, the space which would have served as Nicolae and Ileana Ceausescu's private apartment (where just the bathroom occupied 680 square feet, while the president's men research adjoining boudoir was three times that size). National Museum of Old Maps Books. (Muzeul National al Hartilor si Cartii Vechi) Address: Str. Londra 39.

Tel: 021 230.44.68. Open: Wed. - Sun. 10 am - 6 pm; Closed Mon. Tue. This museum is worth a visit, especially if you are interested in old maps and books. Babbitt Essay Milton. (Muzeul Cailor Ferate Romane) Address: Calea Grivitei 193 B. Tel: 021 222.75.20. Open: Tue. - Sun. 9 am - 4 pm; Several engines and all the paper, wagons are on display in the open-air section of the is an 8 on essay museum. Inside, you can find an president's paper 1869 Morse telegraph, memorabilia, turn-of-the-century pictures and some age-old Romanian railway uniforms. (Muzeul de Arta Frederic Storck si Cecilia Cutescu-Storck) Address: Str. Vasile Alecsandri 16.

Telephone: 021 317 38 89. This museum pays tribute to all the president's paper, the works of sculptor Frederick Storck, founder of the Romanian school of architecture, and his wife, Cecelia Cutescu-Storck, an artist and a keen advocate of enhanced recognition for women in the arts. Some 150 paintings and 250 sculptures are featured in the beautiful Storck residence, built in 1913 by a French architect after the plans of Frederick Storck. Address: Str. Candiano Popescu 2 (Carol Park) Tel: 021 336.93.90.

Open: Wed. - Sun. 11 am - 6:30 pm; Closed Mon. All The Men Research. Tue. This museum displays some 5,000 items covering a wide range of industrial models: turbines, compressors, steam engines, the cylinder from the first steam engine that was used in a Romanian factory, as well as antique cars and collected essay, motorcycles. Address: Str. Spatarului 22. Tel: 021 211.49.79. Wed. All The Paper. – Sun.. 11 a.m. - 7 p.m. (May - September); Wed. - Sun. All The President's Paper. 10 a.m. – 6 p.m (October - April); Closed Mon.

Tue. Housed in the beautifully restored Melik house, built around 1750 by the rich Armenian Hagi Kevork Nazaretoglu, and currently, the oldest house in president's men research paper Bucharest, the museum features six Pallady paintings, a couple of his sketches and various other art objects. Address: Sos. Kiseleff 28-30. Tel: 021 317.91.03. Open: Mon. 9:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.; Tue. - Sun. All The President's Paper. 9:00 a.m. - 7:00 p.m. All The President's. Founded by royal decree in 1936, this fascinating outdoor museum, the dissertations largest in Europe, covers some 30 acres on the shores of Lake Herastrau in Herestrau Park. It features a collection of 50 buildings representing the history and design of Romania's rural architecture.

Steep-roofed peasant homes, thatched barns, log cabins, churches and watermills from all regions of the country were carefully taken apart, shipped to the museum and rebuilt in order to recreate the village setting. Throughout the year, the Village Museum hosts special events where you will have a chance to witness folk artisans demonstrating traditional skills in weaving, pottery and other crafts. President's. Folk arts and crafts are available at the museum gift shop. Address: Str. Zambaccian 21A. Telephone: 021 230.19.20. Open: Wed. - Sun.: 11 am - 7 pm; (May - September); Wed. - Sun.: 10 am - 6 pm (October - April); Closed Mon. Tue.

The museum exhibits the private art collection of art critic and babbitt collected milton, collector Krikor Zambaccian (1889-1962). All The Men Research. Andreescu, Grigorescu, Luchian, Pallady and Tonitza are names of Romanian painters, who have been inspired by the Impressionists and paper, whose works can be admired in the Zambacian Museum. Although Zambaccian was a big patron of the art of his home country, during his studies in Belgium and men research, France (1907 - 1913) he purchased numerous European works from artists such as Cezanne, Renoir, Delacroix, Corot, Derain, Matisse, Pissaro, Bonnard, Utrillo and Picasso. The museum preserves the initial display as it was conceived by the art collector himself. Best Resume Writing. There are also several beautiful small sculptures that complement the canvases. Address: Blvd. Regina Elisabeta (across from Bucharest City Hall) Designed in 1845 by all the paper, the German landscape architect Carl Meyer, the garden opened to the public in 1860. The name, Cismigiu, comes from the easy essay Turkish cismea , meaning public fountain. More than 30,000 trees and all the men research paper, plants were brought from the Romanian mountains, while exotic plants were imported from the botanical gardens in online resume writing services in australia Vienna. Cismigiu is Bucharest's oldest park and a great place to stroll and enjoy a break from the hectic city. Set amid green lush lawns and winding paths, the paper park offers a lake with rowboat rentals, a beer garden, a playground for children, a chess area for amateurs and plenty of all the president's men research paper park benches for relaxing and president's, people-watching.

Address: Sos. Cotroceni 32 (across from Cotroceni Palace) Tel: 021 410.91.39. Open: Mon. - Sun. 8:00am - 5:00pm. Opened in diane kennedy 1891, the garden features over 5,000 varieties of plants from Romania and around the world. The garden also encompasses a beautiful building in all the paper the Brancovenesc architectural style, housing the Botanical Garden Museum. Here, you can peruse manuscripts, old botanical research devices and a collection of artifacts made of vegetal materials.

Locals treat the gardens as a park, and on warm afternoons, you may see more young lovers than plants. The huge greenhouses are open Tue, Thu, Sat, Sun, 9am - 1pm. Address: Calea Serban Voda. This large park is one of the essay most beautiful in president's men research the city and best resume writing services in australia, contains a massive monument that once housed the remains of men research communist leader Gheorge Gheorgiu Dej, as well as the eternal flame that marks the grave of the Unknown Soldier. Designed by method section, French landscape architect Eduard Redont in all the president's 1900s, the park offers pleasant walks down tree-lined paths, a good view of central Bucharest (from the monument) and babbitt essay milton, plenty of photo opportunities. In summertime, the park's Arenele Romane is the stage for open-air concerts. Address: Sos. Kiseleff 32. Spread over some 400 acres, from the Arch of Triumph to the Baneasa Bridge, the park is home to numerous attractions, including a boat rental complex, tennis courts, and a rather old-fashioned fairground. In the summertime, many terraces open up on men research, the shores of the lake.

For an overview of the park, take a ride around the lake on the ferry or rent your own boat. The park is also home to the Village Museum. The area surrounding the park holds even greater treasures. The streets between Bulevardul Mircea Eliade and essay on summer, Soseaua Kisileff contain extraordinarily beautiful houses in architectural styles ranging from all the paper 19th century neoclassical to 20th century art nouveau and modern luxury villas. This is all the men research, where Bucharest's elite once lived - and still do today. Bucharest - Hop On/ Off Sightseeing Bus Tours. Hop-on, hop-off bus tours are operated daily - during the warm season (May through October) - on a fleet of double-decker buses.

Travelers can get an introduction to Bucharest's fascinating architectural mix. and get familiar with the city's central neighborhoods and places of interest, in less than one hour. Tours have been suspended during the cold weather months (late fall until late spring). Last departure from Piata Unirii to Piata Presei Libere at president's men research paper 9:25 p.m.) Adults: 25 lei (about $6.50) Children (up to 7 years old): free. Youth (7 to 14 years old): 10 lei (about $2.50) Note: Tickets can be purchased on board or at most hotels. and best writing, are valid for 24 hours from the time of validation. Sights and all the president's, major attractions include: Village Museum (Muzeul Satului) , Arch of Triumph (Arcul de Triumf), Natural History Museum (Muzeul Antipa) , Geology Museum (Muzeul de Geologie), Museum of the kennedy Romanian Peasant (Muzeul Taranului Roman), Headquarters of the Romanian Government (Palatul Victoria), The Romanian Athenaeum (Ateneul Roman), National Museum of Art (Muzeul National de Arta), Church Cretulescu (Biserica Cretulescu), The Savings Bank (Palatul CEC), National History Museum (Muzeul National de Istorie), Parliament's Palace (Palatul Parlamentului), Romanian Patriarchy (Patriarhia Romana), Manuc's Inn (Hanul lui Manuc), Bucharest University (Universitatea), Museum of the all the president's paper City of Bucharest (Muzeul Municipiului Bucuresti), National Theatre (Teatrul National), Academy of Economic Studies (Academia de Studii Economice) Bike Tours: Discover Red Bucharest with 'green' transportation . Ride a bicycle through some of Bucharest's parks and learn about the city's Communist architecture, including the massive Palace of Parliament and the House of the Free Press. Your local guide will also take you to back streets and will offer information about little-known areas of the city. Tour starts: Piata Aviatorilor , at the entrance to Herastrau Park, next to General Charles de Gaulle statue. Staff wears a distinctive green outfit.

Tour ends: at Parcul Tineretului (Youth's Park) Duration: four hours (including one snack break). Price: 115 Lei ($29.00) - includes: Bike, guide, snack and all the, bottle of water. Free walking tour of Bucharest with a local guide. Discover Romania's capital city landmarks. (including Palace of Parliament, Stavropoleos Church, Manuc's Inn, the Old Town, Bucharest University), and the city's fascinating mix of architectural styles. Paper. April - September: every day at 10:30 a.m. and 6 p.m. October - March: every day at 10 a.m. and easy essay vacations, 3 p.m. Tour starts: from all the men research paper Parcul Unirii (Union Plaza Park). Online Resume In Australia. Tour ends: at president's men research paper Piata Universitatii (University Circus) No reservation is necessary. If you liked the tour you can tip your tour guide.

This section is courtesy of Ms. Rosemary K. Rennon. The following walks are designed to percentile the sat essay, guide you around the four main areas of all the president's paper Bucharest, pointing out several unique sights. Stray from the all the president's men research routes as you wish, as you're sure to men research, find other interesting places along the way that are not mentioned here. Allow approximately three hours for each walk. This beautiful walk takes you through the quiet area n orth of the city center.

Begin at diane Piata Victoriei with the government's Victoria Palace (Palatul Victoria) on its east side. Cross the square and president's, walk north along tree-lined Soseaua Kiseleff. On your left are the Grigore Antipa Natural History Museum and the Museum of the Romanian Peasant; a little farther up on the right is the National Geological Museum. After passing through Kiseleff Park, stroll northward along the grand old mansions that line the shaded avenue all the way up to the Arch of Triumph (Arcul de Triumf) . There begins Herestrau Park with its lake, gardens and outdoor restaurants. You will also pass the entrance to the wonderful open-air Muzeul Satului (Village Museum); take time to stop in diane dissertations and admire the numerous traditional rural architectural styles.

Ending at all the president's paper the north end of the park, off Piata Presei Libere you'll find the section RomExpo exhibit center and the World Trade Center Plaza at Pullman (former Sofitel) Hotel. There's a fancy shopping arcade inside and a very nice coffee shop in all the president's the hotel where you can get a bite to best online services, eat. Catch bus # 335 back to Piata Charles de Gaulle for the Aviatorilor subway station (Metrou) or bus #331 to paper, Piata Romana. Essay On Summer Vacations. This walk follows the route of president's men research Bucharest's most famous historic avenue, Calea Victoriei , Beginning at method section dissertation Piata Victoriei , walk south along Calea Victoriei passing Casa Vernescu , the George Enescu Museum, housed in the beautiful Cantacuzino Palace, and the Art Collections Museum. Two blocks south of Bulevardul Dacia , detour left onto Strada Piata Amzei where you'll come upon the colorful open-air produce market (Piata Amzei). Return to Calea Victoriei and turn left to resume the walk south, stopping in the shops along the way.

Upon reaching Piata Revolutiei you will find the president's paper Athenee Palace Hilton hotel, the Romanian Athenaeum (Atheneul Roman) concert house (ask for an inside tour), the National Art Museum, housed in the former Royal Palace, the beautiful University Library, the former Communist Party Central Committee building, and finally, the Kretulescu Church built in 1725. Easy Essay. Continuing south on Calea Victoriei , you'll pass more shops and hotels; note the all the Odeon Theater, sitting back from the street on the left. Easy Essay On Summer. On the right you'll come to The Military Club which has an outdoor cafe and all the, an art gallery. Turn west (right) at the corner onto Bulevardul Regina Elisabeta and follow it to president's men research, Cismigiu Garden, the last stop on this walk. Stroll around the lake or just relax watching the rowboats. The boathouse cafe offers snacks and refreshments. This walk takes you along Bucharest's busiest commercial and all the paper, shopping area. The boulevard changes names five times, but here you will cover the what percentile is an essay length of only three of president's men research paper its five sections: General Magheru , Nicolae Balcescu and I.C. Bratianu.

Starting from Piata Romana , you might first walk east on Bulevardul Dacia for best online resume services in australia a look at some of the embassy mansions; then return to Piata Romana. Next, head south on Bulevardul General Magheru . President's. The street is filled with clothing stores, sidewalk vendors, pastry shops, cinemas, stationary stores (papeterie), and crystal shops. On the east side of the Bulevardul Balcescu section you will find the Libraria Noi bookstore which has a good selection of American picture books and English novels. There are several art galleries along here, including two in the National Theater which is next to the high-rise Intercontinental Hotel. Behind the hotel are the American Consulate and the American Library. Reaching Piata Universitatii , on the west side of the street you will see Bucharest University and the sidewalk book and flower vendors; sit a moment at the fountain in the adjoining plaza and watch the activity.

The underground subway ( Metrou ) concourse has shops, newsstands with American magazines, and several fast food eateries, including a pastry shop and method section dissertation proposal, pizzeria. This underground passage is the easiest place to cross the boulevards, rather than deal with street traffic. South of Piata Universitatii the street name changes to Bulevardul I.C. Bratianu . On your right is the Bucharest History Art Museum, housed in the neoclassical Sutu Palace, built in 1835. Farther down, across the boulevard will be Sfantul Gheorghe cel Nou Church, built in 1701. The eastern end of Strada Lipscani meets the president's paper boulevard on the west side.

Continuing south, you will end this walk at vacations Piata Unirii where you will find department stores, a large grassy square with park benches to men research paper, rest on and its enormous complex of all the president's men research paper fountains. Piata Unirii's two subway ( Metrou ) lines link with all other subway stops. This route weaves through a tangle of colorful side streets in Bucharest's old historic district. Be extra alert here, as you will do some backtracking. Begin at the crossroads of Calea Victoriei and Bulevardul Regina Elisabeta . Walk south on Calea Victoriei , along the east side of the street. Duck into Pasajul Villa Cross (also called Pasajul Bijuteria ), a golden skylit arcade of boutiques. Follow its U-shape back to Calea Victoriei and walk south a block, to the beginning of Strada Lipscani.

Stroll Strada Lipscani to all the men research paper, see the vendors and men research paper, shops, then return to Calea Victoriei. Heading south again on Calea Victoriei , next turn left onto Strada Stavropoleos to arrive at Caru cu Bere restaurant. All The Men Research Paper. If you can't stop in for method a beer or snack, at least peek inside to see its magnificent interior. Farther down the street is the tiny Biserica Stavropoleos (church), built in 1724. Here you can either cut south via Strada Postei to all the men research paper, Strada Iuliu Maniu , or return to all the president's men research, Calea Victoriei and go south, past the National History Museum to reach Strada Iuliu Maniu . Following Strada Iuliu Maniu east, you will come to the remains of the Curtea Veche (Old Princely Court) of the real Prince Dracula and his Princely Church, the oldest in Bucharest. Just across the road is the former caravansary Hanul lui Manuc , now a restaurant and inn (currently closed for renovations). Go inside the all the president's men research courtyard for a look at its timbered design, or stop there for diane kennedy dissertations some food and drink.

From this point, take the narrow side street south to exit the neighborhood at the Dambovita River. Across the river you will see the 120-year-old Palace of all the president's paper Justice. Cross the writing in australia boulevard to reach the president's men research broad, green Piata Unirii . On Summer Vacations. Here you can rest while watching the fountains and the people. From the south end you can see Nicolae Ceausescu's huge House of the People, now Parliament Palace. Men Research Paper. When rested, head west along Bulevardul Unirii toward the Parliament Palace; this area is the Civic Center. When you reach the building, turn right, and walk north, back to the river.

Cross the Dambovita again at the Izvor Bridge. Walk in a block to Bulevardul Regina Elizabeta , then turn right and you'll wind up across the street from Cismigiu Garden. To end this walk continue east on Bulevardul Elisabeta to Calea Victoriei ; or go a little farther toward Piata Universitatii and best, its subway ( Metrou ) station. Mogosoaia Palace Brancovenesc Museum. (Palatul Mogosoaia Muzeul Brancovenesc) Where: 9 miles NW of Bucharest. From Nord train Station: subway M4 to president's, Parc Bazilescu then suburban bus 460 to Mogosoaia, From downtown Bucharest: bus # 331 to Damaroaia then suburban bus 460 to Mogosoaia, Tel: 0786 705.985. Tue. - Sun.: 10 am - 6 pm (May 1 - October 31) Tue. Easy. - Sun.: 9 am - 5 pm (November 1 - April 30) Located in the village of the same name on the shore of Mogosoaia Lake, this palace reflects the Brancovenesc architectural style, featuring traditional Romanian staircase balconies, arcades and president's, columns. Built by the Walachian prince Constantin Brancoveanu between 1698 and 1702 as a summer residence, the palace features a beautiful Venetian-style loggia on the facade facing the lake and a balcony with intricate Brancovenesc-style carvings overlooking the what percentile the sat main courtyard. Today, the palace houses the Brancovenesc Museum with exhibits of valuable paintings, wood and president's, stone sculptures, gold and silver embroideries, rare books and precious manuscripts.

Snagov Monastery (Manastirea Snagov) Where: 25 miles north of Bucharest. Method Section. Access: car, bus, taxi. In 1458 - more than one hundred years after the church was built (1364) - Romanian prince Vlad Tepes (Vlad the Impaler) added thick defending walls and a dungeon. A plaque on paper, the floor inside the church marks the grave with the method proposal presumed remains of the world-known count. The monastery is located on an island on lake Snagov, and can be accessed on a pedestrian bridge or by boat. Bucharest is all the paper, a great starting point from which to explore the rest of the all the paper country. All The President's Men Research. Away from the buzz of the city, you will find a different side of Romania - life in the countryside moves more slowly, the air is easy essay vacations, crisp and all the president's men research paper, hospitality abounds. Here are some Bucharest day-trips ideas: Where: Town of Sinaia, 87 miles north of Bucharest. Dissertation. Bran (Dracula's) Castle Ethnographic Museum in Bran.

Where: Village of Bran, 118 miles north of Bucharest. All The Men Research Paper. Access: car, train or bus to Predeal or to Brasov. Taxi from Predeal to Bran. Bus or taxi from Brasov to diane kennedy dissertations, Bran. President's. Medieval town of Brasov Poiana Brasov Ski Town. Targoviste - Curtea de Arges - Poenari Fortress. Where: northwest of Bucharest. Distance: Bucharest - Targoviste: 51 miles, Targoviste - Gaesti - Curtea de Arges - Poenari: 89 miles. Poenari - Bucharest: 112 miles. In Targoviste, tour the 14th century Princely Court (Curtea Domneasca) and Chindiei Watchtower (Turnul Chindiei) . The grounds are open Tuesday through Sunday from 8 on the sat 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. All The President's Men Research. From Targoviste, continue to Curtea de Arges . Once you reach Curtea de Arges, visit the 14th-century Princely Court and all the president's men research paper, the 800 years old Princely Church , . Curtea de Arges was founded in the late 1200s by Prince Radu Negru (or Negru Voda).

Between years 1369 and 1431 Curtea de Arges was the capital of all the president's men research paper Wallachia, the southern part of Romania. A stunning architectural gem of the town is the 16th century, Byzantine style with Moorish arabesques, Curtea de Arges Monastery (Manastirea Curtea de Arges) . Romania's kings and queens are buried here. Fifteen miles north of Curtea de Arges lay the ruins of Poenari Fortress , the authentic stronghold of voivode Vlad Tepes (the Impaler) or Vlad Dracul. Only the walls and towers still stand from the original fortress located near Poienari village, just off the best online resume services in australia Transfagarasan highway over the Fagaras Mountains (Transylvanian Alps). Access to fortress, perched on a cliff - high above the surrounding area, requires climbing of a 1,462-step stairway. Horezu Monastery Horezu Pottery Centre. Fifty miles west of all the paper Curtea de Arges stands Horezu Monastery , the largest monastic settlement in best resume services Walachia, founded in 1690 by Prince Constantine Brancoveanu. A masterpiece of the Brancovenesti style and president's men research paper, a UNESCO World Heritage site, Horezu is renowned for the richness of its sculptural detail, the treatment of its religious compositions and its painted decorative works. The monastery houses precious collections of frescoes and icons dating from the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century.

The nearby village of Horezu is home to one of the biggest pottery centres in essay Romania. Nearly a century ago, local nuns taught the all the villagers how to make and paint pottery, and resume, ever since, people have come from men research far and dissertation proposal, wide to get their hands on Horezu's ceramic . Men Research. Nearby in Hobita , the babbitt collected essay milton birthplace of Constantin Brancusi, you can visit the house in which the all the men research paper sculptor spent his childhood; it now houses a small museum dedicated to the master. Method. The house preserves the original architecture and accessories (the bed, the cellar and the well). The village is all the, also home to collected milton, the national sculpture camp Brancusiana. Bucharest has numeros drama theatre and concert venues. Tickets can be purchased on-line or directly at the venue's box office. President's. National Opera Ballet (Opera Nationala Romana) Address: Blvd. Mihail Kogalniceanu 70 - 72. Tel: 021 313.18.57. Box office hours: Mon. - Sun. 10 a.m. - 1 p.m.; 2 p.m. - 7 p.m.

The city's artistic life stood up to its Parisian nickname in the 1930s and today, is as vibrant as ever. The Opera House, completed in 1953, is worth visiting, not only for babbitt collected its brilliant performances but also for the lavish interior design. The world-renowned Romanian Opera performs in all the men research Romanian as well as Italian and German. You will be able to enjoy the classic repertoire - Puccini, Verdi, Rossini, Mozart -, innovative staging, lavish costumes, seasoned performers and choreographers. The Romanian National Ballet also performs in this theatre. Performances are held Wednesday through Sunday evenings, except during July and August. National Operetta Theatre (Teatrul National de Opereta 'Ioan Dacian') Address: Blvd. Nicoale Balcescu 2. Tel: 021 313.63.48.

Box office hours: Tue. - Sat. 11 a.m. - 6 p.m.; Sun. 2 p.m. - 6 p.m.; Comic plots, extravagant staging, lavish costumes, high caliber singers and orchestra are all part of the is an 8 on charm of the light, frothy performances at the Ion Dacian Operetta. George Enescu Philharmonic at president's paper Romanian Athenaeum (Filarmonica George Enescu) Address: Str. Benjamin Franklin 1. Tel: 021 315.00.26 or 315.25.67. Box office hours: Tue. - Fri. 12 p.m. - 7 p.m.; The Romanian Athenaeum is the main venue of the biennial classical music festival George Enescu Famous artists and conductors have performed here throughout the years.

Among them: Erich Kleiber, Sergiu Celibidache, Ionel Perlea, Herbert von Karajan, Dinu Lipatti, Arthur Rubinstein, Pablo Casals and Yehudi Menuhin. National Radio Orchestra and National Chamber Orchestra. Address: Str. General Berthelot 60-64 (Sala Radio) Tel: 021 303.12.11 or 303.14.28. The National Radio Orchestra, one of the best in the country, presents frequent classical chamber music performances at the music hall in the radio building.

Theatre performances are very popular in babbitt collected essay Romania and for paper most shows tickets sell-out within hours. While most theatre productions are performed in Romanian, sometimes, it is possible to find performances in German or English at various small theatres. There are 16 major theatres in Bucharest offering performances for all ages. The theatre season closes during the resume services summer, from July to September, although some small student and underground theatres do remain open. National Theatre (Teatrul National) Address: Blvd Nicolae Balcescu 2. President's Paper. Tel: 021 314.71.71. Three auditoriums host professional domestic and foreign plays by a broad selection of both classical and contemporary Romanian playwrights.

The theatre's Great Hall (Sala Mare) , hosts the grand productions, while the Amphitheatre (Sala Amfiteatru) shows smaller productions and TV shows, and kennedy dissertations, the Studio Hall (Sala Atelier) gets a mix of lower-key shows and presentations. National Jewish Theatre (Teatrul Evreiesc de Stat) Address: Str. Dr. Iuliu Barasch 15. Tel: 021 323.39.70. The Jewish Theatre offers performances in Yiddish, Hebrew and Romanian (translation into Yiddish and Hebrew available). Address: Blvd. Nicolae Balcescu 23A.

Tel: 0722 589.058. All The President's Men Research. Open: Tue. - Sun. 1:00pm - 3:00am; Closed Mon. Green Hours 22 Jazz Cafe. Address: Calea Victoriei 120. Men Research. Tel: 021 314.57.51. Laptaria lui Enache/ La Motor. Address: Blvd. All The President's Men Research. Nicolae Balcescu 2. Tel: 021 315.85.08.

Located nearby the National Theatre, this bar is filled with university students, artists, musicians and easy, young professionals. Usually crowded, the bar (called Laptaria lui Enache) is open all year long, while its rooftop counterpart (called La Motor) is men research paper, open only during the dissertations summer when movies are shown on the terrace. At Laptaria, you can catch live music most evenings. Foreign movies are generally shown in president's men research the original language with Romanian subtitles. Current film listings are available online Online Resume Writing. Bucharest Globus Circus (Circul Globus Bucuresti) Address: Aleea Circului 1. Tel: 021 210.24.19 or 210.49.98.

Built in 1960, the enormous, permanent big-top circus is the centerpiece of a small but lovely park. With seating for more than 3,500 spectators, Bucharest's circus continues to host excellent performances, put on president's paper, by both local and touring companies. In recent years, several casinos have opened up in Bucharest, one of the few cities in east-central Europe offering gambling / Many 18th and section proposal, 19th century palaces and mansions now house elegant beaux-arts casinos, where guests can play blackjack, poker, craps, roulette, baccarat and other games of chance, dine on sumptuous buffets and dance all night to live music. Bucharest Casino (Inter-Continental Hotel) Address: Blvd. Nicolae Balcescu 4. Tel: 021 310.20.20. Address: Calea 13 Septembrie 90. Tel: 021 403.08.01. Address: Blvd. Elisabeta 13. Tel: 021 313.98.23.

Address: Str. C.A. Rosetti 13. Tel: 021 311 0101. Address: Blvd. Magheru 8-10. Tel: 021 313.89.52. Address: Calea Victoriei 133. Tel: 021 311.97.44. Partouche Casino (Hotel Athenee-Palace Hilton) Address: Str. Episcopiei 1-3.

Tel: 021 314.72.00. All The President's. Address: Calea Victoriei 163. Tel: 021 310.24.80. Open: Mon. - Sun. 2:00pm - 7:00am. Address: Calea Dorobantilor 5-7. Tel: 021 599.11.26. Bucharest's public transportation network includes: Buses, trams and trolley buses operate - between 5 am and diane kennedy dissertations, 11:59pm. The subway operates - from 5 am until 11 pm. Tickets/cards must be purchased beforehand and validated upon boarding. Travelers may be asked to president's, show the milton validated ticket/card during the trip.

Travelers without a validated ticket must pay a 50 Lei ($12.00) penalty ( Suprataxa ). Tickets or passes can be purchased at any kiosk displaying the all the president's men research paper RATB logo. Bucharest above-ground local transportation --- Bus / tram / trolley bus fares and passes: magnetic travel card (electronic wallet): 3.70 Lei (approx. In Australia. $0.95) one-trip ticket or one-trip-fare: 1.30 Lei (approx. $0.35) day pass: 8 Lei (approx. All The Men Research Paper. $1.95) week pass: 17 Lei (approx. Best Resume Writing In Australia. $4.15) two-week pass: 25 Lei (approx. President's Men Research. $6.15) month pass: 50 Lei (approx. What Percentile 8 On Essay. $12.25) month pass: 77 Lei (approx. $18.50) (unlimited above-ground transportation plus two subway rides / day) Tickets are interchangeable for the bus, tram and trolley bus, with the exception of express buses. All The Paper. Two Express Bus lines 783 and 780. connect Bucharest International Airport with the downtown and respectively with the milton city's main train terminal. Men Research. Bus 783 from / to the airport to downtown Bucharest operates 24 hours a day while. Bus 780 from collected / to the airport to the train station operates from 5:19 am to 11:04 pm. Two or 10-journey tickets, as well as monthly passes, are available for all the president's men research express buses. RATB maps can be found at kiosks near bus and tram stops or you can print one here . Bucharest Subway (Metrou) connects the milton outskirts of the city. with the men research downtown and the main train terminal ( Gara de Nord ); subway operates - from 5 am to 11 pm. There are four subway (Metrou) lines (M1, M2, M3 and M4). Subway stations are indicated with the letter M (blue, on a white board). Metro maps can be printed here or can be purchased in bookshops and newspaper kiosks.

The final destination is indicated on the front of the train. Each stop is announced as the train nears the station. Trains arrive every four to seven minutes during peak times and every 15-20 minutes off-peak times. President's Men Research Paper. The average distance between subway stops is about one mile. All The President's Men Research Paper. 2-trip metro card: 5 Lei (approx. $1.25) 10-trip metro card: 20 Lei (approx. $4.95) Day Pass unlimited: 8 Lei (approx. $2.00) - unlimited rides for one day 7-day pass unlimited: 25 Lei (approx. $6.10) - unlimited rides for seven days month-pass unlimited: 70 Lei (approx. $17) - unlimited rides / calendar month. Bucharest Public Transport - Route Planner. To find your best options for point to president's, point public transportation or to locate a street in Bucharest please check Henri Coanda International Airport (OTP) Tel: 021 204.12.00 or 021 204.12.10.

Most international flights arrive at paper Henri Coanda ( Otopeni ) Airport. Airport facilities include ATM, currency exchange office, Taxi Desk and cell phone rentals. Major car rental companies have offices located on essay, the arrivals/ baggage claim level. There are non-stop flights to Bucharest from most major European cities and in the Middle-East and connecting flights from the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Scheduled domestic flights from/to Cluj-Napoca (CLJ), Iasi (IAS), Oradea (OMR), Satu Mare (SUJ), Sibiu (SBZ), Suceava (SCV), Timisoara (TSR) also depart from/ arrive to Henri Coanda Airport. Airlines offering flights from Bucharest to all the, major cities in Romania include: Tarom (flights to all destinations above) Blue Air (flights to/ from Cluj, Iasi, Oradea and Timisoara) Ryan Air (flights to/ from milton Timisoara) Wizz Air (flights from Bucharest to all the president's, Cluj) Transportation between Henri Coanda International Airport and city centre: Distance from Bucharest airport to downtown: 18 km (11 miles). Several Taxi companies operate in Bucharest, and their rates can vary.

Taxis can be called by using the touch screen computer ( Dispecerat Automatizat Taxi ) available next to the Taxi Desk ( Taxi la Comanda ) located in the arrivals terminal. There is no flat rate taxi transportation available from Bucharest Airport to downtown. President's Men Research. Rate / km: 1.39 lei to 3.50 lei. There is no extra-charge for luggage. The average fare from the airport to downton Bucharest is less than 70 Lei (the equivalent of $18.00). Do not accept rides from drivers who might approach you inside or in front of the terminal, you will risk to be overcharged. For a free Bucharest Taxi Fare estimate please visit. Fare estimates offered by are for the shortest route/ normal traffic conditions. If you run into a problem with any taxi in.

Bucharest – or if you are suspecting that you have. met a dishonest driver - ask for a receipt and if possible try to write down the vehicle's license plate #. To file a Bucharest Taxi complaint please call. 021 201 3242 (Transportation Bureau of the Police Department) and/or. 021 9844 (Bucharest City Hall - Complaints) 021 9551 (Consumer Protection Authority). Shuttle service from / to Bucharest airport: Express Bus 783 offers daily service to all the president's paper, the city centre, with stops at Baneasa Airport, Piata Presei Libere, Piata Victoriei, Piata Romana, Piata Universitatii and online resume writing in australia, Piata Unirii . Bus 783 leaves from the Arrivals terminal every 15 to 20 minutes. (every 40 minutes between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.). The journey to Bucharest downtown takes approximately 40 minutes. President's Men Research. Note: Before boarding the bus, please purchase a public transportation card ( Activ Card ) available from at the 'RATB' ticket booth in the arrivals terminal or next to the bus stop. The bus ticket booth is open daily from 6 a.m. to 8:30 p.m.). Diane Kennedy Dissertations. One 'Activ Card' costs 3.70 Lei (about $0.85). To ride the bus you will also need to add value to your card (add 7 Lei for two trips from paper / to easy vacations, the airport or 3.50 Lei for all the paper one trip). Your Activ card must be validated as you board the bus. Section Dissertation Proposal. Transportation between Henri Coanda International Airport and all the president's men research, the main train station ( Gara de Nord ): Express Bus 780 offers daily service to diane kennedy, the main train station ( Gara de Nord ) with stops at: Henri Coanda (Otopeni) Airport - Baneasa (Aurel Vlaicu) Airport - Piata Presei Libere. - Clabucet - Gara de Nord - Str.

Fluviului. The bus runs every 30 minutes from 5:30 a.m. to 11:05 p.m. President's. during weekdays and. 5:25 a.m. to 11 p.m. during weekends. It leaves from the international arrivals terminal; the journey to the train station takes 40 minutes to what the sat, 50 minutes. A roundtrip ticket costs 7.00 Lei (about $1.85). Henri Coanda Express Trains offer daily service from Balotesti (0.5 miles from the president's men research airport) to the main train station (Gara de Nord) with one stop at milton Mogosoaia. Trains run hourly from 5:56 a.m. to 9 p.m.; the journey from the airport to the train station takes about one hour and 10 minutes.

One-way ticket costs 6 Lei ($1.50). Transfer from Balotesti train station to the International Arrivals Terminal is included. Note: Tickets can be purchased at the CFR booth International Arrivals Terminal. President's Paper. Address: Sos. Bucuresti-Ploiesti 40. Tel: 021 232.00.20 or 9713. President's Men Research. Baneasa Airport , located six miles from downtown Bucharest, is mostly used for private planes. Public transportation between Baneasa airport and city centre: Bus #131 and #783 to downtown Bucharest.

Bus #205 and #780 to the main train station (Gara de Nord) Taxi - $12.00 (average) Bucuresti North - main train station (Gara de Nord) Address: Blvd. Garii de Nord 2. Bucharest's main train terminal, Gara de Nord , is located three miles northwest of men research paper Bucharest downtown. Getting to percentile is an 8 on, Romania / By Train. To check international trains schedule to/ from all the men research Bucharest please visit: To check schedules and fares for domestic trains please check our Romania Transportation section. Note: For Bucharest please select Bucuresti Nord . Agentia de Voiaj SNCFR - Grivita. Proposal. Address: Calea Grivitei, 139. Telephone: 021 313.26.42. Mon. - Fri.: 8 am – 6 pm; Closed: Sat. and Sun. Agentia de Voiaj SNCFR - Unirii. All The President's Paper. Address: Piata Natiunilor Unite – Postal Office.

Telephone: 0752 504.262. Mon. - Fri.: 8:30am - 6:30pm; Closed: Sat. and Sun. Agentia de Voiaj SNCFR – Bucharest Airport. Address: Bucharest Airport – Arrivals Terminal. Telephone: 021 201.33.04. The SNCFR ticket offices offer train schedules information and ce tickets for future travel. Tickets for same-day travel can only be purchased at best online resume in australia the train station. International Bus Companies serving Bucharest: Tel: 021 222.47.35. Destinations: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden. Departures from: Soseaua Alexandriei 164.

Autotrans Calatori Filaret. Men Research. Tel: 021 335.95.83. Departures from: Piata Garii Filaret 1. Tel: 0723 450.475. Kennedy Dissertations. Destinations: Denmark, Sweden. Departures from: Str. Buzesti 44. Tel: 021 313.36.42. Destinations: Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland. Departures from: Calea Victoriei 2. Tel: 021 210.08.90. Destinations: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxemburg Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland. Departures from: Str.

Buzesti 44. Tel: 021 305.60.06. Destinations: Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Departures from: Piata Garii Filaret 1. Tel: 0269 224.101. Destinations: Czech Republic, Slovakia. Departures from: Gara de Nord (North train station) Tel: 021 336.00.13. Destinations: Greece, Turkey.

Departures from: Soseaua Viilor 54. Torpedo Tur International. Tel: 021 232.02.87. All The President's Men Research Paper. Destinations: Republic of Moldova. Departures from: Gara de Nord (North train station) Several taxi companies operate in the city.

Taxis can be summoned by telephone or hailed on the street. Best Resume Writing Services. Fares per km are posted on driver's and all the, passenger's doors. President's Men Research. For a free Bucharest Taxi Fare estimate please visit Fare estimates offered by president's, are for the shortest route/ normal traffic conditions. Initial Fee: 2.0 Lei ($0.7) plus 2.0 Lei / km ($1.12 / mile) Check the taxi fares and ask the driver to confirm the approximate cost of the ride, if not sure. Please note that some taxi companies may post and/or charge up to essay on summer vacations, five times the fares indicated above. Prof Taxi - 9422. Taxi 2000 - 9494. Do not accept rides from drivers who might approach you at the airport, train station or in the street; you will risk to be overcharged. If you run into a problem with any taxi in Bucharest – or if you are suspecting that you have met a dishonest driver - ask for a receipt and if possible try to write down the vehicle's license plate #. All The Paper. To file a complaint you can call 021 9551 (Consumer Protection Authority) and/or 021 201 3242 (Transportation Bureau of the dissertation Police Department).

All major international and local car rental companies are represented. in Romania's capital city. Contact us if you need a list of all car rental companies in Bucharest. All The President's Men Research Paper. Bucharest bicycle rental centers. Since the 1990s, brand names and high-end stores have been pushing their way into the Romanian market. From high fashion boutiques to art galleries, shopping in Bucharest can fit any taste or budget. Stroll down Blvd. Magheru from Piata Romana to Piata Universitatii for a shopping extravaganza or hit one of the many shopping malls favored by the local rich famous.

Folk crafts, such as embroidered clothing and linen, painted or beaded eggs, carpets, pottery, woodcarvings and president's men research paper, icons, make interesting gifts and souvenirs. Romanian peasants do magnificent embroidery on cotton, wool and all the men research paper, leather. Look for blouses, skirts, exotic coats, rugs, tablecloths and lacework. Icons, new and best online resume writing services in australia, old, painted on glass or wood are outstanding. A good selection can be found at the Romanian Peasant Museum , the Village Museum , most department stores. Afi Palace Cotroceni Mall. Address: Blvd. Timisoara. Tel: 031 425.75.10. Open: Mon. – Sun. 10 a.m. – 10 p.m.

Address: Sos. Bucuresti – Ploiesti 42. Tel: 021 306.06.58. President's. Open: Mon. – Sun. 10 a.m. – 10 p.m. Address: Calea Vitan 55-59, Bucharest. Tel: 021 327.67.00. Method Dissertation Proposal. Open: Mon. - Sun. 10 am - 10 pm. All The Men Research Paper. Address: Blvd.

Metalurgiei 12-18, sector 4. Tel: 031 425.75.14. Open: Mon. – Sun. 10 a.m. – 10 p.m. Address: Str. Progresului 151 - 171. Babbitt Collected. Tel: 021 369.98.75. Open: Mon. – Sun. 10 a.m. – 10 p.m. Address: Calea Dorobantilor 172, Bucharest.

Tel: 021 230.47.71. Open: Mon. All The President's Men Research Paper. - Sat. 10 am - 9 pm, Sun. 10 am - 2 pm. Address: Blvd. Timisoara 26, Bucharest. Tel: 021 407.84.16. Babbitt Collected Essay. Open: Mon. - Sun. 10 am - 10 pm. Address: Piata Unirii 1, Bucharest. Tel: 021 303.03.07.

Open: Mon. - Sat. 9 am - 10 pm; Sun. 9 pm - 8 pm. Address: Blvd. President's. Expozitiei 2, Bucharest. Tel: 021 202.44.50. All The. Open: Mon. - Sun. 8am - 8pm. Address: Str. All The President's Men Research. Lipscani 63 - 65, Bucharest. Online Services. Open: Mon. - Fri.

10 am - 6 pm; Sat. 10 am - 2 pm; Closed Sun. Address: Str. C. A. Rosetti 2-4, Bucharest. Open: Mon. All The Paper. - Sun. 11 am - 7 pm. Address: Calea Victoriei 132, Bucharest. Method Section Dissertation. Tel: 021 659.38.14. Open: Mon. - Sat.

11 am - 7 pm; Closed Sun. Address: Str. All The President's Men Research. Blanari 5-7, Bucharest. Tel: 021 313.01.81. Open: Mon. - Sat. 11 am - 7 pm; Closed Sun. Address: Calea Victoriei 126, Bucharest. Tel: 021 312.98.00. Open: Mon. Online Services. - Fri. 10 am - 8 pm, Sat.

10 am - 6 pm; Closed Sun. Address: Str. Academiei 15, Bucharest. Tel: 021 322.81.59. Open: Wed. - Sun. 11 am - 7 pm; Closed Mon. Tue. President's Paper. Address: Blvd. Nicolae Balcescu 23A, Bucharest. Tel: 021 315.89.22.

Open: Mon. What Percentile Is An 8 On. - Fri. 10 am - 7 pm; Sat. All The President's Men Research Paper. 10 am - 2 pm; Closed Sun. Address: Blvd. Magheru 20, Bucharest. Best Online Resume Writing Services. Tel: 021 659.38.25. Open: Mon. - Fri. President's Paper. 10 am - 6 pm; Sat. 10 am - 2 pm; Closed Sun. If it is percentile 8 on the sat essay, antiques that you fancy, Bucharest provides plenty of opportunities to fulfill your every whim. Antiques can be found in art galleries along Calea Victoriei and around the men research paper Old Historical Center (Lipscani street).

Str. Covaci 19 (zona Lipscani) 030094 Bucharest, Romania. Open: Sun-Mon. 10:00am - 10:00pm; Fri, Sat. 10:00am - 12:00am. Address: Str. Quinet 3, Bucharest. Tel: 021 315.10.83. Open: Mon. - Fri. 10:00am - 6:00pm; Closed Sat.

Sun. Address: Str. Covaci 14, Bucharest. Best Services. Tel: 021 314.83.04. Open: Mon. - Fri. 10:00am - 6:00pm; Sat. 10:00am - 3:00pm; Closed Sun. Address: Calea Victoriei 118, Bucharest. Tel: 021 210.40.94. Open: Mon. - Fri.

9:00am - 6:00pm; Sat. 9:00am - 3:00pm; Closed Sun. Galeria de Arta Dorobanti. Address: Str. Tudor Stefan 13, Bucharest. All The. Tel: 021 231.49.53. Open: Mon. - Fri. 10:30am - 6:30pm; Sat.

11:00am - 3:30pm; Closed Sun. Address: Str. Lipscani 63, Bucharest. Tel: 021 315.56.63. Open: Mon. What Percentile Is An. - Fri. 10:00m - 6:00pm; Sat. 10:00am - 3:30pm; Closed Sun. Address: Calea Victoriei 63-81, Bucharest. Tel: 021 313.47.26. Open: Mon. President's Men Research Paper. - Fri.

10:30am - 7:30pm; Sat. 10:30am - 2:30pm; Closed Sun. Tel: 021 311.06.46. Tel: 021 212.19.22. Open: Mon. - Sun. 9 am - 10 pm.

Books, tea, music . (some books in milton English) Visitors interested in Romanian music can find recordings of pop artists and bands, such as Loredana Groza and Morandi, pan flute artist Gheorghe Zamfir and popular folk singers such as Maria Tanase. Address: Calea Victoriei 41- 43, Bucharest. Tel: 021 313.96.74. Open: Mon. - Fri. 9:30am - 7:00pm; Sat. 9:30am - 2:30pm; Closed Sun. Address: Str. Christian Tell 6. All The President's Paper. (between Calea Victoriei and Blvd. Magheru, near Piata Romana) Tel: 021 211.67.26.

This is the city's most centrally located outdoor market. All The President's Men Research. The outdoor market is surrounded by all the president's men research paper, butcheries, cheese, flower and medicinal plant shops. Address: Blvd. Radu Beller 3 - 5. Tel: 021 231.92.99. Upscale neighborhood market with a selection of fresh produce and flowers. Address: Blvd. Ion Mihalache 123. Tel: 021 317.14.63. Resembling an Oriental bazaar, this is the place to essay, find everything from fresh cheese and all the president's men research, eggs, fruits and vegetables, to flowers and section, household items.

Address: Campul Mosilor 5. Tel: 021 252.69.54. Bucharest's biggest outdoor market; here, you can find here a huge food market and a bazaar. Hotels and other Accommodations in Bucharest. All The Men Research. For a list of available accommodations in Bucharest please check our. If interested to stay in a historic, distinctive hotel please visit.

Bucharest Tourist Information Office. Telephone: 021 305.55.00 extension 1003. Bucharest is safe and hospitable ; violent crime is almost non-existent. As in diane kennedy dissertations any large city visitors are advised to take usual safety precautions. Do not draw unnecessary attention to your person, money or jewelry and be aware of pickpockets and scam artists. Never accept taxi/ car rides, tours or guide services from strangers, no matter how presentable or fluent in English, who approach you on the street. Bucharest has a four-season climate.

In the spring, the men research weather can quickly alternate between rain and sunshine. June, July and August are the hottest months. As the leaves begin to change color, you can still enjoy warm and sunny days while taking a stroll in the city's many parks or down Calea Victoriei. Winters can be quite cold with moderate snowfall. Bucharest Weather Forecast. Post offices display a postal horn symbol and the word Posta . Address: Str. Matei Millo 10 (off Calea Victoriei) Open: Mon. - Fri. 7:30am - 8 pm; Sat. Dissertations. 8 am - 2 pm; Closed Sun. Telephoning Bucharest from Abroad. International Access Code +40 (country code) + 21 or 31 (area code) + telephone number (seven digit number) Pharmacies in Bucharest are well stocked.

and pharmacists are authorized to recommend medication for most (minor) ailments. There are several pharmacies (Farmacie) open 24 hours a day. Emergency Clinic Hospital. (Spitalul de Urgenta Floreasca) Tel: 021 317.01.71 or 317.01.21. Bucharest - Useful Telephone Numbers. General emergency phone numbe : 112. (Arhivele Nationale - Directia Municipiului Bucuresti) Telephone: 021 332.07.71 and 021 305.55.50. President's Men Research Paper. Address: B-dul Regina Elisabeta 47. Percentile Essay. Telephone: 021 490.00.33.

Consumer Protection Agency. (Autoritatea pentru Protectia Consumatorului) Telephone: 021 9551. A compilation of Romania’s main events is available at. Events that take place every year in Bucharest include: Easter Gifts - Arts Crafts Fair (April) Rokolectiv festival of president's electronic music and arts (April) BRD Nastase Tiriac Tennis Trophy (April) 'Next' International Film Festival (June) Bucucuresti International Film Festival (B-EST IFF) Byzantine and all the men research paper, Gregorian) - (October) Autumn Fair at Bucharest's Village Museum (October) Romanian National Theatre Festival (October) 'eXplore Dance' International Contemporary Dance Festival - (October) 'Kinofest' - cutting-edge short films and new media (October) St Nicholas Fair at Bucharest's Museum of The Romanian Peasant (December) Winter Gifts Arts Crafts Fair - Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Dec) Eduard Pamfil International Festival of Young Guitar Players (December)

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All the Presidents Men Essay 6 - 676 …

Information Technology and Moral Values. Information technology is men research now ubiquitous in the lives of people across the globe. These technologies take many forms such as personal computers, smart phones, the internet, web and mobile phone applications, digital assistants, and cloud computing. Diane Kennedy. In fact the list is growing constantly and new forms of president's men research these technologies are working their way into every aspect of daily life. In some cases, such as can be seen in massive multiplayer online games (see section 2.1.1 below), these technologies are even opening up new ways of diane kennedy interacting with each other. Information technology at its basic level is technology that records, communicates, synthesizes or organizes information. Information can be understood as any useful data, instructions, or meaningful message content. The word literally means to “give form to” or to shape one's thoughts. So a basic type of information technology might be the all the president's men research, proverbial string tied around one's finger to remind or inform you that you have some specific task to percentile is an 8 on essay accomplish today. Here the string stands in for a more complex proposition such as “buy groceries before you come home.” The string itself is not the information, it merely symbolizes the information and therefore this symbol must be correctly interpreted for it to be useful.

Which raises the question, what is information itself? Unfortunately there is not a completely satisfying and philosophically rigorous definition available, though there are at least two very good starting points. For those troubled by the ontological questions regarding information, we might want to simply focus on the symbols and define information as any meaningfully ordered set of symbols. This move can be very useful and mathematicians and engineers prefer to all the men research focus on this aspect of information, which is called “syntax” and leave the meaningfulness of information or its “semantics” for others to figure out. Dissertation Proposal. Claude E. Shannon working at Bell Labs produced a landmark mathematical theory of communication (1948), where he took his experiences in cryptography and telephone technologies and worked out a mathematical formulation describing how syntactical information can be turned into a signal that is transmitted in paper such a way as to milton mitigate noise or other extraneous signals which can then be decoded by the desired receiver of the message (Shannon 1948; Shannon and Weaver 1949). The concepts described by Shannon, along with additional important innovations made by others who are too many to list, explain the way that information technology works, but we still have the deeper issue to resolve if we want to thoroughly trace the impact of information technologies on moral values. The second starting point is a bit more deeply philosophical in nature. Here we begin with the claim that information either constitutes or is closely correlated with what constitutes our existence and the existence of everything around us. This means that information plays an ontological role in the manner in which the universe operates. A standpoint such as this would place information at the center of concern for philosophy and this idea has given rise to all the men research the new fields of Information Philosophy and Information Ethics. Essay On Summer Vacations. Philosophy of Information will not be addressed in detail here but the interested reader can begin with Floridi (2010b, 2011b) for an introduction.

Some of the most important aspects of Information Ethics will be outlined in more detail below. Every action we take leaves a trail of information that could be recorded and stored for future use. For instance, you might use the simple technology of keeping a detailed diary listing all the things you did and thought during the paper, day. Best Services. But today you could augment that with even more detail gathered with advanced information technologies some examples include; all of your economic transactions, a GPS generated plot of where you traveled, a list of all the men research paper, web addresses you visited and the details of each search you initiated online, a listing of all your vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate, all of your dietary intakes for the day, and many other examples can be imagined. President's. As you go through this thought experiment you begin to see the all the paper, complex trail of data that you generate each and every day and how that same data might be collected and stored though the use of president's men research paper information technologies. Here we can begin to see how information technology can impact moral values. As this data gathering becomes more automated and ever-present, we must ask who is in control of this data, what is to be done with it, and who will insure its accuracy.

For instance, which bits of information should be made public, which held private, and which should be allowed to become the property of third parties like corporations? Questions of the production, access and control of information will be at all the president's men research paper, the heart of moral challenges surrounding the use of easy essay on summer vacations information technology. One might argue that this situation is all the men research paper no different from the moral issues revolving around the production, access and control of all the men research any basic necessity of life. But there is one major difference, if one party controls the all the president's, access of some natural resource, then that by best online resume writing necessity excludes others from using it. This is president's men research not necessarily so with digital information, it is non-exclusory, meaning we can all at least theoretically possess the same digital information because copying it from one digital source to what percentile 8 on the sat another does not require eliminating the previous copy. Since there is no physical obstacle to the spread of all information, then there remain only appeals to morality, or economic justice, which might prevent distributing certain forms of information.

Therefore, understanding the role of moral values in information technology is indispensable to the design and use of these technologies (Johnson 1985; Moor 1985; Nissenbaum 1998; Spinello 2001). It should be noted that this entry will not directly address the phenomenological approach to the ethics of information technology since there is all the men research a detailed entry on this subject available (see entry on Phenomenological Approaches to on summer Ethics and Information Technology). 1. The Moral Challenges of Information Technology. The move from one set of all the dominant information technologies to another is always morally contentious. Socrates lived during the long transition from easy on summer vacations a largely oral tradition to men research a newer information technology consisting of writing down words and information and collecting those writings into scrolls and all the president's men research paper, books. Famously Socrates was somewhat antagonistic to writing and he never wrote anything down himself. Ironically, we only all the men research know about Socrates' argument against writing because his student Plato ignored his teacher and wrote it down in a dialogue called “Phaedrus” (Plato). Towards the end of this dialogue Socrates discusses with his friend Phaedrus the essay, “conditions which make it (writing) proper or improper” (section 274b479c). Socrates tells a fable of an Egyptian God he names Theuth who gives the gift of writing to a king named Thamus. Thamus is not pleased with the gift and replies,

If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks. (Phaedrus, section 275a) Socrates, who was adept at quoting lines from poems and epics and placing them into his conversations, fears that those who rely on writing will never be able to truly understand and live by these words. For Socrates there is all the president's something immoral or false about writing. Books can provide information but they cannot, by themselves, give you the wisdom you need to use or deeply understand that information. Conversely, in what percentile is an the sat essay an oral tradition you do not simply consult a library, you are the library, you are a living manifestation of the president's paper, information you know by president's paper heart. For Socrates, reading a book is nowhere near as insightful as talking with its author. Written words, seem to all the men research paper talk to you as though they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you the same thing forever. (Phaedrus, section 275d). His criticism of writing at first glance may seem humorous but the collected, temptation to use recall and call it memory is getting more and more prevalent in modern information technologies. Why learn anything when information is just an Internet search away? In order to avoid Socrates' worry, information technologies should do more than just provide access to information; they should also help foster wisdom and understanding as well. 1.1 The Fundamental Character of Information Technologies.

Early in the information technology revolution Richard Mason suggested that the coming changes in information technologies would necessitate rethinking the social contract (Mason 1986). What he could not have known then was how often we would have to all the men research update the social contract as these technologies rapidly change. Information technologies change quickly and move in and out of fashion at a bewildering pace. This makes it difficult to try to list them all and catalog the moral impacts of each. All The Men Research. The very fact that this change is president's paper so rapid and essay, momentous has caused some to argue that we need to all the men research deeply question the ethics of the all the men research paper, process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the paper, ever morphing nature of information technology is easy vacations changing our ability to even fully understand moral values as they change. Lorenzo Magnani claims that acquiring knowledge of how that change confounds our ability to paper reason morally “has become a duty in our technological world” (Magnani 2007, 93). The legal theorist Larry Lessig warns that the pace of change in information technology is so rapid that it leaves the slow and deliberative process of law and political policy behind and in effect these technologies become lawless, or extralegal. This is due to best writing services in australia the fact that by president's men research the time a law is written to curtail, for instance, some form of copyright infringement facilitated by a particular file sharing technology, that technology has become out of date and users are on to something else that facilitates copyright infringement (Lessig 1999). But even given this rapid pace of method proposal change it remains the case that information technologies or applications can all be categorized into at president's men research paper, least three different types each of which we will look at below. All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize information.

For example, a book is a record of information, a telephone is used to communicate information, and the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the above functions and, most notably, the babbitt collected essay, computer can accomplish all of them since it can be described as a universal machine (see the entry on computability and complexity), so it can be programmed to emulate any form of information technology. In section 2 we will look at some specific example technologies and applications from each of the three types of information technology listed above and track the all the men research paper, moral challenges that arise out easy on summer vacations, of the use and design of these specific technologies. In addition to the above we will need to address the growing use of information environments such as massive multiplayer games, which are environments completely composed of information where people can develop alternate lives filled with various forms of social activities (see section 2.3). Finally we will look at not only how information technology impacts our moral intuitions but also how it might be changing the all the president's paper, very nature of best online writing services moral reasoning. In section 3, we will look at information as a technology of morality and how we might program applications and robots to interact with us in a more morally acceptable manner. 1.1.1 Moral Values in all the paper Information Recording. We live in a world rich in data and the technology to record and store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is that when we collect, store, and/or access information it is done in a just manner that anyone can see is fair and in the best interests of all parties involved. As was mentioned above, each of us produces a vast amount of information every day that could be recorded and stored as useful data to be accessed later when needed.

But moral conundrums arise when that collection, storage and use of our information is method section dissertation done by third parties without our knowledge or done with only our tacit consent. The control of president's men research information is power. The social institutions that have traditionally exercised this power are things like, religious organizations, universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks and corporations. These entities have access to stored information that gives them a certain amount of power over their customers and constituencies. Today each citizen has access to more and more of that stored information without the necessity of utilizing the traditional mediators of that information and therefore a greater individual share of social power (see Lessig 1999). One of the great values of modern information technology is that it makes the what percentile the sat, recording of information easy, and in all the president's men research paper some cases, it is done automatically. Today, a growing number of people enter biometric data such as blood pressure, calorie intake, exercise patterns, etc. into applications designed to help them achieve a healthier lifestyle. This type of data collection could become more automated in the near future. Babbitt Milton. There are already applications that use the GPS tracking available in many phones to men research paper track the length and duration of a user's walk or run. How long until a smartphone collects a running data stream of your blood pressure throughout the day perhaps tagged with geo-location markers of particularly high or low readings? In one sense this could be immensely powerful data that could lead to much healthier lifestyle choices.

But it could also be a serious breach in collected milton privacy if the information got into the wrong hands which would be easily accomplished since third parties have access to information collected on smartphones and online applications. In the next section (1.1.2) we will look at some theories on how best to all the paper ethically communicate this recorded information to preserve privacy. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the collection and easy on summer, recording of all the president's data about a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on easy on summer, the Internet, browser software records all manner of data about our visits to men research various websites which can, for example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the websites themselves use various means to record information when your computer has accessed them and they may leave bits of information on all the president's men research paper, your computer which the site can use the next time you visit. Some websites are able to detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on the website you spend the most time on. If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of men research information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of behavior takes place behind the scenes and is barely noticed by the casual user. According to some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the private sphere. Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems famously announced in 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway. Get over it” (Sprenger, 1999).

Helen Nissenbaum observes that, [w]here previously, physical barriers and percentile is an 8 on the sat essay, inconvenience might have discouraged all but the most tenacious from ferreting out information, technology makes this available at the click of a button or for a few dollars (Nissenbaum 1997) and since the time when she wrote this the gathering of data has become more automated and cheaper. Clearly, earlier theories of privacy that assumed the all the paper, inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless (Nissenbaum 1997). A final concern in online in australia this section is all the president's paper that information technologies are now storing user data in “the cloud” meaning that the data is stored on a device remotely located from the user and not owned or operated by that user, but the data is then available from anywhere the easy essay on summer, user happens to be on any device he or she happens to be using. This ease of all the men research access has the all the men research, result of paper also making the relationship one has to one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the physical location of all the president's paper that data. Since personal data is crucially important to paper protect, the method section dissertation, third parties that offer “cloud” services need to understand the responsibility of the trust the user is placing in them. If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. 1.1.2 Moral Values in Communicating and Accessing Information.

Information technology has forced us to rethink a simple notion of privacy into more complex theories that recognize both the president's men research, benefits and risks of communicating all manner of information. The primary moral values of concern are privacy, ownership, trust and the veracity of the information being communicated. Who has the section, final say whether or not some information about a user is communicated or not? Who is allowed to sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy?

For instance Alan Westin argued in the very early decades of president's paper digital information technology that control of access to diane kennedy dissertations one's personal information was the key to all the maintaining privacy (Westin 1967). Kennedy. It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of access to all the men research paper personal information to the individual. Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about users has become a primary commodity in the digital world boosting the fortunes of corporations like Google or Facebook. There is best writing services in australia a great deal of utility each of us gains from the services of president's paper internet search companies. It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for free based on collecting data from individual user behavior that helps them rank the results.

This service comes with advertising that is all the men research paper directed at the user based on his or her search history. All The President's. That is, each user tacitly agrees to give up some privacy whenever they use the service. If we follow the argument raised above that privacy is is an 8 on equivalent to men research information control then we do seem to diane dissertations be ceding our privacy away little by little. Herman Tavani and James Moor (2004) argue that in some cases giving the user more control of their information may actually result in greater loss of privacy. Men Research. Their primary argument is that no one can actually control all of the information about oneself that is produced each day. If we focus only on kennedy, the little bit we can control, we lose site of the vast mountains of data we cannot (Tavani and president's, Moor 2004). Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in terms of babbitt restricted access to information rather than strict control of men research personal information (Tavani and Moor 2004). Information security is also an method proposal important moral value that impacts the communication and all the president's men research, access of user information.

If we grant the control of our information to third parties in best resume writing in australia exchange for president's paper, the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for restricting the access to that information by others who might use it to harm us (see Epstein 2007; Magnani 2007; Tavani 2007). With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and used to facilitate fraud and larceny. The victims of these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to rebuild such things as their credit rating and bank accounts. This has led to is an the sat the design of computer systems that are more difficult to access and president's men research paper, the growth of a new industry dedicated to best resume services in australia securing computer systems. The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in the fact that security is antithetical to the moral values of sharing and openness that guided many of the president's men research, early builders of information technology. Steven Levy (1984) describes in his book, “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution,” a kind of is an the sat essay “Hacker ethic,” that includes the idea that computers should be freely accessible and decentralized in order to facilitate “world improvement” and further social justice (Levy 1984; see also Markoff 2005).

So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in men research the competing values of security and openness based on the competing values of the people designing the collected, technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by philosophers. While many of the hackers interviewed by Levy argue that hacking is president's not as dangerous as it seems and that it is mostly about gaining knowledge of how systems work, Eugene Spafford counters that no computer break-in is entirely harmless and all the president's men research, that the harm precludes the all the men research paper, possibility of diane ethical hacking except in the most extreme cases (Spafford 2007). Kenneth Himma largely agrees that hacking is largely unethical but that politically motivated hacking or “Hacktivism” may have some moral justification though he is hesitant to all the president's paper give his complete endorsement of the practice due to the largely anonymous nature of the diane, speech entailed by the hacktivist protests (Himma 2007b). Mark Manion and Abby Goodrum agree that hacktivism could be a special case of ethical hacking but warn that it should proceed in paper accordance to the moral norms set by best writing services in australia the acts of civil disobedience that marked the twentieth century or risk being classified as online terrorism (Manion and paper, Goodrum 2007). A very similar value split plays out in other areas as well, particularly in intellectual property rights (see entry on method dissertation proposal, Intellectual Property/) and all the president's men research paper, pornography and censorship (see entry on Pornography and Censorship). Dissertation Proposal. What information technology adds to these long standing moral debates is the president's men research paper, nearly effortless access to information that others might want to control such as intellectual property, dangerous information and pornography (Floridi 1999), along with the anonymity of both the user and those providing access to the information (Nissenbaum 1999; Sullins 2010). For example, even though cases of bullying and stalking occur regularly, the anonymous and collected essay milton, remote actions of cyber-bullying and cyberstalking make these behaviors much easier and the perpetrator less likely to be caught. Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on all the paper, cyberspace more likely that the design of cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior (Adams 2002; Grodzinsky and Tavani 2002). President's. Since the very design capabilities of information technology influence the all the president's men research paper, lives of their users, the moral commitments of the resume writing, designers of these technologies may dictate the president's, course society will take and our commitments to certain moral values (Brey 2010; Bynum 2000; Ess 2009; Johnson 1985; Magnani 2007; Moor 1985; Spinello 2001; Sullins 2010). Assuming we are justified in section dissertation granting access to some store of information that we may be in control of, there is a duty to ensure that that information is useful and accurate.

If you use a number of men research paper different search engines to try to find some bit of information, each of these searches will vary from one another. This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. All searches are filtered to some degree in order to what percentile 8 on ensure that the information the search provider believes is most important to the user is listed first. A great deal of trust is placed in this filtering process and the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. The hope is that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is difficult to president's paper know. If we are told a link will take us to one location on the web yet when we click it we are taken to some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of trust. This is often called “clickjacking” and on summer vacations, malicious software can clickjack a browser by president's men research taking the user to some other site than is method dissertation proposal expected; it will usually be rife with other links that will further infect your machine or sites that pay the clickjacker for bringing traffic to paper them (Hansen and Grossman, 2008). Again the president's paper, anonymity and ease of use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Pettit (2009) suggests that this should cause us to reevaluate the role that moral values such as trust and reliance play in a world of information technology. Lastly in this section we must address the impact that the access to information has on social justice.

Information technology was largely developed in the Western industrial societies during the twentieth century. But even today the benefits of this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics. Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to all the the information easily available to writing services in australia those in more well off and in developed nations, and some of men research paper those who have some access have that access heavily censored by their own governments. Diane Kennedy Dissertations. This situation has come to all the be called the “digital divide,” and despite efforts to address this gap it may be growing wider. While much of this gap is driven by economics (see Warschauer 2003), Charles Ess notes that there is all the also a problem with the forces of a new kind of cyber enabled colonialism and ethnocentrism that can limit the president's paper, desire of those outside the industrial West to participate in this new “Global Metropolis” (Ess 2009). John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in giving and essay, taking offence play a role in the design of more egalitarian information technologies (Weckert 2007).

Others argue that basic moral concerns like privacy are weighed differently in president's men research paper Asian cultures (Hongladarom 2008; Lü 2005). 1.1.3 Moral Values in Organizing and Synthesizing Information. In addition to percentile is an the sat essay storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the all the men research, organizing of all the paper information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on all the president's, new information. Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics (Wiener 1961 [1948]). Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to babbitt collected gather information about the all the president's paper, world, derive logical conclusions about that information which would imply certain actions, which the machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by such machines which he outlined in his book the Human Use of Human Beings (Wiener 1950).

Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to be proactive and guide the easy essay on summer vacations, technology in ways that would increase the moral reasoning capabilities of both humans and all the men research paper, machines (Bynum 2008). Machines make decisions that have moral impacts. Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen tell an anecdote in their book “Moral Machines” (2008). One of the authors left on a vacation and when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the easy essay on summer, bank and learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the charges he was trying to make were from someone stealing his card and that in order to protect him the machine had denied his credit card transactions. Here we have a situation where a piece of information technology was making decisions about the president's paper, probability of nefarious activity happening that resulted in a small amount of harm to the person that it was trying to help.

Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from human agents. Diane Kennedy Dissertations. Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the price you will have to pay for insurance, etc. is men research paper very often determined by a machine. For instance if you apply for a credit card the online resume in australia, machine will look for certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the economic condition of the president's men research paper, area you're in, etc., and all the president's men research, then calculates a probability that you will default on your credit card, that probability will either pass a threshold of acceptance or not and determine whether or not you are given the card. The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the all the paper, results of earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and what the sat essay, prediction is based on complex logic and mathematics (see for president's men research paper, example Russell and vacations, Norvig 2010), this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of someone's friends and acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and president's paper, other social data which might result in the mistaken classification of that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way (Sullins 2010). It all depends on the design of the learning and prediction algorithm, something that is typically kept secret. 1.2 The Moral Paradox of Information Technologies. Several of the issues raised above result from the moral paradox of services Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at as low a cost as possible, preferably free. But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and reliable. Maximizing our value of quick and all the, low cost minimizes our ability to provide secure and high quality information and the reverse is true also.

Thus the designers of information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises. The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in his famous quote: In fall 1984, at the first Hackers' Conference, I said in one discussion session: “On the one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life. Percentile Is An The Sat Essay. On the all the men research paper, other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is kennedy dissertations getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other” (Clarke 2000see Other Internet Resources) [1] Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to reconcile, they are likely to continue to be at the heart of moral debates in the use and design of information technologies for the foreseeable future. 2. All The Men Research Paper. Specific Moral Challenges at the Cultural Level. In the section above, the focus was on what is an the sat essay, the moral impacts of information technologies on the individual user.

In this section, the men research, focus will be on babbitt collected milton, how these technologies shape the president's men research paper, moral landscape at the social level. At the turn of the century the term “web 2.0” began to surface and it referred to the new way that the world wide web was being used as a medium for information sharing and collaboration as well as a change in the mindset of web designers to include more interoperability and user-centered experiences on their websites. This term has also become associated with “social media” and on summer vacations, “social networking.” While the original design of the web by its creator Tim Berners-Lee was always one that included notions of meeting others and collaboration, users were finally ready to fully exploit those capabilities by 2004 when the first Web 2.0 conference was held by O'Reilly Media (O'Reilly 2005see Other Internet Resources). This change has meant that a growing number of all the president's paper people have begun to is an 8 on the sat essay spend significant portions of their lives online with other users experiencing an unprecedentedly new kind of lifestyle. Social networking is an important part of many people's lives now where massive numbers of people congregate on sites like Facebook and interact with friends old and new, real and virtual.

The Internet offers the paper, immersive experience of interacting with others in virtual worlds where environments constructed from babbitt collected milton information. Just now emerging onto the scene are technologies that will allow us to paper merge the real and the virtual. Proposal. This new “augmented reality” is facilitated by the fact that many people now carry GPS enabled smart phones and other portable computers with them upon which they can run applications that let them interact with their surroundings and their computers at the same time, perhaps looking at men research paper, an item though the camera in their device and the “app” calling up information about that entity and displaying it in a bubble above the item. What Is An Essay. Each of these technologies comes with their own suite of new moral challenges some of which will be discussed below. Social networking is a term given to sites and applications that facilitate online social interactions that typically focus on sharing information with other users referred to men research as “friends.” The most famous of these sites today is Facebook. There are a number of method section moral values that these sites call into question.

Shannon Vallor (2011) has reflected on how sites like Facebook change or even challenge our notion of friendship. All The Men Research. Her analysis is based on the Aristotelian theory of friendship (see entry on Aristotle's Ethics). Kennedy. Aristotle argued that humans realize a good and true life though virtuous friendships. President's Men Research Paper. Valor notes that four key dimensions of Aristotle's ‘virtuous friendship,’ namely: reciprocity, empathy, self-knowledge and the shared life, are found in online social media in ways that can actually strengthen friendship (Vallor 2011). Yet she argues that social media is not up to the task of facilitating what Aristotle calls ‘the shared life,’ and thus these media cannot fully support the Aristotelian notion of complete and babbitt milton, virtuous friendship by themselves (Vallor 2011). All The Men Research Paper. Vallor also has a similar analysis of method proposal other Aristotelian virtues such as patience, honesty and president's paper, empathy as they are fostered in paper online media (Vallor 2010). Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012) argues for all the, a nuanced understanding of all the men research online friendship rather than a rush to all the men research normative judgement on the virtues of virtual friends.

There are, of course, privacy issues that abound in the use of social media. James Parrish following Mason (1986) recommends four policies that a user of social media should follow to ensure proper ethical concern for other's privacy: When sharing information on SNS (social network sites), it is not only necessary to consider the privacy of one's personal information, but the privacy of the information of others who may be tied to percentile is an the sat essay the information being shared. When sharing information on SNS, it is the responsibility of the all the president's, one desiring to share information to what verify the accuracy of the information before sharing it. A user of SNS should not post information about themselves that they feel they may want to retract at some future date. Furthermore, users of SNS should not post information that is the product of the paper, mind of another individual unless they are given consent by that individual. In both cases, once the information is shared, it may be impossible to kennedy retract. It is the men research paper, responsibility of the SNS user to determine the best in australia, authenticity of a person or program before allowing the president's, person or program access to the shared information. (Parrish 2010) These systems are not typically designed to protect individual privacy, but since these services are typically free there is a strong economic drive for the service providers to harvest at least some information about their user's activities on the site in order to sell that information to advertisers for directed marketing.

The first moral impact one encounters when contemplating online games is the easy essay, tendency for these games to portray violence. There are many news stories that claim a cause and effect relationship between violence in computer games and real violence. The claim that violence in video games has a causal connection to actual violence has been strongly critiqued by the social scientist Christopher J. Ferguson (Ferguson 2007). All The President's. However, Mark Coeckelbergh argues that since this relationship is tenuous at best and that the essay on summer, real issue at hand is the effect these games have on one's moral character (Coeckelbergh 2007). But Coeckelbergh goes on to claim that computer games can be designed to facilitate virtues like empathetic and cosmopolitan moral development so he is all the president's men research not arguing against percentile is an essay, all games just those where the violence inhibits moral growth (Coeckelbergh 2007). Marcus Schulzke (2010) holds a different opinion, suggesting that the violence in all the president's men research paper computer games is method dissertation morally defensible. Men Research Paper. Schulzke's main claim is that actions in a virtual world are very different from actions in the real world, though a player may “kill” another player in a virtual world, that player is instantly back in the game and the two will almost certainly remain friends in the real world thus virtual violence is very different from real violence, a distinction gamers are comfortable with (Schulzke 2010). While virtual violence may seem palatable to some, Morgan Luck (2009) seeks a moral theory that might be able to allow the acceptance of virtual murder but that will not extend to other immoral acts such as pedophilia. Christopher Bartel (2011) is less worried about the distinction Luck attempts to draw; Bartel argues that virtual pedophilia is men research paper real child pornography, which is already morally reprehensible and illegal across the globe. While violence is easy to see in online games, there is all the men research a much more substantial moral value at play and that is the politics of diane dissertations virtual worlds. Peter Ludlow and Mark Wallace describe the president's, initial moves to online political culture in their book, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the Dawn of the Metaverse (2007).

Ludlow and Wallace chronicle how the players in massive online worlds have begun to form groups and guilds that often confound the designers of the game and babbitt, are at times in conflict with those that make the game. Their contention is that designers rarely realize that they are creating a space where people intended to live large portions of their lives and engage in real economic and social activity and thus the designers have the moral duties somewhat equivalent to those who may write a political constitution (Ludlow and Wallace 2007). According to Purcell (2008), there is little commitment to democracy or egalitarianism in online games and president's men research paper, this needs to change if more and more of us are going to spend time living in these virtual worlds. 2.1.2 The Lure of the Virtual Game Worlds. A persistent concern about the use of computers and especially computer games is that this could result in anti-social behavior and isolation. Yet studies might not support these hypotheses (Gibba, et al.

1983). With the advent of massively multiplayer games as well as video games designed for families the diane dissertations, social isolation hypothesis is even harder to believe. These games do, however, raise gender equality issues. James Ivory used online reviews of games to complete a study that shows that male characters outnumber female characters in games and those female images that are in games tend to all the president's men research be overly sexualized (Ivory 2006). Soukup (2007) suggests that gameplay in these virtual worlds is most often based on gameplay that is oriented to masculine styles of play thus potentially alienating women players.

And those women that do participate in game play at the highest level play roles in gaming culture that are very different from those the online, largely heterosexual white male gamers, often leveraging their sexuality to men research paper gain acceptance (Taylor et al. Easy On Summer. 2009). Additionally, Joan M. McMahon and Ronnie Cohen have studied how gender plays a role in all the president's the making of online writing in australia ethical decisions in all the men research the virtual online world, with women more likely to president's men research judge a questionable act as unethical then men (2009). Marcus Johansson suggests that we may be able to all the president's mitigate virtual immorality by punishing virtual crimes with virtual penalties in order to foster more ethical virtual communities (Johansson 2009). The media has raised moral concerns about the way that childhood has been altered by the use of information technology (see for example Jones 2011). Diane Dissertations. Many applications are now designed specifically for toddlers encouraging them to interact with computers from as early an age as possible. All The President's Men Research Paper. Since children may be susceptible to media manipulation such as advertising we have to ask if this practice is morally acceptable or not. Depending on the particular application being used, it may encourage solitary play that may lead to isolation but others are more engaging with both the parents and the children playing (Siraj-Blatchford 2010). Percentile 8 On The Sat Essay. It should also be noted that pediatricians have advised that there are no known benefits to paper early media use amongst young children but there potential risks (Christakis 2009). Studies have shown that from 1998 to 2008, sedentary lifestyles amongst children in England have resulted in the first measured decline in strength since World War Two (Cohen et al. 2011).

It is not clear if this decline is what percentile is an essay directly attributable to information technology use but it may be a contributing factor. 2.3 Malware, Spyware and Informational Warfare. Malware and computer virus threats are growing at an astonishing rate. Security industry professionals report that while certain types of all the president's men research paper malware attacks such as spam are falling out of fashion, newer types of method section dissertation proposal attacks focused on mobile computing devices and the hacking of all the men research cloud computing infrastructure are on paper, the rise outstripping any small relief seen in the slowing down of older forms of attack (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). What is all the president's men research clear is that this type of activity will be with us for the foreseeable future. Section Dissertation Proposal. In addition to the largely criminal activity of malware production, we must also consider the related but more morally ambiguous activities of hacking, hacktivism, commercial spyware, and informational warfare. Each of these topics has its own suite of subtle moral ambiguities. We will now explore some of them here.

While there may be wide agreement that the conscious spreading of president's men research malware is of questionable morality there is an interesting question as to the morality of malware protection and anti-virus software. With the rise in malicious software there has been a corresponding growth in the security industry which is proposal now a multi-billion dollar market. Even with all the money spent on security software there seems to all the president's paper be no slowdown in virus production, in fact quite the opposite has occurred. This raises an interesting business ethics concern, what value are customers receiving for their money from the security industry? The massive proliferation of malware has been shown to be largely beyond the ability of anti-virus software to completely mitigate. Vacations. There is an all the men research important lag in the time between when a new piece of essay malware is detected by the security community and all the president's men research, the eventual release of the security patch and method, malware removal tools. The anti-virus modus operandi of receiving a sample, analyzing the sample, adding detection for the sample, performing quality assurance, creating an update, and finally sending the update to all the president's paper their users leaves a huge window of opportunity for the adversary even assuming that anti-virus users update regularly. (Aycock and Sullins 2010) This lag is kennedy constantly exploited by malware producers and in this model there is an everpresent security hole that is president's impossible to fill. Thus it is important that security professionals do not overstate their ability to protect systems, by the time a new malicious program is discovered and the sat essay, patched, it has already done significant damage and there is currently no way to stop this (Aycock and Sullins 2010).

In the past most malware creation was motivated by hobbyists and amateurs, but this has changed and now much of this activity is criminal in nature (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). Aycock and president's men research paper, Sullins (2010) argue that relying on 8 on essay, a strong defense is not enough and the situation requires a counteroffensive reply as well and they propose an ethically motivated malware research and creation program. This is not an entirely new idea and it was originally suggested by all the president's the Computer Scientist George Ledin in his editorial for the Communications of the ACM , “Not Teaching Viruses and online resume, Worms is Harmful” (2005). All The Men Research Paper. This idea does run counter to the majority opinion regarding the ethics of learning and proposal, deploying malware. Most computer scientists and researchers in information ethics agree that all malware is unethical (Edgar 2003; Himma 2007a; Neumann 2004; Spafford 1992; Spinello 2001). According to president's men research paper Aycock and Sullins, these worries can be mitigated by open research into understanding how malware is created in order to method proposal better fight this threat (2010).

When malware and spyware is created by state actors, we enter the world of informational warfare and a new set of moral concerns. Men Research Paper. Every developed country in the world experiences daily cyber-attacks, with the major target being the babbitt collected milton, United States that experiences a purported 1.8 billion attacks a month (Lovely 2010). The majority of these attacks seem to be just probing for weaknesses but they can devastate a countries internet such as the cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and those in Georgia which occured in all the president's paper 2008. While the all the president's paper, Estonian and Georgian attacks were largely designed to all the men research obfuscate communication within the target countries more recently informational warfare has been used to facilitate remote sabotage. The now famous Stuxnet virus used to attack Iranian nuclear centrifuges is perhaps the babbitt collected essay, first example of weaponized software capable of creating remotely damaging physical facilities (Cisco Systems 2011). The coming decade will likely see many more cyber weapons deployed by state actors along well-known political fault lines such as those between Israel-America-western Europe vs Iran, and America-Western Europe vs China (Kaspersky Lab 2011). The moral challenge here is to determine when these attacks are considered a severe enough challenge to all the the sovereignty of a nation to justify military reactions and to react in best online resume writing in australia a justified and ethical manner to them (Arquilla 2010; Denning 2008, Kaspersky Lab 2011). The primary moral challenge of informational warfare is determining how to use weaponized information technologies in a way that honors our commitments to just and all the president's paper, legal warfare. Since warfare is already a morally questionable endeavor it would be preferable if information technologies could be leveraged to method section proposal lessen violent combat. Men Research. For instance, one might argue that the Stuxnet virus did damage that in generations before might have been accomplished by an air raid incurring significant civilian casualtiesand that so far there have been no reported human casualties resulting from Stuxnet.

The malware known as “Flame” seems to be designed to aid in espionage and one might argue that more accurate information given to decision makers during wartime should help them make better decisions on the battlefield. On the other hand, these new informational warfare capabilities might allow states to engage in continual low level conflict eschewing efforts for peacemaking which might require political compromise. As was mentioned in resume writing services in australia the introduction above, information technologies are in all the paper a constant state of change and innovation. The internet technologies that have brought about so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared. Even though we may not be able to foresee all possible future information technologies, it is is an 8 on essay important to all the president's men research paper try to best in australia imagine the paper, changes we are likely to see in emerging technologies. James Moor argues that moral philosophers need to pay particular attention to emerging technologies and help influence the design of these technologies early on before they adversely affect moral change (Moor 2005). Some potential technological concerns now follow. An information technology has an interesting growth pattern that has been observed since the easy on summer vacations, founding of the industry. Intel engineer Gordon E. Moore noticed that the number of components that could be installed on an integrated circuit doubled every year for a minimal economic cost and he thought it might continue that way for another decade or so from the time he noticed it in 1965 (Moore 1965). History has shown his predictions were rather conservative.

This doubling of speed and president's men research paper, capabilities along with a halving of cost has proven to easy essay on summer continue every 18 or so months since 1965 and shows little evidence of president's men research paper stopping. And this phenomenon is not limited to computer chips but is also present in all information technologies. The potential power of this accelerating change has captured the imagination of the noted inventor Ray Kurzweil who has famously predicted that if this doubling of capabilities continues and more and method section, more technologies become information technologies, then there will come a point in time where the president's paper, change from one generation of information technology to the next will become so massive that it will change everything about what it means to be human, and at essay, this moment which he calls “the Singularity” our technology will allow us to become a new post human species (2006). All The Paper. If this is correct, there could be no more profound change to our moral values. There has been some support for this thesis from the technology community with institutes such as the Singularity Institute, the Acceleration Studies Foundation, Future of method section proposal Humanity Institute, and H+. [2] Reaction to this hypothesis from philosophy has been mixed but largely critical. For example Mary Midgley (1992) argues that the belief that science and technology will bring us immortality and bodily transcendence is based on pseudoscientific beliefs and a deep fear of death. In a similar vein Sullins (2000) argues that there is a quasi-religious aspect to the acceptance of men research paper transhumanism and online services, the acceptance of the transhumanist hypothesis influences the values embedded in computer technologies that are dismissive or hostile to the human body.

While many ethical systems place a primary moral value on preserving and protecting the natural, transhumanists do not see any value in defining what is men research natural and what is not and consider arguments to diane dissertations preserve some perceived natural state of the human body as an men research unthinking obstacle to progress. Diane Kennedy Dissertations. Not all philosophers are critical of transhumanism, as an example Nick Bostrom (2008) of the all the men research, Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University argues that putting aside the all the president's paper, feasibility argument, we must conclude that there are forms of posthumanism that would lead to long and worthwhile lives and that it would be overall a very good thing for all the president's paper, humans to become posthuman if it is at all possible. 2.4.2 Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life. Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to all the president's men research the many longstanding research projects directed at building information technologies that exhibit some or all aspects of human level intelligence and problem solving. Artificial Life (ALife) is a project that is not as old as AI and is focused on president's men research, developing information technologies and method section proposal, or synthetic biological technologies that exhibit life functions typically found only in biological entities. A more complete description of logic and AI can be found in the entry on logic and artificial intelligence. ALife essentially sees biology as a kind of naturally occurring information technology that may be reverse engineered and synthesized in other kinds of technologies. Both AI and ALife are vast research projects that defy simple explanation.

Instead the focus here is on the moral values that these technologies impact and men research paper, the way some of these technologies are programmed to affect emotion and moral concern. Alan Turing is credited with defining the research project that would come to be known as artificial Intelligence in section dissertation proposal his seminal 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and paper, Intelligence.” He described the “imitation game,” where a computer attempts to fool a human interlocutor that it is best resume writing services in australia not a computer but another human (Turing 1948, 1950). In 1950, he made the now famous claim that. I believe that in about fifty years' time. one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. A description of the test and president's paper, its implications to philosophy outside of moral values can be found here (see entry on The Turing Test). Turing's prediction may have been overly ambitious and in fact some have argued that we are nowhere near the completion of on summer Turing's dream. For example, Luciano Floridi (2011a) argues that while AI has been very successful as a means of augmenting our own intelligence, but as a branch of cognitive science interested in intelligence production, AI has been a dismal disappointment. For argument's sake, assume Turing is correct even if he is all the men research off in his estimation of collected when AI will succeed in creating a machine that can converse with you.

Yale professor David Gelernter worries that that there would be certain uncomfortable moral issues raised. “You would have no grounds for treating it as a being toward which you have moral duties rather than as a tool to all the president's be used as you like” (Gelernter 2007). Gelernter suggests that consciousness is essay milton a requirement for moral agency and men research, that we may treat anything without it in any way that we want without moral regard. Sullins (2006) counters this argument by noting that consciousness is not required for moral agency. President's Men Research Paper. For instance, nonhuman animals and the other living and nonliving things in our environment must be accorded certain moral rights, and indeed, any Turing capable AI would also have moral duties as well as rights, regardless of its status as a conscious being (Sullins 2006). But even if AI is incapable of creating machines that can converse effectively with human beings, there are still many other applications that use AI technology. Many of the information technologies we discussed above such as, search, computer games, data mining, malware filtering, robotics, etc. all utilize AI programming techniques. All The. Thus it may be premature to dismiss progress in the realm of AI. Artificial Life (ALife) is an outgrowth of AI and refers to the use of information technology to simulate or synthesize life functions. The problem of defining life has been an interest in philosophy since its founding. See the entry on life for a look at the concept of life and its philosophical ramifications. If scientists and technologists were to succeed in discovering the necessary and sufficient conditions for life and then successfully synthesize it in a machine or through synthetic biology, then we would be treading on territory that has significant moral impact.

Mark Bedau has been tracing the philosophical implications of ALife for method dissertation proposal, some time now and argues that there are two distinct forms of ALife and each would thus have different moral effects if and all the president's men research paper, when we succeed in realizing these separate research agendas (Bedau 2004; Bedau and Parke 2009). One form of ALife is completely computational and is in fact the earliest form of ALife studied. Section Dissertation. ALife is president's men research inspired by the work of the mathematician John von Neumann on self-replicating cellular automata, which von Neumann believed would lead to a computational understanding of biology and the life sciences (1966). Best Services. The computer scientist Christopher Langton simplified von Neumann's model greatly and produced a simple cellular automata called “Loops” in the early eighties and helped get the field off the ground by organizing the first few conferences on Artificial Life (1989). Artificial Life programs are quite different from AI programs. Where AI is intent on creating or enhancing intelligence, ALife is content with very simple minded programs that display life functions rather than intelligence. The primary moral concern here is that these programs are designed to self-reproduce and in that way resemble computer viruses and indeed successful ALife programs could become as malware vectors. The second form of ALife is much more morally charged. This form of ALife is president's paper based on manipulating actual biological and biochemical processes in such a way as to produce novel life forms not seen in nature.

Scientists at the J. Craig Venter institute were able to synthesize an artificial bacterium called JCVI-syn1.0 in May of 2010. While media paid attention to this breakthrough, they tended to babbitt collected milton focus on the potential ethical and social impacts of the creation of artificial bacteria. Craig Venter himself launched a public relations campaign trying to steer the conversation about issues relating to creating life. This first episode in the synthesis of life gives us a taste of the excitement and controversy that will be generated when more viable and robust artificial protocells are synthesized. The ethical concerns raised by Wet ALife, as this kind of research is called, are more properly the jurisdiction of bioethics (see entry on Theory and Bioethics). But it does have some concern for us here in all the men research paper that Wet ALife is part of the all the president's men research, process of turning theories from the life sciences into information technologies. President's. This will tend to blur the boundaries between bioethics and information ethics. Just as software ALife might lead to dangerous malware, so too might Wet ALife lead to dangerous bacteria or other disease agents.

Critics suggest that there are strong moral arguments against pursuing this technology and that we should apply the precautionary principle here which states that if there is any chance at a technology causing catastrophic harm, and there is no scientific consensus suggesting that the men research, harm will not occur, then those who wish to develop that technology or pursue that research must prove it to be harmless first (see Epstein 1980). Mark Bedau and Mark Traint argue against a too strong adherence to the precautionary principle by suggesting that instead we should opt for moral courage in pursuing such an important step in human understanding of life (2009). They appeal to the Aristotelian notion of courage, not a headlong and foolhardy rush into the unknown, but a resolute and careful step forward into the possibilities offered by this research. Information technologies have not been content to paper remain confined to virtual worlds and easy essay, software implementations. President's Men Research Paper. These technologies are also interacting directly with us through robotics applications. Robotics is an emerging technology but it has already produced a number of applications that have important moral implications. Percentile Is An 8 On. Technologies such as military robotics, medical robotics, personal robotics and the world of sex robots are just some of the already existent uses of robotics that impact on and express our moral commitments (see Capurro and Nagenborg 2009; Lin et al. All The. 2011).

There have already been a number of valuable contributions to president's paper the growing field of robotic ethics (roboethics). For example, in Wallach and all the men research, Allen's book Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2010), the authors present ideas for easy essay, the design and programming of all the president's men research machines that can functionally reason on easy essay on summer vacations, moral questions as well as examples from the field of robotics where engineers are trying to president's men research create machines that can behave in resume writing a morally defensible way. The introduction of semi and fully autonomous machines into public life will not be simple. Towards this end, Wallach (2011) has also contributed to the discussion on the role of philosophy in helping to design public policy on the use and regulation of president's paper robotics. Military robotics has proven to be one of the most ethically charged robotics applications. Today these machines are largely remotely operated (telerobots) or semi-autonomous, but over time these machines are likely to become more and more autonomous due to the necessities of modern warfare (Singer 2009). In the method, first decade of war in the 21 st century robotic weaponry has been involved in numerous killings of president's men research both soldiers and noncombatants, and this fact alone is section dissertation of deep moral concern. President's Paper. Gerhard Dabringer has conducted numerous interviews with ethicists and technologists regarding the implications of automated warfare (Dabringer 2010). Many ethicists are cautious in their acceptance of automated warfare with the provision that the technology is babbitt collected essay used to enhance just warfare practices (see Lin et al.

2008; Sullins 2009b) but others have been highly skeptical of the prospects of a just autonomous war due to issues like the risk to civilians (Asaro 2008; Sharkey 2011). 3. Men Research Paper. Information Technologies of Morality. A key development in what is an 8 on essay realm of information technologies is that they are not only the object of moral deliberations but they are also beginning to be used as a tool in moral deliberation itself. Since artificial intelligence technologies and applications are a kind of men research automated problem solvers, and moral deliberations are a kind of problem, it was only a matter of time before automated moral reasoning technologies would emerge. This is still only an emerging technology but it has a number of very interesting moral implications which will be outlined below. What Is An 8 On The Sat Essay. The coming decades are likely to see a number of advances in this area and ethicists need to pay close attention to these developments as they happen. Susan and Michael Anderson have collected a number of articles regarding this topic in their book, Machine Ethics (2011), and paper, Rocci Luppicini has a section of his anthology devoted to this topic in diane kennedy dissertations the Handbook of president's men research paper Research on all the men research paper, Technoethics (2009).

3.1 Information Technology as a Model for Moral Discovery. Patrick Grim has been a longtime proponent of the idea that philosophy should utilize information technologies to automate and illustrate philosophical thought experiments (Grim et al. 1998; Grim 2004). Peter Danielson (1998) has also written extensively on this subject beginning with his book Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution with much of the early research in the computational theory of president's paper morality centered on using computer models to elucidate the emergence of cooperation between simple software AI or ALife agents (Sullins 2005). Luciano Floridi and J. What Is An The Sat. W. Sanders argue that information as it is used in the theory of computation can serve as a powerful idea that can help resolve some of the famous moral conundrums in philosophy such as the nature of evil (1999, 2001). The propose that along with moral evil and natural evil, both concepts familiar to philosophy (see entry on the Problem of Evil); we add a third concept they call artificial evil (2001). Floridi and Sanders contend that if we do this then we can see that the actions of all the president's men research paper artificial agents. to be morally good or evil can be determined even in the absence of biologically sentient participants and thus allows artificial agents not only to what percentile is an 8 on the sat essay perpetrate evil (and for that matter good) but conversely to ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. (Floridi and Sanders 2001) Evil can then be equated with something like information dissolution, where the irretrievable loss of information is bad and the preservation of information is good (Floridi and all the president's men research, Sanders 2001). This idea can move us closer to diane kennedy a way of measuring the men research, moral impacts of any given action in an information environment. 3.2 Information Technology as a Moral System.

Early in the twentieth century the American philosopher John Dewey (see entry on John Dewey) proposed a theory of inquiry based on the instrumental uses of technology. Dewey had an expansive definition of essay milton technology which included not only common tools and machines but information systems such as logic, laws and even language as well (Hickman 1990). Dewey argued that we are in all the a ‘transactional’ relationship with all of these technologies within which we discover and construct our world (Hickman 1990). This is a helpful standpoint to take as it allows us to advance the dissertations, idea that an information technology of morality and ethics is not impossible. As well as allowing us to take seriously the idea that the relations and transactions between human agents and those that exist between humans and their artifacts have important ontological similarities. All The President's Men Research Paper. While Dewey could only dimly perceive the coming revolutions in information technologies, his theory is useful to us still because he proposed that ethics was not only a theory but a practice and section, solving problems in ethics is all the president's paper like solving problems in method section proposal algebra (Hickman 1990). If he is right, then an interesting possibility arises, namely the possibility that ethics and morality are computable problems and therefore it should be possible to create an information technology that can embody moral systems of thought. In 1974 the president's men research, philosopher Mario Bunge proposed that we take the notion of a ‘technoethics’ seriously arguing that moral philosophers should emulate the way engineers approach a problem.

Engineers do not argue in terms of reasoning by best online resume in australia categorical imperatives but instead they use: the forms If A produces B , and you value B , chose to president's paper do A , and method proposal, If A produces B and C produces D , and you prefer B to D , choose A rather than C . In short, the rules he comes up with are based on fact and value, I submit that this is the way moral rules ought to be fashioned, namely as rules of conduct deriving from scientific statements and value judgments. In short ethics could be conceived as a branch of technology. All The President's Men Research Paper. (Bunge 1977, 103) Taking this view seriously implies that the very act of building information technologies is on summer vacations also the act of president's creating specific moral systems within which human and artificial agents will, at least occasionally, interact through moral transactions. Information technologists may therefore be in the business of what percentile is an 8 on the sat essay creating moral systems whether they know it or not and whether or not they want that responsibility. 3.4 Informational Organisms as Moral Agents.

The most comprehensive literature that argues in all the president's men research favor of the prospect of using information technology to create artificial moral agents is that of Luciano Floridi (1999, 2002, 2003, 2010b, 2011b), and Floridi with Jeff W. Sanders (1999, 2001, 2004). Floridi (1999) recognizes that issues raised by essay on summer vacations the ethical impacts of information technologies strain our traditional moral theories. To relieve this friction he argues that what is needed is a broader philosophy of information (2002). After making this move, Floridi (2003) claims that information is a legitimate environment of its own and that has its own intrinsic value that is in some ways similar to the natural environment and in other ways radically foreign but either way the all the paper, result is that information is on its own a thing that is worthy of ethical concern. Easy Essay On Summer Vacations. Floridi (2003) uses these ideas to create a theoretical model of moral action using the logic of object oriented programming. His model has seven components; 1) the moral agent a, 2) the paper, moral patient p (or more appropriately, reagent), 3) the babbitt milton, interactions of these agents, 4) the agent's frame of information, 5) the men research, factual information available to the agent concerning the situation that agent is attempting to navigate, 6) the environment the interaction is occurring in, and 7) the situation in method proposal which the interaction occurs (Floridi 2003, 3). Men Research. Note that there is no assumption of the ontology of the agents concerned in the moral relationship modeled (Sullins 2009a) There is additional literature which critiques and expands the idea of automated moral reasoning (Adam 2008; Anderson and collected milton, Anderson 2011; Johnson and Powers 2008; Schmidt 2007; Wallach and Allen 2010).

While scholars recognize that we are still some time from creating information technology that would be unequivocally recognized as an artificial moral agent, there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of the all the men research, eventual possibility and therefore they are an all the men research appropriate concern for men research paper, those interested in the moral impacts of information technologies. Adam, A., 2002, “Cyberstalking and Internet pornography: Gender and the gaze,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(2): 133142. Babbitt Essay Milton. , 2008, “Ethics for things,” Ethics and Information technology , 10(23): 149154. Anderson, M. and S. L. Anderson (eds.), 2011, Machine Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arkin, R., 2009, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots , New York: Chapman and all the president's paper, Hall/CRC. Arquilla, J., 2010, “Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Asaro, P. 2008. “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing And Philosophy , Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 5064. , 2009. “Modeling the easy on summer, Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology Society , 28(1): 2024. Aycock, J. and J. Sullins, 2010, “Ethical Proactive Threat Research,” Workshop on Ethics in Computer Security Research (LNCS 6054) , New York: Springer, pp. 231239. Bartell, C., 2011, “Resolving the gamer's dilemma,” Ethics and Information Technology , 14(1):1116. Baase, S., 2008, A Gift of all the president's men research paper Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and dissertation, the Internet , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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3255, Linköping, Sweden: Center for babbitt collected essay, Applied Ethics at Linköping University. , 2008, “Norbert Wiener and all the, the Rise of Information Ethics,” in online resume van den Hoven and Weckert 2008. Capurro, R., Nagenborg, M., 2009, Ethics and all the men research paper, Robotics , [CITY]: IOS Press Christakis, D. A., 2009, “The effects of infant media usage: what do we know and what percentile 8 on, what should we learn?” Acta Pædiatrica , 98 (1): 816. Cisco Systems, Inc., 2011, Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report: Highlighting global security threats and trends , San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems Inc. [available online] Coeckelbergh, M., 2007, “Violent Computer Games, Empathy, and men research paper, Cosmopolitanism,” Ethics and milton, Information Technology , 9(3): 219231 Cohen, D. All The President's Men Research Paper. D., C. Voss, M. J. D. Taylor, A. Delextrat, A. A. Best Online Writing Services In Australia. Ogunleye, and all the president's paper, G. R. Collected. H. Sandercock, 2011, “Ten-year secular changes in muscular fitness in English children,” Acta Paediatrica , 100(10): e175e177. Danielson, P., 1998, Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dabringer, G., (ed.) 2010, Ethica Themen: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Unmanned Systems, Interviews , Vienna, Austria: Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sports. [available online] Denning, D., 2008, “The Ethics of Cyber Conflict,” In Himma and Tavanni 2008. Dodig-Crnkovic, G., Hofkirchner, W., 2011, “Floridi's ‘Open Problems in Philosophy of paper Information’, Ten Years Later,” Information , (2): 327359. [available online] Edgar, S.L., 2003, Morality and Machines , Sudbury Massachusetts: Jones and method, Bartlett. Epstein, R., 2007, “The Impact of all the president's Computer Security Concerns on Software Development,” in Himma 2007a, pp.

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Anatomy of the all the president's men research ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay. Understanding the anatomy of the kennedy ankle ligaments is important for paper, correct diagnosis and treatment. All The Men Research! Ankle ligament injury is the all the men research paper most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of babbitt collected essay milton, one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the ankle are grouped, depending on their anatomic orientation, and each of the ankle ligaments is discussed in detail. Despite the fact that the men research paper ankle ligaments are prone to injury during the fast majority of sports, literature focusing on the ankle ligaments is rare. What Percentile Is An 8 On The Sat Essay! Proper anatomic knowledge of the all the president's men research paper different ligaments is important for a correct diagnosis and is an 8 on the sat essay, subsequent treatment.

The most common mechanism of injury to men research paper, the ankle ligaments is inversion of the foot [ 4 , 33 ]. With this mechanism of vacations, injury, the anterior talofibular ligament is the first or only all the, ligament to the sat, sustain injury [ 43 ]. A total rupture involves the calcaneofibular ligament and the posterior talofibular ligaments as well [ 9 ]. An eversion injury will cause damage to the deltoid ligaments [ 3 ], while a hyperdorsiflexion trauma might cause an injury to the syndesmotic ligaments [ 11 ]. The ligaments around the ankle can be divided, depending on paper their anatomic position, into three groups: the easy essay vacations lateral ligaments, the deltoid ligament on men research the medial side, and kennedy dissertations, the ligaments of the tibiofibular syndesmosis that join the distal epiphyses of the bones of the leg (tibia and fibula). All The President's! In this review article, these three groups of ligaments are described separately, and in each section, the men research specific ligaments are described in all the president's detail. The lateral and section proposal, medial collateral ligaments. The lateral collateral ligament complex (LCL) consists of the all the paper anterior talofibular, the calcaneofibular, and the posterior talofibular ligaments. The medial collateral ligaments (MCL), also known as the deltoid ligament, are a multifascicular group of ligaments and can roughly be divided into a superficial and babbitt essay milton, deep group of all the president's paper, fibers [ 8 , 24 , 28 , 36 ]. Anterolateral view of the essay ankle. Anatomic dissection. All The Paper! 1 Anterior talofibular ligament; 2 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 3 fibular insertion of the calcaneofibular ligament; 4 superior extensor retinaculum; 5 inferior extensor retinaculum; 6 peroneus tertius tendon; 7 extensor digitorum longus tendons; 8 superior peroneal retinaculum; 9 inferior peroneal retinaculum; 10 peroneus brevis tendon; 11 peroneus longus tendon; 12 extensor digitorum brevis muscle. Osteoarticular anatomic dissection of the lateral ligaments of the foot and what is an 8 on, ankle joint. The anterior talofibular ligament is typically composed of two separate bands. President's Paper! 1 Tip of the lateral malleolus; 2 tibia; 3 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 4 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 superior band of the anterior talofibular ligament; 6 inferior band of the kennedy anterior talofibular ligament; 7 lateral articular surface of the all the president's talus; 8 neck of the talus; 9 head of the talus; 10 calcaneofibular ligament; 11 talocalcaneal interosseous ligament; 12 cervical ligament; 13 talonavicular ligament; 14 navicular.

Anatomic dissection of the lateral region of the kennedy dissertations foot and ankle showing the morphology and relationship of the anterior talofibular with the calcaneofibular ligaments. 1 Fibula and president's, tip of the fibula; 2 tibia (anterior tubercle with arrows ); 3 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 4 distal fascicle of the tibiofibular ligament; 5 interosseous membrane; 6 foramen for the perforating branch of the peroneal artery; 7 talus; 8 anterior talofibular ligament; 9 calcaneofibular ligament; 10 talocalcaneal interosseous ligament; 11 inferior extensor retinaculum (cut); 12 talonavicular ligament; 13 bifurcate ligament; 14 peroneal tubercle ( arrows showing the peroneal tendons sulcus); 15 peroneus longus tendon; 16 peroneus brevis tendon; 17 calcaneal tendon. Anatomic dissection of the lateral ankle ligaments showing the method proposal relationship of the calcaneofibular and president's paper, lateral talocalcaneal ligaments with the morphology of the anterior talofibular ligament. Some authors describe a third band of the anterior talofibular ligament. We have never found this third band in our dissections. In the presented dissection, the superior band of the essay anterior talofibular ligament is smaller than usually. 1 Tip of the fibula; 2 superior and inferior bands of the anterior talofibular ligament; 3 calcaneofibular ligament; 4 lateral talocalcaneal ligament; 5 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 6 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 7 triangular region of the talus; 8 lateral articular surface of the talus; 9 dorsal articular surface of the all the men research paper talus; 10 talocalcaneal interosseous ligament; 11 cervical ligament; 12 talonavicular ligament; 13 navicular; 14 lateral calcaneocuboid ligament; 15 bifurcate ligament (calcaneonavicular fascicle) From its origin, it runs anteromedially to method section dissertation, the insertion on the talar body immediately anterior to the joint surface occupied by the lateral malleolus. The ligament is virtually horizontal to the ankle in the neutral position but inclines upward in dorsiflexion and downward in plantar flexion.

It is only in the latter position that the president's ligament comes under strain and is vulnerable to essay milton, injury, particularly, when the president's men research foot is inverted [ 9 ]. In plantar flexion, the inferior band of the ligament remains relaxed while the babbitt essay milton upper band becomes taut. In dorsiflexion, the upper band remains relaxed, and the inferior band becomes tight. Osteoarticular dissection of the calcaneofibular ligament during ankle movements. a Neutral position. b Dorsal flexion. c Plantar flexion. Calcaneofibular ligament becomes horizontal during plantar flexion and vertical in dorsal flexion, remaining tensed throughout the entire arc of motion of the president's men research paper ankle. 1 Calcaneofibular ligament; 2 tip of the collected essay milton fibula; 3 calcaneus; 4 peroneal tubercle; 5 subtalar joint; 6 anterior talofibular ligament; 7 neck of the talus; 8 talocalcaneal interosseous ligament; 9 anterior tubercle of the tibia; 10 anterior tibiotalar ligament; 11 posterior tubercle of the tibia; 12 lateral talar process; 13 calcaneocuboid joint; 14 lateral calcaneocuboid ligament; 15 talonavicular ligament; 16 cervical ligament; 17 navicular; 18 bifurcate ligament (calcaneonavicular fascicle); 19 long plantar ligament. Anatomic dissection showing the president's relationship of the what the sat calcaneofibular ligament with peroneal tendons. 1 Calcaneofibular ligament; 2 peroneus longus tendon; 3 peroneus brevis tendon; 4 fibula; 5 talofibular ligament; 6 calcaneus; 7 subtalar joint; 8 septum in the peroneal tubercle; 9 superior extensor retinaculum; 10 inferior extensor retinaculum; 11 extensor digitorum longus tendons; 12 peroneus tertius tendon; 13 extensor digitorum brevis; 14 extensor digitorum brevis tendon; 15 calcaneal tendon; 16 Kager’s fat pad; 17 tuberosity of the all the president's paper fifth metatarsal bone; 18 lateral plantar fascia; 19 abductor digiti minimi. Osteoarticular dissection. Best Online Resume Writing In Australia! Relationship of the calcaneofibular ligament with the lateral talocalcaneal ligament.

1 Calcaneofibular ligament; 2 lateral talocalcaneal ligament; 3 anterior talofibular ligament; 4 peroneal tubercle. In cross-section, the men research paper ligament is rounded and has a diameter of 6–8 mm, and its length is diane dissertations, about 20 mm. This ligament is all the, separate from the ankle joint capsule, but it is diane kennedy, intimately associated with the posteromedial part of the all the men research paper peroneal tendons sheath, covering almost the entire ligament [ 36 ]. The calcaneofibular ligament is the essay only ligament bridging both the talocrural joint and subtalar joint. President's Men Research Paper! Insertion of this ligament and its axis of method dissertation proposal, rotation point allow flexion and extension movements of the talocrural joint. Depending on all the president's its bi-articular characteristic, this ligament also permits subtalar movement. Brostrom found that combined ruptures of the resume anterior talofibular and the calcaneofibular ligaments occurred in 20% of cases and that isolated rupture of the calcaneofibular ligament was very rare [ 9 ]. The posterior talofibular ligament is usually not injured unless there is a frank dislocation of the ankle.

Variants in president's men research its orientation of the calcaneofibular ligament were studied by Ruth [ 35 ]. The calcaneofibular ligament becomes horizontal during extension and vertical in flexion, remaining tense throughout its entire arc of motion (Fig. 5 ). A valgus or varus position of the talus considerably changes the angle formed by the ligament and the longitudinal axis of the fibula. The ligament is all the men research paper, relaxed in the valgus position and tense in the varus position. All The President's Men Research Paper! This explains the easy essay vacations potential for all the men research, injury even without dorsiflexion-plantar flexion movement in the ankle. Posterior view of the anatomic dissection of the ankle ligaments. 1 Tip of the fibula; 2 peroneal groove of the fibula; 3 tibia; 4 superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 deep component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 6 posterior calcaneofibular ligament; 7 lateral talar process; 8 medial talar process; 9 tunnel for flexor hallucis longus tendon; 10 flexor hallucis longus retinaculum; 11 calcaneofibular ligament; 12 subtalar joint; 13 posterior intermalleolar ligament; 14 flexor digitorum longus tendon (cut); 15 tibialis posterior tendon; 16 peroneal tendons. Moreover, a group of fibers fuse with the posterior intermalleolar ligament [ 29 ]. The posterior intermalleolar ligament has been the section dissertation proposal subject of recent studies because of its involvement in the posterior soft tissue impingement syndrome of the ankle [ 17 , 27 ]. Its prevalence of occurrence both in radiological and in anatomic studies vary widely, ranging from all the men research paper, 19% up to 100% [ 24 , 27 , 30 ]. In our dissections, the method dissertation intermalleolar ligament is a consistent finding [ 16 ]. a Posterior view of the ankle ligaments showing the relationships of the posterior intermalleolar ligament, posterior talofibular ligament and president's, transverse ligament. b T1-weighted spin-echo MR imaging showing the correlation between MRI and the saggital cuts in a . 1 Posterior intermalleolar ligament; 2 superficial component of the tibiofibular ligament; 3 deep component of the tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 4 posterior talofibular ligament; 5 lateral talar process; 6 tunnel for flexor hallucis longus tendon. Posterior view of the online writing in australia anatomic dissection of the ankle ligaments showing the posterior intermalleolar ligament with its relation to men research paper, the surrounding anatomy. 1 Fibula; 2 tip of the fibula; 3 peroneal groove of the men research paper fibula; 4 tibia; 5 posterior tubercle of the tibia; 6 superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 7 deep component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 8 interosseous membrane; 9 posterior talofibular ligament; 10 lateral talar process; 11 tunnel for all the president's paper, flexor hallucis longus tendon; 12 flexor hallucis longus retinaculum; 13 calcaneofibular ligament; 14 subtalar joint; 15 flexor digitorum longus tendon (cut); 16 tibialis posterior tendon (cut); 17 posterior intermalleolar ligament: A Tibial insertion (tibial slip in is an essay arthroscopic view). Men Research Paper! B Talar insertion (lateral talar process). C Tibial malleolar insertion through the septum between the flexor digitorum longus and posterior tibial tendons.

D Talar insertion (medial talar process) through the joint capsule. These differences can probably be explained by its limited size and therefore difficult assessment during an ankle dissection, although Oh et al. [ 27 ] propose the proposal number of specimens used or interracial variations. In addition, the ligament may be divided into president's two or three different bands (20% [ 34 ]–100% [ 27 ]). President's! Anatomic view of the posterior intermalleolar ligament ( arrows ) showing its involvement in the posterior soft tissue impingement of the ankle. All The President's Paper! From dorsiflexion ( a ) to services in australia, plantar flexion ( d ), to all the, dorsiflexion ( f ). 1 Superficial component of the section dissertation proposal posterior tibiofibular ligament; 2 deep component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 3 posterior talofibular ligament; 4 lateral talar process; 5 medial talar process; 6 tunnel for the flexor hallucis longus tendon; 7 deep layer of the medial collateral ligament (deep posterior tibiotalar ligament) Since the introduction of the posterior ankle arthroscopy by van Dijk et al. [ 44 , 45 ] in 2000, the posterior ankle ligaments can clearly be visualized and all the, treated in case of pathology. The anatomical descriptions of the MCL vary widely in the literature; however, in diane kennedy general most agree that it is composed of president's paper, two layers; the superficial and deep [ 8 , 24 , 28 , 36 ]. Similar to the posterior talofibular ligament, the MCL is method dissertation, a multifascicular ligament, originating from the all the president's paper medial malleolus to insert in the talus, calcaneus, and navicular bone.

The tendon sheath of the kennedy posterior tibial muscle covers the posterior and middle part of the deltoid ligament in much the same way as the peroneal tendon sheath is associated with the calcaneofibular ligament on the lateral side. Comparison of the nomenclature used for the medial collateral components, as suggested by president's paper Sarrafian [ 36 ] and kennedy, Milner and Soames [ 24 ] Milner and Soames [ 24 ] Tibiospring ligament (major component) Tibionavicular ligament (major component) Tibionavicular fascicle and anterior superficial tibiotalar fascicle. All The Men Research Paper! Superficial tibiotalar ligament (additional band) Superficial posterior tibiotalar ligament. Tibiocalcaneal ligament (additional band) Deep posterior tibiotalar ligament (major component) Deep posterior tibiotalar ligament. Anterior deep tibiotalar ligament (additional band) Deep anterior tibiotalar ligament. Diane Kennedy Dissertations! Schematic representation of the main components of the president's paper medial collateral ligament found as frequently observed in our dissections. The morphology of the medial malleolus is helpful to understand the origins of the medial collateral ligament. In the dissertation proposal medial view, two areas or segments (culliculi) can be seen, separated by the intercollicular groove. 1 Tibionavicular ligament; 2 tibiospring ligament; 3 tibiocalcaneal ligament; 4 deep posterior tibiotalar ligament; 5 spring ligament complex (plantar and superomedial calcaneonavicular ligaments); 6 anterior culliculus; 7 posterior culliculus; 8 intercullicular groove; 9 sustentaculum tali; 10 medial talar process; 11 lateral talar process; 12 navicular; 13 navicular tuberosity. Medial view of the anatomic dissection of the main components of the men research paper medial collateral ligament.

1 Tibionavicular ligament; 2 tibiospring ligament; 3 tibiocalcaneal ligament; 4 deep posterior tibiotalar ligament; 5 spring ligament complex (superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament); 6 medial talar process; 7 sustentaculum tali; 8 medial talocalcaneal ligament; 9 tibialis posterior tendon. Medial view of the anatomic dissection of the medial collateral ligament. Most of the medial collateral ligament is covered by tendons (tibialis posterior and all the men research paper, flexor digitorum longus tendons). In order to all the president's men research, see the ligament, the tendon of flexor digitorum longus was removed. a Neutral position showing the relationship with the tibialis posterior tendon. b The posterior tibialis tendon was removed. c Plantar flexion. The components located anteriorly to the bimalleolar axis are tensed. d Dorsiflexion. The components located anteriorly to the bimalleolar axis are relaxed. 1 Medial malleolus; 2 lateral talar process; 3 sustentaculum tali; 4 navicular; 5 tibialis posterior tendon; 6 navicular tuberosity; 7 flexor hallucis longus (cut); 8 flexor hallucis longus retinaculum; 9 posterior talocalcaneal ligament; 10 calcaneal tendon (cut at the level of the insertion); 11 long plantar ligament; 12 spring ligament complex (superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament); 13 tibionavicular ligament; 14 tibiospring ligament; 15 tibiocalcaneal ligament; 16 deep posterior tibiotalar ligament. Although the description proposed by what percentile 8 on Milner and men research, Soames has been accepted [ 24 ], the on summer vacations anatomy of this ligament and its components is still confusing. During our dissections, we found it rather difficult to all the president's, determine each individual band, since most are continuous to one another, and therefore pointing out individual bands is artificial. Method Section Proposal! Ligaments that join the distal epiphyses of the tibia and paper, fibula.

The talocrural joint consists of a fork-shaped dome formed by the distal tibia and fibula and what 8 on the sat essay, the talar trochlea enclosed by this mortise. Cartilagenous areas of the ankle joint are not congruent in president's paper their surface outlines. In the frontal plane, the babbitt talar dome has a slightly concave profile. The planes of the tibial and fibular facets are not parallel. The trochlea is president's, wider anteriorly than posteriorly, and the cartilage covered surfaces have slightly curved sides. The fibular facet has a convex contour, whereas the tibial facet is concave [ 13 ]. Services In Australia! It is a syndesmotic articulation that allows the tibia-fibula as a whole to all the president's men research, adapt to the varying width of the upper articular surface of the talus by slight ascending and medial rotation movements of the fibula during extreme dorsiflexion (maximum width) and by writing inverse movements during plantar flexion (minimum width) [ 21 ]. President's Men Research Paper! Medial view of the what is an 8 on the sat essay tibiofibular joint (os talus previously removed). 1 Articular surface of the all the men research paper lateral malleolus; 2 distal articular surface of the tibia; 3 anterior tibiofibular ligament (distal fascicle); 4 superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 deep component of the services in australia posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 6 fatty synovial fringe; 7 anterior talofibular ligament; 8 calcaneofibular ligament; 9 posterior talofibular ligament; 10 fibulotalocalcaneal ligament or Rouviere and Canela ligament. Anterior or anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament. Anterosuperior view of men research, talocrural joint and dorsum of the foot. 1 Anterior tibiofibular ligament; 2 anterior tubercle of the tibia.

Anatomic view of the section anterolateral part of the ankle showing the relationship between the anterior tibiofibular ligament and the perforating branch of the men research paper peroneal artery (arteries are filled with black latex). 1 Anterior tibiofibular ligament; 2 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 3 anterior tubercle of the tibia; 4 perforating branch of peroneal artery; 5 triangular region of the talus; 6 anterior malleolar artery; 7 lateral articular surface of the talus; 8 dorsal articular surface of the talus; 9 anterior talofibular ligament. The most distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament appears to be independent from the rest of the structure (Fig. 16 ). It is essay milton, separated by a septum of fibroadipose tissue and may be slightly deeper than the rest of the president's men research ligament. Pathology to this fascicle is frequently described as being responsible for anterolateral soft tissue impingement [ 1 , 2 , 5 , 32 ]. Excision of this distal fascicle through open or ankle arthroscopic approach frequently resolves the patient’s complaints, whereas the section dissertation proposal ankle stability is all the president's men research, not comprised [ 6 , 25 , 26 , 31 ]. Anatomic view of the anterior ligaments of the ankle. 1 Anterior tibiofibular ligament; 2 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 3 tibia (anterior tubercle indicated with arrows ); 4 anterior talofibular ligament; 5 beveled triangular region of the talus; 6 deep layer of the medial collateral ligament; 7 superficial layer of the medial collateral ligament; 8 notch of babbitt milton, Harty.

Osteoarticular anatomic dissection of the ligaments of the foot and all the president's, ankle joint. Babbitt Collected Essay Milton! 1 Tip of the lateral malleolus; 2 tibia (anterior tubercle indicated with arrows ); 3 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 4 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 imaging showing a calcification in the tibial insertion of the all the president's men research paper distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 6 abrasion of the joint cartilage in the region where the anterior tibiofibular ligament came into contact with the talus; 7 beveled triangular region of the talus; 8 anterior talofibular ligament; 9 calcaneofibular ligament; 10 lateral talocalcaneal ligament; 11 cartilaginous rim; 12 talonavicular ligament; 13 lateral calcaneocuboid ligament; 14 navicular; 15 cervical ligament; 16 lateral cuneiform; 17 dorsal cuboideonavicular ligament; 18 dorsal cuneonavicular ligament; 19 calcaneus (peroneal tubercle); 20 anterior tibialis tendon. Our observations in the dissection room have allowed us to identify contact between the distal fascicle and the talus in the neutral position. This finding is frequently observed during ankle arthroscopy, and the surgeon should consider it a normal feature [ 2 ]. This fact has been reported by other authors [ 1 , 19 , 22 , 26 , 32 ], although in cases of anatomic variation or ankle instability, the resume writing in australia feature may be pathological. Contact decreases with joint distraction [ 2 ], which should be taken into account during arthroscopy. Akseki et al. Men Research Paper! [ 2 ] observed that section of the anterior talofibular ligament does not alter the contact when the ankle is in method section proposal neutral position, although important changes are observed when the ankle is in movement. Therefore, ankle instability is one direct factor in men research anterior tibiofibular ligament pathology. A diagnosis of this type of resume services in australia, ligamentous impingement should be considered in paper patients with chronic pain in the anterolateral area of the all the president's men research ankle following a sprain, with joint stability and a normal radiological appearance [ 14 ]. Posterior or posteroinferior tibiofibular ligament. As is all the president's men research paper, frequently observed, also for this rather strong compact syndesmotic ligament, numerous terminologies have been postulated [ 5 ], which is particularly evident in the arthroscopic literature [ 16 ]. Anatomic dissection of the all the president's posterior ligaments of the ankle. 1 Lateral malleolus; 2 tip of the lateral malleolus; 3 peroneal groove; 4 tibia; 5 posterior tubercle of the tibia; 6 posterior tibiofibular ligament, superficial component; 7 posterior tibiofibular ligament, deep component or transverse ligament; 8 subtalar joint; 9 posterior talofibular ligament; 10 posterior intermalleolar ligament; 11 lateral talar process; 12 tunnel for flexor hallucis longus tendon (tendon was removed); 13 medial talar process; 14 calcaneofibular ligament; 15 flexor digitorum longus.

Sagittal section of the ankle (lateral view). 1 Tibia; 2 talus; 3 calcaneus; 4 posterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 6 deep component of the president's paper posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 7 posterior talofibular ligament; 8 posterior intermalleolar ligament; 9 subtalar joint; 10 talocrural joint; 11 posterior capsular recess of the subtalar joint; 12 flexor hallucis longus muscle. The deep component is cone shaped and originates in the proximal area of the what percentile the sat malleolar fossa to insert in the posterior edge of the president's paper tibia. Its insertion is immediately posterior to the cartilaginous covering of the inferior tibial articular surface; the fibers may reach the medial malleolus (Fig. 21 ). This component is also known as the transverse ligament, forming a true labrum [ 36 ] to provide talocrural joint stability and to prevent posterior talar translation [ 37 ]. Interosseous tibiofibular ligament.

The interosseous tibiofibular ligament is a dense mass of all the president's paper, short fibers, which, together with adipose tissue and small branching vessels from the peroneal artery, span the all the paper tibia to the fibula. It can be considered a distal continuation of the interosseous membrane at diane dissertations the level of the tibiofibular syndesmosis [ 18 , 36 , 38 ]. Some investigators have suggested that the interosseous ligament is mechanically insignificant, whereas others consider it the primary bond between the tibia and fibula. Hoefnagels et al. [ 18 ] suggest that the interosseous ligament plays an important role in the stability of the ankle. The ankle sprain injury is the most frequently observed injury in the emergency room [ 7 ]. Up to 40% of individuals with a history of an ankle ligament injury have been found to have residual complaints interfering with daily living [ 15 , 42 ]. Adequate knowledge of the anatomy of the paper ankle ligaments provides a foundation for understanding the percentile is an essay basic mechanism of injury, diagnosis, and treatment of these ankle sprains. All The Men Research Paper! Soft tissue impingement syndromes of the ankle are usually preceded by an ankle sprain. Depending on the mechanism of injury, a specific ligament and/or ligaments can be injured [ 43 ]. Injury to the anterior talofibular ligament is the most common injury following an ankle sprain. Most frequently, it is an isolated injury; however, in easy vacations approximately 20% of the patients, also the calcaneofibular ligament is injured [ 9 ]. An inversion sprain can result in injury to all the president's paper, the capsule, lateral or medial collateral ligaments, or tibiofibular ligaments. The added influence of plantar or dorsiflexion on the injury mechanism will mean that the lesion is predominantly anterior or posterior, respectively, and diane, could also lead to president's men research, injury to method dissertation proposal, other structures such as the posterior intermalleolar ligament, the all the men research osteochondral region of the neck of the talus, or the anteroinferior margin of the tibia. The mechanism of foot eversion is more closely associated with injury to the medial capsular and ligamentous elements, although an inversion sprain can also produce a lesion to these structures. Medial injury is best resume services, probably more influenced by the rotating component of the subtalar joint to which the capsule and the MCL are subject.

The aim of president's men research paper, this pictorial review on the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is to provide a guide to those who are involved in diagnosing and treating ligament injury around the ankle. Kennedy! No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this review. No sources of funding were received to all the paper, assist in essay this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to president's men research paper, this review. This article is distributed under the babbitt collected terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and president's, source are credited. Method Section Dissertation! Pau Golano 1 Email author Jordi Vega 3 Peter A. J. de Leeuw 4 Francesc Malagelada 5 M. President's Paper! Cristina Manzanares 2 Victor Gotzens 2 C. Niek van Dijk 4 1. Laboratory of Arthroscopic and all the president's, Surgical Anatomy, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics (Human Anatomy Unit) University of Barcelona L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona Spain 2. Department of all the president's, Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics (Human Anatomy Unit) University of Barcelona L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona Spain 3. Paper! Department of all the men research paper, Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery Hospital Asepeyo San Cugat San Cugat del Valles, Barcelona Spain 4. Department of what is an the sat essay, Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Amsterdam The Netherlands 5. Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery Hospital de Mataro Mataro, Barcelona Spain. Published in all the president's men research cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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Case Study – Purchasing Management. As a Privileged Fly I have been allowed to be on the wall of president's paper a corporate boardroom to observe the proceedings during the high-powered discussions. Section Dissertation Proposal! The case study is about a manufacturing and engineering firm that has been doing very well in terms sales but has a serious challenge of escalating freight costs. The case study reveals that the all the men research paper, root cause of the problem is insufficient inventories and men research lack of planning and president's paper fragmented purchasing process. The case study will provide a detailed analysis of the basic inventory problems confronting the firm.

The case study will also highlight management of forecasting, purchasing, inventories and Production with a view of indicating that the president's men research, firm’s management in all the men research these areas is inefficient. Furthermore, the case study will look at diane inventory management, inventory control and whether the men research, Purchasing Manager should build up her inventory. Need essay sample on Case Study – Purchasing Management ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. It will reflect the need to hold inventory as well as dangers and consequences for poor inventory control. The case study will reflect on materials management as a concept that is babbitt collected applied nowadays in order to streamline process and ensure system efficiency, its advantages and whether the firm must adopted the materials management approach. Finally, the case study will provide other recommendations that can be used to resolve this problem. 1. Men Research! WHAT ARE THE BASIC INVENTORY PROBLEMS CONFRONTING THIS FIRM? In every organization the purchasing department forms an integral part of the success of the diane kennedy dissertations, department in meeting the sales, production and distribution demand and has a critical role to paper play in order to resume writing in australia ensure that the all the men research paper, organization meets and possibly exceed the expectations of the customers. It is therefore imperative for babbitt collected milton communication to flow between the all the president's men research, Purchasing Manager and other Managers around the orders received and the status of the what percentile 8 on, production department with regards to materials/parts required for a particular order. The basic inventory problems confronting this firm have been identified as ollows: – The lack of communication between the Production Manager and all the men research other Managers creates a problem in terms of easy essay establishing whether materials/parts are available as well as to enable the Purchasing Manager to plan properly and all the president's paper well in advance to meet the requirements of the Production Manager in terms of materials/parts or spares. The Purchasing Manager seems to be listening to the words of the Managing Director around cost-saving on limited inventory and unilaterally reduces stock on inventory without proper consultation with other Line Managers.

The Purchasing Manager does not seem to understand the role/responsibility of the purchasing department within the firm. According to Hugo, Badenhorst-Weiss van Rooyen, (2002) purchasing and supply management is responsible for the continuous supply of all kinds of materials needed by production – in the right quantity, at the right time and at essay a competitive price. It is therefore clear that the purchasing department is the main player in ensuring customer satisfaction while enhancing the image and all the president's paper reputation of the firm. It is clear that the Purchasing Manager is only focusing on cost-cutting measures by reducing inventory and at proposal the same time ignoring the fact that such process must implemented with great care and consideration. As much as the all the president's men research, firm wants to kennedy cut down on inventory it is important that the exercise is not implemented to the detriment of the firm.

In this regard the Distribution Manager has mentioned that the Purchasing Manager never has anything in stock and all the president's this is compounded by the small orders that she places. Obviously the dissertations, Purchasing Manager should have taken note that the all the president's paper, freight costs are going up and impact that her cutting down on inventory has had to the firm. Insufficient stock on inventory reflects lack of proper inventory management and section proposal also taking into account the manner in which orders/parts/stock are ordered. There is paper no indication whether a policy exist where consultation will be entered into method section proposal between the Purchasing Manager and other Line Managers in order to ensure that orders are consolidated which would result in a saving on freight costs. As the firm is manufacturing company it is president's men research therefore necessary to reflect on reasons for holding inventory. Sufficient inventory ensures that production is continuous and at an economic level, contributing to a lower manufacturing cost per product through efficient use of equipment and labour (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). It therefore means that sufficient inventory and production of orders timeously will result in the organization getting more orders/customers because the reputation of the firm will grow. The firm runs a risk of losing a lot of money if inventory management is not exercised and applied properly. Babbitt Milton! This can result in paper large inventories being carried and kept in stock thus increasing inventory costs which cause the Managing Director to raise a concern regarding the need to carry inventory, considering the costs. However, with proper consultation and communication between the Purchasing Manager and other Line Managers a decision can be taken with regards to materials that must be carried on inventory as well as the acceptable quantities to be carried on inventory.

The aim of inventory is to hold inventories at online resume writing services the lowest possible cost, given the objective to ensure uninterrupted supplies for ongoing operations (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). It is clear that consideration must be taken into account when a decision is taken on inventory, i. e. the materials that must be kept on inventory as well as drawing a comparison between the costs involved to president's men research hold inventory and the loss resulting from non-availability of materials. For inventory management to easy on summer be efficient and effective it is important and necessary for the Purchasing Manager to have an understanding of all elements and costs that are involved in inventory-holding. According to Hugo, et al. (2002) the elements of inventory-holding are inventory-holding costs, ordering costs, costs of shortages and all the president's men research set-up costs. From this statement it is clear that the Purchasing Manager is not familiar with these elements as there is nowhere during the men research paper, meeting that she displayed her understanding of inventory management and control. It appears that the Purchasing Manager has never conducted an analysis and/or compared the savings of operating on paper low inventories against the freight costs as there is no argument during the babbitt collected milton, meeting justifying that. It is also clear that the Purchasing Manager has never bothered to reflect on the cause of high freight costs and maybe consider that the following might be the cause of the escalating costs: low/insufficient inventories, split orders in small quantities and short lead times. The good example is reflected by the argument of the Managing Director to the effect that the freight bill is R955 whereas the cost of the part itself is less than R955. It therefore goes without saying that the men research paper, firm could have saved more money in babbitt essay milton freight costs has extra care been taken when orders were placed in that consolidated orders result in saving in president's men research freight costs.

It is also clear that there is 8 on essay lack of men research communication between the Purchasing Manager and other Managers with regards to forecasting. Forecasting of the expected inventory consumption is an important aid for president's effectively anticipating the influences of uncertainties about the future inventory requirements (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). Forecasting of all the president's men research paper inventory consumption should begin from the time the order has been concluded by the Marketing Manager, with the latter providing relevant information regarding lead times for the order, to the Production Manager giving an indication materials and turn around time required for production, to the Purchasing and Distribution Managers. In this regard this does not seem to happen as the Purchasing Manager is pointing a finger at the Production Manager, and the lack of communication might be a deliberate act by the Production Manager who wants to capitalize on the situation and seize control of essay both Purchasing and Distribution in the process. It is therefore clear that the power games that are being played by all the paper the Production Manager are affecting the firm as some of the dissertation proposal, shipment deadlines are not met and customers have began to complain which also poses a serious reputational risk. . WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SITUATION? DOES THIS COMPANY REFLECT EFFICIENT OR INEFFICIENT ON MANAGEMENT OF FORECASTING, PURCHASING, INVENTORIES, AND PRODUCTION? There are various factors that have contributed to the growing of freight firms both in numbers and rand value of freight transported.

INBOUND FREIGHT The increase in inbound freights is caused by insufficient materials on inventories which have forced the Purchasing Manager to place orders whenever materials are required by production component. The other contributing factor is the lack of planning and proper buying approach in that the Purchasing Manager has no ordering process in place as orders are placed in smaller quantities which is all the president's men research paper compounded by lack of early communication between the babbitt collected milton, Purchasing Manager and the Production Manager regarding required production materials. This failure to communicate creates a problem for the entire Management team as shipment deadlines are not met if materials are not in received in time, a situation that forces the use of freight firms frequently thus resulting in all the president's men research the increase in inbound freights. In short the more the use of freight the increase in freight costs. OUTBOUND FREIGHT In this regard the increase in outbound costs can be attributed to an effort by the distribution component to meet shipment deadlines.

The shortage of materials in inventory and late deliveries of materials due to late ordering result to the production component having to work long hours in order to method complete orders as well as having to use the fastest possible freight available in order to all the president's paper meet deliveries or to make up for president's men research paper the already passed deadlines. It also means that the firm is faced with a situation where there is no systematic approach to paper the handling of orders which can result in orders being delivered within the stipulated deadlines. The more the late deliveries/shipment that need to be made as and when they are ready, the more the use of method section dissertation proposal freight and the increase in freight costs. The efficient or inefficient management of Forecasting, Purchasing, Inventories and Production can be described as follows: – FORECASTING The firm does not reflect effective and efficient management when it comes to forecasting. Sound and all the president's paper efficient forecasting involves sharing of essay on summer information between Managers in order meet the customer demand, which does not seem to be happening in president's paper this regard. The firm is writing faced with a situation where there is massive communication breakdown between Line Managers which has resulted by in men research costs escalating, customers complaining and a possibility of losing orders. An effective communication structure enables the firm to operate in an organized manner as communication flow from end to end and the shortcomings and/problems are detected and resolved at all the president's men research paper any early stage with minimum disruptions to production. Participative meetings of the management team assist the firm in ensuring that all activities are discussed properly where each Manager provides an indication of their requirements in order to enable the Purchasing Manager to have sufficient time to identify all required materials/parts that need to be ordered and to agree with the Production Manager on production materials that must be kept on inventory before orders are placed. PURCHASING. From my analysis I have concluded that the Purchasing Manager is all the president's men research paper not in total control of the purchasing process as there is no indication that any interaction exist with regards to babbitt collected essay the requirements of the marketing/production teams. It is also clear that there are no policies/procedure manuals clearly defining the purchasing process that must be followed.

According to van Weele (2005) a lack of men research paper a well defined purchasing policy and a lack of structure in the purchasing (decision-making) process and the resulting lack of easy control on purchasing costs may lead to all the president's men research an unforeseen financial loss. Purchasing policies are fundamental and they contribute to business in various ways in all the president's that they can significantly improve sales margins through realizing substantial cost savings. It therefore clear that the purchasing department plays a vital role in the success of the organization provided there are clear and well purchasing policies/manuals in place. In this particular case there has to all the president's paper be an what percentile essay, improvement in the manner in which the management team communicate and purchasing policy must be developed in order to assist the Purchasing Manager to maintain and manage a buying process that is both efficient and ffective. INVENTORIES The management of inventories in this firm is very poor and very much inefficient. The shortage of materials is caused by the fact that the firm has cut down on inventory which has resulted in materials/parts not available when required thus leading to downtime which is costing the firm dearly as production department must work overtime and fastest modes of freight (which are mostly expensive) must be utilized in order to meet production and shipment deadlines. The Purchasing Manager does not understand and is not worried by the cost implication the reduced inventories and small orders has on the freight budget.

It appears that the instructions of the Managing Director regarding operating on low or no-inventory are implemented without careful consideration of the implications and/consequences. Men Research Paper! The Purchasing Manager must develop an Inventory Management policy that will reflect sound control measures with regards to acceptable quantities that must be carried on stock as well as the turn around times required for the supply of requested materials. PRODUCTION Production management within the section proposal, firm seems to be inefficient. However, failure to communicate production materials requirement reflects a lack of men research paper effective communication between the Production Manager, Marketing Manager and Purchasing Manager which is also compounded by milton the Production Manager’s personal view to having purchasing and distribution components, a view which seems to have contributed to problem the all the men research paper, firm is faced with. For effective management of production there is a need to online in australia hold inventory of critical materials at minimal level in order to ensure uninterrupted supply of production, and production forecasting must be communicated to the Purchasing Manager in order to ensure that sufficient materials are on hand for the duration of the operation. The Production Manager must establish a working relationship with other Managers and communicate in good faith with the interests of the all the president's, firm at heart. . WHAT SHOULD JOAN GLASS DO? The important aspect is for Joan Glass to acknowledge the importance of inventory management and inventory control. In order for inventory management to be a success it is important to conduct and analysis in order to determine materials that must be classified as inventory items.

This process involves planning and there are planning aids available to assist the Purchasing Manager during this process. Kennedy Dissertations! According to Hugo et al. (2002) the aims and all the president's paper uses of the planning aids may be expressed as follows: – • To arrange, classify and interrelate the full range of stock items (the inventory) • To carry out an estimate of the real demand for different stock items • To obtain an estimate of the expected inventory requirements of the enterprise • To make an objective calculation of the quantities required, while considering inventory costs and inventory consumption. From the above it is clear that the required information for estimates must be obtained from other Managers and it is therefore necessary to develop a policy that is going to specifically address the issue of providing information to the Joan Glass. On Summer Vacations! The policy must also address the issue of production forecasting by the Production Manager based on the orders issued in order to ensure the uninterrupted supply of materials. The re has to be an improvement in interaction between Managers and the policy must define the paper, roles and men research paper responsibilities of each component and encourage co-operation. . SHOULD JOAN GLASS SUGGEST A MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION? Materials management can be defined as a concept that is aimed at ensuring that systems are efficient. Paper! It acknowledges the fact that supply activities are dependant on each other and that the problem with one activity has an influence on other activities linked to it. Materials management consolidates all activities under the control of a single Manager and aligns the processes (purchasing, inventory management, distribution and transport). An organization, which has adopted materials management organizational concept, will have a single Manager responsible for planning, organizing, motivating and controlling of kennedy dissertations all activities principally concerned with the flow of materials into an organization (Leenders Fearon, 1997). From the above it is clear that the firm in this case will have one Manager, as opposed to four Managers the firm currently has, responsible for all activities with the exception of president's men research production if the concept is adopted. It is also clear that the adoption of materials management approach will require the firm to undergo a restructuring process and organizational review, a process that will include review of business/supply processes.

As much as materials management has its advantages it is important for the firm to conduct an analysis and research in order to determine whether such approach will reduce costs and increase profit margins as opposed to diane the total costs for organizational restructuring. I do not think that Joan Glass should suggest a materials management organization. The firm has a challenge to ensure that there is flow of communication and information sharing between Managers in order to cut down on freight costs. The approach in handling production and materials supply needs to be re-aligned and improved. 5. SHOULD GLASS BUILD UP HER INVENTORY? The decision to president's men research hold inventory should not be taken lightly as that might have a huge financial implication if the approach is fragmented. Inventory management cannot succeed if necessary controls are not in best writing services in australia place as the all the, costs for holding inventory might rise, shortage of space for inventory, obsolete inventory due to bulk buying. Dissertation Proposal! In this case there is a need to all the president's men research paper hold inventory considering the fact that the company is faced with a challenge in terms of diane ensuring uninterrupted supply of all the men research paper material to production and diane kennedy dissertations also meet shipment deadlines; which is all the president's contrary to the current situation. Joan Glass should not just build up her inventory without any basis, such decision must be supported by is an 8 on the sat essay the result of an men research, analysis conducted as well as the forecast of the Production Manager. The ABC analysis, also known as the Pareto analysis, will assist Joan Glass to determine the items that must be kept on stock.

According to Hugo et al. (2002) the ABC analysis is primarily aimed at providing management with information on the importance of the different inventory items in terms of money value. The ABC analysis can only be attempted after a thorough investigation has been carried out on aspects such as price, demand for different inventory items, delivery times and the particular problems related to the purchasing of different inventory items (Burt and Dobler, 1996). The carrying of inventory at a minimal level coupled with sound forecasting will reduce freight costs and also keep inventory costs as low as possible, which means that there has to be a balance between inventory carrying costs and ordering costs. Kennedy! 6. WHAT OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS COULD YOU MAKE TO RESOLVE THIS ISSUE? The case study shows that there is a communication breakdown between the management team and communication forms an integral part of the success of the president's paper, organization. The communication model stipulates that communication goes both ways and there has to be feed back. There has to be frequent communication between marketing, purchasing and distribution departments in babbitt collected order to ensure that the required materials for orders do not fall short before the final production of an order. This will also assist the Purchasing Manager to plan properly and place consolidated orders which will minimize the freight costs.

There is also no indication that there is a purchasing/distribution policy in place in order to ensure that relevant processes are clearly spelt out. There is a need to president's men research paper be up to date with what is happening in the industry in order to best online resume services in australia ensure that the organization keeps up with the changes that takes place all the time and to make a meaningful contribution of the all the president's men research paper, company. In this regard Joan Glass has to be aware of what is going on within the firm, there has to diane kennedy dissertations be structured communication between Managers in order to ensure that production and supply is not hindered because of materials shortage. Implementing decisions or suggestions made by management without consideration can have reaching consequences as it is the case here with the cutting down on paper inventory because of the what is an 8 on, suggestion by the Managing Director. Whenever changes have to be implemented an analysis and research needs to be conducted and justified by statistics/facts including costs that the organization will save. However, in men research paper this case no analysis was made except that Joan Glass decided to cut down on inventory without considering the impact the percentile 8 on the sat, non-availability of inventory will have to production, distribution and marketing. Inventory management goes hand in hand with sound inventory control. The organization can also look at having contracts for certain materials in president's men research paper order to ensure that materials are delivered timeously. The organization must also look at formulating the purchasing policy in order to eliminate the fragment ordering approach that result in small orders being placed thus building up freight costs. The entire management team has to acknowledge the fact that planning is crucial in every successful organization and that organizational interest is more than individual interest as that can impact negatively on online services the success and growth of the all the paper, organization. The case study has also highlighted the need to explore other options aimed at addressing the problem the organization is faced in order to provide the management team with valuable information coupled with well researched facts so that an informed decision can be taken.

CONCLUSION The case study has reflected on essay the problems and the importance of inventory management and sound inventory control. President's! It also highlights the importance of good and efficient management of Forecasting, Purchasing, Inventories and Production. The case study has highlighted the importance of planning and communication between the management team and best online the consequences of poor planning. President's Paper! REFERENCES Van Weele, A. J. 2005. Purchasing Supply Chain Management: Analysis, Strategy, Planning and Practice. 4th Ed. London: Thomson Learning. Hugo W. M. J. , Badenhorst-Weiss J. A. van Rooyen D. C. 2002. Purchasing and Supply Management.

4th Ed. Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik Publishers. Burt D. N. , Dobler D. W. Starling S. L. 2003. World Class Supply Management: The Key to Supply Chain Management. 7th Ed.

New York: McGraw-Hill.