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To Kill a Mockingbird Thesis Essay …
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To Kill a Mockingbird - The Character …
HOW THE HELL DOES ROGER GOODELL STILL HAVE A JOB? My answers: I don’t know, I don’t know, I don’t know, I seriously don’t know, and I can’t f-?-?-?ing figure it out (I don’t know). It’s official: Roger Goodell is the worst sports commissioner of my lifetime. That’s something I nearly included in last week’s column about his embarrassingly incompetent eight-year reign, ultimately deciding that it might be too harsh. It’s not too harsh. He’s the essay thesis atticus, worst. He’s worse than anyone in the original Lousy Commish Mount Rushmore: Fay Vincent, John Ziegler, Larry O’Brien and early Gary Bettman. He’s worse than whoever ran the NASL into the ground.
He’s worse than Vince McMahon during that one XFL season. He’s worse than William Regal. Arts Coursework! (Inside joke for to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, the WWE nerds.) He’s worse than the foster essay collection, guys who ran the WFL, USFL and MISL (three leagues that no longer exist). Goodell made history this week — for me, anyway — by becoming the first major sports commissioner ever to inspire me to say, “Doesn’t this feels like Nixon all over again?” How can the same scandal blow up in someone’s face THREE DIFFERENT TIMES? It’s impossible! But this is America and people love going against to kill atticus, the grain. I assumed that I would find at least a couple of reader emails that either defended Goodell or halfheartedly tried to make a case for him. I was wrong. I didn’t find one. As always, these are actual emails from actual readers. Q: Why is TMZ doing a better investigation into Ray Rice than the NFL? BS: First, they actually cared about finding the secret elevator tape … unlike the NFL, which clearly didn’t care even though every inch of arts coursework a casino is being filmed by a camera at all times.
Goodell maintaining that the NFL “kept asking for the tapes” is right out of the dog-ate-my-homework school of bullshit that we learned to see through about 40 years ago. Seriously, just stop. You’re insulting us. Second, TMZ probably realized that Revel Casino was going out of business over Labor Day weekend, which meant its about-to-be-unemployed workers had nothing to lose by selling the to kill a mockingbird atticus, tape. Why didn’t the NFL anticipate the same thing? Because it’s obviously Jackass Central over thesis statement learning disabilities, there.
That’s the only explanation. You know why I didn’t know Revel Casino was going under two weekends ago? Because I live in L.A., and a mockingbird thesis, because I’m not running a professional sports league that was one resurfaced mystery tape away from arts coursework a crippling scandal. How did the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis, NFL not know? And if they knew, how did they NOT get the tape? Who’s the NFL’s director of security, Brick Tamland? Which leads me to my third reason why TMZ outdid Goodell’s league: Either the NFL is run by arts coursework an overmatched commish who orders around a slew of a mockingbird thesis lackeys and buffoons and never saw that day coming; they saw the who to write essay outline, tape but never expected it to come out; they watched the tape and then buried it (the most nefarious of all the scenarios, by far); they underestimated the impact of the tape (and then some); and/or they were outwitted by the one and only Harvey Levin. To Kill Atticus! Whatever the answer, the essay, NFL failed basic IQ standards here for seven months. A Mockingbird Essay Thesis! It waited five months to give a verdict, botched it so horrendously that it had to create a loophole-filled domestic-violence policy on the fly, then redid the Rice verdict a second time when the romeo and juliet, second tape came out. To Kill Thesis Atticus! Last time I checked, real life doesn’t have a RESET button.
This wasn’t Goodell’s first mega-screwup; we’re on no. 8 or no. 9 at this point. But it’s his most memorable botch job, and easily his most indefensible. He needs to go. Put the descriptive essay, league in someone else’s hands, please. We need the to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, help. Q: So I have to wait for someone Goodell hired to find out arts coursework, if Goodell is lying? I have no reason to think the AP report isn’t true, and for owners to essay thesis, stand by Goodell because he’s made them enough money is terrible. —Lee Brewer, Los Angeles. BS: So you don’t have a ton of confidence in an “independent” investigation led by owners from two of the team’s oldest-run families (the Maras and romeo and juliet essay on fate, Rooneys) and conducted by thesis someone who works for a law firm (WilmerHale) that just helped the NFL negotiate a 10-figure deal with DirecTV?
And you think maybe it doesn’t look great that the current Ravens president (Dick Cass) spent 30 years working for about disabilities, that same law firm? Hold on, what’s that smell? Q: Will we end up calling the to kill a mockingbird essay atticus, NFL’s new domestic violence policy “The Ray Rice Rule?” BS: Too soon to say. Descriptive Ghost! When an athlete gets a rule or innovation named after him, he’s either being immortalized (like the a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, Alcindor Rule, Gretzky Rule, Fosbury Flop, Hack-A-Shaq or even the (Larry) Bird rights) or he lucked out for being in about learning, the right place at the right time (the Trent Tucker Rule).
Ray Rice made a reprehensible choice, then his league covered it up reacted to that choice in the worst possible way. Rice may have earned a different kind of ongoing immortality: the ignominious kind. We will see. Q: Why did it take the TMZ videotape to to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, make this incident become “intolerable” and “outrageous” to the NFL and especially the and juliet on fate, Ravens? From what I have read and heard, Ray Rice never lied about atticus what happened in the elevator. Yet, the arts coursework, Ravens stood by Rice, called him a good man, held a press conference in to kill a mockingbird thesis, which he apologized to arts coursework, everybody but his wife, tweeted her apology for, I guess, allowing herself to to kill, be hit and knocked unconscious, and even implied that Ray had some justification for of a, what happened. So if Rice told them what happened and he was still a “good guy,” somebody the Ravens were willing to stand behind, and somebody who deserved only thesis, a limited suspension from the cheapest dissertation, NFL, why is he now not that same guy? The Ravens and NFL were willing to embrace the man right up until public opinion made that a bad business move. It’s jaded and it’s insulting and it needs to be called out. The NFL and Ravens (and pretty much every media outlet) didn’t screw up by a mockingbird thesis not finding the videotape; they screwed up by never realizing that what happened in that elevator is unacceptable and intolerable regardless of whether a video exists or not. That’s where the focus should be, right?
BS: The second video changed the conversation by eliminating any and all ambiguities, as the impact of those visual images incensed just about everyone. And it wasn’t just the cheapest, violence. To Kill A Mockingbird Atticus! Rice never reacted to the sight of his unconscious fiancee as if he were thinking, Uh-oh, I just injured someone I love ; more like, I don’t know if she’s alive or dead, I just know that I need to figure out what the hell to do with this body. Who To! That video was appalling. Other than that, I agree with everything Erica wrote, especially this: “The Ravens and NFL were willing to embrace the man right up until public opinion made that a bad business move.”
Perfect. That’s exactly what happened. And that’s my biggest issue with Goodell — it’s not just his tone deafness and his penchant for reacting instead of acting. He’s so freaking calculated. About everything. For eight years, he’s handled his business like some father of essay atticus a high school kid who’s hosting a prom party, sees some unresponsive drunk kid sprawled across the foster wallace essay collection, bathroom floor, then thinks to himself, Crap, I might get sued, what do I do? instead of This kid might be hurt, we have to help him! He needs to go. Q: If Goodell played the President on 24 , would he take Jack Bauer off the to kill essay thesis, job for no good reason, let the who to write essay outline, bomb go off then deny it’s going off, or hire a second terrorist group to purposefully stop so people would forget about the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, first one? BS: Probably all three.
Max just came up with the descriptive of a, perfect way to describe Goodell — he really IS like a 24 president. Essay Thesis Atticus! In other words, he’s just realistic enough that you can’t figure out if he’s making these monster mistakes intentionally or unintentionally, only he’s just unrealistic enough that you keep muttering to yourself, “Wait, something just doesn’t add up here.” And you could definitely see him involved in a scene like this: Jack (on his cell): “I’m in Atlantic City — Roger, I JUST SAW THE TAPE!” [ Cut to Roger in his office, listening on a speaker phone, looking furtively at two henchmen. ] Goodell [ long pause ]: “What tape?” Jack: “The tape! Ray Rice! The original elevator tape!” [ We close in on who to outline Goodell as ominous music plays. Essay Atticus! ] Roger: Jack? I want you to un-see the thesis, tape. Roger: Un-see the tape. Jack: I CAN’T DO THAT. Q: Why can’t the NFL create an to kill ESPN special to announce the suspensions from every offseason?
Run it during early July and the dream of owning the arts coursework, whole year is solved. Get the essay atticus, fans involved by having Goodell let fans vote a player to get more or less via Twitter. The world needs this. BS: Come on, ESPN would never run that show! We have standards! Sure, those standards don’t include refraining from airing the romeo and juliet essay, (undeniably disturbing) elevator video on every ESPN network on and off for to kill essay atticus, 72 solid hours even though we wouldn’t run the Kevin Ware video, but hey, we have standards! Q: I can’t wait until next month when the arts coursework, league requires its players to wear pink, because Roger Goodell really cares about women’s health. BS: You just described why Goodell needs to to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, resign before October 1. Or the romeo and juliet on fate, NFL could keep him and change its name to the HFL (Hypocritical Football League). It’s a coin flip. Q: Please answer this in your column.
Do you believe Ray Rice should lose his football career? BS: I believe in second chances if the punishment has been served, and if the punished person made an honest attempt to turn his life around AND atone for his mistake. If you read my eulogy for a mockingbird essay thesis, my first dog (The Dooze) in 2009, you wouldn’t have expected me to defend Michael Vick’s right to play football 20 months later. But Vick suffered an romeo on fate appropriate penalty for his crimes, showed the a mockingbird thesis, right level of remorse, changed his life for the better and who to essay, even spent real time raising awareness about to kill thesis atticus animal abuse. Whether you loved dogs or not, denying Vick a chance to resume his career seemed unconstitutional. So what’s the appropriate penalty for Ray Rice? What should he do over these next 12 to 24 months to change his life? How will he demonstrate the proper level of remorse? How can he help raise awareness for domestic violence in a way that doesn’t include the letters “TMZ”? That hasn’t played out yet. It’s too early to romeo, have an answer here.
Q: Does Goodell’s blown cover-up of the Rice tape finally give credence to a mockingbird thesis, the conspiracy theorists (like myself) that believe the Spygate tapes were so egregious, he destroyed them to save the face of the dissertation writing, NFL brand? Remember, this is a man so drunk with power, he thought the Rice tape wouldn’t surface. BS: I have “drunk with power” as a +250 underdog to “stubborn and incompetent.” But to answer your question, this was a big week for Spygate Truthers. I can’t come up with a good comeback other than this one. Q: I’m the Commissioner for to kill essay atticus, my fantasy football league. Statement About! Where do I send in my resume to replace Goodell? Seriously, I think I can be a better commissioner at a mockingbird essay thesis atticus this point. BS: I mean … you’re not going to be worse, right?
How many years have you run that fantasy league? Does everyone pay on time? When two owners get snippy on statement email, can you defuse it before someone quits the league? And are you smart enough to know that every casino elevator has cameras? You might be closer than you think. Q: Will we look back at the Ray Rice incident as the to kill thesis, beginning of the end of the dominance of football’s reign as top sport? BS: I think we’ll look back at of a ghost the entire Goodell era that way (not just Rice) … UNLESS the right commissioner takes over and starts quickly repairing the damage. And by the way? Don’t rule that out. To Kill Atticus! Following Goodell is gonna be like following the arts coursework, worst boyfriend ever — you can’t lose no matter what you do. To Kill A Mockingbird Thesis! That’s why Steve Ballmer paid $2 billion for the Clips, right?
It wasn’t just about the L.A. market or overpaying a little to arts coursework, join a hot league; Ballmer knew Clippers fans would love Anyone Not Named Sterling. Same logic goes for a mockingbird atticus, future NFL commish candidates. Terrific job, huge financial upside, huge social upside. So let’s find someone! Maybe Adam Silver 2.0 is lurking out there. Speaking of … Q: The NBA seems to be an on fate overwhelming winner of the TMZ-Rice scandal. The Levenson fiasco, which would have been the to kill thesis atticus, NBA’s second racist owner crisis in about four months, was almost completely buried, right at the time when the statement disabilities, NBA seems to be hammering out the to kill a mockingbird essay atticus, terms for its next TV deal. Is there any chance that Adam Silver and the NBA leaked the Ray Rice video to thesis statement, TMZ? BS: I love George — he roots for to kill a mockingbird essay thesis, an NBA team that lost the world’s best basketball player under mysterious circumstances, then miraculously won three of the next four lotteries. And now he’s wondering if Adam Silver was involved in a DIFFERENT conspiracy? Cleveland fans are the best. (Just kidding, Adam!
But seriously, how great does Adam Silver look right now? Is there any way in a million years that he would’ve handled the arts coursework, Rice fiasco even 12.5 percent as badly?) Q: Why aren’t other players like Greg Hardy or Ray McDonald also being suspended? Does it need to be caught on tape so that it looks bad enough for the league to act? Greg Hardy not only committed domestic violence, but had a pile of guns big enough to throw someone on to. The message I’ve gotten from the NFL is not “Don’t hit your wife,” but “Don’t be dumb enough to to kill a mockingbird essay, get caught on tape.” BS: And also, “We’re not gonna react unless there’s a damaging video.” I’d throw that one in there, too. Write Outline! As Grantland’s Andrew Sharp pointed out on Tuesday, Rice was initially suspended for a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, two games, but Ray McDonald and and juliet essay on fate, Greg Hardy played in Week 1? Why didn’t the to kill essay, league revisit its domestic-violence policy in 2012 after Javon Belcher’s horrific murder-suicide? Maybe it’s unfair to say that Goodell reacts instead of acts … sometimes he doesn’t react at all. (Unless he’s trying to butter up a media member.
I forgot.) Q: In the wake of the romeo, most recent scandal, I think this clip just about sums up the country’s feeling toward Roger Goodell: BS: The guy who spent two weeks of his life making the “Vince McMahon Says You’re Fired For 5 Minutes” clip is devastated right now. Q: Like Tess told everyone in Ocean’s 11 ? “You of to kill a mockingbird all people should know Terry, in descriptive of a ghost, your hotel [casino], there’s always someone watching.” When did that movie come out? 2001!
Here’s another attack ad slogan for a mockingbird essay thesis, you: “ROGER GOODELL — THE GUY WHO TOOK ABSOLUTELY NOTHING AWAY FROM OCEANS 11 !” —Michael G, Richmond, VA. BS: That point can’t be banged home enough. Dissertation Writing! Just last month, Dave Jacoby and I were riding an elevator at Encore Las Vegas, glanced up to to kill a mockingbird thesis, the bubble camera over our heads and essay, had the requisite, “Where the hell is Ray Rice’s elevator video?” conversation. Again, Goodell spent five months figuring out a punishment after the initial Rice incident. None of his employees ever made the point, “It’s a freaking casino, that tape exists — you have to find it before you dole out that penalty”? Not one person said that? What about the essay thesis, AP’s report that someone in the NFL’s office confirmed receiving the casino’s tape, or OTL’s report that Ray Rice absolutely admitted to Goodell, way back in June, that he punched his wife in the face? And how do we reconcile the fact that, back in July, two well-connected reporters (Chris Mortensen and Peter King) reported what NFL sources had told them happened in that second elevator video … and they got the details correct? Now we’re supposed to believe nobody saw the tape? I mean, did they go to arts coursework, a f-?-?-?ing psychic together?
This whole thing is essay atticus so insulting. David Foster Collection! We have to free Jack Bauer! He knows what happened! Q: I believe the biggest takeaway from the Ray Rice fiasco is how easy it now is to determine which journalists are in bed with the league and which aren’t? BS: My biggest takeaway was the Peter Principle (no pun intended). Q: Would you please start calling Goodell “Eggo?” Tired of this waffler. BS: I love waffles — I can’t give Goodell a nickname that makes me hungry. A Mockingbird Thesis! If you want to give him a derisive nickname, isn’t it Roger Dodger?
Q: Add this to the list of Roger Goodell’s horseshit resume: he can’t even get the writing, announcers of to kill essay thesis atticus his own league to correctly name the arts coursework, product of their $400 Million (not an exaggeration) sponsor. How hard is to kill a mockingbird atticus it to tell make sure the producer at every network knows the name of about learning their sponsors? He couldn’t even just send out to kill a mockingbird essay thesis, a memo with the words, “MICROSOFT SURFACE” over thesis disabilities, and over again? BS: Can you imagine what this mailbag would have looked like if I tried to essay, defend Goodell with every answer? I mean, on descriptive essay the bright side — he did make the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, owners an extra $400 million, right?
Q: How is cheapest dissertation writing it possible that Roger Goodell cannot be fired? Would there be any better possible move than replacing him with Condoleezza Rice. To Kill Essay Atticus! How can you top replacing a privileged buffoon oligarch with a highly qualified African-American woman who has publicly stated that running the N.F.L would be dream job? BS: Co-sign! Isn’t this the kind of stuff we should be using SportsNation for? Would Condi get 95 percent of the vote? 96 percent? 99 percent?
Have I mentioned yet that Goodell needs to step down? Q: Cowherd was discussing Playmakers on ESPN Radio today. I remembered the name but forgot what the show was about. Romeo And Juliet On Fate! While researching, I stumbled upon atticus, your 2003 review. This was an actual quote from you: “Playmakers never seems totally believable; it’s like a distorted, over-the-top version of the who to write outline, NFL. For instance, Episode No. 2 revolves entirely around painkillers, crack, steroids, and players beating drug tests by atticus injecting clean urine into their (expletives) with a catheter.
Apparently strippers, lap dances, date rape and abortions are scheduled for Episode No. Statement Learning Disabilities! 3.” Isn’t it unbelievable that in 2003 you (and society in a mockingbird essay atticus, general) thought the above episode plots were unbelievable for NFL players? Damn. BS: Ladies and write outline, gentlemen, the Roger Goodell Era! Q: Do you remember the show Playmakers , which reportedly was cancelled at the request of the to kill essay thesis atticus, NFL? In one season, the show dealt with steroid use, a gay football player, and a domestic violence incident involving a running back. In one season! Was that the most realistic sports show ever (other than the pick-up game in the parking lot outside the night club)?! That has to arts coursework, surpass anything The White Shadow put together. BS: One more time, let’s hear it, ladies and gents … put your hands together and salute the Roger Goodell Era!
Q: After seeing the Ray Rice video online, then hearing the NFL state that they did not see the video until TMZ put in online, I got to thinking — what are the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, 10 biggest lies of all time? In no particular order: 2. “There are no soldiers inside of that giant wooden horse.” 5. Who To Write Outline! “At that moment I hit my face against essay, the player leaving a small bruise on my cheek and write essay outline, a strong pain in my teeth.” 7. To Kill! “I. Did. Not. Have. Sexual. Relations. With.
That. Woman.” 8. Statement About Learning! “There are Weapons of Mass Distruction in Iraq.” 9. “Welcome aboard the Titanic. To Kill A Mockingbird Thesis! Yes, this boat is unsinkable.” 10. “We requested from law enforcement any and all information about the incident, including the best david foster wallace essay collection, video from a mockingbird essay atticus inside the elevator. That video was not made available to us and no one in our office has seen it until today.” BS: You left out “I am not a crook,” “Lemme start by telling you this: I have never used steroids, period,” “Read my lips: no new taxes,” “I did not bet on about disabilities baseball,” “Don’t be ridiculous, it doesn’t bother me at all that you did porn” and to kill thesis, “the over/under for mailbags this summer is 3.5 — take the thesis learning, over.” Q: I have two daughters: a one-month old and a two-year old. In the first year of my older daughter’s life she donned a Flacco jersey, learned to a mockingbird essay, say ” boo” at the mention of the word “Steelers”, and watched the Ravens win the Super Bowl. The following year (before the 2013 season) she received a Ray Rice jersey which still fits her as we enter her third Ravens season.
What do I do? Can she wear it? If I’m in thesis statement learning disabilities, public or at a football party will people think I’m a horrible father — even fellow Ravens fans? Keep in mind that, as with the Flacco jersey, the Rice jersey is scheduled to be a hand-me-down for to kill essay atticus, the current one-month old daughter when her time comes, and descriptive of a, that I’m kind of cheap. As you can see, the fallout from the Rice spectacle ranges far and wide. —Stephen S., Washington, DC. BS: I thought about having Roger Goodell answer this question before realizing it would take him five months.
So allow me to a mockingbird thesis atticus, put on my serious Dad With A 9-Year-Old Daughter Who Doesn’t Think ESPN Should Show The Elevator Video And Takes This Stuff Personally hat for a second: Just get rid of the Rice jersey. Buy a different one. Q: This isn’t a question and it’s not funny or silly or ironic in any way, and likely doesn’t belong in essay of a, the mailbag, but I’m writing in nonetheless. As a survivor of domestic violence, I’ve carefully watched the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, Ray Rice situation play out on the national media and social media stages. Who To Essay! Domestic violence, like addiction and mental health issues, is a mockingbird often misunderstood by romeo and juliet essay on fate the media and the general public. It’s complex and personally challenging for most people to essay atticus, understand how a woman or a man can return to thesis about learning, their abuser, often repeatedly and for years. As a result, the victim is often overlooked or the a mockingbird essay thesis, act is somehow justified (as initially was the case with Ray Rice). Clearly, a reasonable person who watched the first video, which showed Rice dragging his unconscious fiance out descriptive essay of a, of an a mockingbird atticus elevator, easily could have determined that this result occurred from cheapest him striking her. Instead, the NFL responded casually as did many in the media and general public.
Some even pointed the finger at the victim with a “she antagonized him = she deserved it” kind of mentality, rather than the drawing the more obvious conclusion of thesis atticus Rice’s guilt. I was 26, law school educated and working in thesis about disabilities, the entertainment industry when I found myself in a two year relationship with an abuser. What began as simple put downs and controlling behavior escalated into being choked, punched, kicked, shoved into walls, thrown out of a car naked without house keys, and more, as well as enduring tremendous mental abuse including being lied to and cheated on. I stayed with him because I was repeating a cycle that I had experienced as a child with a mentally checked out mother. With few other outlets, my abuser had become my entire life, however odd that may sound to those who have not endured domestic violence. I had created my own emotional, physical and psychological nightmare and I struggled to find a way out of essay atticus a toxic and twisted reality. That relationship ended nearly five years ago and it took me three years to recover from being “a shell of about a person,” as a former co-worker described me. With intense therapy, a good job and an honest and loving support system, I’m “recovered,” or as recovered as someone who has been abused can ever be. It changes you and it takes years to to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, feel better. I’m still wondering if I will ever be able to about, trust again.
So as my friends get married and have kids, I was pleasantly surprised a few weeks ago when I was able to successfully go on a date. I share my story because today’s reaction by the Baltimore Ravens meant something to me. I know it was very late in coming and it only resulted from the to kill thesis atticus, release of a horrific video, but societal changes in opinion and attitude, especially on topics of cheapest dissertation gender, race and discrimination take time to develop, and to kill a mockingbird essay, this week, we made progress and shined a national spotlight on an issue that often is essay ghost hidden behind doors and to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, sometimes only whispered about with disdain for the victim. BS: Thank you for the email. Best Foster Essay Collection! Coming Friday: my Week 2 picks.
Like anyone cares. This article has been updated to to kill, correct the name of Ravens president Dick Cass. Bill Simmons is the founding editor of Grantland and arts coursework, the author of the New York Times no. 1 best seller The Book of Basketball . For every Simmons column and podcast, click here.
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Atticus Finch - To Kill A Mockingbird …
The English Role In The Pequot War. The English Role In The Pequot War. One of the most hazardous tasks a historian tackles is determining what motivated the to kill thesis actions of romeo essay on fate a past society. Even for a present-day society, this task is fraught with perils. Are a society’s motivations the to kill thesis sum of its adult participants? Do we give special weight to the goals of its leaders? Should we regard the society’s stated goals as accurate communications of motivation, discard them as intentionally deceptive, or dissect those statements as indications of deeper desires that are too painful to directly discuss?
Consider the tremendous range of motives ascribed to dissertation, the United States for its involvement in Southeast Asia in the period 1954-75. Now, consider what happens when we add the complexity of examining the a mockingbird essay thesis atticus motives of a society no longer present, and which had far less complete records than are normally kept by governments today. A paucity of evidence can provide a rich opportunity for ideologues to ascribe any motive that they find convenient. The purpose of this paper is to examine the motivations behind the Pequot War; see how well the best foster evidence matches up to the various theories of to kill atticus intent currently popular in the academic community; and suggest an alternative theory in which the arts coursework English are not the protagonists, but pawns of intertribal warfare. There are at least three theories of motivation for the Pequot War. To Kill Essay Thesis! The oldest theory, reflecting a traditional view of white and Indian relations, is who to outline that the Pequots, who had recently arrived in Connecticut, were “a more fierce, cruel, and warlike People than the Rest of the Indians, … and became a Terrour to all their Neighbors….” After repeated atrocities committed against both Indians, Dutch, and English settlers, the to kill essay English and their Indian allies insisted that the thesis learning Pequots turn over the killers of one Captain John Stone; once battle with the to kill thesis atticus Pequots was fully engaged, it became necessary to burn their fortifications at Mystic, Connecticut, causing an enormous loss of life. According to this view, the Indian allies of the English had their own grievances against the Pequots, but the driving force behind the war was the English colonists.
As early as 1856, historians began to argue a different theory of motivation that was not prepared to outline, accept the Pequot War as a “just war” against an aggressive and dangerous tribe, and saw the English colonists as a group almost as savage in their actions as the Pequots against whom they fought. As an example of how pervasive this attitude has become, a recent American history textbook asserts that “the Puritans took advantage of old hostilities between Indian tribes,” and describes the conflict between Puritans and Pequots as though the English were entirely the aggressors. Significantly, it implies that the Narragansetts, the essay thesis principal English allies against the Pequots, were a passive participant, rather than a major actor in this conflict. The most recent theory of motivation, increasingly propounded since the 1960s, sees the Pequot War as motivated by the desire of the English colonists–primarily those of Massachusetts Bay–to acquire more favorable trading conditions with other Indian tribes, or to wallace essay collection, acquire Pequot lands. Francis Jennings’ The Invasion of America argues that Pequot extermination was a goal of the war, both to acquire Pequot land, and to assert Massachusetts Bay political domination over the settlements led by Thomas Hooker, who had moved south of the Massachusetts Bay colony’s boundaries in 1636. What motivated the Pequot War? Why did it happen, and what was the intent of the various individuals and groups that led up to the gruesome burning of Fort Mystic on to kill essay thesis May 26, 1637? All sources agree that hundreds of Pequot men, women and children died by fire, or were cut down as they fled. Essay Of A! It is essay thesis not a proud moment in American history, but we must make an honest attempt to understand why it happened, and not let later wars between colonists and Indians unduly influence our understanding of it.
A total of four English settlements played a part in the drama of the Pequot War: Massachusetts Bay colony; Plymouth colony; Thomas Hooker’s settlement in Connecticut; and Roger Williams’ Rhode Island exile, to the east of Connecticut. The major English players in arts coursework the motivational drama were: John Winthrop, governor of Massachusetts (1629-34 and 1637-40); Sir Henry Vane, governor of Massachusetts (1636-7); Edward Winslow, governor of Plymouth colony (1633-4 and 1636-7); William Bradford, governor of Plymouth (1635-6 and 1637-8); Roger Williams; John Winthrop, Jr., nominally governor of to kill essay atticus Connecticut colony; John Mason, Lion Gardener, and John Underhill, military commanders involved in best foster essay the attack on Fort Mystic, or the mopping up operations against the surviving Pequots. The Indian tribes who played a significant role are the Pequots, the Narragansetts (occupying Cape Cod and modern Rhode Island), the Niantics (tributaries of the Pequots), the Mohegans (Pequot in culture, but politically independent), and the Block Islanders (tributaries of the Narragansetts). The major Indian personalities were: Uncas, the essay atticus sachem of the Mohegans; Miantonomo, one of the prominent Narragansett sachems; and Sassacus, sachem of the Pequots. We start out this effort with a number of serious disadvantages. Foremost among these is that only the English and Dutch left written records.
This is a serious handicap, because it means that we are relying on information supplied by parties with an interest in justifying their actions, either before the outbreak of hostilities, or afterwards, when gentler souls on the English side may have reconsidered to what extent the arts coursework English actions were justified. Given that the records are all from one side, can a historian therefore consider them to be untrustworthy? If the to kill essay atticus historian discards all accounts of the 1637 Pequot War as partisan, he is left with nothing but archaeological evidence, which is completely inadequate for ascertaining something as tenuous as motivation. The historian is therefore left with at least three possible responses: abandon motivations as the quarry; recognize that these one-sided accounts are our only source of information, biased or inaccurate though they may be; or read into the evidence what he desires to find. As we will see when we examine Invasion of America’s treatment of the Pequot War, this last, least intellectually desirable approach, seems to have been taken up by Francis Jennings.
The evidence that we will examine contains a great many assertions of fact. Who To Write Essay Outline! Some of these facts reflect poorly on the motivations and actions of the colonists who fought against the Pequots; others cast a positive light. If we desire to to kill a mockingbird atticus, use the negative facts contained in these narratives to cast doubt on the colonial motives and actions, it implies that these narratives are sufficiently trustworthy to be used as evidence. Similarly, we must be prepared to accept that statements of who to write outline fact that show positive colonial motives and actions are trustworthy as well. To Kill A Mockingbird Atticus! If we deny the essential accuracy of these narratives except when convenient, we find ourselves confronting the essay ghost epistemological and logical paradox of the man who says, “I am lying.” He says he is lying–but how do we know he is lying, other than the word of a self-described liar? In the absence of evidence that shows intentional deception, we must assume that discrepancies reflect honest mistakes; in the absence of evidence that shows it is in error, we must assume that a primary source is accurate. The case can be made that the narratives we have available to us reflect an intentional effort to portray the actions of the colonists in the best possible light, without directly lying. This is to kill essay atticus certainly a possibility that must be seriously considered. Yet, if the romeo and juliet essay descriptions of the Pequot War provided to us have been shaded or altered in such a way as to hide actions that were considered shameful by a mockingbird atticus, the narrators, we should expect that the arts coursework narratives would provide a highly sanitized description of the war–and as we will see, there is nothing sanitized about the to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus description of the arts coursework frightful and bloody slaughter that took place.
Indeed, expressions of remorse, or at least regret, appear in to kill thesis atticus a number of the primary sources. As with many wars, a series of incidents preceded the Pequot War that created animosity and best essay collection, suspicion among the English, Dutch, and Pequots. The primary and early secondary sources on the Pequot War are careful to essay thesis, blame all three for these provocations, thus making it impossible to reduce the problem to a simple issue of racism. The first incident that led to who to write, war was the death in 1634 of Captain John Stone, “who came occasionally with a Bark into the River to Trade” with the Pequots. Stone was described by Puritans as “a drunkard, lecher, braggart, bully, and blasphemer.” He was a smuggler, a privateer, and it was rumored that he had engaged in cannibalism while shipwrecked in a mockingbird essay the Caribbean. Stone was in continual legal trouble with both Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay, and was finally banished on penalty of death. As an indication of how pivotal an event Stone’s death was in leading to war, the cheapest dissertation question, “Who killed John Stone?” remains sufficiently important that Alfred Cave devoted an to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, entire paper to answering this question. Best David Wallace! Cave devotes considerable energy and ink to defending the a mockingbird atticus position–recently unfashionable–that the dissertation Pequots did, in fact, kill Stone and his associates as retribution for a mockingbird, the murder of the “Pequot grand sachem Tatobem” by arts coursework, the Dutch. Tatobem’s death was, in turn, Dutch retaliation for the murder of a mockingbird other Indians (“most probably Narragansetts”) on their way to the Dutch trading post at Good Hope (near present-day Hartford, Connecticut) in arts coursework late 1633 or early 1634.
Cave sees the a mockingbird thesis atticus death of Stone and his crew as a result of Pequot misunderstanding of European practices regarding revenge and warfare. Cave has the advantage of access to best, Dutch records of these incidents, that were unavailable to the English colonists. John Mason, one of the captains whose two narratives of the war will figure prominently in our later analysis of the actions taken against the Pequots, asserted that the killers of to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus Stone “were not native Pequots; but had frequent recourse unto them…” Governor John Winthrop asserted that the Pequots admitted causing Stone’s death, but claimed it was in self-defense. Since Mason’s statement is not an eyewitness account, it is writing no more persuasive of a piece of evidence than Winthrop’s reporting of Pequot claims. A Mockingbird Thesis Atticus! Mason’s assignment of blame to david wallace essay, non-Pequots has been used by Jennings to discredit Winthrop’s statements, not only as inaccurate, but intentionally deceptive, but Cave shows that not only in Winthrop’s later, alterable journals, but in his correspondence from 1634, Winthrop’s assertion of the Pequot claim of a mockingbird thesis atticus self-defense appears. If Winthrop intended, as early as 1634, to falsify records so as to justify a war waged several years later against the Pequots, why record that the Pequots had given a valid excuse for Stone’s murder?
If deception was really the goal, why didn’t Winthrop record that the Pequots denied the murder completely (thus making them appear to be liars), or record that the Pequots were haughty and proud in writing their crimes? Additional evidence given by Cave to argue against fabrication by a mockingbird thesis, Winthrop is that there are discrepancies in the various accounts of Stone’s death. If every report matched exactly, we would suspect a common source–either factual or fictional. The discrepancies in Winthrop and Underhill’s accounts suggest that each received his account from different witnesses to thesis statement about learning disabilities, the event, and to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, indeed, Winthrop claimed his account came from Pequot ambassadors in write essay outline Boston in essay thesis atticus 1634, while Underhill’s report came from “the Pequot ‘ambassador’ who parleyed with John Endecott… in writing 1636….” In addition, the account recorded by Underhill describes Stone killed while in a drunken stupor. If Stone’s death was falsely blamed on the Pequots as a justification for war, why fabricate such an a mockingbird atticus, unattractive account of the best essay condition of the victim? Examination of Winthrop’s History of New England shows that the a mockingbird essay atticus Pequot claim of descriptive essay ghost self-defense “was related with such confidence and to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, gravity, as, having no means to contradict it, we inclined to believe it.” While the Pequot ambassadors said that the issue of extradition of the killers for trial would require approval of their sachem, Winthrop’s history asserts that at a meeting the next day, the ambassadors agreed to deliver the two men to the English. The two differing results are presented on the same page, with no explanation of the discrepancy. Winthrop’s letter to his son later that year also asserts that the final treaty included surrender of the killers. Jennings sees this discrepancy as evidence of cheapest dissertation deception by Winthrop, but the to kill thesis atticus fact that they appear on the same page suggests that Winthrop believed that the arts coursework matter had been resolved after the Pequot ambassadors had a chance to discuss the subject in private. We do not know for sure if the a mockingbird essay Pequot ambassadors made an agreement that they could not persuade their sachem to ratify, or if Winthrop misunderstood the treaty that was made, or even if the Pequots made such an agreement, and changed their minds later. There is who to write no evidence, however, to establish any intentional deception on Winthrop’s part, and to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, his correspondence strongly suggests that such a deception must have been planned far in advance, and included misleading his son in private letters–a most implausible explanation. Another provocation for the conflict to come (at least, indirectly) was the death of John Oldham, apparently murdered in 1636 at Block Island, off the coast of the present-day Connecticut-Rhode Island border. About Oldham’s death we have far fewer details, but like Stone, there is some dispute about which tribe was responsible for his death.
Cave argues that the descriptive essay of a death of Oldham was at the hand of “Block Islanders tributary to the Narragansetts,” but Cave does not tell us his source for that claim. It would appear that Lion Gardener’s account of the Pequot Wars is the source. A Mockingbird Thesis Atticus! Unfortunately, Gardener provides us with little information with which to judge the accuracy of essay of a this claim. A Mockingbird Essay Thesis Atticus! Gardener tells us, “The Narragansets that were at Block-Island killed him,” but offers as evidence only that they “had [sterling]50 of gold of his…” Mere possession of Oldham’s effects is not sufficient reason to who to, assume their complicity in his death, since Gardener also tells us that some Dutchmen had some of atticus Oldham’s gold, acquired by trade with the Narragansetts. John Underhill’s account of the Pequot War also claims that the writing Block Islanders killed Oldham, and asserts that Oldham’s death alone was the cause of the war. To Underhill, Stone’s death, and the Pequot guilt for harboring Stone’s killers, is an afterthought; the expedition against the Pequots was simply an a mockingbird essay, appendix to punishing the Block Islanders. This position seems hard to defend, for without the expedition against the Pequots for statement learning, Stone’s killers, this paper wouldn’t be about the to kill essay Pequot War, but about the dissertation Block Islander Skirmish, and all the shorter for that reason. William Bradford’s second-hand account of Oldham’s death seems to a mockingbird essay, imply that the cheapest writing killers were not Pequots, but were harbored by the Pequots. Church’s account of the death of to kill John Oldham provides us details of the recapture of Oldham’s vessel, with Oldham’s “head cleft to the brains,” and tells us that some of the best david foster wallace Indians aboard the vessel were captured. Essay Thesis Atticus! Church also seems to hold that either the Pequots were responsible for Oldham’s murder, “or at least the murderers were sheltered by them.” It is possible that the presumptions of guilt were derived from the tribal membership of the Indians found aboard Oldham’s ship. Yet another accusation came from Roger Williams, recorded several months after the major battles of the Pequot War had concluded.
Williams claimed that Pequots indeed murdered Oldham, and were sheltered by “one Wequashcuck” a Niantic sachem. (Since Williams’ accusation dates from best david wallace collection, several months after the war, it obviously did not play a part in motivating the war.) Who killed John Oldham? The bulk of the to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus evidence suggests what most of the participants on the English side had claimed: the Block Islanders, a tribe tributary to the Narragansetts. The question may be legitimately asked why punitive efforts were not made against the Narragansetts for the killers of John Oldham, similar to the actions taken against the Pequots for the death of Stone. Church held that “[t]he Narraganset[t]s, who had some hand in the murder, now submitted to the terms offered by the English.” It appears that the Narrangansetts accepted without retaliation a punitive expedition in 1636 against their Block Island tributaries by Captains Endicott, Underhill, and Turner. Jennings, on the other hand, tells us that one of the and juliet essay on fate Narragansett chiefs “took two hundred warriors in seventeen canoes to Block Island to to kill essay, deal out revenge in Massachusetts’s behalf for arts coursework, Oldham’s death.” Winthrop recorded that Miantonomo, a chief sachem of the Narragansetts, informed the Massachusetts Bay government that two of Oldham’s killers were being held captive by him, and that they would be turned over to the English for punishment. (One was turned over; the other died in Narragansett custody.) Jennings, however, uses the conflicting reports of to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus Oldham’s death as evidence of some grand conspiracy by Massachusetts Bay officials to arts coursework, justify war with the Pequots, as if every eyewitness to a traffic accident can be relied upon to give identical accounts. Larzer Ziff advances the theory that Stone’s death led to the Pequot War because the fur trade “led to the unhesitating need to kill Indians to assure the security of the trader,” and explains that the lack of a similar bloody war against the Narragansetts was because they were a more important military ally than the Pequots. However, Ziff provides no supporting evidence for this theory of motivation. Moreover, Ziff’s assertion that, “The fur trade corrupted the Indians by introducing artificial demands into their culture,” suggests that Ziff has an ax to essay thesis, grind against the Puritans. In 1637, there was certainly no awareness of the extent to best david wallace essay collection, which Indian culture was changing in response to to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, English trade, and to call this change “corrupt” is descriptive of a ghost one that would have doubtless caused an indignant response from any Pequot who had exchanged furs for a musket. While extant letters from Massachusetts Bay officials fail to make any assertions about essay thesis atticus, trade and its relationship to the Pequot War, Plymouth Governor Edward Winslow’s letter of February 17, 1637, seems to argue against such a motivation:
Yet let me commend one thing to your consideracion how dangerous a thing it may prove if the Dutch (who seek it) and they should close by reason of the Pequots necessity: I speake not this as desiring the write essay outline benefit of their trade, for we are weary of the worke as we are dealt withall. Ziff also seeks to essay, explain the reluctance of Massachusetts Governor Henry Vane to take action against the Pequots as reflecting the emerging Antinomian division in cheapest dissertation Boston, which culminated in thesis atticus Anne Hutchinson’s trial and cheapest dissertation, banishment. Ziff argues that Winthrop and a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, his followers were primarily interested in production of goods, and regarded trade as a necessary evil, while Vane, Hutchinson, and other Antinomians were proto-free marketeers uninterested in the fur trade, for, “their worldly interests lay elsewhere.” Ziff flatly denies that the Antinomian reluctance to pursue the Pequot War showed any real concern for the Pequots, and insists on the most negative interpretation of their actions: [I]t indicates the thesis statement learning disabilities negative fact that they were unwilling to join in a communal enterprise with those with whom they had so profound a disagreement in other matters and a mockingbird essay atticus, who had so rudely turned their representatives out of elective office. Ziff provides no source for write, his belief about the nature of Antinomian opposition to the Pequot War. Since he also asserts that Vane as governor had “dragged his feet” in sending an expedition against the Pequots, revenge for turning Vane out of office could not have been a motivation for actions taken by Vane while he was still governor! Jennings sees the two year delay between Stone’s death and Endecott’s punitive expedition as an indication that Massachusetts Bay was deciding whether “profitable trade” was possible with the a mockingbird atticus Pequots, and that Stone’s death was just an excuse for a war motivated by the pursuit of land and trade opportunities. At the same time, Jennings finds it hard to believe that Stone’s death would have motivated action by any of the New Englanders at learning disabilities, all, because of Stone’s criminal history. Jennings’ position seems to be that they should have been immediately driven to action by Stone’s death–and yet he acknowledges that there were reasons why both colonies might only have regarded Stone’s death as the regrettable end of to kill a troublemaker.
Rather than focusing attention on the long interval between Stone’s death and the start of the war, it is more important to who to write essay, recognize that Stone’s death was only one of the provocations that led to the Pequot War. It was probably not the most emotionally affecting incident for the colonists, especially in light of to kill essay thesis Stone’s reputation. Dissertation! The actions which took place in the period between Governor Winthrop’s meeting with the essay atticus Pequot ambassadors in 1634, and essay, the decision to make war upon the Pequots in 1637, played a far more inflammatory part than the death of Stone. The punitive expedition by Captain Endecott against the Block Islanders in 1636 also included an attack on to kill a mockingbird essay thesis the Pequots on the mainland, with the goal of forcing Sassacus, chief sachem of the Pequots, to turn over the killers of Stone. “The movement, instead of intimidating, did but irritate that warlike nation.” Sassacus attempted to ally with the Narragansetts against the English, but they declined the invitation. In response to the punitive expedition, the Pequots launched a series of kidnappings, murders, and tortures of prisoners from the frontier communities then being established in best david wallace Connecticut, which, not surprisingly, inflamed the colonial attitude towards the Pequots. The tortures inflicted are described in gruesome detail in several sources, both primary and to kill essay thesis, secondary; to read them is to get some grasp of the reactions provoked:
A few days after, they took two men out of a boat, and murdered them with ingenious barbarity, cutting off first the hands of one of them, then his feet…. Cheapest Dissertation Writing! Soon after, two men sailing down the river were stopped and to kill atticus, horribly mutilated and mangled; their bodies were cut in two, lengthwise, and the parts hung up by the river’s bank. A man who had been carried off from Wethersfield was roasted alive. All doubt as to the necessity of vigorous action was over, when a band of a hundred Pequots attacked that place, killed seven men, a woman, and a child, and carried off two girls. Gardener’s account tells us something of the tortures inflicted by the Pequots: “some flayed alive, others cut in pieces, and some roasted alive…” Gardener identifies “the brother of Mr. Michell, who is the statement disabilities minister of Cambridge” as one who was “roasted alive.” Gardener also informs us that:
I would fain die in the field, with honor, and not to to kill essay thesis atticus, have a sharp stake set in david essay collection the ground, and thrust into my fundament, and to to kill a mockingbird essay thesis, have my skin flayed off by piece-meal, and thesis statement about, cut in pieces and bits, and atticus, my flesh roasted and thrust down my throat, as these people have done, and I know will be done to the chiefest in the country by hundreds, if God should deliver us into their hands… Mason adds to the list of tortures performed by the Pequots: “their Flesh being first slashed with Knives, and then filled with burning Embers.” Torture of captives was part of the romeo tradition of Indian warfare among many Eastern Woodland Indian tribes, perhaps as emotional compensation for the more limited scale on which the warfare was usually conducted. The Puritan reaction, however, was self-righteous anger (despite the retaliatory torture of a mockingbird essay thesis atticus Pequots by writing, Mason’s men at Saybrook). It is important to recognize the major part that the Indian allies of the English played in encouraging the war, even though they hesitated once the battle of Fort Mystic began. Plymouth (and indirectly, Massachusetts Bay) had been informed in 1636 by Uncas, a Mohegan sachem, that the Pequots had planned to attack and take one of the Plymouth trading vessels the a mockingbird previous year. Cheapest Dissertation Writing! (The attack was never carried out, however.) Jennings suggests that the report may have “originated in Uncas’s malicious imagination…” Jennings argues that because the Mohegans were an offshoot of the Pequots, Uncas might have perceived a potential benefit from provoking war between English and Pequots; Uncas had an a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, interest in becoming grand sachem of both Mohegans and Pequots. It would be entirely credible for best david wallace, Uncas to believe that a major defeat of the Pequots would cause Sassacus to fall from power as grand sachem, opening up an opportunity for to kill, himself. Roger Williams informed Governor Winthrop of the great willingness of the Narragansetts to assist in making war on the Pequots, providing intelligence about and juliet essay on fate, Pequot positions, and the best locations from which to attack Fort Mystic. A Mockingbird Essay! Indeed, Williams describes the Narragansett sachems as anxious for the English to start the war as soon as possible. According to Williams, the cheapest Narragansetts had the to kill essay thesis goal of stealing Pequot canoes, killing all the arts coursework men, and most of the women and children. But two days later Williams asserted, “That it would be pleasing to all natives, that women and children be spared, etc.” By “all natives,” it would appear that Williams was referring to tribes other than the Narragansett. After the Fort Mystic massacre, the Narragansetts expressed their desire “for some smale interrest and priveledg in Pequot Cuntrye…” This desire, however, might have been only an after-the-fact attempt to gain from the Pequot loss. A few weeks later, Daniel Patrick was informing Increase Nowell that, “The Narregansets woulde be the onelye lords of Indeans; the to kill essay Inglish if god will, may, I doubt not, receive tribbute of all but Narregansets…” Israel Stoughton complained to descriptive, Governor Winthrop the same day that the Narragansetts “are so eagerly sett upon their owne ends, to a mockingbird essay atticus, gett booty etc. and to augment their owne Kingdome etc., that upon the matter they use us as their stalking horse…” Stoughton, in the same letter, described a “Squa-Sachem” of arts coursework Long Island who was apparently a Pequot tributary, who sought peace with the English, yet from Stoughton’s description, Miantonomo, one of the two chief sachems of the Narragansett, attempted “to prejudice us against a mockingbird thesis, her… that we might fall foule with her, albeit he can shew in truth no cause.” Was the destruction of Pequot power the Narragansett goal before the battle of Fort Mystic, or merely a logical outcome, once their major rival for power had been removed as a military force?
Stoughton reported that Pequot captives “told it… playnely, That were it not for the English the Pecots would not yet feare the Narra: but would take their Country…” Were the Narragansetts the major instigators of the Pequot War, for their own advantage? The Narragansetts by thesis statement disabilities, themselves could not have achieved the decisive victory over the Pequots that English arms and organization made possible. To Kill Essay Thesis! Even after the destruction of Fort Mystic, Roger Williams reported that a council of surviving Pequots, including Sassacus, debated whether to descriptive of a ghost, continue fighting, first against a mockingbird thesis, the Narragansetts (not the arts coursework English), or to remove to to kill a mockingbird atticus, the west. This suggests the Pequots regarded the descriptive ghost Narragansetts as their principal enemies, not the English. We must consider the possibility, however, that the Pequots regarded the a mockingbird essay atticus English as too dangerous an enemy to attack. In examining evidence about the supposedly recent arrival of the Pequot tribe in New England, Alfred Cave observes that: Both Winthrop and Bradford recorded in the early 1630s that several “River Indian” sachems had invited the English to settle in the Connecticut Valley, but both concluded that the descriptive essay of a sachems’ motive was to use the to kill a mockingbird essay atticus Puritans to descriptive essay of a ghost, regain the power they had lost to a mockingbird essay, the Pequots. Neither Winthrop nor Bradford regarded the River Sachems as victims of an external aggressor but rather viewed them as “treacherous” connivers who hoped to manipulate the English. While Cave argues in “The Pequot Invasion” against the Pequots as recent arrivals in their 1630s location, based on archaeological evidence, oral tradition, and the lack of any evidence from the earliest accounts to establish that they were not long indigenous, he does agree that the Pequots had, shortly “after their first contact with the Dutch in 1622,” fought and beaten these “River Indians.” These tribes, as well as the Narragansetts to the east, resented Pequot hegemony. Did Winthrop forget his earlier perceptions of why other tribes sought English assistance against the Pequots, or did the attacks on Stone, Oldham, and the frontier settlements put him in too much fear to remain neutral any longer?
The English colonists, rather than being regarded as the prime villians in the Pequot War, should perhaps be regarded as pawns in intertribal power politics. In summary, a variety of motivations existed for arts coursework, the English to make war on the Pequots, all consistent with their claimed goal of forcing the to kill thesis Pequots to turn over suspected murderers. But in addition to the English motivations, there are other motivations as well on the part of Uncas, and the Narragansetts. We must consider this as evidence that the Narragansetts manipulated the who to English into war against the Pequots. An accelerant is an incendiary that turns a small fire into a large one. When fire investigators try to to kill a mockingbird essay atticus, determine the who to essay cause of to kill a structure fire, they look for char marks that show that gasoline, kerosene, or some other hot-burning liquid may have been used. In a similar way, we can find accelerants at work in the Pequot War–actions and fears on both sides that made it into a much more deadly confrontation than might otherwise have been necessary, for about learning, Indian tribal conflicts rarely turned into such bloody wars.
Captain Endicott’s expedition against the Block Islanders and the Pequots was both punitive, and an attempt to extort extradition of Stone’s killers from the Pequots. A Mockingbird Thesis Atticus! As many sources agree, including all of the primary sources, the goal was to punish the Block Islanders for the death of who to write essay outline John Oldham, and to encourage the Pequots to essay thesis atticus, give up the best foster wallace killers of Stone and Oldham to colonial justice. There is agreement from the primary sources that only one Pequot was killed, many wigwams were burned, and a considerable quantity of corn taken. Secondary sources are less certain about the number of Pequots killed, but otherwise agree about the damage done. There is some disagreement, however, about the effectiveness of this effort. Church claims, “It was Endicot’s first trust of essay thesis atticus such a kind, and he did not execute it with good judgment.” Palfrey appears to romeo and juliet on fate, suggest that Endicott’s effort was unsuccessful because he “could get no audience of [the Pequot’s] chief men.” This would be consistent with the instructions given by Governor Henry Vane of Massachusetts Bay Colony May 4, 1636 to Connecticut Governor John Winthrop, Jr., which appears to to kill thesis atticus, be the basis on which Endicott’s expedition was dispatched. While the damage sounds minor, it appears that it exceeded Pequot notions of acceptable warfare, provoking a more dramatic response (in the form of the attacks on romeo the frontier English settlements) than was the norm for thesis atticus, Indian warfare. Another accelerant to the bloody confrontation was Pequot blasphemy. The Pequots, like many Indian tribes when engaged in warfare, taunted their enemies. Edward Johnson recorded the Pequot insult that, “Englishmans God was all one Flye” and boasted of power that “Puritans read… as literal pledges of allegiance to the devil.” Underhill reported that some of the Pequot warriors taunted the essay ghost English that if one of the Pequot warriors “could kill but one of to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus you more, he would be equal with God, and as the Englishman’s God is, so would he be.” When we consider the willingness of Massachusetts Bay to execute troublesome Quakers for violating banishment orders, the Pequot blasphemies help to explain the bloody results of the Pequot War. Both Indians and of a, Englishmen believed in the powers of the supernatural. Roger Williams warned Governor Winthrop in September of 1636 that,
The Pequts heare of your preparations etc. and comfort themselves in essay atticus this that a witch amongst them will sinck the pinnaces by best david foster collection, diving under water and making holes etc. as allso that they shall now enrich themselves with store of guns but I hope their dreames (through the mercie of the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus Lord) shall vanish, and the Devill and his lying Sorcerers shall be confounded. The current generation may find this a laughable threat, but to understand the level of fear provoked by descriptive essay of a ghost, such concerns, consider the to kill a mockingbird thesis psychological effect of descriptive essay ghost Hitler’s threats of new “secret weapons” during World War II–and how psychologically destructive it was when the essay atticus V1 and the V2 first started to deliver their cargoes of death to statement learning disabilities, Britain. Fear of such supernatural attack may explain the a mockingbird essay willingness to use fire against Fort Mystic, and the actions taken by write essay outline, the English soldiers to to kill a mockingbird thesis, assure themselves of being right with God. As an example of this spiritual concern, the Massachusetts soldiers were delayed by the discovery “that some of the arts coursework Officers, as well as of the atticus private Soldiers, were still under a Covenant of Works; and that the Blessing of God could not be implored or expected to crown the Arms of such unhallowed Men with Success.” The greater the English fear, the write outline greater their willingness to use all means within their power to destroy Pequot resistance. Another cause of the level of blood shed in the attack on Fort Mystic on May 26, 1637, may have been the relative numbers of to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus soldiers on each side. Thesis Statement About Learning! The colonial army that attacked the Pequot fort consisted of 77 Englishmen, 60 Mohegans, and 400 Narragansetts and Niantics (the last two among the least reliable allies). Mason’s eyewitness account asserts that immediately before the battle began, many of the Indian allies had fled, being “exceedingly afraid.” Underhill expressed concerns about a mockingbird thesis, Mohegan fidelity, because of the common origins of Pequots and Mohegans, and feared that once the battle was under way, the Mohegans might suddenly change sides. This meant that the effective fighting force was reduced to perhaps only the 77 Englishmen. Nor should we consider that the English regarded themselves as clearly superior soldiers. While Mason appears to have held Indian fighting skills in low regard, Edward Winslow complained shortly before the statement about learning disabilities battle that Gardener “much discourageth common men by extolling the valor” of the Pequots. Even Mason, however, once confronting a larger force, might have reconsidered his views. Underhill, attacking the other side of Fort Mystic, may have been in a mockingbird essay considerable fear as well, for thesis learning disabilities, he regarded the English soldiers as “unexpert in to kill atticus the use of their arms,” and the Pequots as brave fighters. There are conflicting descriptions of the number of Pequots the Englishmen were confronting.
Gardener claimed that at least 300 Pequots died in Fort Mystic, and best david wallace collection, that “many prisoners” were taken. William Bradford’s second-hand account claimed 400 Pequots died. Mason’s eyewitness account claimed 600-700 Pequots were killed, with only essay, seven taken prisoner, and seven escaped. Descriptive Essay Of A! Mason’s account also describes another fort, some distance off, that contained an additional 150 Pequot warriors. This means that the a mockingbird English expedition was outnumbered at least 4.5:1, and if we believe Mason, as much as 11:1, although it is clear that many of the Pequots were not warriors. Captain Mason was well aware that, “Their Numbers far exceeded ours.” The possibility of losing the battle–with potentially torturous consequences for prisoners–must have weighed heavily on the mind of Captain Mason, who made the cheapest dissertation decision, once the battle was underway, “We must burn them.” The Pequots had already made clear their acceptance of the notion of total war–or so the a mockingbird essay thesis English thought.
Gardener describes an encounter before the battle at thesis statement, Fort Mystic in which one of the atticus Pequots boasted: “We are Pequits, and have killed Englishmen, and can kill them as mosquetoes, and we will go to Conectecott and kill men, women, and children…” To the colonists, such boasts were doubtless good reason for taking no chances of leaving any Pequot braves alive to carry out such threats against their loved ones at home. Roger Williams also informed Governor Winthrop in late August of 1636 that, “the Pequts and [Niantics] resolve to thesis statement, live and die together and to kill a mockingbird, not to yeald up one…” Yet evidence was available that suggested the Pequots view of war did not match their boasting. Edward Winslow’s letter to Governor Winthrop shortly before the battle of Fort Mystic observed, “The Pecoats follow their fishing and planting as if they had no enemies.” Underhill’s description of battle between Pequots and the Indian allies of the English, shortly after the burning of Fort Mystic asserted that, “This fight is more for pastime, than to conquer and subdue enemies.” The Indian tradition of cheapest proud boasting was nothing more than a vigorous attempt to essay atticus, intimidate one’s enemies; traditionally, New England Indians “saw little logic in spilling oceans of blood over matters of largely symbolic importance.” It appears that the English played for keeps, and even when they saw that Indian warfare was fought at a very restrained level, it appears not to have significantly impacted English thinking about the about learning disabilities limits of warfare. Finally, the Old Testament model of extermination must be considered. To Kill Essay Thesis Atticus! When the Israelites captured Canaanite cities, they killed every inhabitant, so that proximity would not lead the Israelites into thesis worshipping Canaanite gods. Did the English colonists subscribe to this model?
The evidence is contradictory. In 1630, John Cotton articulated this view of the relationship of the Puritans to the Indians, quoting Psalms 44:2, “Thou didst drive out the heathen before them.” Similarly, Underhill compares the deaths at Fort Mystic to thesis atticus, the Old Testament wars: Sometimes the Scripture declareth women and children must perish with their parents. Sometimes the case alters; but we will not dispute it now. We had sufficient light from the word of God for our proceedings. Winthrop’s views, on the other hand, seem to be subtly different. Winthrop, in 1630, argued that “if we leave them sufficient [land] for learning, their use we may lawfully take the rest.” A letter from Winthrop to John Endecott in 1634 argues that the widespread death of the Indians from infectious diseases demonstrated God’s support for to kill essay atticus, the Puritan expansion in the new land. There is who to a large difference between taking advantage of the gradual dying out of the thesis atticus Indians, and intentional extermination. Winthrop’s claim does not justify extermination, but Cotton’s does, and Underhill’s statement may be honestly read as supporting extermination, or death to all the warriors.
The colonists already regarded their actions as establishing a “city on a hill” of purified Christianity in who to essay the New World; the analogy to the Israelites, who purified Canaan by exterminating the a mockingbird essay Canaanites, would have been obvious. If evidence for intentional extermination of the Pequots down to the last man, woman, and child were present, this would tend to thesis statement about learning disabilities, argue that John Cotton’s Old Testament view influenced the actions taken during the Pequot War. What restraints were present during the Pequot War? Initially, the unnecessary killing of non-combatants restrained both sides. The Pequots were used to a style of warfare that left few dead, and the initial expedition by Endicott caused few Pequot deaths. But once the colonists perceived that the to kill essay atticus Pequots intended to do them great harm, there was no logical alternative but complete defeat of their enemies.
It appears that the Pequots failed to descriptive essay of a ghost, understand one important European attitude about warfare: it was not a game, and if fought at all, it was to be as total a victory as could be achieved. There seems to to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, be some question about the extent to which the thesis disabilities English regarded women, children, and the elderly as “non-combatants.” Hirsch asserts that “atrocities committed during the Thirty Years War… elicited universal condemnation,” arguing that the to kill a mockingbird thesis English actions during the Pequot War did not reflect the prevailing European notions of essay of a fair play. A Mockingbird Atticus! Instead, he sees the breakdown of the notion of non-combatants as a result of the fears engendered by best david wallace essay collection, the isolated and dependent position of the English colonists, in conjunction with the Pequot raids on frontier settlements, where the deaths of English women must have seemed evidence of Pequot barbarism. At the same time, Hirsch points to a number of modern writers on this subject who claim that non-combatants were perfectly acceptable victims under prevailing European standards, and therefore, the essay thesis slaughter at romeo on fate, Fort Mystic is unsurprising. Finally, in examining the restraints which operated on the Puritans, we must consider the very high standards to which they felt themselves obligated.
This does not mean that every Puritan always lived up to these standards, but most people seek to justify–or rationalize–the actions which they take. In the case of to kill thesis Governor Vane’s orders to Endicott’s expedition, the instructions were very clear–that war was a last resort, if the Pequots would not turn over the offenders for arts coursework, trial. The actions and to kill a mockingbird, statements of various English colonists after the Pequot War suggest remorse consistent with a belief that the thesis disabilities matter had gone beyond a point where all, participants and spectators, could be completely comfortable with the results, in spite of an overwhelming victory. Gardener’s retrospective description of the a mockingbird essay Pequot War has a mournful tone to it, and apparently not just for who to write essay, the English casualties of the war: Thus far I had written in a book, that all men and posterity might know how and why so many honest men had their blood shed, yea, and some flayed alive, others cut in pieces, and to kill a mockingbird atticus, some roasted alive, only because Kichamokin… a Bay Indian killed one Pequit… Similarly, Roger Williams, who had played a major part in organizing Indian allies against the Pequots, expressed concern “that some innocent blood cryes at of a ghost, Qunnihticut,” and pointed to 2 Kings 14:5-6 as evidence that guilt did not extend to children. Two weeks later, he clarified that his concern was that the Pequot women and children should not be enslaved, or at least, not permanently. Essay! “If they have deserved Death, tis Sinn to spare: If they have not deserved Death, then what punishments? Whether perpetuall slaverie.” There is evidence that the romeo essay New England colonists did, at to kill essay thesis atticus, least occasionally, recognize an obligation to provide color-blind justice–at least in peacetime.
In 1638, four Englishmen participated in the robbery and murder of a Narragansett. One escaped English jurisdiction; another died as a result of wounds suffered when the Narragansetts took him captive; and write essay, the two remaining Englishmen were tried, convicted, and executed for a crime against an Indian. While the motivations included concern about to kill a mockingbird essay atticus, Narragansett retaliation if no justice was done, Bradford emphasizes that those who expressed opposition “that any English should be put to who to essay outline, death for the Indeans” were of a “rude ignorante sorte.” On a less severe scale, Massachusetts Bay had whipped one of the colonists “for soliciting an Indian squaw to incontinency” some years before the to kill essay atticus Pequot War. These incidents suggest that the English concern for justice included justice for crimes against Indians. Thomas Shepard’s sermon, “The Parable of the Ten Virgins,” delivered before 1640, suggested that the Pequot War was an event sent by God for the purpose of cheapest awakening the Puritans from spiritual slumber: “The Lord awakened us by the Pequot hornet, yet what use is thesis there made of it?” This is write outline another reminder that the thesis atticus Pequot War was regarded not merely as an unpleasant event, but perhaps an arts coursework, indication of to kill God’s displeasure with the Puritans. This is suggestive that feelings of guilt were present about the war, and that at least some English colonists recognized that justice had not been done. There is one piece of evidence that suggests the decision to burn Fort Mystic may not have been completely made on the spur of the moment, and best david foster, it has apparently been missed by Jennings, who, one would think, would leave no such evidence out of Invasion of to kill a mockingbird thesis America. Underhill’s description of Captain Mason setting fire to Fort Mystic describes Mason’s use of ghost a firebrand on the west side, and to kill thesis atticus, “myself set fire on the south end with a train of powder.” Unfortunately, it is impossible to tell if Underhill is referring to a “train” hundreds of feet long, or simply the result of emptying his powder horn and lighting it. Outline! Yet even on the same page, Underhill reported, “Mercy did they deserve for their valor, could we have had opportunity to to kill thesis atticus, have bestowed it.” This suggests, though does not prove, that Underhill’s actions with the “train of powder” were an impulsive act, not a premeditated act of extermination.
The evidence suggests that the massacre at statement about learning, Fort Mystic was not premeditated, but the atticus actions of a commander who had stumbled into a battle prematurely, found himself suddenly outnumbered, afraid that this problem was going to arts coursework, get dramatically worse if he fought the to kill thesis Pequots in a traditional way, in terror of torture if captured, and who saw an immediate tactical solution to his problem: fire. This does not mean that a plan could not been hatched in advance for the extermination of women and children, but the evidence for such a plan is simply not present. Was genocide the intent of the English, as some modern historians have claimed or implied? Genocide is a very emotionally charged word. It is a word that evokes images of gas chambers, bulldozers burying mountains of rotting corpses, and crematoria. It is the nuclear weapon of accusations. Strong language should be held in reserve for circumstances that unambiguously call for it, or we are at risk that the word will cease to thesis statement about disabilities, have any real meaning, much as “fascist” was used in the 1960s by some political activists and academics to refer to any political opinion to the right of Eugene McCarthy. Genocide is a term of recent origin, coined in 1943 by Raphael Lemkin to describe the actions of National Socialist Germany and its allies in establishing a Judenrein Europe. In the strictest sense, it refers to the intentional effort to a mockingbird thesis atticus, achieve the complete physical extermination of an best foster collection, identifiable ethnic or national group.
Katz observes that the term “genocide” has been recently used “by American historians and others to describe various persecutions past and present…” Such overheated rhetoric was readily audible during the recent Columbus quincentennial, in spite of its general inapplicability, except in a sense so broad as to render the term “genocide” meaningless. Can we apply the term to what happened to the Pequots? While many Pequots died in battle, and at least 30 male prisoners were killed by essay atticus, the English shortly after the burning of Fort Mystic, there is abundant evidence that the English did not intend the and juliet extermination of the Pequots. To Kill! Mason describes the taking of Pequot prisoners in subsequent battles, who were turned over for absorption into Indian tribes allied with the English. Bradford’s account of their disposition differs from Mason’s, with Bradford asserting that the prisoners were divided “some to essay, those [Indians?] of the river, and a mockingbird, the rest to dissertation, us.” The male children were sent to Bermuda, presumably into slavery, and “the women and to kill atticus, maid children are disposed aboute in the townes.” Bradford’s account is not clear whether the Pequot females in Plymouth were enslaved, but Hirsch brings together a number of pieces of documentary evidence to cheapest dissertation, show that they were enslaved for life, and some were sent to colonial prisons. Roger Williams’ proposal of late June, 1637, that “such Pequts as fall to them be not enslaved, like those which are taken in warr” was apparently not taken. While the actions taken were nothing of which to to kill thesis atticus, be proud, they are not consistent with genocidal intent.
Katz does an effective job of demolishing Francis Jennings’ arguments in The Invasion of America that extermination was the intent of the cheapest war, pointing out that Jennings “proves” his position by a highly selective reading of the primary documents, leaving out those pieces of evidence that would tend to support the to kill a mockingbird “heat of battle” explanation that seems most justified to this reader. Examination of Jennings’ argument directly, comparing it to the sources quoted, confirms Katz’s claim; Jennings clearly misrepresents Mason’s account of the events that led up to david foster, the burning of Fort Mystic. As one example, Jennings asserts that, “Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective.” No such assertion is to essay atticus, be found in write Mason. Similarly, Jennings quotes Mason’s remark, “We had formerly concluded to destroy them by the Sword and save the to kill essay Plunder,” as demonstrating an intention to slaughter all the foster collection inhabitants of a mockingbird atticus Fort Mystic, but this position is not supported by the context of Mason’s remarks. Jennings also asserts that Mason lied about the reasons why his Indian allies withdrew from the battle until the essay on fate victory was assured by essay thesis, use of fire, yet he provides no evidence to romeo and juliet essay, prove that claim. Careful examination of Jennings’ claims and use of evidence reveals a consistent policy of misrepresentation of primary sources and selective reading. Another problem with Jennings’ argument is that it assumes a level of agreement and organization among the English colonists in preparing to exterminate the Pequots. At the same time, Jennings argues that attempts to bring Thomas Hooker’s Connecticut flock under the political authority of Massachusetts Bay caused Winthrop to a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, provoke a war with the Pequots, so that Massachusetts Bay could claim Connecticut by essay ghost, right of conquest, thus extending their political claims. Either the to kill a mockingbird colonies were working together to wipe out the Pequots, or they were fighting each other over political control–both claims seem to be made by Jennings, and they appear to be inconsistent. The lack of agreement among the three colonies of Plymouth, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay is best david foster readily shown. At the same time that Massachusetts Bay was starting to negotiate with the Pequots about extradition of Stone’s killers, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay were not on friendly terms, because of fighting at Kennebunk that led to the death of a Massachusetts Bay man. Similarly, in May of 1636, Massachusetts Governor Vane’s letter to to kill thesis, Connecticut Governor John Winthrop, Jr., found it necessary to ghost, emphasize that Massachusetts concerns about the Pequots “concernes not only to kill essay thesis, this state but all the English upon the River…” If, as Jennings argues, the Pequot War was all some great conspiracy by Massachusetts Bay for about disabilities, commercial ends, in essay which Governor Winthrop played a major role, it is descriptive of a all the more surprising that his son would need to be persuaded to take part.
As late as March 20, 1637, Governor Winthrop’s letter to William Bradford acknowledged “you objecte that we began the warr, without your privitie, and managed it contrary to your advise.” Even more telling against a mockingbird essay thesis, Jennings’ claim of Winthrop intentionally provoking a war with the Pequots is the write essay later admission, “our first Intentions being only against Block Iland, and the Interprice seeming of small difficultie, we did not so much as consider of taking advise, or looking out for aide abroad.” To acknowledge that the war was, essentially, a mistake, would not have ingratiated Massachusetts Bay to Plymouth; indeed, it would have suggested that Massachusetts Bay didn’t quite know what it was doing, at a time when Plymouth’s alliance was very important. Thomas Hooker also showed the reluctance of Connecticut settlers to participate in the Pequot War. Hooker and his settlement finally decided to join in the war because their Indian neighbors “were so importunate with us to make warr presently that unless we had attempted some thing we had delivered our persons unto contempt of base feare and cowardise, and caused them to turne enemies agaynst us…” At the same time, once committed to the war, Hooker requested that Winthrop “not to do this work of the Lords revenge slackly…” The English actions after Fort Mystic seems an entirely understandable response to fear of the Pequot tribe nursing a grudge that might lead to yet another war; reducing their females to an enslaved status was certainly generous compared to the Old Testament model. Governor Edward Winslow, in spite of the a mockingbird thesis initial reservations expressed by thesis statement about disabilities, Plymouth about war with the to kill thesis atticus Pequots, finally threw Plymouth’s lot in best wallace with Massachusetts Bay. He agreed that it was “necessary for you to proceed in the war begun with the Pequots, otherwise the natives we feare will grow into a stronger confederacy to the further prejudice of the whole English.” Roger Williams warned Governor Winthrop of a mockingbird reports that the surviving Pequots had entered a league with “the Mauquawogs or Mohowawogs [Mohawks?] which signifies Man Eaters in romeo essay on fate their language: These Caniballs have bene all the talke these 10 dayes, and the [Narragansetts] are much troubled at them.” Williams went on to express concern that the Pequots would also turn cannibal, and “cut of all hopes of safe residence at to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, Qunnihticut…” Williams again was reporting Narragansett concerns that would seem certain to provoke the most extreme fear from the English, encouraging the continuing hunt for surviving Pequots, and their enslavement or death.Having established that physical genocide was not accomplished by the English (and it was within their power to have carried it out, had they desired it), what about cultural genocide? First of all, it is important to recognize that this term is vague.
The term is often used to describe the intentional destruction of significant cultural identity or elements of a people. But while physical genocide can be reduced to the question: “Did all members of that people, or nearly all members of that people, die?” cultural genocide is descriptive ghost not so easy to measure or define. All populations have culture. All cultures change with time, in response to both internal and external influences. Those external influences may be imposed (e.g., prohibiting Indian children from using their native language in school), or they may be the result of seduction, as American popular culture has done in a mockingbird essay atticus many parts of the romeo and juliet essay world today. An argument could be advanced that the a mockingbird thesis atticus survival of the Pequot gene pool means nothing, if the carriers of those genes were absorbed into arts coursework other Indian tribes, especially since the absorption was not voluntary.
But even acknowledging this, can we find evidence of English intent to destroy the Pequot culture? Before the to kill a mockingbird series of raids that provoked the Pequot War, there is no clear evidence of any intention to destroy the independent existence of the Pequots. As we have seen, the war could have been avoided by the Pequots turning over the suspected murderers for trial; the about learning willingness of the Massachusetts government to negotiate with the Pequots in to kill essay atticus 1636 makes little sense otherwise. Best Collection! Jennings points out that for the Pequots to turn over the killers (who were apparently of a tributary tribe) would have violated Pequot diplomatic obligations, and he suggests that the demand for a mockingbird, the killers was simply a ploy by Massachusetts Bay to justify war. Why would Winthrop bother with negotiations, if the decision had already been made to exterminate the Pequots?
It is possible that a plan was already hatched to arts coursework, wipe out the Pequot tribe, but why negotiate, when such efforts might arouse suspicions of potential hostilities among the Pequots? Perhaps a secret plan already existed, and negotiations were intended to give the illusion of morality to to kill a mockingbird essay thesis, the population that would, of necessity, have to fight the war, but before we assume such a Machiavellian scheme, some evidence must be provided to support such a claim. After the war was fully under way, of course, the evidence is clear, from the enslavement of the cheapest writing females, and the foreign sale of the surviving males, that the English intended the a mockingbird thesis Pequots to no longer be a threat. But there is one additional problem with the claim of cultural genocide: the continued existence of the tribe.Katz quotes Alden Vaughan that, “Toward the end of 1637 the arts coursework few remaining [Pequot] sachems begged for an end to the war, promising vassalage in return for a mockingbird, their lives…. With the Treaty of and juliet on fate Hartford, signed on September 21, 1638, the Pequots ceased to exist as an independent polity.” But did they? Three different sources, two from the nineteenth century, one from the twentieth century, assert the continued existence of the Pequots as a tribe past the a mockingbird time of the Pequot War. Sometime between the thesis statement about end of the Pequot War in 1638 and the beginning of King Philip’s War, four decades later, a Captain George Denison was appointed by the United Colonies of Connecticut to “set aside 8,000 acres as a home for the scattered remnants of the a mockingbird thesis atticus Pequot tribe, the first Indian reservation in North America.” Another indicator of the continued existence of the Pequots as a tribe is an biographical note about Lion Gardener, written in July, 1832, by William T. Williams, which describes “a remnant of the about learning disabilities Pequots still existing. They live in a mockingbird essay the town of Groton, and amount to about forty souls” living on essay a reservation, and still holding a grudge against the remnants of the other tribes. The most persuasive evidence of Pequot survival as a cultural entity is a book of nineteenth century essays, written by a Pequot. If the a mockingbird thesis atticus goal was cultural genocide, the English failed to dissertation, achieve it; the continued presence of Pequots as an independent polity suggests that English enslavement and a mockingbird, death was not aimed at all Pequots, but only those Pequots who were not prepared to david collection, surrender.
Was land acquisition a goal in warring against the Pequots? Jennings argues that Massachusetts Bay sought warfare with the to kill essay Pequots in order to consolidate land claims. Yet after describing a nefarious scheme to war against the Pequots, in order to cheapest dissertation writing, have a better claim to to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, Connecticut than the Connecticut colonists, Jennings admits in a footnote, “All this motivational description must be inferred from the situation.” Further, there is nothing in the primary sources that suggests real estate was an English goal of the war, or even a beneficial side effect of wiping out the Pequots as an independent tribe–as even Jennings admits. There are, however, pieces of evidence that suggest the English acquisition of the Pequot land may have been an afterthought. Israel Stoughton’s letter of August 9th to Governor Winthrop described the Pequot lands in glowing terms: “I am confident we have not the descriptive essay like in English possession as yet, and probable ’tis the Dutch will seaze it if the English do not.” If the plan from the beginning was to dispossess the Pequots of their land, then Stoughton was apparently not in on to kill a mockingbird essay thesis the scheme.
There are, without question, later conflicts with the write essay outline Indians in to kill thesis atticus which the charge can be validly made that the war was fought with the goal of acquiring land. Essay Of A! Certainly, by the nineteenth century, there can be no dispute that the goal with respect to to kill thesis, some of the Plains Indians tribes was extermination. But we must be careful to distinguish the motives of 1637 from the cheapest motives of later periods. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Atticus! In the nineteenth century, Indian raids were a threat to individual lives, but there was no risk of the Indians driving Euro-Americans into the sea; in 1637, the English colonists did, and ghost, accurately, could, fear exactly that. In the nineteenth century, motivations were often colored by a hundred years of fear of “savages”; in 1636, while the Virginia colony’s Indian problems were known, the willingness of the English colonists to ally themselves with the enemies of the Pequots suggests that race (though not tribe) was a minor issue (if any) in to kill the decision to go to war. We must not let our anger about atrocities of arts coursework a later era and against other tribes color our perceptions of the to kill essay atticus Pequot War. The Pequot fort was not Sand Creek Canyon; Captain Mason was not Colonel Chivington; and 1864 was not 1637. Apess, William, On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of thesis statement about disabilities William Apess, A Pequot, (Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992). Bradford, William, Of Plymouth Plantation, edited by Harvey Wish, (New York: Capricorn Books, 1962). Caldwell, Thedore C., and George W. Westcott, “Massachusetts,” Encyclopedia Americana, (Chicago: Americana Corp., 1963), 18:399f-412. Cave, Alfred A., “The Pequot Invasion of Southern New England: A Reassessment of the to kill essay Evidence”, in New England Quarterly, 82:1 [March, 1988], 27-44. ________, “Who Killed John Stone?
A Note on who to essay the Origins of the a mockingbird thesis atticus Pequot War”, in William and Mary Quarterly, 48:3 [July, 1992], 509-521. Church, Benjamin, The History of Philip’s War, 2nd ed., edited by Samuel Drake, (Exeter, N.H. J. Best David Wallace! B. Williams, 1829; reprinted New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969). Denison, E. Glenn, Josephine Middleton Peck, and to kill essay atticus, Donald L. Jacobus, Denison Genealogy: Ancestors and Descendants of Captain George Denison, (Stonington, Conn.: The Pequot Press, Inc., n.d.) Forbes, Allyn Bailey, ed., Winthrop Papers, (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1943). Frost, John, Indian Wars of the United States, (Auburn, Mass.: Derby Miller, 1852). Heimert, Alan, and Andrew Delbanco, ed., The Puritans in America, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985).
Hirsch, Adam J., “The Collision of Military Cultures in Seventeenth-Century New England”, in Journal of American History, 74:4 [March, 1988], 1187-1212. Hubbard, William, The History of the Indian Wars in New England From the and juliet essay on fate First Settlement to the Termination of the War with King Philip, in to kill a mockingbird 1677, edited by Samuel G. Drake, (Roxbury, Mass.: W. Elliot Woodward, 1865; reprint New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969). Jennings, Francis, The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and dissertation writing, the Cant of to kill a mockingbird essay atticus Conquest, (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of learning North Carolina Press, 1975). Katz, Stanley N., John M. Murrin, and Douglas Greenberg, ed., Colonial America: Essays in a mockingbird thesis Politics and Social Development, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993). Katz, Steven T., “The Pequot War Reconsidered”, in New England Quarterly, 64:2 [June, 1991], 206-224. Mason, John, A Brief History of the Pequot War, (Cleveland: 1897; reprinted Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, Inc., 1966). Orr, Charles, History of the Pequot War, (Cleveland: Helman-Taylor Co.: 1897 reprinted New York: AMS Press, n.d.).
Palfrey, John Gorham, A Compendious History of New England, (Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1883). Penhallow, Samuel, The History of the Wars of New-England with the Eastern Indians, or, A Narrative of Their Continued Perfidy and thesis learning disabilities, Cruelty, (Cincinnati : J. Harpel, 1859). Vincent, Philip, A True Relation of the Late Battell Fought in New-England, Between the English, and the Salvages, (London: Nathanael Butter and essay, John Bellamie, 1637; reprinted Norwood, N.J.: Walter J. Johnson, Inc., 1974). Winthrop, John, The History of and juliet essay on fate New England From 1630 to 1649, (Boston: Phelps and Farnham, 1825; reprinted Salem, N.H.: Ayer Co., 1992). Ziff, Larzer, Puritanism in America: New Culture in a New World, (New York: Viking Press, 1973).  William Hubbard, The History of the Indian Wars in New England From the First Settlement to the Termination of the War with King Philip, in 1677, edited by a mockingbird atticus, Samuel G. Drake, (Roxbury, Mass.: W. David Foster! Elliot Woodward, 1865; reprint New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969), 2:116 ff.  Alfred A. Cave, “Who Killed John Stone?
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Essay on Microbiology: Top 6 Essays. Read this essay to learn about Microbiology. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Microbiology 2. Eras of to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, Microbiology 3. Cheapest! Some 20th Century Highlights in Microbiology 4. Branches of Microbiology 5. Scope and Future of Microbiology and to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus 6. Modern Microbiology. Essay on Introduction to Microbiology Essay on the Eras of Microbiology Essay on Some 20th Century Highlights in Microbiology Essay on of a ghost, Branches of Microbiology Essay on the Scope and Future of Microbiology Essay on the Modern Microbiology. Microbiology is a branch of biology that deals with microorganisms (often upto a diameter of 1000 µ ) and their effects on other living organisms.
It derives its name from the union of to kill atticus, three greek words: mikros (= small), bios (= life bearing); and descriptive of a ghost logos (= study). It ia a multi-disciplinary science of microorganisms and the prefix ‘micro’ generally refers to an object small enough so that microscopic examination is required for detailed visualization. A Mockingbird Essay! Thus it is the scientific study of descriptive essay of a, microorganisms, including a diverse group of simple life forms like protozoa, algae, molds, bacteria and viruses. Microbiology is concerned with the structure, function, classification and ways of controlling and using their activities. The earlier works done by to kill essay thesis, Antony Van Leauwenhoek (1632 – 1723), and later in 19th century by david essay collection, Louis Pasteur (1822- 1893) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) etc. laid the foundations of this subject. 1. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay! Era of Speculation (5000 BC to 1675): Prior to thesis statement learning, Hippocrates (412 B.C.) some Biblical and other historical records often talked of the death tolls that some disease had taken. To Kill A Mockingbird Thesis! And Hippocrates seems to thesis, have been the first observer to document an Influenza epidemic in the year 412 B.C. Epidemics of plague have been recorded in China since 224 B.C. Major Plague epidemics occurred in essay thesis, 540 AD in Egypt, reached Constantinopole in 542, and spread to Europe and Asia in the following decade; and who to write essay was called the Plague of Lustinion named after the emperor of Brezantine Empire from 527 to 565 A.D. One of the most notorious of the plague epidemics consumed 14 th century Europe.
It began in essay thesis, the Volga River Basin in 1345, travelled north through Europe and reached England in 1348, and finally Russia in essay outline, 1351. It was called as The Great Dying, Magna Mortalis or The Black Death, claimed around one-third to one half the population of Europe and an estimated 40 million deaths worldwide. It was probably the concept of quarantine (from the Italian quarentina, meaning forty, supposed to be based on the number of days Christ spent in the wilderness) was instituted then. Thesis! Though the infected individuals were kept isolated from others, the reservoir of the arts coursework disease causing microbes (Rats) and the rat fleas (the vector) were allowed to roam freely. The proposed remedies were also interesting and included burning incense sticks, dipping handkerchiefs in aromatic oils, ringing church bells, firing canons, wearing magical figures and bathing in human urine etc. The other major pandemic of plague was recorded during 1655-1896, mostly in China and India, where more than 12 million died. It was in 1894 that Yersin and Kitasato described the causative agent, now known as Yersinia pestis. And, it wasn’t until 1897 that the mode of transmission was conclusively identified. During early 1940s Syphilis spread throughout Europe. It was on this ailment Paul Ehrlich, in the first decade of the 20 th century focused his search for the “magic bullet”.
There have been seven major pandemic occurring’s from 1817 through 1970. Smallpox alone is estimated to have killed more than 100 million people worldwide. In the to kill atticus late 18th century the work of Edward Jenner, who developed a vaccine from the similar virus of cowpox, paved the way for the control of this deadly disease. Infact, the term Vaccine was born from the Latin word for cow, vacca, based on Jenner’s work. In 1918-1919, the “Spanish” influanza pandemic, killed some 40-50 million people, about 2-3% of world’s population. Dissertation! It attacked the very young and to kill essay atticus very old, taking advantage of their frail immune systems.
It also spread across five continents. Though considerable work was being done in the field of bacteriology, the advances in the field of virology had to arts coursework, wait for the development of the electron microscope by Belgian Physicist Marton (1934). In the late 17th century a slow yet methodical pursuit began as a new chapter in humanity’s understanding of the to kill essay thesis atticus hitherto unseen and unknown world. As per WHO report, in 2003 alone, more than 11 million people died of infectious diseases including AIDS, tuberculosis and Malaria and of them half of them in Africa. 2. Era of Observation (1675 to wallace essay collection, Mid 19 th Century): The unknown, transmissible substance, Virus (Latin for poison) had always puzzled humanity. Earlier workers studying such small creatures were said to be as Microbe Hunters by Paul De Kruif (1954). Scientific and methodological understanding of bacteria had already started in this era and the advanced versions of to kill atticus, Light and advent of electron microscope started new horizons for the classical microbiology. It is at times seen from 1675 to mid19 th century. 3. Era of Cultivation (Mid 19 th Century to arts coursework, Early 20 th Century):
Although a period of over 150 years of observations and discoveries by many early microbiologists had contributed a lot to the understanding of this discipline, still the cause of infectious diseases was completely unknown till mid 19 th century. In 1857, Pasteur, the essay chemist with a microscope turned beet sugar into alcohol. Thus eventually he succeeded in preparing a “culture medium”, (Pasteur called it yeast soup). Infact the lack of suitable means to obtain pure cultures was a major impediment to write outline, the development of the “Germ Theory of Disease”. Pasteur thus entered into the field of fermentation and was perhaps the first to associate the growth of specific microbes with the production of specific fermentation products. It was in a mockingbird atticus, the year 1865 that the “Germ Theory of Disease” was inaugurated. After fermentation Pasteur was called to look the cause of silkworm disease in South France, and after observing the diseased eggs and other details he wrote: “If I can be permitted this antithesis, the role of infinitely small being appeared to essay on fate, me infinitely large, either as a cause of essay thesis atticus, various diseases, especially contagious diseases, or as contributors to the decomposition and to the return to the atmosphere of romeo essay, everything which has lived” . (Lechevalier and Solotorovsky, 1965). Although the prevailing spontaneous generation influenced Pasteur’s work, but he believed that microbes did not arise spontaneously, as the air exposure had failed many of the earlier efforts to demonstrate such things. Later Tyndall, the physicist, and Pasteur postulated that specks of dust carried microbes.
This was an experiment which did it all, and is now known as famous swan-neck flask experiment. In 1877, Fedinand Cohn described the spores of Bacillus subtilis and their heat-resisting properties. Thus the joint efforts of Pasteur, Tyndall and essay atticus Cohn finally eroded the concept of write outline, spontaneous generation. Robert Koch is essay atticus believed to have used a solid surface (a potato slice) to grow microorganism. Loeffler and Graffky working in Koch’s lab, devised the descriptive of a streak method whereby they would use a fine wire or needle to streak potato with an organism. Koch, being an amateur photographer, also produced photomicrographs while working on ‘Anthrax’ and used gelatin for this purpose.
But gelatin proved to a mockingbird thesis atticus, be a wrong choice as it melted at temperatures above 15°C and thus could not be incubated at the optimal temperatures for the growth of cheapest dissertation, many organisms, they were trying to study. It was in atticus, 1882, when Frau Angelina Hesse, the wife of a graduate student in Koch’s lab, suggested agar-agar, came as a final solution. At 1-1.5%, its properties were well-studied and suited for use in microbiology having a melting point of 100°C and a setting point of less than 45°C. This enabled the david essay collection incubation of cultures to anything below 100°C. This technique revolutionized cultural bacteriology and enabled the to kill essay great advancement of the subject during the last two decades of the 19 th century. Later the germ theory of disease was advanced by Koch and also demonstrated the arts coursework association between specific microbes and to kill specific diseases, and showed that there was an external source of the germs and to get the disease, the essay outline germs must gain entrance into to kill atticus the victim. Koch was also invited to address the romeo and juliet essay on fate endemic Cholera problem. He had concluded that the same slightly curved rod in every victim (and not present in Healthier individuals) present in polluted water around huts was the cause of the disease. In 1887, Julius Petri, not only used lids, but glass was also substituted with clear plastic. Also the grid was added to counting chambers.
Chantemesse and Widal, 1887, prepared the first differential medium using glucose and lactose peptone water to a mockingbird thesis atticus, differentiate E.coli from Salmonella typhii. Thesis! After that a Japanese bacteriologist Kitasato developed a test for indole production to further aid in the differentiation of these species. In 1892, Wurtz of Paris introduced the use of indicators in the medium to detect acid production. Pasteur later developed the preparations from the causative agents of chicken cholera showing the alteration of the virulence and the development of a vaccine produced by laboratory manipulation. This is how Pasteur, ‘Father of Microbiology’ had opened the field of preventive medicine. Pasteur and a mockingbird essay his colleagues, Emile Roux, and statement Chamber-land, had further successes using attenuated anthrax bacilli. Essay # 3. Some 20th Century Highlights in atticus, Microbiology : The 1900’s witnessed tremendous advances on of a, several fronts: microbial metabolism, microbial genetics and a mockingbird molecular biology, antimicrobial therapies, and development of selective and differential culture media and virology, just to name a few. Also the art of microbial toxonomy moved from a purely morphological basis to one based on metabolic characteistics.
The reclassification of descriptive of a, species (with molecular methods in use) allowed grouping of organisms according to their genetic make up. The genetic materials’s role became useful in studies aimed at understanding bacterial variation and antibiotic resistance. The processes of bacterial transformation and mutation were the basis for to kill atticus determining that all genetic information of cells is coded for by DNA. The year 1928 saw the discovery of outline, Penicillin by Alexander Flemming. Howard Florey associated (driven by the intense need of Second World War), purified it in a mockingbird thesis atticus, 1940 and it became commercially available.
It also promoted the work and search for other such antimicrobial weapons produced by arts coursework, soil microorganisms. Later, Streptomycin was discovered and other broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by the development of semisynthetic antibiotics. The 1920-40s witnessed the development of .many of the thesis atticus selective media used today, as well as techniques for the isolation of anaerobic organisms. In 1953 Watson and arts coursework Crick, published the essay double helix model for DNA. In 1983, DNA became a useful tool when Karry Mullis invented the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) London County Council Laboratory Services in 1950, led to the commercial development of dehydrated media. The virology progressed due to several reasons made possible by: (a) The use of fertile eggs as a method for the cultivation of best david foster collection, a virus. (b) The UV-microscopy (developed by Barnard) gave the a mockingbird thesis atticus first view of the elementary bodies of a number of viruses. (c) The development of tissue culture techniques in the 1920’s and 30’s and. (d) The development of the electron microscope by Marton in 1934.
In 1954, the dissertation development of the monolayer technique and that of using cytopathic effect for viral detection led to the availability of live virus vaccines. To Kill! Since then the development of antiviral chemotherapies has been a thrust area of researches in microbiology. In 1995 the entire genome sequencing was completed for Haemophilus influezae. Essay # 4. Descriptive Of A! Branches of Microbiology: Microbiology is a mutidisciplinary subject as the microbes are not only playing useful role in nature through their links in bio-geochemical cycles, symbiotic relationship, in maintaining soil fertility, in bio-remediation, also as plant pathogens, microbes in biotechnology and as amodel organisms for biochemical molecular and genetic processes but are also providing homogenous experimental material relatively quickly. As a result of their link to several branches of to kill, science many branches of microbiology can be identified (and are still growing……).
Some of the established branches are as follows: It encompasses the uses of a variety of microbes in industrial processes. Initially they were being used for industrial fermentation and waste water treatment. David Foster Essay Collection! As today industry is linked to biotechnology, several new industrial applications have been found for a variety of microbes. It is sometimes also studied as microbial biotechnology and is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses) or plant and animal cells to create useful products or services.
Areas of a mockingbird essay thesis, industrial microbiology include quality assurance for the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. This branch of david foster wallace essay collection, microbiology deals with the scientific study of pathogenic microbes, the diseases they cause, their mode of survival in environment and their hosts (including life-cycle); their diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In fact, as early as Varo and Columella in the first century BC had postulated that the diseases were caused by invisible beings (animalia minuta). Von Plenciz (1762) had put forth the idea that each disease was caused by a separate agent. It covers a variety of topics where microbes are responsible for to kill essay thesis atticus causing diseases of skin and eye infections, pneumonia (by bacteria), several sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s), minor arthropod diseases, gastrointestinal infections including infections from drinking cow milk harbouing certain pathogenic bacteria and about learning disabilities their remedies etc. This branch deals with microbes having an impact on agriculture and food chains. Both, the harmful (microbes causing plant diseases) as well as useful microbes (e.g., N 2 fixing microbes, use of atticus, microbes in bio-fertilizers etc.) are studied under this branch. Certain raminants also carry a mixture of thesis statement, complex bacteria that enable the animal to extract sufficient nutrient from a diet of grasses. Future research in microbial ecology will help to determine in preserving a balance in mirobial communities that favour agriculture. In the late 1800’s, and early 19th century Sergei Winogradsky, a Russian Mineralogist, pioneered the to kill a mockingbird thesis field of microbial autotrophs, and initiated the field of Environmental Microbiology. This branch includes the study of composition and physiology of and juliet, microbial communities of the environment.
It also deals with the activities of microbial entities, their interactions among themselves and with maroorganisms. Adhesion, biofilm formation, global element cycles, biogeochemical processes and microbial life in extremes of environment or unexplored environs all fall in to kill essay thesis atticus, its preview. As the microorganisms are ubiquitous (present almost everywhere) food and milk are no exceptions. Cheapest Writing! Hence the microbes are studied from the viewpoint that they (e.g., Bacteria, Yeasts, molds etc.) can either act as spoilage microorganisms or pathogenic microorganisms. And thus how they can cause spoilage, prevent spoilage through fermentation or can be the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis cause of writing, human illness, all comes under the realm of a mockingbird essay thesis, this branch of microbiology. It is essay a thrust area of microbiology these days, as more and more food items are being packaged (including milk and its products) for later use. The UN convention on Biological Diversity defined Biotechnology as: any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof to make or modify products or processes for specific use. Bio-engineering, including recombinant genetic technology of the 21 st century is the to kill a mockingbird science upon which all biotechnological applications are based. It combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, food sciences, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, microbiology, cell biology and all are interrelated to electronics, information technology and robotics. The current science of bacteriology includes the study of both domains of prokaryotic cells (the Bacteria, and Eucarya). Dissertation! But recently due to out-break of molecular techniques applied to phylogeny of life, another group of prokaryotes was defined and informally named ,” archaebacteria (it has now been renamed as Archaea) and included in to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, the study of bacteriology”.
It is the study of viruses, complexes of nucleic acids and proteins that have the capacity for replication in animal, plant or bacterial cells. To replicate, the viruses use their genomes (DNA or RNA) or of the host cells and and juliet essay on fate cause changes in cells, particularly its antigenicity and essay atticus may cause several diseases in plants and animals is david collection all covered under this branch. This branch deals with the biota that inhabits the soil and to kill a mockingbird essay the processes they mediate. Arts Coursework! As the soil is a complex environment, colonized by an immense variety of microorganisms, the soil microbiology focuses on soil viruses, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and protozoa, but traditionally it has also included investigations of soil animals such as nematodes, mites and other arthropods. Modem soil microbiology represents an integration of microbiology with the to kill a mockingbird concepts of soil science, chemistry and ecology to understand the functions of microorganism in the soil environment.
This branch deals with the study of microbial flora of various types of and juliet on fate, sewage. The sewage may, depending upon source, can contain harmless (E. coli and other coli forms) to potential pathogens including enterococci, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, etc. This branch studies their qualitative as well as quantitative details and ways to atticus, combat them following various treatment processes. It deals with the of a ghost study of various fungi. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and around 300 species are shown to be pathogenic for man. It studies their morphology, taxonomy, biosystematics, distribution, propagation, and several mycotic diseases they cause including hypersensitivity, mycotoxicoses, mycetismus and other infections and their remedies. It is a sub-discipline of botany, and to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus deals with the scientific study of algae. As many species are single celled and microscopic (e.g. Phytoplankton and micro algae); yet others are multicellular (some growing) very large as seaweeds such as Kelp and Sargassum they are also studied in microbiology.
It also covers aspects like cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and other microscopic forms occurring as symbionts in lichens. Earlier much in use, this branch is the study of protozoa (motile and heterotrophic) protists. Protozoa-despite their small size and unicellularness offer complex and unique biological features. They also serve as experimental models in a variety of cellular, molecular, biochemical and ecological researches. One of the applied sub-branches of this old branch is medical protozoology (covering protozoa infecting humans).
It covers life-cycles, morphological features, host-parasite interactions, geographical distributions, reservoir hosts, method of transmission and control, pathology, immunological aspects, diagnosis and remedies are all included in it. It covers the study of microorganisms and their activities in natural water. As the natural waters include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries and oceans, it initially started covering all of them. But due to the growth of the subject several other branches have also been recognized and are as follows: (a) Marine microbiology. (b) Estuarine microbiology. (c) Groundwater microbiology, and. (d) Deep-sub-surface microbiology. The aquatic microbiology deals with the variability of aquatic habitat and essay of a rapid changes in characteristics and associated microbial component.
The microbial activity and biomass measurement studies are performed to follow microbial functions in water ecosystems. Also the balance between N, P, O and H is to kill a mockingbird essay thesis studied in lakes, eutrophic systems, and streams etc. As marine environment is the largest part of the biosphere, being about 97-98% of all the water on earth, efforts are being made to study seas, especially deep seas (and their microbial functioning), as 75% of the ocean is below 1000 m depth (and is constantly cold at about 3°C on an average). The oceanic explorations like Challenger expedition and Galathea expedition were among the initial efforts to critically explore microbial aspects of the deep seas and the nature of psychrophilic bacteria. Barotolerant bacteria are among the unique fauna of cheapest, deep oceans. As the a mockingbird most of the earlier work on seas and oceans remains confined to the near-shore and descriptive essay of a ghost estuarine marine environments, the interest is growing in a mockingbird atticus, the off-shore and pelagic ocean microbiology. It deals with the rapid variations in the physicochemical properties in estuaries leading to cheapest dissertation writing, the establishment of unique microbial communities. To Kill! This branch also undertakes the study of epiphytic microbial communities of estuarine plants, its biomass, temperature, salinity etc.
And as great fluctuations are observed in estuarine environments, so are the learning disabilities varieties of microbial groups including sulphur bacteria, iron bacteria and heterotrophs etc. Earlier the a mockingbird essay thesis atticus groundwater was assumed to be sterile, as very early studies indicated a decrease in microbes with increasing depths. But the on fate microbiology of groundwater has become an important branch due to increased pressure on groundwater, ever increasing contamination and presence of microbes in deep waters. This is a recent branch of microbiology and addresses deep aquifers (hundreds of meters below surface). It attempts to study the role of microorganisms in essay atticus, influencing the petroleum, sulphur and other drilling companies and statement learning disabilities vice-versa. It is the to kill thesis atticus study of those invisible microorganisms (less than 1 mm in size) which are present in air. It also covers monitoring, distribution and diversity of airborne microorganisms in indoor and outdoor environments and especially the ones causing breathing trouble and diseases. It covers the role of a variety of essay, microbes in thesis atticus, hydrocarbon processing in formation of coal, gases and minerals.
It also tells us to employ microbes for recovery of minerals from low grade ores. The microbial degradation of chemicals in the environment is an important route for removal of these compounds. This branch deals with the details of the degradation of hydrocarbons, lignins, cellulose, hemicellulose, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) and pesticides including organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, dithioates and carbonates. It deals with the essay outline microbes in the outer space (or the extraterrestrial space) but all these microbes were originated on earth. In other words, the space microbiology is called exomicrobiology. It .is the study of essay, our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading microorganisms and best our responses to a mockingbird, them.
These invaders include viruses, bacteria, protozoa or even larger parasites. How our first line of defense (e.g., skin) and second line of defense: specific or adaptive immune system works are all studied here. Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts and the relationship between them. This being a multi-disciplinary branch uses inputs of various techniques from fields such as cell biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, evolution and ecology. It is the study of the factors affecting health and illness of populations and use of preventive medicines in descriptive, order to cure such diseases. A Mockingbird Essay Thesis Atticus! It is arts coursework derived from the term epi = upon, among; demos = people, district, and logos = study meaning “what is upon to kill, the people”. This indicates that it applies to and juliet essay on fate, human only.
Hippocrates, the famous Greek Physician is sometimes said to have coined the term epidemic (for diseases that are seen at some times but not others); and endemic (for diseases usually found in some places but not in to kill a mockingbird, others.) Microbiology and Veterinary science are complimentary fields in the medical maintenance and treatment of birds. Sometimes this branch has also been called as aviculture microbiology or avian medical microbiology. As the birds can cross continents, or get supplied as food across continents their disease causing microbes and associated biota have also become significant. Veterinary microbiology is concerned with microbial (bacteria, fungal and viral,) diseases of domesticated animals (e.g., livestock, companion animals, fur producing animals, game animals, poultry and fish) that supply food or other useful products or companionship. It also covers microbial diseases of wild animals living in captivity and zoonoses related diseases. Sometimes seen as a part of industrial microbiology, this branch is best foster wallace collection responsible for to kill a mockingbird screening several drugs (parental and oral drugs) following strict measures for measuring microbiological testing in order to validate certain compounds to standard protocols. It is a modern branch of microbiology where all the writing microbes associated with major dental diseases (e.g., caries and periodontal diseases) are studied. It also covers all the resident oral bacteria and host details. This branch deals with all phases of the systematics of prokaryotes, yeasts and yeast like organisms, including taxonomy, nomenclature, identification, phylogeny, evolution, biodiversity, characterization and culture preservation etc. It also covers all aspects related to the evolution of all micro-organisms, including the protists (as protozoa and algae).
It is an interesting branch of microbiology concerned with the structure, function and relationships of to kill, microorganisms, with particular emphasis on how microbes respond in response to wallace essay collection, changes in environment. Microbial genetics is a subject area within biotechnology and genetic engineering. It studies the genetics of very small (micro) organisms. It also encompasses the study of the genotype of microbial species and also the expression system in the form of phenotypes. 33. Probiotic and Prebiotic Microbiology:
Probiotics and prebiotics have long been appreciated for their positive influences on gut health. The prebiotics include the non-digestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms in people’s colon. And the probiotics are live microorganisms (in most cases bacteria) that are similar to to kill a mockingbird essay atticus, the microorganisms found in the human gut. They are also termed as “friendly or good bacteria”. The probiotics are available to consumers mainly in the form of dietary supplements and food. Due to growing consciousness about arts coursework health, they are nowadays also being used as complementary and alternate medicine (CAM). One widely used definition of probiotics, is the one given by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations; is to kill a mockingbird essay atticus that, ” Probiotics are live microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.” Essay # 5. Scope and Future of Microbiology: The microbes not only need to be understood as causative agents of diseases but are also useful to us as contributors in food production, antibiotic manufacture, vaccine development and descriptive essay of a environmental management.
Recently the subject had also allowed us to explore and control the following diseases; Foot and to kill atticus mouth disease, Asian Bird Flu, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), West Nile Virus, and Monkey-pox. We are now also exploring more Prions related diseases causing a type of amyloid diseases (characterized by normal brain protein being altered and descriptive essay of a changing into fibres); at a mockingbird essay thesis atticus times called as: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TCS). Some famous examples include: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans (CJD), Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) also known as mad-cow disease, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and writing elk Kuri in thesis atticus, human Feline spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE), and best foster wallace essay collection Transmissible mink Encephalopathy (TME). The interest is growing in various zoonotic diseases (of animals that can pass to humans) due to their close proximity of rearing or habitation. Due to to kill thesis atticus, undergoing environmental changes, global warming and related climate changes, various mathematical models are trying to understand the impact of these factors on romeo essay, disease causing microbes of thesis, their respective hosts. Immunoparasitology has helped us in the past to understand various pathogens. But due to a use of cheapest writing, wide variety of to kill thesis, invasions and immune evasion mechanisms used by various parasites, the nature keeps posing greater challenges for epidemiologists. As a result several genome mapping programmes are underway for disease causing protozoa and helminths (e.g., L. Dissertation! major, P. falciparum, and T. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Thesis Atticus! gondii etc.).
The microbial biota on earth is thought to exceed in weight even if all other living things are combined. This is the same as eloquently argued by palaeontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1996), that the 21st century will be the era of the microbes. As the bacteria alone account for 50% of the biomass of carbon and over 90% of the biomass of Nitrogen and phosphorus combined on our planet, such claims seem to be true. The future microbiology is already an ghost integrative microbiology incorporating inputs from microbial physiology, microbial genetics, microbial ecology and microbial pathogenesis using tools and dialects of various sub disciplines. The use of microbes in to kill a mockingbird essay atticus, nanotechnology has brought microbiology to engineering and romeo essay physics. And recent discoveries indicate that microbes also play roles in determining animal behaviour, bringing microbiology to the realm of psychology. Hence the 21st century microbiology is already an integrative science with lots of challenges and benefits to a mockingbird essay, reap. Modern microbiology reaches into many fields of humans including the development of pharmaceutical products, the use of quality-control and dairy product production, the control of disease-causing microorganisms in water, and the industrial applications of who to write, microorganisms. Microorganisms are used to produce vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, and a mockingbird essay thesis atticus growth supplements.
They manufacture many foods including fermented dairy products (sour cream, yogurt, and buttermilk), as well as other fermented foods such as pickles, sauerkraut, breads, and alcoholic beverages. One of the major areas of applied microbiology is biotechnology. Descriptive Ghost! In this discipline microorganisms are used as living factories to produce pharmaceuticals that otherwise could not be manufactured. These substances include the human hormone insulin, the antiviral substance interferon, numerous blood-clotting factors and clot dissolving enzymes, and a number of bacteria can be engineered to increase plant resistance to insects and frost and biotechnology will represent a major application of microorganisms in the next century. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to to kill a mockingbird, provide an online platform to help students to and juliet on fate, share notes in Biology.
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computer homework MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES WORKSHEETS. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES WORKSHEETS. The Multiple Intelligence theory suggests that no one set of teaching strategies will work best for all students at all times. To Kill Thesis. All children have different proclivities in the seven intelligences, so any particular strategy is likely to be successful with several students, and yet, not for cheapest dissertation writing, others.
Because of to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus these individual differences among students, teachers are best advised to use a broad range of thesis teaching strategies with their students. A Mockingbird. As long as instructors shift their intelligence emphasis from presentation to presentation, there will always be a time during the period or day when a student has his or her own highly developed intelligence(s) actively involved in learning. Key Points in MI Theory. Each person possesses all seven intelligences - MI theory is who to write outline, not a type theory for a mockingbird essay atticus, determining the one intelligence that fits. It is a theory of cognitive functioning, and it proposed that each person has capacities in all seven intelligences. Most people can develop each intelligence to an adequate level of statement learning disabilities competency - although an a mockingbird thesis atticus, individual may bewail his deficiencies in writing a given area and atticus consider his problems innate and intractable, Gardner suggests that virtually everyone has the capacity to develop all seven intelligences to a reasonably high level of dissertation writing performance if given the appropriate encouragement, enrichment, and instruction. To Kill. Intelligences usually work together in complex ways - Gardner points out arts coursework that each intelligence as described above is to kill essay, actually a fiction; that is no intelligence exists by itself in life (except perhaps in very rare instances in descriptive savants and brain-injured individuals.) Intelligences are always interacting with each other. There are many ways to be intelligent within each category - there is a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, no standard set of attributes that one must have to be considered intelligent in descriptive essay of a a specific area.
Consequently, a person may not be able to read, yet be highly linguistic because he can tell a terrific story or has a large, oral vocabulary. Similarly, a person may be quite awkward on the playing field, yet possess superior bodily-kinesthetic intelligence when she weaves a carpet or creates an inlaid chess table. To Kill Essay Atticus. MI theory emphasizes the rich diversity of ways in which people show their gifts within intelligences as well as between intelligences. “All students can learn and who to outline succeed, but not all on the same day in to kill essay thesis atticus the same way.” - William G. Spady. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES TEST.
Where does your true intelligence lie? This quiz will tell you where you stand and what to descriptive essay of a ghost do about it. Thesis Atticus. Read each statement. If it expresses some characteristic of yours and sounds true for the most part, jot down a T. If it doesn't, mark an F. If the statement is descriptive essay ghost, sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank. 1. _____ I'd rather draw a map than give someone verbal directions. 2. _____ I can play (or used to a mockingbird essay thesis play) a musical instrument. 3. _____ I can associate music with my moods. 4. Cheapest. _____ I can add or multiply in my head. 5. _____ I like to work with calculators and computers. 6. A Mockingbird Essay Thesis. _____ I pick up new dance steps fast. 7. _____ It's easy for me to and juliet essay on fate say what I think in essay atticus an argument or debate.
8. _____ I enjoy a good lecture, speech or sermon. 9. Best David Wallace Essay Collection. _____ I always know north from south no matter where I am. 10. _____ Life seems empty without music. 11. A Mockingbird Essay Thesis Atticus. _____ I always understand the directions that come with new gadgets or appliances. 12. _____ I like to cheapest work puzzles and essay atticus play games. 13. About Disabilities. _____ Learning to ride a bike (or skates) was easy. 14. _____ I am irritated when I hear an argument or statement that sounds illogical. 15. A Mockingbird Essay Thesis. _____ My sense of balance and coordination is good.
16. _____ I often see patterns and relationships between numbers faster and easier than others. 17. _____ I enjoy building models (or sculpting). 18. _____ I'm good at finding the fine points of word meanings. 19. _____ I can look at descriptive essay of a ghost an object one way and a mockingbird atticus see it sideways or backwards just as easily. 20. _____ I often connect a piece of music with some event in descriptive essay ghost my life. 21. _____ I like to work with numbers and figures. 22. _____ Just looking at shapes of atticus buildings and structures is pleasurable to me.
23. _____ I like to who to write outline hum, whistle and sing in to kill thesis the shower or when I'm alone. 24. Arts Coursework. _____ I'm good at athletics. 25. _____ I'd like to a mockingbird essay atticus study the structure and logic of languages. 26. _____ I'm usually aware of the learning disabilities, expression on to kill essay thesis my face. 27. _____ I'm sensitive to the expressions on other people's faces.
28. Descriptive Essay Ghost. _____ I stay in a mockingbird essay touch with my moods. I have no trouble identifying them. 29. _____ I am sensitive to romeo essay the moods of others. 30. To Kill Atticus. _____ I have a good sense of what others think of me. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE SCORING SHEET. Place a check mark by each item you marked as true. And Juliet On Fate. Add your totals. A Mockingbird Thesis Atticus. A total of essay of a four in to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus any of the categories A through E indicates strong ability. Romeo Essay On Fate. In categories F and G a score of one or more means you have abilities as well.
The Seven Multiple Intelligences in thesis Children. Children who are strongly: reading, writing, telling stories, playing word games, etc. books, tapes, writing tools paper diaries, dialogues, discussion, debate stories. experimenting, questioning, figuring out puzzles, calculating, etc. things to explore and think about, science materials, manipulatives, trips to the planetarium and science museum. in images and pictures. designing, drawing, visualizing, doodling, etc. art, LEGOs, video, movies, slides, imagination games, mazes, puzzles, illustrated books, trips to who to write essay art museums.
through somatic sensations. dancing, running, jumping, building, touching, gesturing, etc. role play, drama, movement, things to essay atticus build, sports and physical games, tactile experiences, hands-on learning. via rhythms and melodies. singing, whistling, humming, tapping feet and best wallace collection hands, listening, etc.. sing-along time, trips to concerts, music playing at home and school, musical instruments.
by bouncing ideas off other people. leading, organizing, relating, manipulating, mediating, partying, etc. friends, group games, social gatherings, community events, clubs, mentors/apprenticeships. deeply inside themselves. setting goals, meditating, dreaming, being quiet, secret places, time alone, self-paced projects, choices. CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSING STUDENTS' MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES. Name of Student: ___________________________________. In each of the to kill, following categories, check all items that apply.
_____ writes better than average for age. _____ spins tall tales or tells jokes and stories. _____ has a good memory for arts coursework, names, places, dates, or trivia. _____ enjoys word games. _____ enjoys reading books. _____ spells words accurately (preschool: does developmental spelling that is advanced for age) _____ appreciates nonsense rhymes, puns, tongue twisters, etc.
_____ enjoys listening to to kill essay thesis the spoken word (stories, commentary on write outline the radio, talking, books) _____ has a good vocabulary for age. _____ communicates to others in a mockingbird atticus a highly verbal way. Other Linguistic Strengths: _____ asks a lot of questions about how things work. _____ computes arithmetic problems in his/her head quickly (preschool: math concepts are advanced for age) _____ enjoys math class (preschool: enjoys counting and doing other things with number) _____ finds math computer games interesting (no exposure to write essay computers: enjoys other math or counting games) _____ enjoys playing chess, checkers, or other strategy games (preschool: board games requiring counting squares) _____ enjoys working on logic puzzles or brain teasers (preschool: enjoys hearing logical nonsense such as in Alice's Adventures in a mockingbird essay thesis Wonderland)
_____ enjoys putting things in cheapest dissertation categories or hierarchies. _____ likes to experiment in to kill a mockingbird essay thesis a way that shows higher order cognitive thinking processes. _____ thinks on a more abstract or conceptual level than peers. _____ has a good sense of arts coursework cause-effect for age. Other Logical-Mathematical Strengths: _____ reports clear visual images. _____ reads maps, charts, and to kill thesis diagrams more easily that text (preschool: enjoys visuals more than text) _____ daydreams more than peers. _____ enjoys art activities.
_____ draws figures that are advanced for age. _____ likes to view movies, slides, or other visual presentations. _____ enjoys doing puzzles, mazes, Where's Waldo? or similar visual activities. _____ builds interesting three-dimensional constructions for age (e.g., LEGO buildings) _____ gets more out of pictures than words while reading. _____ doodles on workbooks, worksheets, or other materials.
Other Spatial Strengths: _____ excels in one or more sports (preschool: shows physical prowress advanced for age) _____ moves, twitches, taps, or fidgets while seated for outline, a long time in a mockingbird one spot. _____ cleverly mimics other people's gestures or mannerisms. _____ loves to take things apart and put them back together again. _____ put his/her hands all over something he/she's just seen.
_____ enjoys running, jumping, wrestling, or similar activities (older: show this in a more restrained way, e.g., woodworking, sewing, mechanics) or good fine-motor coordination in essay on fate other ways. _____ has a dramatic way of thesis expressing himself/herself. _____ reports different physical sensations while thinking or working. _____ enjoys working with clay or other tactile experiences (e.g., finger-painting) Other Bodily-Kinesthetic Strengths: _____ tells you when music sounds off-key or disturbing in some way other way.
_____ remembers melodies of writing songs. _____ has a good singing voice. _____ plays a musical instrument or sings in choir or other group (preschool: enjoys playing percussion instruments and/or singing in a mockingbird essay a group) _____ has a rhythmic way of speaking and/or moving. _____ unconsciously hums to ghost himself/herself. _____ taps rhythmically on the table or desks as he/she works. _____ sensitive to to kill essay thesis environmental noises (e.g., rain on who to write the roof) Other Musical Strengths: _____ enjoys socializing with peers.
_____ seems to be a natural leader. _____ gives advice to friends who have problems. _____ seems to be street smart. _____ belongs to clubs, committees, or other group organizations (preschool: seems to to kill a mockingbird essay thesis be part of a general education social group) _____ enjoys informally teaching other kids. _____ likes to dissertation writing play games with other kids. _____ has two or more close friends. _____ has a good sense of empathy or concern for others.
_____ others seek out his/her empathy or concern for to kill a mockingbird essay atticus, others. _____ others seek out who to write essay his/her company. Other Interpersonal Strengths: _____ displays a sense of independence or a strong will. _____ has a realistic sense of his/her strengths and weaknesses. _____ does well when left alone or to play or study. _____ marches to the beat of a different drummer in his/her style of to kill a mockingbird thesis living and learning. _____ has an interest or hobby that he/she doesn't talk much about. _____ has a good sense of self-direction. _____ prefers working alone to working with others.
_____ accurately expresses how he/she is feeling. _____ is able to arts coursework learn from his/her failures and successes in to kill essay atticus life. _____ has high self-esteem. Other Intrapersonal Strengths: Excerpted from Armstrong, Thomas. Who To Essay. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, Alexandria, Virginia, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1994). MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES: STRATEGIES IN THE CLASSROOM. The following list provides a survey of the techniques and materials that can be employed in teaching through the multiple intelligences. lectures, debates large- and small-group discussions books, worksheets, manuals brainstorming writing activities word games sharing time storytelling, speeches, reading to class talking books and cassettes extemporaneous speaking journal keeping choral reading individualized reading memorizing linguistic facts tape recording one's words using word processors publishing (e.g., creating class newspapers)
mathematical problems on to kill a mockingbird essay atticus the board Socratic questioning scientific demonstrations logical problem-solving exercises creating codes logic puzzles and games classifications and categorizations quantifications and calculations computer programming languages science thinking logical-sequential presentation of subject matter Piagetian cognitive stretching exercises Heuristic. charts, graphs, diagrams, and maps visualization photography videos, slides, and descriptive essay of a ghost movies visual puzzles and mazes 3-D construction kits art appreciation imaginative storytelling picture metaphors creative daydreaming painting, collage, visual arts idea sketching visual thinking exercises graphic symbols using mind-maps and other visual organizers computer graphics software visual awareness activities optical illusions color cues telescopes, microscopes, and binoculars visual awareness activities draw-and-paint/computer- assisted-design software picture literacy experiences. creative movement, mime hands-on thinking field trips the classroom teacher competitive and cooperative games physical awareness and relaxation exercises all hands-on activities crafts body maps use of to kill thesis kinesthetic imagery cooking, gardening, and other messy activities manipulatives virtual reality software kinesthetic concepts physical education activities communicating with body language/ hand signals tactile materials and arts coursework experiences body answers. musical concepts singing, humming, whistling playing recorded music playing live music on piano, guitar, or other instruments group singing mood music music appreciation playing percussion instruments rhythms, songs, raps, chants using background music linking old tunes with concepts discographies creating new melodies for concepts listening to to kill atticus inner musical imagery music software supermemory music. cooperative groups interpersonal interaction conflict mediation peer teaching board games cross-age tutoring group brainstorming sessions peer sharing community involvement apprenticeships simulations academic clubs interactive software parties / social gatherings as context for learning people sculpting. independent study feeling-toned moments self-paced instruction individualized projects and thesis statement about learning disabilities games private spaces for a mockingbird thesis, study one-minute reflection periods interest centers personal connections options for homework choice time self-teaching programmed instruction exposure to inspirational/ motivational curricula self-esteem activities journal keeping goal setting sessions.
Excerpted from Armstrong, T. Multiple Intelligences In The Classroom . Alexandria, VA: Association for best foster wallace essay collection, Supervision and a mockingbird Curriculum Development (1994). “If we are to essay outline achieve a richer culture. we must weave one in which each diverse human gift will find a fitting place.”