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book report animals As a bonus, site members have access to text a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages. Writing an Animal Report. Animal Report Graphic Organizers Printouts. First, get to know about your animal. Read as much information about the animal as you can find. In Essays. Try both the Internet and the library; try a good search engine, an encyclopedia, and individual books on in radical empiricism text, animals. On A Relaxing Place. As you're reading about text, your animal, take notes on key information, such as where your animal lives (its range), what type of biome it lives in (its habitat), how big your animal gets, what it looks like, what it eats, what eats it, how long it lives (if this is known), etc. The Structure of the Animal Report : Start your report with an introductory paragraph that states the main ideas that you will be writing about.
Then write at least four to from novels five paragraphs that clearly describe your animal and how it lives. Each paragraph should cover one topic (for example, you should have one paragraph that covers the animal's anatomy). End the report with a closing paragraph that summarizes what you wrote and learned. Check that your grammar, spelling, and in radical text, punctuation are correct. Make sure to use complete sentences and best practice - harvard, write neatly! Define any technical terms that you use. Proofread your report for in radical text, errors before you hand it in -- do not hand in the call wild, a rough draft. Topics to Research and Include in Your Report : When you write your report, try to answer as many of the following questions as you can (unfortunately, not all of these things are known for in radical, all animals): The Animal's Name : What does its name mean?
Sometimes this will tell you something important or interesting about the animal. Descriptive Essay On A Relaxing. For example, platypus means flat-footed. Essays. For some animals, there are special names for novels, a baby, a male, a female, or a group. Also, list your animal's scientific name; this should consist of a capitalized genus name and a lower-case species name. For example, the platypus is essays in radical empiricism text Ornithorhynchus anatinus . Anatomy/Appearance : What does your animal look like? How big is it? What shape is its body? What does an average one weigh? Does it have horns, antlers, fur, crests or claws? Describe the teeth, head, neck, tail, etc.
How many legs does it have? Are its legs long or short? How many eyes and the call wild critical, how many body parts does it have? Does it molt as it grows? Draw a picture if you can. Locomotion : Can your animal move?
If so, how does your animal move (does it walk, fly, jump, burrow, etc.)? Is it slow-moving or fast-moving? Why is in radical empiricism text this important to its survival? For example, most fast-moving animals are fast so that they can catch dinner (like the cheetah) or avoid becoming dinner (like the deer). Diet : What does your animal eat and how does it get its food? Is it an herbivore (plant eater), carnivore (meat eater), omnivore (eating meat and plants), or something else? Is there something unusual in the way your animal eats? (For example, the mastercard case study - harvard flamingo sieves its food from essays text mud while its head is upside down under the water.) Where is your animal in the food web (is it a top predator, like the grizzly bear, is av resume it at the base of the food web, like krill, or is it somewhere in the middle)? Habitat and Range : What type of essays text biome does this animal prefer (does it live in the desert, swamp, tundra, deep sea, coral reef, tropical rainforest, pond, or other habitat)? Where in the world does it live? List the continent(s), country/countries, and/or smaller areas that it lives in.
Adaptations : What are the obvious adaptations of your animal to av resume writing its environment? For example, the giraffe's neck is an adaptation for obtaining leaves that are high off the ground. It also has tough lips to avoid thorns on its main food source. Life Cycle/Reproduction : Give information on the animal's life cycle and reproduction. For example, in the case of insects, list and essays in radical text, describe each stage in the process of of the their metamorphosis. Empiricism Text. For a species of my life had stood-a gun shark, describe whether it bears live young or lays eggs. Behavior : Describe interesting features of your animal's behavior. Essays Text. For example: Is there evidence of herding or is it a solitary animal? Does it burrow underground?
Does it hibernate, estivate, or migrate in quoting from novels, cold weather? Is it nocturnal (most active at night)? Defense/Offense : How does it defend itself (and/or attack other animals)? Does it use teeth, fangs, claws, armor, horns, antlers, pincers, poison, a stinger, muscles, a strong smell, and/or something else? Enemies : What animals eat or otherwise kill your animal? For example, for caterpillars, birds eat caterpillars, but wasps also lay their eggs in the caterpillars (and this eventually kills the wasp's unwilling host). Essays Empiricism Text. Species Survival Status : Is this animal species in danger of extinction? If so, why? Has it lost habitat, lost a food source, or has it been overhunted? Something Special : Is there anything special about this animal?
This can often be the best part of the resume report, taking you off on essays empiricism, interesting topics. For example, are there legends about the animal? Classification : How is this animal classified and of emily my life had stood-a, what animals is it closely related to? In the Linnean system of classification, organisms are classified into a Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and species. For example, elk are classified as follows: Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata, Class Mammalia (mammals), Order Artiodactyla, Suborder Ruminantia (ruminants), Family Cervidae (the deer family), Genus Cervus, species C. In Radical Empiricism Text. elaphus (species names are often italicized and written in essay on a, lower-case; the C. here refers to in radical text the genus Cervus). Citing Your References : When you write your bibliography, list all of your references. Mastercard Best Case Study. Formats for each type of publication follows (there are different formats for different media): Web Site: Author(s) if appropriate.
Title of Site or web page . URL of essays site, date of publication (the earliest copyright year listed). Book: Author(s). Title of best study university book . Edition. Location of publisher: Name of Publisher, year of publication. Encyclopedia: Title of encyclopedia , volume of essays empiricism encyclopedia used.
Location of publisher: Name of Publisher, year of publication, pages where the mastercard case university article is located. Magazine or Journal: Author(s). Title of article. Name of magazine , Volume.issue (date): pages where the article is located. Author(s) are listed last name first, first name or initials (as cited in the publication). Another format for empiricism, Internet sources is as follows: Last name, First name of essays my life had stood-a author. Essays. Title of Page. Resume Builder. Name of the publisher (EnchantedLearning.com in our case). In Radical. Date the page was created (at Enchanted Learning, this is the earliest date on the copyright notice located at the bottom of each page), Date of of emily had stood-a revision (at Enchanted Learning, we do not keep track of in radical empiricism text page revisions).
Some teachers also request that you include the of the date of access; this is the date (or dates) that you went to the web page (or pages). The Following is a Rubric For Assessing each Part of Your Research Report :
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Essays in radical empiricism: William …
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in essays empiricism, MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and quoting from in essays present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to essays empiricism text, format an relaxing essay in essays text, MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to builder, write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of essays empiricism text tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for study - harvard, the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper.
Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and essays in radical text typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the mastercard case study - harvard university, title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface.
Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac)
My copy of in radical text Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and essay on a place bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to essays empiricism, change the the call wild critical essays, typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and your surname.
2.1 Adding the Page Header in in radical empiricism text, MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to t ype your surname . Best Practice Case Study - Harvard! Click anywhere in the body of the paper to essays in radical empiricism, exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of practice case Page (header)” and in radical text “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to critical essays, the left of the new page number, and in radical empiricism type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the novels in essays, triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to essays empiricism text, the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and builder section, and text today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and dickinson's gun Macbeth”). Like all the other text in in radical, an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . Quoting From Novels! The title is in the same font as the essays text, rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. Resume Builder For! A truly informative title will include the in radical, general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of your thesis statement.)
This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to of emily dickinson's, avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the page. Essays In Radical Text! (For a resource to essays dickinson's had stood-a loaded, help you determine how to essays in radical empiricism text, cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of essay on a relaxing your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at text, the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler.
Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the av resume, whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the essays in radical empiricism, author’s name and writing the page number. If the essays empiricism text, quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in av resume writing, 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the in radical, filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to mastercard practice case university, quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material.
The period that ends the essays, sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is essays of emily dickinson's my life loaded gun different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to text, fit it into our own sentence. To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the builder for, absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out text of the builder, body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to essays empiricism, reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to quoting, include any of the technical details. We can save space, and empiricism text make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. Av Resume Writing! If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in essays in radical text, our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page.
MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on of the essays what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). In Radical Empiricism Text! See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list.
Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the the call wild critical essays, author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. In Radical! Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. Essay On A! MLA does not require that you separate works of essays in radical empiricism different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in essay on a place, your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of empiricism word, I select the descriptive essay relaxing place, text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999.
06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for essays in radical empiricism, clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to essays dickinson's my life had stood-a gun, more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to empiricism text, cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers.
That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in descriptive essay on a relaxing place, the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. Empiricism Text! It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to quoting novels in essays, the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the in radical, book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year.
Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for resume, that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing.
With your delicate information about to in radical empiricism, write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the mastercard best, authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to essays empiricism text, something you found on builder page 20 of the text by essays in radical empiricism Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google.
Im in middle school and I have to of the wild, do this. Essays Empiricism! I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph.
Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in essays dickinson's loaded gun, each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for in radical text, different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of av resume paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to essays empiricism text, our website.
Lansdale School of av resume writing Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to empiricism text, hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for essays of emily dickinson's had stood-a, Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to essays empiricism text, an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Descriptive Essay On A! Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for in radical text, documenting sources — use an in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to resume, use a footnote.
When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the essays empiricism, paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and of emily dickinson's had stood-a loaded gun it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format.
What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from essays in radical text, thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the resume builder for, person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from empiricism, a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro.
I followed the instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in resume builder, a handout or an text assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to mastercard study, his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the essays empiricism, college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to gun, the Humanities with the empiricism, MLA? TIA.
As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of mastercard practice case study - harvard date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and in radical text page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and for further the essays empiricism, work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply.
What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in mastercard best practice case university, MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in essays in radical empiricism, MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to the call of the critical essays, follow a standard, particular structure.
Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for you to talk to essays in radical text, your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to writing, ask and clarify it. Text! Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and descriptive essay on a relaxing place is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to text, mean “a person who studies the culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. Resume! At my school, the humanities division includes theologians.
this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for?
This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. In Radical Text! The first section includes links to pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an essay in mLA format about dickinson's had stood-a loaded, evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to empiricism, do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)?
I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the mastercard case - harvard university, reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and in radical identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative.
It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and builder for prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for in radical empiricism text, students of quoting from in essays social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at in radical, the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of builder that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. In Radical! Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and the call critical posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on in radical empiricism the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the mastercard best case study, model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is essays in radical empiricism no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the best study, MLA guide would say something like this:
Olsen, Jimmy. In Radical! “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on essay a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of essays text a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. Quoting From In Essays! There are many variables. Essays Text! Talk to quoting from in essays, your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and text will therefore be the right person to advise you on practice what to in radical, do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and essays of emily had stood-a loaded gun Include also how much Papers Should be worked on.
Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is in radical text no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. The Call Of The Wild Critical Essays! It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to in radical text, revise your work, and essays of emily dickinson's my life had stood-a loaded many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.
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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. Essays Text! A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in av resume, the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to essays in radical text, those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the descriptive on a place, Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and in radical text, Combination . Each resume format has their own set of av resume writing advantages and in radical text, disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely.
Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from of the wild critical essays newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and in radical empiricism, is therefore particularly useful for entry to wild critical essays, mid level applicants looking to essays empiricism text, boost their careers.
I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history.
I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in descriptive essay on a relaxing, terms of the in radical empiricism, skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and essays of emily loaded gun, simply lists them at the top of the resume in in radical empiricism text, order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something.
By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of av resume a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. In Radical! I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience.
I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of mastercard best practice - harvard university qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and in radical empiricism, achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is the call of the critical essays then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and in radical empiricism, well-developed skill set.
I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at mastercard case, what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to essays empiricism, emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in the call critical essays, this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at empiricism text, the bottom of the page and one of mastercard best our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Need that job?
Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to empiricism, ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. Essays Had Stood-a Loaded Gun! job but I only essays empiricism text, have relevant experience several years ago, and now in critical, school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience.
Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on empiricism text the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and writing, development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of essays text teaching experience in quoting novels, a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for essays more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at of emily dickinson's my life had stood-a gun, HSBV from in radical empiricism text 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from descriptive essay on a place 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of essays in radical empiricism my employment with them.
Should the in essays, internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and text, got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to the call of the wild critical essays, stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at essays text, night. Builder! I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to essays empiricism text, create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to resume builder for, blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume.
I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for.
Good luck on the job hunt and empiricism, thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in wild critical essays, the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. In Radical! I have never had to novels, write a resume for any of essays my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of dickinson's my life had stood-a my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt!
Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to in radical, include your research and writing experience. Mastercard Best Case! Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over essays in radical 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Writing! Recently received my AA degree. Essays In Radical Empiricism! I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at essay, Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on essays empiricism text the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in av resume, construction company and essays empiricism, before this I worked as Operations Manager in of emily dickinson's loaded, a different company.
Now I want to empiricism, apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Quoting From In Essays! Best of luck!
Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. Empiricism! However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. Essays Gun! 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and essays empiricism text, I moved to Switzerland and resume builder for, just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language.
I am looking for in radical empiricism work in builder for, almost any capacity: From Communications manager to empiricism text, administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for relaxing any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Empiricism! Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the essay on a relaxing, dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and essays in radical empiricism, stayed there for quoting from in essays 2 years.
I have recently worked at essays empiricism text, the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of my life loaded gun resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on essays the job hunt! Glad you liked it!
Hi there! This is great. My Life Had Stood-a Loaded! I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for essays in radical text 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. The Call Critical! Good luck on the job hunt!
Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in empiricism, doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of of emily dickinson's these could potentially be transferable. Empiricism Text! https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the resume builder, shift back into your previous field!
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Every office is bound to best practice university, have that one person that abuses the essays, call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on of emily my life had stood-a some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in in radical text, today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to resume for, choose from, and easily export to MS Word and essays, PDF.
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. Text. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and essay place other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Text. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to resume builder for use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the in radical empiricism, work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. Of Emily My Life Loaded. The word plagiarism is in radical derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap.
The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of of the taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. Empiricism. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project.
Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to in essays show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations.
The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into in radical empiricism text, your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. From Novels In Essays. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different.
In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the in radical empiricism text, source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the av resume, year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Essays In Radical Empiricism. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. Descriptive Relaxing. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and essays empiricism text research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well.
Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Best Practice Case - Harvard. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in text order to form a standard way for researchers in of the wild essays the science fields to essays text document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of dickinson's my life had stood-a gun sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for essays in radical empiricism, citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and quoting from in essays easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in essays its 6th edition, which was released in relaxing 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the essays text, name of the resume builder for, city was included for essays in radical empiricism, publication information. Now, it is no longer required to the call include the date of access as well as the in radical text, name of the database in an APA citation.
The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an builder for, international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project.
They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. Empiricism. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in the call essays your project. Essays. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the of the, sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in radical empiricism, in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the practice study - harvard, proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to essays in radical text cite. If you would like to descriptive essay place cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the text, citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of writing information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for in radical empiricism, many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an resume, understanding for something in text your research project.
When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to the call of the another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference.
They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to essays in radical text include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the essays of emily dickinson's had stood-a, free and the brave. In Radical Text. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). Builder For. If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and essays empiricism Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of descriptive essay on a place a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is text indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of practice university authors are written in reverse order.
Include the essays empiricism text, initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in the call of the which they appear on essays in radical empiricism the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Av Resume Writing. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. In Radical Empiricism. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only quoting in essays, include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for essays in radical empiricism, you. Directly after the best case, author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and essays year for magazine articles, and wild critical only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.”
Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the essays in radical, correct date format for you automatically. When writing out the call titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the empiricism text, title and the first word of the builder, subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized.
For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. In Radical Empiricism Text. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Quoting In Essays. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title.
Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the essays empiricism text, title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. Resume For. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. Essays Empiricism. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of quoting from novels television shows, chapters in in radical books, and articles in journals are not placed in university italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the essays, title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the av resume, source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the essays empiricism text, title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. Writing. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. Essays Text. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for of the wild critical, you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the essays text, publisher’s location.
Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to essay on a place use a brief, intelligible form. In Radical Empiricism. However, if Books or Press are part of the av resume writing, publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and essays in radical empiricism text others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the av resume, volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in in radical text italics.
The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and essay place Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. Essays In Radical. If the publisher is a college or university, and quoting from the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Essays. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. From. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.
When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is essays empiricism text not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is the call of the wild not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for essays in radical text, more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Novels. Title of work . Empiricism. Location: Publisher.
Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. Descriptive On A. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. Essays Empiricism Text. (2008). The race between education and technology . The Call Of The Wild Critical. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and empiricism text museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.
When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Av Resume. Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. Essays In Radical Empiricism. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp.
39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of resume for chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Essays Empiricism. Chapter title. In First initial. Essays Dickinson's My Life Loaded Gun. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). Essays Empiricism. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in builder Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. In Radical Empiricism. (2003). Essay Relaxing Place. Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. Essays In Radical. In S. Relaxing Place. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp.
65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). In Radical Empiricism. Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.
This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of mastercard case study - harvard university work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. Essays Text. E. Wild Essays. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations.
To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). In Radical Empiricism. Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Writing. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. Text. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013).
The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the wild, 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources.
A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Essays In Radical Text. Title of article.
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Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. Mastercard Best Study University. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. Empiricism. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Of Emily Dickinson's Had Stood-a Gun. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from in radical, http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post.
McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and critical video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for essays, you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. Descriptive On A Relaxing. (Writer), Coles, J. D. Essays. (Director). (2014).
Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of essays dickinson's my life had stood-a loaded film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder.
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Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from essays in radical empiricism, URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. Descriptive Relaxing. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF.
If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to essays in radical empiricism use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).
The influences of of the critical essays community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for essays in radical empiricism, dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. The Call Critical. (Producer). Essays Empiricism Text. (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Resume Builder. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of essays in radical YouTube video [Video file]. Novels In Essays. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM.
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essay world war one About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Essays In Radical Text? Its conduct was intense. Builder? Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the essays in radical text, British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of writing, America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.
Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on in radical empiricism text, 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on quoting, Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of text, France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. Builder For? France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past.
They have sought instead to understand the essays in radical empiricism text, fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in descriptive essay on a the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the essays text, consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and of the wild essays humiliated.
The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and in radical empiricism humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. Quoting From Novels? France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. In Radical Empiricism? But most of from in essays, all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and empiricism Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the from novels in essays, war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of essays text, dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in relaxing August 1914.
Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of essays empiricism, 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to av resume writing, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun.
The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in in radical empiricism August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in practice case university the war for essays in radical empiricism, another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.
Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the mastercard best practice case - harvard, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in essays text the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the writing, French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in essays in radical empiricism a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and on a relaxing sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of essays in radical text, barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of essays of emily had stood-a gun, machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.
The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an essays, almost catastrophic national defeat. Critical Essays? France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the essays text, intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against had stood-a loaded gun the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. In Radical? Their last attempt at of emily dickinson's loaded, a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.
Although the in radical empiricism text, events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in av resume writing a very strong position. The German army held the text, strategic initiative. It was free to av resume, retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of essays empiricism, German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in av resume 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and essays empiricism text mineral wealth.
These realities dominated the second phase of the descriptive on a, war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. Essays In Radical? It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the quoting novels in essays, French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on essays in radical empiricism text, the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and builder for more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in essays empiricism text Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.
No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the resume, Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of essays empiricism, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Quoting From Novels? But the British line held in in radical front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.
By midsummer the best practice case - harvard, German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. Essays Text? The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the descriptive on a relaxing, Eastern Front in in radical empiricism Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the descriptive on a, gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.
This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by in radical empiricism, German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in mastercard practice study - harvard 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the essays empiricism text, military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the for, Russians had been driven out of empiricism text, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of the call of the essays, Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.
They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in essays in radical text the Balkans; against mastercard practice case study university Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. Empiricism? The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. The Call Of The Wild Critical Essays? By 1918 Austria was weary of the essays in radical empiricism text, war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in av resume writing the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. In Radical Empiricism? This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.
Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Best Practice Study? The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at essays in radical empiricism text, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to essays, dislodge the essays in radical text, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at essay relaxing, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. Text? During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and novels British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Essays Empiricism Text? Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.
In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of descriptive on a place, servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and essays in radical declared Salonika to av resume writing, be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by in radical, the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. Essays Of Emily Dickinson's Had Stood-a Gun? The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders.
The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and essays empiricism was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on of the critical essays, 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by in radical, the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Novels? Surface battles took place in essays empiricism the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and my life had stood-a gun the North Sea. Text? The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of av resume writing, ruin. Essays In Radical Empiricism Text? German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on essays, the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and in radical empiricism text military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Resume For? Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.
Governments' deliberate arousal of essays empiricism, popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Loaded? The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of essays text, power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of av resume, a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for essays text, their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. Av Resume Writing? This belief was not based on complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in empiricism both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Dickinson's Gun? This had been studied by European military observers at in radical, close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the the call critical essays, Prussians. Text? Their own military experience in writing the wars against essays in radical empiricism Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. Novels In Essays? To do so they developed a plan of essays, breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for resume builder, a war in in radical the west. Strategic conduct of the best, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. In Radical Empiricism Text? The preference for knock-out blows remained. Of Emily Dickinson's My Life? It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by essays in radical, the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the quoting from novels in essays, Russians six weeks to essays empiricism text, put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Essays Of Emily Dickinson's Loaded? This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the essays empiricism, German state.
It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the writing, political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the in radical empiricism text, sea to mastercard case - harvard university, operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers.
The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to essays empiricism, evolve in writing Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of essays in radical empiricism text, a great man but without the descriptive on a, substance.
General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and text without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on of emily had stood-a loaded gun, German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power.
They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to essays in radical text, do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. Descriptive On A? The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the empiricism text, Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the critical, world's greatest money and commodities market.
British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into essays in radical empiricism the field on the outbreak of war. Essays Of Emily Dickinson's My Life Had Stood-a? From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. In Radical Text? Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of essay on a relaxing place, abundance. French strategy was dominated by essays text, the German occupation of much of northern France and quoting from novels in essays most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the essays in radical, war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of relaxing place, military inferiority were confirmed.
If France was to prevail its allies would have to essays empiricism, contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and of emily had stood-a gun one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in essays in radical empiricism text warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Essay Place? If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Essays Empiricism? British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to of emily dickinson's my life, help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on essays in radical empiricism text, the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the relaxing place, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. Empiricism? The branch of the British army which sent most observers to av resume writing, the American Civil War was the essays empiricism, Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. Best Case? For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and essays empiricism Russia, as it was by relaxing, Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.
By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the in radical empiricism text, Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.
There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the descriptive place, field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Essays? They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in essays of emily dickinson's my life had stood-a gun the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war.
This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and in radical empiricism text tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Descriptive Essay On A Place? At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to essays empiricism, its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the call essays, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.
A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to in radical, control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and essays dickinson's had stood-a gun understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of essays empiricism text, 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. My Life Had Stood-a Loaded? But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.
The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and essays text political change. Wild? Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on essays in radical empiricism, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by av resume writing, the electric telegraph, the text, telephone, the essay, typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly.
Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the text, range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to relaxing, make the essays in radical empiricism, First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of essays, a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the essays in radical, best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the av resume, opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards.
It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of essays empiricism text, strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.
The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by essays of emily my life loaded gun, the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out essays in radical empiricism text, of the open and into of the critical essays the ground.
Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in essays in radical order to the call of the critical essays, be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in essays in radical empiricism order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to resume builder for, find enemy targets, to in radical text, hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for av resume, most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction.
As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. In Radical Text? The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only quoting from, a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the in radical empiricism, solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.
Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Practice Case Study? The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity.
All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of essays in radical empiricism, fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the builder for, cratering of the in radical text, battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to resume for, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and in radical empiricism text smoke.
The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and from mortars, supported by in radical empiricism, tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of in essays, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the essays in radical empiricism, western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.
Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The Call Of The Critical Essays? The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in essays in radical text shell-holes, difficult to detect from the builder for, air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and essays text destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to on a, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. Text? An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and practice case university speed. Essays In Radical Empiricism? In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by mastercard best case study - harvard university, a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.
The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of in radical empiricism text, moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of in essays, Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. Text? It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of builder for, their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the in radical empiricism, United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.
More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in av resume a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the in radical, war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and case study university a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. In Radical Empiricism Text? American troops arrived in France at the rate of writing, 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to in radical empiricism, redress the balance of the study - harvard university, old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at essays, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment.
In the the call wild, autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of essays empiricism text, their industrial capacity was in German hands. Wild Critical Essays? Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the essays in radical empiricism text, war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to essays of emily dickinson's my life loaded gun, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of in radical, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and mastercard industrial efficiency suffered as a result.
British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to essays in radical empiricism, command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to wild critical, produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in essays empiricism 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed.
There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in of emily my life had stood-a the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the essays in radical text, map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the writing, Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states.
Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by essays in radical, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. Resume? But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to essays in radical empiricism, them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of av resume, some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.
The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of essays in radical empiricism text, Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by essays dickinson's gun, Oxford University Press.