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Play-write Poetry in resume blast review, Nicholson Baker’s The Anthologist. L’article suivant propose d’explorer les fonctions du jeu litteraire dans le huitieme roman de Nicholson Baker, The Anthologist , recit de metafiction mettant en scene un narrateur ecrivain et poete qui, tentant de rediger l’introduction d’une anthologie de poesie, est confronte a la page blanche. Alors que c’est la nature competitive ( agon ) de la creation litteraire qui dans un premier temps coupe court au plaisir de la creation, comme le montrera la premiere partie de l’analyse, c’est grace aux vertus du jeu educatif ( paideia ) et la creation d’un monde alternatif que la creativite du narrateur se libere et produit les pages qui constituent ce livre. Se penchant sur le role de la liberte comme concept fondamental de la creation de cet Ars Poetica contemporain, un troisieme moment de l’etude met au jour la carnavalisation du langage et des formes comme manifestation riche et feconde du jeu litteraire. The following article focuses on the function of literary play in Nicholson Baker’s The Anthologist , a meta-fictional novel whose narrator Paul Chowder is a writer and poet who struggles to write the introduction of a forthcoming anthology of rhymed poetry.

Whereas it is the competitive nature ( agon ) of there s way essay, literary creation that initially suspends the pleasure of creation, as will be reviewed in the first part of the analysis, it is through the virtues of educational play ( paideia ) and the creation of an alternative world that narrative creativity is released and produces the pages that constitute this book. Resume Blast Review. Focusing on freedom as a pivotal concept in defense announcement, the creation of this contemporary Ars Poetica , the analysis then reviews the carnivalization of language and forms as a resourceful manifestation of literary play. 1 Crossword puzzles, badminton, ping-pong, chin-ups, guessing games: all these play activities are part of the resume blast world of Paul Chowder, the narrator of Nicholson Baker’s eighth novel, The Anthologist . On The Method. But the review diegetic impulse of the scientific narrative is blast review a creative stasis. A published poet and belletrist, Paul has been unable to pen a good poem for months and s way, struggles to write the introduction to his forthcoming poetry anthology. It should come as no surprise to Baker’s readers that a case of writer’s block generates two-hundred-and-forty pages of richly textured prose, including graphs, poetry quotes, musical scores, singing, onomatopoeic sounds, and many puns, all of those delivered by a first-person narrator eager to share his rhyme fetishism and groundbreaking theory on iambic pentameter. 1 As this article was being submitted for blast publication, Baker published The Traveling Sprinkler , a nov (. Cell Advantages. ) 2 Baker’s prose works, although all topically distinct, can be divided into three sets: sex fantasies ( Vox ; The Fermata ; House of resume review, Holes, a Book of Raunch ), polemical nonfiction ( Double Fold , Human Smoke ) and highly self-conscious first-person narrated novels ( The Mezzanine; Room Temperature; A Box of Matches ). The Anthologist ranks in the latter category.1 Its exploration of essays on the scientific method, literary culture and intense reflexivity brings it close in tone to blast, U and I , the author’s self-conscious narrative on his obsession with the barriers critical thinking works of John Updike. But The Anthologist is pure fiction. Like Nabokov’s Pale Fire , it sets a critical discourse on poetry within a novelistic framework. In both novels, self-conscious narrators transgress the rules of critical discourse to review, offer a personal view on poetry. But Paul Chowder’s creation involves a reflection on its own genesis and exposes itself as fictional. Indeed, the writer overcomes the block only thesis defense announcement poster, after he has turned the task into a game of pretense: “What I thought was that I could practice talking through the introduction as if I were teaching a class” (28).

This narrative posture, which relies on the creation of an alternative reality, is resume blast review typical of the way metafiction foregrounds the potential for make-believe in fiction. As Patricia Waugh argues, “the metacommentary provided by self-conscious fiction carries the more or less explicit message: ‘this is make-believe’ or ‘this is play’.” (35) Chowder’s manuscript uses the resources of fiction to on the method, create an alternative world in which the resume blast review deadening rules of poetry analysis are questioned while others are given birth to. At the same time, the on the scientific method established genre of the introduction is given a new impulse. 2 The notion, already part of Huizinga’s analysis in 1930, was made famous by R. Caillois’ typology o (. ) 3 Literary play, and the creative freedom it generates, is therefore the concept that makes Paul’s shift from creative stasis to creative discourse possible. Play is a constellating concept that covers many aspects of this novel. Whereas it is the resume review competitive nature ( agon 2 ) of literary creation which first suspends the pleasure of creation, as will be reviewed in the first part of the analysis, it is through the virtues of educational play ( paideia ) and the creation of an alternative world that narrative creativity can be released and produce the pages that constitute this book. Focusing on freedom as a pivotal concept in relation to essay on earthquakes, the creation of this contemporary ars poetica, the third part of the analysis will try to show how the carnavalization of forms and language brings together the most salient features of this playful treatise on poetry. 4 The two-hundred-and-forty-page narrative that forms Paul Chowder’s journal originates from writer’s block. Resume. Aloft on the second floor of his barn, Paul Chowder is left without Roz—his girlfriend of eight years who left him after growing weary of his procrastination—and with the seventy-five bulky anthologies of English poetry he possesses, their prefaces as well as many poems in thesis defense announcement poster, mind. For months, he has been unable to write a line of poetry or one word of the preface to his anthology. 5 One of the themes explored in this novel is the blast unfruitful association of method, agon and artistic creation.

A lover of blast review, books, of words, of verse and rhymes, the narrator belongs to a community of writers all deeply engrossed in their desire to create beauty while playing the great game of language. In his case, however, rather than stimulate the desire to play, the competitive nature of the game obfuscates the pleasure. This is a common situation when competition is coupled with artistic performance, Johan Huizinga has argued: “Not infrequently an activity which is self-contained […] may incidentally pass into the agonistic category by becoming the occasion of competition for prizes […] as was the case with Greek drama” (47). The notion of literary prizes, inherited from Greek mythology, indeed survives in the literary circles of our modern times, and the business of reaping awards—or failing to reap them—is an integral part of Paul Chowder’s life as a published poet. It has turned writing into an antithetic play, if not into sheer agony. Huizinga has shown that “the passion to win sometimes threatens to obliterate the levity proper to game” (47). Thesis Defense Announcement. Baker’s character, who twice came close to winning the Pulitzer Prize, has reached this critical stage. Almost winning is worse than not being listed at all as it puts the poet on the race track, without awarding him the only desirable spot of the competition. All it does is identify and publicize him as the loser of the game: “You want to resume blast review, know what somebody who was rumored on the short list for poet laureate of the United States would write after it turned out dissertation on uk market he wasn’t in fact chosen […].

He fails. That’s me” (205). 6 The conflicted association of creation and resume blast, agon is defense announcement a pervasive motif in Nicholson Baker’s work. In U and I , the review genius of literary ancestors and contemporaries is always on the verge of silencing the writer’s voice. In The Anthologist , such fears are thematized through the motif of a tall ladder, each rung of which represents a rank in a competitive world of on the method, poetry: And now it’s like I’m on some infinitely tall ladder. […] The world is somewhere far below. I don’t know how I got here. It’s a mystery. When I look up, I see people, climbing, rung by rung. I see Jorie Graham, I see Billy Collins, I see Ted Kooser. Resume Review. They’re all clinging to the ladder, too. […] The wind comes over, whsssew , and it’s cold, and the ladder vibrates, and I feel very exposed and barriers to effective, high up. […] It’s freezing, and it’s lonely, and there’s nobody to talk to. And what if I just let go?

What if I just loosened my grip, and fell to resume, one side, and just— fffshhhoooooow . Let go (197). 7 The etymological meaning of agon (“gathering”) is scientific symbolized here by the assembly of fellow poets. But such a vertical representation of the game of poetry shows poets as antagonistic players rather than playmates, a notion acknowledged by the narrator, who reports he has inscribed the blast “People [he’s] jealous of” on on earthquakes, the back of a poetry book, quoting then the resume blast names of contemporary and just recently awarded poets (“James Fenton, Sinead O’Connor, Lorenz Hart, Jon Stewart and phone advantages and disadvantages, Billy Collins” [177]). Earlier in blast, the narrative, an informative digression on the history of the new honorary title of “poet laureate” in the United States hints at the bitterness that consumes the narrator: “What does ‘poet laureate’ mean? Nothing. It means a person with laurel branches twined around his head. Which is not something people do much now. A little headdress of leaves, a little fancy, leafy hat” (136).

3 Johan Huizinga defines play as “a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary life’ (. Dissertation. ) 8 Just as the strict requirements of high competition may cut an athlete from the pleasures of social interaction and amusement, Paul’s position on the poets’ ladder alienates him from reality: “The world is resume blast review somewhere far below.” It is a major function of play to estrange the player from “the ordinary life,” to quote from to effective, Huizinga’s definition of play (13),3 but the estrangement, which is supposed to be pleasurable and shared with a community of fellow players, has been turned into utter pain and isolation: “it’s freezing, and it’s lonely, and there’s nobody to talk to.” The pain is acute enough for Paul to indulge in thoughts of renouncement: “What if I just loosened my grip, and blast review, fell to one side, and just— fffshhhoooow . Let go” (197). Cell Advantages Essay. 9 It is resume no wonder that Paul is unable to pen a single word of his introduction. Essays Scientific. An anthology is another kind of competition that puts him in the difficult position of the blast jury. Assessing the value of “individual talents,” of “minds who create” and barriers thinking, “men who suffer,” to use an Eliotian intonation, is a distressing task. Hesitations, second thoughts, afterthoughts (“Yep, you’ll do as a semifinalist. Nope, nope, nope. Resume Blast. Maybe. No” [46]) confuse the anthologist, who, a poet himself, is if there s will far too aware of what is at stake in the game to take it lightly. Karl Shapiro, the resume narrator reports in another chapter, never recovered from being de-anthologized from The Oxford Book of English Verse : “he said it was like dying” (134). 10 To assuage the discomfort of cell phone and disadvantages, writer’s block, the narrator resorts to blast review, various types of distractions. Solitary time-passing activities are tried out in a denial of the impending assignment and s way essay, are enjoyed inasmuch as they distance the player from his writing.

A chin-up bar that Chowder has set up in his barn during that stagnant stage of his life gives him an illusion of review, daily progress (“I can do five chin-ups now” [198]). But any body part may generate one of those solitary games: “I can even do eyelid wars. Do you do that? Where you try as hard as you can to look up with your eyeballs, rolling them back in your head, but with your eyes closed [. Market. ]. It’s a good way of passing the time” (3). The fleeting solace derived from those recreations does not delude the narrator as to their escapist nature. He is aware that their main point is to resume blast review, keep the and disadvantages essay pain at resume blast, bay: “The addicts of crossword puzzles are also distracting themselves. They also don’t want to face the cell advantages world’s grief head-on. They want the transient pleasure endlessly repeated, of solving the Rubik’s Cube of review, verbal intersection” (56). Poetry and rhyme can themselves be associated with those transient life-saving activities: “Rhyming is the avoidance of mental pain by announcement addicting yourself to what will happen next. […] You propose a plong . You’re in suspense. Resume Review. You are solving a puzzle” (56).

Yet, the if there s way essay difference is that poetry involves an aesthetic dimension whereas crossword puzzles or computer games are pure waste: “why have I just spent an hour watching squares drop down a computer screen?” For if poetry “is better than crossword puzzles,” the narrator claims, the reason lies in its beauty and review, emotional potential: “has anyone ever wept at the beauty of a crossword puzzle?” (56). The waste is also social, for the pleasure players derive from games is usually connected to their social function, a truth that is at the core of s way, all theories on play. Resume Blast Review. Playing by oneself or with a machine is bound to turn the essay game into despair. As Roger Caillois demonstrates in a chapter entitled “The Social Function of resume review, Games,” these types of play are usually not individual pastimes. “There is an element of rivalry in if there there essay, these varied activities and everyone tries to vanquish his rivals, perhaps invisible or absent, by accomplishing unpublicized feats, triumphing over obstacles, establishing precarious records for endurance, speed, precision and altitude” (37). 4 If Chowder fails to entertain his neighbors with his embarrassing ukulele solo and social self-cons (. ) 11 To put off the painful writing of the resume review introduction, the defense announcement narrator has also contemplated turning to the solace of human interaction. This is yet another area where he proves incompetent. His failure is the implicit theme of the badminton scene in the novel. Resume Blast. Ogling the joyful party of his neighbors playing outdoors, Paul Chowder first seeks a chance to connect with the barriers to effective critical thinking group. Resume Blast Review. Calling out “That sounds like fun” (43), he is soon invited to join the thesis game: “You want to resume, play?” (43).

But the episode further exacerbates his loneliness and s will there s way, marginalization. As Paul is resume review handed a racket, his first impulse is to put on an act and dissertation housing, turn it into a ukulele: “I plucked at it a few times like a ukulele and I sang ‘I walk a lonely road’” (43). The act turns the means of social play and exchange—the racket—into the instrument of a sinister solo and fails to generate laughter on the part of his neighbors. In the blast midst of the party, Paul, a weak player (“I was a little rusty in my badmintonage”), grows increasingly self-conscious (“I had to apologize when I swung and missed”), which prevents him from enjoying the game and the company.4 Paul’s injured nose and his barking dog add to the embarrassment. Feeling he has become a spoil-sport in every possible way, he excuses himself and retreats to his solitary den. A few days later, as Paul resolves to refine his “badmintonage” so as to interact with his neighbors more easily, he realizes the project is cell advantages and disadvantages essay doomed: “But how can you really practice badminton on your own? You can bounce a tennis ball against the barn door […] but you can’t bounce a birdie against the barn and resume blast review, get anything useful from it” (60). 12 The only essay, thing that Chowder can ever master in badminton at this stage is its poetic rhythm: “What’s the meter of badminton? There’s a hard one friends. Resume Review. Poink, poink, poink […]” (60). Barriers To Effective. There ensues from the narrative of this social failure a fanciful analysis of the rhythm of ball-games including badminton, but also tennis and ping-pong.

The failure at blast, social interaction is cell phone advantages successfully turned into another game: play-write. 5 Referring to resume, Kinbote’s role in Nabokov’s Pale Fire , Tony Tanner observed that “On lexical playfield (. ) 13 Only by defense poster substituting creative writing for the trial of agonistic play can the narrator modify his unsatisfying relation to the ordinary life. The idea of replacing a frustrating world with a more acceptable one thanks to the potentialities of fiction is not new. One is reminded of Nabokov’s Kinbote, who, according to the poet John Shade, is not a “lunatic,” as his colleagues would like to think, but “ a person who deliberately peels off a drab and unhappy past and review, replaces it with a brilliant invention” (238). Just as Kinbote decreed within his own text that Zembla was his kingdom and on uk housing market, “Pale Fire” a poem about review his adventures as an exiled king,5 the narrator of The Anthologist relies on the creation of cell, a self-contained literary space to exist as a writer. Blast Review. The actualizing power conveyed by creativity is part of the ontological virtues of play. If There S Will There S Way. As Eugene Fink pointed out “ play can be experienced as a pinnacle of review, human sovereignty” and as such, play is therefore intricately connected with the notion of freedom: Man enjoys here an almost limitless creativity, he is productive and uninhibited because he is not creating within the dissertation on uk sphere of reality. The player experiences himself as the lord of the products of his imagination—because it is virtually unlimited, play is an eminent manifestation of freedom” (24-25). 14 Contrary to the types of play reviewed earlier in this demonstration, writing is not associated with escapism, nor is it conceived in agonistic terms. It is the very notion of resume blast review, play and the freedom it involves that liberates the creativity of the narrator.

The character stops being played by external events (prizes, rivalry, pressure from the editor) only when he starts designing his own play world, setting his own rules to to effective, the game. 15 All games need a playground. Whether they are board-games, ball-games or card-games, games imply the notion of a self-enclosed space. In the words of review, Johan Huizinga: “The arena, the card table, the magic circle, the temple, the stage, the screen, the tennis court, the on uk housing market court of justice, etc., are all in form and function play-grounds, i.e. forbidden spots, isolated, hedged round, hallowed, within which special rules obtain” (10). Review. The place from which Paul conducts his writing game conforms to that description: it is a secluded and isolated place, the second floor of the to effective writer’s barn. Its emptiness is “its greatest quality,” the narrator claims (98). Toying with the usual cliches concerning the mythology of the review writer, the if there narrator creates a parodistic imagery of the writer’s den. The throne wherefrom he governs his realm (poetry and rhyme) and his subjects (words and letters) is a “white plastic chair” (28) that crops up in resume blast, every chapter of the book. The whole setting parodies the solemn and dignified “ivory tower” of the solitary and haughty writer. Barriers To Effective Thinking. The situation is eminently metafictional.

Writing tools are to review, Paul’s game what pawns are to dissertation market, a chess player. Resume. Throughout the dissertation on uk housing novel, Paul is engaged in the act of inscribing words and resume, graphs and musical scores on essays on the scientific, his presentation pad, constantly reporting the resume review use of pens, in his case “Sharpies,” as essential to the game: “Woops—dropped my Sharpie.” (10). “Hell, let’s get into it. Where’s my Sharpie again? Okay” (12); “Let me write out that date for essay you with my Sharpie, 1883” (116). 16 The anthologist does not only resume, call attention to the physical gesture of inscribing words but also to their spelling: “Monobloc. No K” (5); “Paul: what is dissertation this crazy U doing here?” (2). The narrator’s manifest concern with the resume construction of words enhances the artifice and essay, arbitrariness of language. His reflexive writing foregrounds language to show that language plays us, that we are played by words and that it might prove fruitful to gain authority over its arbitrary rules.

Therefore Chowder takes the liberty of altering the resume English lexicon, overtly distancing himself from the use of housing market, words or expressions that he deems inadequate or untrue. His self-conscious deconstruction of existing idioms may in some cases generate comical digressions: “You’re supposed to ‘meet people’s eyes.’ Meet them how? They have two eyes. You have to choose one. I start by resume looking at the person’s right eye, intently, and then I begin to feel I’m hurting the feelings of the person’s left eye” (26). But Chowder also invents words when an adequate one is missing. “ Rupasnil ” is his personal term for on uk housing market a supremely beautiful poem, the kind of poem that fits into his anthology: “That is resume review so good, and so twisty, and so shadowy and so boomerangy, that it requires the forging of a new word for ‘beauty.’ Rupasnil . Beauty. If There S Will S Way. Rupasnil ” (45). A “plum” is Paul’s word for a poem that doesn’t rhyme (69) while a capitalized “BOOM!” is his replacement for the blank space indicating a rest at the end of a line of poetry (14).

17 Just like Lewis Carroll’s Humpty Dumpty who uses words that “mean just what [he] chooses them to mean—neither more nor less” (Carroll, 163), Baker’s narrator will only blast, play if he can deviate from the rules of language, creating his own instead. This narrator stands in some transitional realm where the dissertation on uk old rules of the game are wearing out and need a replacement. The situation is similar to what Michel Beaujour describes in a study on the games of poetics, regarding the blast freedom that characterizes postmodern art as an exploration of phone advantages and disadvantages essay, new rules: “the rules of the game, which although arbitrary, had somehow become ‘natural’ to the players, now seem artificial, tyrannical and dead: the system does not allow for sufficient player freedom within it and it must be discarded. Blast. Although only a system can replace a system, the interregnum may be experienced as total freedom” (Beaujour, 69). The notion of “interregnum” aptly defines the narrator’s posture in this novel: rather than ignoring the traditional rules, the text comments upon them and questions them while bringing the possibility of barriers, new rules to blast, the fore. This transitional discourse is typical of the role of metafiction and its relation to forms. Metafiction is what allows writers to announcement poster, examine “the old rules in order to discover new possibilities of the game” (Waugh, 42). The shift from established rules to newer forms concerns two aspects of the narrative.

It is resume first characteristic of the narrator’s discourse on cell advantages, poetical rhythm and notably on blast, his theory that the rhythm of iambic pentameter is actually a ternary rhythm. But on a more reflexive level, it also depicts the narrator’s stance regarding the composition of his anthology. There are rules and a certain number of constraints to this game that the narrator is cell phone advantages and disadvantages essay aware of: “My anthology has to have the right thickness. I do know that. It has to have that I’m-not-really-a-textbook textbookishness” (223). But the writer’s block is overcome only resume review, when the narrator starts dismissing the rules and replacing them with his own, one of the most essential being to speak his preface rather than write it: “what I thought was that I could practice talking through the essay introduction as if I were teaching a class” (28). 18 Part of the fictitious world of resume review, Paul therefore relies on the existence of fellow players, his imaginary students, and simultaneously, in this writing game, his readers.

The collaborative participation of the reader is an integral part of the matrix of Paul’s game. The reader, “you” in the very first sentence of the scientific method novel, is called in to play his or her role as a responsive student throughout the book (32). Blast. The pages the narrator writes form a spatial playground where readers and writer meet in on uk housing, a poststructuralist notion that the creation of a text depends on both author and reader, a fact that the narrator admits: “You may not want me. I don’t care. Resume Blast Review. I want you to have me. That’s the way it works.

I’m here giving and dissertation on uk market, you’re here taking. If you are there. I can’t know and you are probably falling asleep” (205). The interaction takes many forms. The narrator sometimes shares his admiration with them (“pretty good eh?” [182]), checks on their progress with poetry (“How are those poetry exercises coming?” [26]), coaches them on verse-scanning (“with me now: One—two—three” [214]), or simply verifies that his point is understood: “Hear it?” (163). Narrative theory and notably the resume blast works of barriers to effective, Norman Holland, Michael Riffaterre and blast, Wolfgang Iser have shown the many ways texts require the dynamic participation of the reader. Dissertation Market. Metafiction exacerbates readers’ participation by making them aware of their role as players. The Anthologist literalizes the effects generated by the elaborate construction of a reader persona.

In this novel, readers are not mere abstracted elements of the narrative process but elements of the diegetic framework. Resume Blast. In a Shandean tradition, the narrator may anticipate or voice the readers’ response (“So now, you’re waiting. I’ve promised something. You’re thinking okay, he’s said he’s going to divulge” [8]). Barriers Thinking. He may also play guessing games that imply their illusory physical presence in the room with him: “I’ll block off the title so you have to guess what it is. Familiar design, I daresay. Resume Review. The little dude at scientific method, the chalkboard?

Yes, it’s Poetry for dummies ” (180). Concretizing the reader’s voice and review, bodily presence, the narration relies on a ludic use of the implied reader to enhance the potential of make-believe in writing. Defense Announcement Poster. 19 The relationship of the writer with his fellow-players is resume blast devoid of the antithesis that characterizes the agonistic relationship between Paul and his fellow poets. It is instead a fecund relationship that relies on another crucial function of playing, the educative one, that is paideia . At the to effective thinking outset of the resume review novel, Paul offers to teach his readers “everything [he] know[s] about market poetry” (1), pretending to resume review, be a school teacher, the magister ludi , to dissertation, use the Latin idiom, and in his case, the master of games of poetry. There again, the gap between an actual frustrating world and its replacement is easily discerned.

In real life, Paul “can’t teach” for teaching implies lying to students about the quality of their poems (31, 141-43). The function of this mock-teaching is purely creative. The concept of the implied reader enables the narrator to dramatize his or her ignorance (“How much do you know about Swinburne? Probably not that much” [180]) and therefore to generate and to justify his teaching-writing. Throughout the blast novel, Baker makes extensive use of this technique, which Bakhtin has termed the “hidden dialogicality”: “The second speaker is method present invisibly. His words are not there, but the deep traces left by review these words have a determining influence on all the barriers critical thinking present and visible world of the first speaker” (Bakhtin, 1984, 197). This internalized dialogization of fellow players is generative of this logorrhea and therefore acts as one of the narrator’s most powerful weapons against writer’s block. 20 Role-playing and internal dialogization go a step further on the path to fantasy as Paul Chowder gives voice to a range of imaginary situations and dialogues.

His writing game generates for instance a fictitious correspondence with the powerful and influential literary editor of resume review, The New Yorker , Paul Muldoon, who also happens to be a successful poet. In the first letter, the narrator offers his first tentative compliments: “Dear Paul Muldoon, we met briefly at that wingding at the 92 nd Street Y a few tulip bubbles ago. Here are some fresh squibs. I hope you like them […]” (22). But after the narrator has ventriloquized several fictitious replies from Muldoon and the fantasized relationship has become tighter, he starts penning more casual notes. In other words, the narrator uses the actualizing power of essays scientific, literature to rewrite the blast world as he wishes. Other examples of advantages and disadvantages essay, this fantasy-writing abound in the novel, as when, for instance, Chowder pictures himself as the radio presenter of his own show: “Hello, this is Paul Chowder welcoming you to Chowder’s Bowl of Poetry and this is Chowder’s Plumfest of poems” (115). 21 Exploiting the resources of role-playing, this type of play stems from the narrator’s desire to transcend the resume blast review constraints and limitations of his ordinary life. The way it is exploited and the context in which it exists is therefore very close to Fridriech Schiller’s notion of dissertation on uk market, “play drive” (Spiel Trieb), an blast review, aesthetic impulse that drives the individual to transcend inner and outer constraints (Schiller, 1967, fifteenth letter).

In Schiller’s terminology, the play drive lies between a drive towards the material or sensual and a drive towards the formal or abstract. The play drive therefore mediates those two urges. This philosophical understanding of the barriers critical function of resume review, play sheds light on Baker’s representation of play in on earthquakes, this novel, for the author creates a character torn between the aspiration to the highest ideals of blast, poetic creation and essays scientific, his attraction to a more sensuous life. But as the mediator of those two, play represents the zenith of human potential. To Schiller, “man only plays when he is in the fullest sense of the word, a human being, and he is only fully a human being when he plays” (67). The narrator’s creation of an alternative reality and the ensuing role-playing activities illustrate how the experience of creative freedom can absorb the tension between abstract aestheticism and sensual life. 6 See Linda Hutcheon’s analysis of what she has labelled “historiographic metafiction” (5). 22 The fantasy-play can take even more surreal forms. There are several instances in the narrative when the self-reflexive narration becomes overtly parodic intertextuality i.e, fiction that is at once metafictional and historical.6 Indeed, several times in resume blast review, the book, the verisimilar context is undermined by the appearance of a literary figure dead and buried in our world but freely standing within the s will s way essay narrator’s otherwise realistic 20 th century environment.

Those appearances generate what I will call playlets, short dialogues staging both the resume narrator and a canonic American poet. The first of them stages Chowder coming across Edgar Allan Poe in a Laundromat, in Marseilles, France: I was there doing my laundry, and I look over, and there’s this little guy. He was kind of pale, pasty looking. But moving with a methodical grace. Thesis Poster. And I said Ed.?

And he looked up slowly. He nodded, cavernously. Resume Blast Review. I said, Ed Poe? And he said, Mm-hm. And then he peered closely at me. He said Paul, Paul Chowder? And I said, Yes, Ed! How are you doing? Been a long time.

He nodded. Cell Essay. I said, I see you’re folding some underpants here. He said, Yes, I am. Doing my laundry. Blast Review. You? (24) 23 There ensues from this encounter a brief and lighthearted dialogue on the genesis of “The Raven.” In her study of self-conscious fiction, Patricia Waugh identifies such shifts of essay on earthquakes, contexts as typical of the game involved in resume review, metafiction, “because the main concern of metafiction is precisely the implications of the shift from the essay context of ‘reality’ to that of ‘fiction’ and the complicated interpenetration of the two” (36).

The effect generated by this comical interlude staging Paul with Poe is that of “a schizophrenic construction of reality,” where “the historical world and alternative or fantasy world merge” (38). Such episodes, which foreground the blast shift from reality to fiction enhance the playful use of language. Further in the novel, another playlet sees the narrator encounter a one-shoed Ted Roethke walking down the street and looking as if he had been struck “with a couple hundred million volts of electricity” (88). “‘No, it’s hydrotherapy,’ he said. ‘I do not laugh, I do not cry;/ I’m sweating out the will to die.’” (88). Thesis Defense Announcement Poster. The situation and the words allude to Roethke’s “Meditation in Hydrotherapy.” In both cases, the play with the reader is review overtly parodic and intertextual. It is also enveloped in a larger framework of play, relying on the blending of historical facts and a fantasized alternative reality. A metacommentary usually makes the shift of contexts explicit, Waugh argues, “although some contemporary novels are constructed with extreme shifts of context of frame […] but without any explanatory metalingual commentary to to effective, facilitate the transition from one to blast, another” (37). In the two cases quoted above, no commentary is dissertation on uk provided. Review. “The reader is deliberately disoriented” (Waugh, 36). Constantly called on to participate throughout the if there s will there s way novel, Chowder’s readers are for once ignored. Given no explanation for review such a shift, they realize they are being played by the narrator.

7 For a detailed analysis of the intricate relationship between Bakhtin’s concept of carnivalization (. ) 24 The Anthologist reads like a cheerful conversational piece on essay, poetry where Renaissance poets, pop rock singers, literary critics and review, readers live on equal footing and freely exchange with the narrator on the topic of prosody, regardless of their positions on the high ladder to housing market, Mount Parnassus. Review. Relying on a frank and farcical tone, Paul Chowder never underrates the market beauty of stellar poems and yet does not bother with the codes of etiquette and decorum. His approach is highly eclectic as well as subversive of traditional forms. In many aspects, the text is carnivalesque. This last part of our analysis aims to show how the concept of carnival as literary play brings together the most salient stylistic features of this unconventional treatise on poetry.7. 25 Bakhtin has pointed out the “free and familiar contact” that characterizes social communication during carnival time and how it suspends the concept of deference and honorific positions (1994, 199). Although painfully self-conscious in his interaction with his neighbors, Paul dances a jig of social ease within the literary text.

Anthologized men are extracted from their pantheons of literary glory and blast, apostrophized in essay, familiar terms: “Oh, Rudyard, you were good in the 1890s. You were a nineties man” (13). Resume Blast. Edgar Allan Poe is greeted as “Ed” while Alexander Pope is “Alex!” (102) and James Fenton “good Old Jamesie” (224). Other deities of poetry are invited to play metaphorical ball-games and treated with the cheerful tone used by partners in collective games: “Hurl it at me, Alfred Lord, baby. Smack me with that fastball of a ‘low large moon’ ” (41). Cell Phone Advantages And Disadvantages Essay. 26 Such freedom of communication is matched by resume blast an unusually eclectic view of culture. Essay On Earthquakes. What Bakhtin termed the “misalliances” of carnival, that is the indiscriminate mixing of all social classes, ranks and positions, is resume blast review another pervasive feature of cell advantages and disadvantages, Paul’s manuscript which aligns the resume blast review names of on the method, John Keats and the American rapper Ludacris and blast review, praises both youtube.com and Elizabethan versification. To prove his iambic pentameter theory true, Chowder may indiscriminately quote from court poet Samuel Daniel and from a 21 st century remix of trance music by iiO (82). The narrator wishes to establish that the concepts of low and high culture as well as the precedence of to effective, ancient art over resume newer forms no longer apply: “Of course, yes, Tolstoy and essays on the method, Keats and blah blah and resume, yes indeed of essays scientific, course yes.

But we’re living in blast, an age that has a tremendous richness of invention” (77). The narrator’s deliberate blurring of such distinctions (low art vs. high art) is what gives this treatise its playfully transgressive tone and helps activate the dynamics of barriers to effective thinking, carnivalization. 27 Such deliberately provocative eclecticism goes hand in hand with a rejection of scholastic terminology. The accent marks of scanning “look too pedagogical” (15) and are replaced with bold and larger letters sometimes combined with circled numbers: 31 The official terms of metrics are also set aside for more expressive avatars. For instance, the words “dactyls or anapests in the official lingo […] are bits of twisted dead scholarship, and you should forget them immediately” (152). They are replaced with the generic term “triplet,” which is all we need to understand the rhythm of four-beat lines (152). The “paeonic foot after Artistotle” is another “useless term” that the narrator turns down to redirect the reader’s attention to a less scholarly and more sensual approach of poetry: “But listen to the way it can sound” (162). The point is not to advocate anarchy but to play down the importance of rules that might obfuscate the beauty of resume blast, poetry. Chowder’s transformation and dissertation on uk housing, transgression of critical language aims to facilitate the reader’s access to poetic rhythm.

As R. Rawdon Wilson remarks in resume review, a study on literary play, transgression has come to appear in a positive light in the 20 th century as it approaches the on earthquakes concept of play. The treatment of scholasticism in resume blast review, Baker’s novel illustrates the notion that our contemporary era has turned transgression into dissertation on uk housing, a constructive concept and a “way to upend, even (paradoxically) to kill, what is resume dead in literature” (Rawdon Wilson, 30). “After all, we don’t want some mere convention of spelling to block our connection with the oldies,” the housing market narrator proclaims about other scholastic norms (218). The problem is review not only that these words are elitist, but they can even mislead our understanding of rhythm, as the following remarks on “The Raven” exemplify: [This critic] says that Poe’s “Raven” is written in—ready?—“trochaic octameter with lines two and four catalectic.” And how far does that get you? It actually disables any understanding of the poem to say that what he’s doing is trochaic octameter. Because it’s still really a basic four-beat stanza. Poe chose to set it in a different way because the lines came out essays on the method long, but it’s just a ballad. Poe is just taking a certain kind of beautiful stroll (165). Blast. 32 The demonstration focuses intensely on the sensual nature of poetry rather than on an abstracted form of aestheticism. Poetry is a game and rules matter very much to the narrator, as his preference of essays scientific method, rhyme over free verse and his obsession with rhythm show, but rhymes should not be considered as artificial exercises in style.

They are deeply connected with the way human beings apprehend language, the narrator argues in Chapter Seven, proving their natural origins. His recurrent injunctions to “listen” or to “look” testify to resume review, his desire to barriers, breathe life into poetry and revitalize the resume blast review abstracting forms of criticism, or, as his editor puts it in the catalog copy of his unfinished anthology, “Chowder […] reawakens our sense of the fructifying limitlessness of traditional forms” (44). 33 The rejection of on earthquakes, normative and deadening rules is matched by a loose but extremely dynamic handling of structure and resume blast, style. Chowder’s theories on iambic pentameter rely on the use of oralized form and structure rather than the rigorous framework of Artes Poeticae . Commenting on canonical opuses of written poetry, the narrator scatters his discourse with spontaneous and loose connections such as “anyway,” “basically,” “Oki dokey?” The basic rules of rhetoric and syntax that recommend avoiding repetition are ignored: “I am basically willing to do anything. I am basically willing to do anything to come up with a really good poem” (3). This looks like thought progressing on the page, as “truth opening its petals” to borrow a Chowderian image (3). An abnormally frequent use of dashes marking a break or hesitation inscribes Paul’s thoughts within the thesis poster framework of resume blast review, perceptible time, namely the time it takes to think and to write, or what Genette calls the “narrative time” (228-34).

Purely self-conscious in style, this novel overtly shows how it was written. Writing takes the tangible form of an ongoing activity. The abundance of scientific method, figures of self-correction, such as epanorthosis, shows that truth is being constantly tested and that nothing is fixed immutably. Corrections may stem from a quest for review exactness: “For instance: here’s a recent New Yorker . Actually, no—it was published almost six years ago” (20); or they may concern the very issue at stake, that is, a definition of poetry: “Poetry is prose in slow motion. Now, that isn’t true of rhymed poems” (1). There Essay. Immediacy of transmission is resume review brought to the fore at and disadvantages, the expense of the rigidity of immutable knowledge.

34 This emphasis on immediacy and oralization cannot be dissociated from the vocal and sonorous quality of language the narrative displays. Resume Review. On a thematic level first, the narrator confides his obsession about the spoken word when it comes to poetry. Poetry should not be internalized but proclaimed or sung. This notion also accounts for all the musical scores scattered throughout the narrative, which represent the dissertation housing market narrator’s own humming and personal interpretation of the lines, as in resume blast, the example below where the narrator has composed a tune for a poem by Walter Scott: 36 In the following example, two lines taken from a poem by 19 th -century poet Alice Carey have been set to music so that the reader slows down and “begin[s] to hear the wisdom in what she’s saying” (154): 8 Another allusion to Nabokov’s Pale Fire. Kinbote’s Foreword to his edition of Shade’s poem is inter (. ) 38 On a stylistic level, it is the oralization of printed words, as noted above, and their vocalization that help dynamize the narrator’s theories on rhyme and rhythm. To maintain the illusion of barriers to effective critical, speech and sound, the narration relies on resume blast, an exuberant use of onomatopoeia.

The parasites of an old BBC radio record of Tennyson are transcribed onto the page through multiple series of consonants: “pkkkfffffffrrrfffff-fff”! pkkkffffffrrrffff-fff […]” (151). Another series of letters serves to transcribe the muffled sound made by page-turning: “He turns the page, and you hear the schwoooeeeet , and you want to essay, cry” (30). Humming (“dum deem, deedledeel, deedledeem” [155]) and sonorous exclamations (“Haaaaahhhh! [196]) also find their way onto the page, while murmurs materialize in smaller characters: “Then sometimes you want to whisper it, like this: “give me my scallop-shell of quiet.” (62). The narrator also makes extensive use of vocative expressions (“But at least she [Alice Quinn] actually accepted some of my own poems. Thank you, Alice!” 21). Additionally, the narrator transforms mute typographical marks into resume, audible words, for example the words “quote” and “unquote” are sometimes copied out, and therefore read as if issued from an actual voice (14). These devices enhance the s way auditory quality of Paul’s logorrhea. But as noted earlier, Paul’s journal is not playing solo, for it is interlaced with many other voices. Dialogues and exchanges, real or imaginary, abound. The voice of the departed Roz resonates throughout the review chapters in mnemonic interludes (“Roz said but Sweetie, you’re spending all this money and we don’t have it” [30]). Chirping birds keep interrupting the demonstration’s progress (62-63)8 while here and there a noisy little mouse pops into Paul’s kitchen and his manuscript (62-63).

Interactions with neighbors, friends, dates and overheard conversations at phone advantages, the store are most of the resume time reported as direct speech in the narrative. Sound and phone advantages, “the proclaimed word,” the festive marketplace and the “cries of Paris” are prominent features of carnival culture, Bakhtin showed in his analysis of Rabelais’ world (218). From his solitary plastic chair up in the barn, the anthologist voices boisterous addresses to a variety of individuals—editors, living or dead poets, carpenters, neighbors and passers-by, which generates a lively atmosphere that is part of the carnivalizing spirit of this novel. 9 A feature that “Baker” shares with him. 39 Another carnivalesque feature that distances the narrator’s critical discourse from the established genre is the extravagant number of references to eating. Hardly a page goes by without an allusion to food, if only resume, as metaphors, similes and puns. This aspect may be linked to the sensuous drive that also governs Paul’s life. For Chowder, as his name would have it,9 is a bon vivant. The use of food imagery, which takes various forms, gives concrete and physical substance to Paul’s discourse and reminds the readers that artistic creation is dependent on bodily function. The answer to the question “Why is rhyme so important to speech?” is considerably delayed by a detailed description of the chicken plate Chowder’s neighbor brings him as he sits pondering the phone essay issue (105).

Food whimsically worms its way into every bit of his narrative, as for example in this passage on the overrated importance of iambic pentameter: “People are going to feed you all kinds of oyster crackers about iambic pentameter. They’re going to say, Oh ho ho, iambic pentameter! The centrality of the five-stress line! Because ‘pent’ is five in review, Babylonian, and five […] is the number of slices of American cheese you can eat in one sitting” (10). As Bakhtin argues, “the encounter of defense, man with the world, which takes place inside the open, biting, rending, chewing mouth, is one of the most ancient and most important objects of human thought and imagery. Here man tastes the world, introduces it in its body, makes it part of itself” (229).

Baker’s over-emphasis on food imagery in resume blast review, this poetry anthology testifies to his overpowering desire to celebrate life. Sounds and dissertation housing, eating references all point to a joyful feast of communication and exchange with the world. 41 “How do you achieve the presence of mind to resume blast, initiate the writing of barriers to effective critical thinking, a poem?” (236). The final twist to this story of writer’s block comes as the anthologist is asked by review a “real” person at a conference on “the meters of love” to explain the essays scientific method very origins of poetry-making. The poet suddenly forgets all about the resume blast review rules of scansion, his own new rules included, and delivers a “secret” that shows poetry and life as intricately connected: “I’ll tell you how. I ask a simple question. If There S Will There S Way. What was the resume very best moment of your day?” What follows is an uninterrupted writing marathon in which the narrator composes twenty-three poems and completes a “clean draft” of the critical thinking introduction (241). This outpouring does not happen on resume review, the second floor of a remote and isolated barn or ivory tower but “on the kitchen table” (241). As the writing proceeds, the poet swaps his mental representation of a competitive poetry ladder to Parnassus for “an aluminum ladder for real” with which he will help his neighbor build a house (242). The last pages see the narrator return to Roz, to social life, and to “ badmintonage ” (243). This return to “real life” was only if there s will, made possible by the creative resources of play, and in resume blast review, this case, by the game of fiction played by Chowder, itself mirroring the elaborate game played by Nicholson Baker. “You need the art in order to love the life,” the narrator had declared earlier (190), which aptly illustrates the process Nicholson Baker describes in this metafictional novel.

Baker’s novel, Linda Hutcheon would argue, “is not a copy of the empirical world, nor does it stand in opposition to it. It is if there s way essay rather a continuation of that ordering, fiction-making process that is part of resume blast, our normal coming to terms with experience” (Hutcheon, 89). On Uk Market. In that respect, The Anthologist provides a good response to Jean-Marie Schaeffer’s question in Pourquoi la fiction? The Anthologist can even be considered as a fictional counterpart to Shaeffer’s critical theories: reflecting as it does on the mechanics of writing while playing a game of make-believe, Baker’s novel provides a dynamic illustration of the resume review creative possibilities offered by thesis that human impulse towards fiction or “ludic feint” as Schaeffer calls it (11, passim ). Blast Review. Indeed, what the narrator claims he has achieved at the end of the novel—“a two-hundred and essays on the method, thirty page” introduction, “a clean draft” that “explains things but clumsily”—strangely resembles the two-hundred-and-forty page book the reader is holding. Through the freedom generated by resume blast review play and the make-believe dynamics of his discourse, Chowder’s writings have become a speculative metaphor for the preface that could not be written.

42 “Another story about a writer writing a story! Another regressus in cell advantages and disadvantages, infinitum!” a character famously complained in “Life-Story,” one of John Barth’s short stories (117). “Who doesn’t prefer art that at least overtly imitates something other than its own processes?” he pursued (117). Baker shows that he does not, since it is this overt meditation on the mechanics of writing that gives birth to The Anthologist . “There is much freedom-inducing potential in metafiction generally, not when seen as a degenerate version of a moribund genre, but when recognized as a significant ‘vital’ mimetic form of literature” (161-62), Linda Hutcheon concludes at the end of Narcissistic Narrative: The Metafictional Paradox . This a view that applies not only to resume blast, the narrator’s endeavours to reinvent the barriers to effective rules of blast review, preface-writing but also to Baker’s own endeavours with metafiction. More than three decades after Hutcheon offered a typology of the genre, writing metafiction has become quite a challenge, even for on earthquakes the author of The Mezzanine. While representing Chowder’s frantic quest for a new voice that would refresh our perception of poetry, Baker seems to be himself commenting on the challenges implied in writing novels in the 21 st century. Review. But turning the preface that the thesis narrator was unable to write into a novel that in its turn offers a playful meditation on the mechanics of writing, Baker has given birth to a form of ludic meta-metafiction, and proved that in the early 21 st century, it is still possible to give a new twist to that now well-established literary genre. Resume. Bakhtin , Mikhail, The Bakhtin Reader , selected writings of Bakhtin, Medvedev and Volohinov, London, E. Arnold, 1994. ---, Problems of Dostoievski’s poetics , University of Minnesota Press, 1984. Baker , Nicholson, The Anthologist , New York, Simon Schuster, 2009. ---, U and I , New York, Random House, Vintage Books, 1991. Thinking. Barth , John, Lost in the Funhouse , New York, Doubleday, 1968. Beaujour , Michel, “The Games of Poetics,” Yale French Studies , 41, 1968, 58-67.

Caillois , Roger, Man, Play and resume review, games [1958], Translated from the French by Meyer Barash, New York, Free Press, 1961. Carroll, Lewis, Alice in Wonderland [1865], New York, Norton Critical Edition, 1992. Fink , Eugene, “The Oasis of Happiness: Toward an Ontology of Play,” transl. Ute Saine and scientific method, Thomas Saine, Yale French Studies 41,1968, 19-30. Resume Blast. Genette , Gerard, Figures III , Paris, Gallimard, 1972. Huizinga , Johan, Homo Ludens , a Study of the Play Element in Culture , Boston, Beacon Press, 1950. Hutcheon , Linda, Narcissistic Narrative, The Metafictional Paradox , New York, Routledge, 1984. Nabokov , Vladimir, Pale Fire, New York, Vintage International, 1989. Schaeffer , Jean-Marie, Pourquoi la Fiction ? , Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1999. Schiller , Friedrich , On The Aesthetic Education of Man in a Series of Letters . Trans. E.M.

Wilkinson and L.A. Market. Willoughby. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967. Waugh, Patricia, The Theory and Practice of resume blast, Self-Conscious Fiction, London, Routledge, 1984. Rawdon Wilson R., Explorations in Play, Game and Narrative Theory . Northeastern University Press, Boston, 1990. 1 As this article was being submitted for publication, Baker published The Traveling Sprinkler , a novel that works as a sort of sequel to The Anthologist (Blue Rider Press, 2013).

In this novel, Paul Chowder returns, focusing this time on songs and essays method, music. 2 The notion, already part of Huizinga’s analysis in 1930, was made famous by R. Caillois’ typology of plays in Man, Play and Games (translated from the French Des Jeux et des Hommes , 1958). 3 Johan Huizinga defines play as “a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary life’ as being ‘not serious’, but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly” (13). 4 If Chowder fails to entertain his neighbors with his embarrassing ukulele solo and social self-consciousness, on the other hand, it is precisely his self-consciousness as a narrator that turns the episode into a humorous novelistic scene. Resume Blast Review. 5 Referring to Kinbote’s role in Nabokov’s Pale Fire , Tony Tanner observed that “On lexical playfields, a man can be a king, even if he is a king in hiding,” while Gradus, who represents in the novel everything that is hostile to art and imagination is doomed forever to get lost as he approaches the city of Lex (Tanner, 38). 6 See Linda Hutcheon’s analysis of essay, what she has labelled “historiographic metafiction” (5). 7 For a detailed analysis of the intricate relationship between Bakhtin’s concept of blast review, carnivalization and there s way essay, literary play, see R. Rawdon Wilson’s analysis on “The Play of Carnival and resume blast review, the Carnival of Play”, in In Palamedes’ Shadow, Explorations in Play, Game Narrative Theory (25-73). 8 Another allusion to Nabokov’s Pale Fire. Kinbote’s Foreword to his edition of Shade’s poem is interrupted from the start by narratorial intrusions, as for example a passage on dissertation market, “those amusing birds,” or another one on the “very loud” noise coming from “the amusement park in blast review, front of [his] present lodgings” (9). 9 A feature that “Baker” shares with him. Yannicke Chupin , « Play-write Poetry in Nicholson Baker’s The Anthologist », Transatlantica [En ligne], 2 | 2013, mis en ligne le 30 avril 2014, consulte le 03 octobre 2017.

URL : http://transatlantica.revues.org/6625. Chronicles of the essay on earthquakes End of the World: The End is not the End 1 | 2016. Modernist Revolutions: American Poetry and the Paradigm of the New 2 | 2015. The Poetics and Politics of Antiquity in the Long Nineteenth-Century / Exploiting Exploitation Cinema 1 | 2015. The Voting Rights Act at resume blast, 50 / Hidden in cell advantages and disadvantages, Plain Sight: Deep Time and American Literature 2 | 2014. Aesthetics of Theory in the Modern Era and Beyond / Photographie documentaire 1 | 2014. Exile and Expatriation 2 | 2013.

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Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. If There S Will There S Way. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. Resume Blast Review. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date.

After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate.

Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of poster, being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into resume, a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. crime. Fortunato poor start to experience the first signs of moisture in the cellar. This means that Montresor reprises his role of cell phone advantages, a person concerned about . the health of his colleague, although ultimately only review, serve to feed the ego of Fortunato. His sarcasm reaches the point that when Fortunato expressed its intention to continue, because the cough is barriers, not going to kill him, Montresor answer yes knowing that will not cough, but he who will end his days. Blast Review. At the time when the two characters enter a crypt.

Alcohol intoxication , Amontillado , Edgar Allan Poe 862 Words | 3 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to on uk housing stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in resume our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the barriers, infamous hook. It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an review, essay about a novel. Housing. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. by writing in second person You, an attempt to involve the readers and bring attention to those he directed this poem at resume blast, women.

He also uses assonance which . creates a euphonious effect when being read. The poem begins with a praising tone, with sarcasm and bitterness scattered throughout the rest of essay on earthquakes, its content. You love us when we're heroes, home on leave, Or wounded in a mentionable place. depicts womens ignorance in regards to war, believing soldiers to be heroes only when they are wounded in. Artillery , Irony , Poetry 689 Words | 3 Pages. country and therefore the riots in the UK have also become his problem. Resume Blast Review. In the commentary he describes the situation seen from his point of essay on earthquakes, view. Russell . Brand uses an overload of sarcasm and irony to describe his position on the riots. He is very sarcastic about the way the 2011 UK riots have been handled and uses sarcasm to point out resume blast, his dissatisfaction with the UK government. His attitude to the 2011 UK riots is that it is dissertation on uk housing market, a common problem, which must be solved jointly.

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Abdication Scene (Act V, Scene I) in Edward Ii. side, the audience ten to review forget that and sympathise with him in his plight. They may fall under the critical, influence of the king’s emotional condemnation of the . queen, who “spot my nuptial bed with infamy.” In the next moment, however, he breaks in cold sarcasm when he asks the resume blast review, Bishop of Winchester whether he must resign to “make usurping Mortimer a king”. It is clear now that his mind is being frequented by a variety of essay, moods. For the king the situation is more pathetic as he cares now for blast his son, who. Christopher Marlowe , Death , English-language films 824 Words | 3 Pages. on adrenaline and sarcasm is my fallback position. I have honed my sharp retorts and thesis announcement, quick wit to an art form.

Thankfully, for some reason . Nathan decided to look past my hard exterior and give me a chance at a second impression. Review. I had to give him a chance at essay, a second impression too. At our first encounter, he was not what I expected from a small town cop. He was a little jumpy when he saw my gun, but otherwise seemed almost indifferent. His particular brand of bland sarcasm was something I didn't. 2000 singles , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Gun 1161 Words | 3 Pages. today that would be known as sarcasm . Review. Examples: to point out that the Irish should not be treated like animals, Swift compares them to animals . and I rather recommend buying the children alive, and thinking, dressing them hot from the knife, as we do roasting pigs.He did not really do that. He was just using comparison. I think he was using this on the people as a scare tactic so that they would use it as motivation to get up and get out of their own problems. 5. Review. Where does this essay fit on the continuum (Horatian.

A Modest Proposal , A Story , Irony 2133 Words | 4 Pages. An Explication of Sylvia Plath's Lady Lazarus female-imprisonment that would have been totally lost should the speaker have been male. The moment the speaker refers to herself as being merely a smiling . woman once the flesh the grave cave ate re-assimilates itself, there is s will s way, a feeling of either biting sarcasm or bitter resignation. The carnival side-show imagery speaks to the idea of the resume blast, woman being objectified, as does the essay, speaker telling the resume, invisible male Enemy, I am your opus,/ I am your valuable. The prefix of Herr before the name of each presumed. Death , Irony , Lady Lazarus 864 Words | 3 Pages. Hamlet: Unearthing Reality Critical Essay.

Kallie Laycock Unearthing Reality There is a difference between appearance and reality. How something appears isn’t always what it actually is, and . sometimes you can alter the appearance of something so much that is almost impossible to essay find the reality buried within. In the play ‘Hamlet’, by Shakespeare, the resume blast review, King of Denmark has died, leaving his cousin to if there there rule the blast review, land. Essay. His ghost, however, appears while the guards are on blast review, watch, and he tells Hamlet his cousin Claudius in fact killed him, and. Characters in Hamlet , Comedy , Hamlet 1199 Words | 3 Pages.

Literary Analysis of Drama Essay In the play “Wit,” playwright Margaret Edson depicts the medical profession, with the exception of announcement poster, . nurses, as demeaning, cold, inhumane, and lacking compassion. The irony of the play, the once researcher who now becomes the object of another’s research, is the major theme and source of conflict. Edson, either intentionally or unintentionally, points out the major flaws of the blast review, medical profession, particularly physicians, by if there s way essay the use of sarcasm and countless wisecracks. Health care , Health care provider , Healthcare 1010 Words | 4 Pages. Kelly Means English 1113-350 11/8/09 Compare and Contrast To compare and contrast essays can be a difficult thing to do. One might tend to . Resume. look for on uk housing similarities in essays and choose that way.

You might focus on resume, essays that are just blatantly obvious in their differences. But that would be too easy. However if one might choose essays that are different and then search to find out how they are the same may prove more entertaining. I chose “How to Say Nothing in 500 Words” and “Just Walk on By. Difference , Essay , Essays 1113 Words | 4 Pages. reflect even deeper on the sarcastic undertones. Atwood brings to light the struggles of if there, identity women both in resume review the house and in society during this time by . personifying the social conflicts through scenarios which confronted Madge and Mary.

Atwood’s sarcasm seems more appropriate when placed in the context of this time of turmoil. The context of the s will s way essay, Postmodern Era allows reader to more easily to dissect meaning from Atwood’s the review, minimalism. Margaret Atwood’s use of satire could further be argued as. Academy Award for announcement poster Best Actress , Fiction , Irony 1114 Words | 3 Pages. Johnathan Swift A Modest Proposal Swift, Jonathan. “A Modest Proposal.” 100 Great Essays . New York penguin Academics: New York. 2008. Pages 669-677 Print. [Summary] A . Modest Proposal is mainly about Jonathan Swift’s sarcastic idea of keeping the resume, children of poor people from being a burthen to their parents, or the barriers critical, country, and for making them beneficial to the public: which is what the rest of the blast review, pamphlet is named.

The point is to ironically attempt to announcement find out a fair, cheap, and blast, easy Method for converting the. A Modest Proposal , Ireland , Irony 1021 Words | 3 Pages. The students are familiar with the definition of satire and they understand that it is sarcasm used to convey insults or scorn. The full title . of the story is “A Modest Proposal for Preventing the essays on the method, Children of Poor People from Being a Burthen to their Parents, or the blast, Country, and for making them Beneficial to the Publick”. Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal is an excellent example of the sharp wit and biting sarcasm that was employed in the satire of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. A Modest Proposal , Irony , Jonathan Swift 911 Words | 3 Pages.

English. A.B. Salem College; A.M. Washington University. Ms. Britt teaches literature and writing courses. Her poems have appeared in literary magazines such . as Denver Quarterly, Lake Superior Review, Greensboro Review, and barriers critical thinking, Southern Poetry Review. Her essays and articles have appeared in various newspapers and magazines, including the Cleveland Plain Dealer, the Charlotte Observer, Newsweek, the New York Times, Books Religion, the Boston Globe, Newsday, and blast, the Miami Herald. She is the author of announcement poster, several. Irony , Phrase , Sarcasm 1911 Words | 6 Pages. proposal makes it visible to others that there is a need for social reform.

From the beginning, it is not clear to resume review the readers of what Swift’s true proposal . actually is, but as it is being broken apart, one can see that the defense announcement poster, entire writing is full of sarcasm . Resume Review. The proposal itself speaks to the people who ignore the issues but who are also the thesis announcement poster, ones that can fix them. As a proposed solution, that author states in resume blast review the intro that “for preventing the children of poor people in Ireland from being a burden to. A Modest Proposal , Ireland , Irony 958 Words | 3 Pages. Need of Education Richard Rodriguez’s “The Achievement of Desire” could easily be categorized as a bildungsroman. The author uses literary devices to . On The Scientific Method. elaborate on his bicultural hardship as a Mexican American boy seeking higher education. Resume Blast Review. In the essay , the author contributes literary elements of satire, flashbacks, and defense announcement poster, deductive reasoning to lure the review, reader into further in-depth thinking. As a child Rodriguez was the exception to the stereotypical student coming from barriers to effective, a low-income working class family.

Blushing , Education , Embarrassment 917 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is resume blast, vague, overlapping with . Essay. those of an resume blast review, article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and cell, reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Review. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. How Does Bill Bryson Use Humour to housing market Entertain His Reader?

from a Small Island’, written by Bill Bryson is a reflective travel journal comparing Bryon’s past views and review, opinions of essay on earthquakes, Britain, his expectations and thus . the reality of what he discovers it to review have become. Bryson uses satire, humour, irony and sarcasm to generate a pace and lucid flow within his writing, and for the reader this can be thoroughly captivating and entertaining. Immediately as the essays on the scientific, book opens, Bryson establishes an informal and review, incredibly comic register. We are readily exposed to his. Amusement , Comedy , First-person narrative 1596 Words | 4 Pages. Shakespeare’s Ironic Masterpiece: an Analysis of scientific method, Hamlet’s Many Faces. irony as a driving force for the developing relationships between characters and resume, each audience member’s individual understanding of phone advantages and disadvantages essay, who the characters are. . Sarcasm , situational irony, and blast, dramatic irony found in Hamlet add interest and complexity to the play and develop many varied opinions of Hamlet as a character. Phone And Disadvantages Essay. Shakespeare uses irony and sarcasm to paint many pictures of Hamlet, ultimately leading to several understandings of Hamlet’s nature and morality. Resume Review. This wonderfully British play begins with.

Characters in Hamlet , Double entendre , Hamlet 1859 Words | 4 Pages. Examine the ways in which Larkin’s poems explore the gap between romantic yearning and disillusioned pragmatism. death.” Arguably there is something of Larkin in his poetry regardless of how his poems are indeed not at all autobiographical. “Useful to get that learnt.” . The evident sarcasm is merely used to mask Larkin’s deeper insecurities and is therefore a flippant response and immature response to the dismissal of the relationship. The sarcasm may surface a deeper message that Larkin has dismissed something fundamental he has learnt about himself but he can’t get past the phone essay, sexualizing of women to acknowledge. Andrew Motion , Irony , Metaphor 1286 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of resume, Rhetorical Strategies in essay on earthquakes The Company Man distaste and anger toward Phil, as he in review her mind represents Corporate America: routine, indifferent, almost robotic.

Goodman uses numerous rhetorical . strategies to convey her attitude toward Phil, including tone, repetition, the use of statistics, sarcasm , anecdotes, differing syntax, and irony. Critical. From the blast, beginning, Goodman creates a very impersonal tone, letting characters remain nameless and and disadvantages essay, unimportant, identifying them primarily by resume blast review their age – “Phil, fifty-one years old…Helen, forty-eight years. Death , Expiration date , Family 1020 Words | 3 Pages. wasteful causes the author to see them as uncaring. He doesn’t believe they realize what they are doing to these creatures. Describing them as . “without a pang of remorse,” for the experiments they are carrying out. The author uses sarcasm to show the disgust he truly possesses for this group of people. It stems from thinking, their lack of resume review, respect for other creatures. He sarcastically remarks that the wealthy are just “poor souls” trying to do well for market themselves. When really. Biology , Capital accumulation , Irony 410 Words | 3 Pages.

Rites of Passage” - Sharon Olds and “Real Boys” - William Pollack. scene. In line 14-15, the poet compares the birthday cake to a turret, an armored tower in a ship, aircraft or a tank (“the dark cake, round and heavy as . a/turret, behind them on the table.”). Even when she seems to admire her son, we can spot some sarcasm : “chest narrow as a balsa keel of a/model boat.” In the second text, tone is very much informative and review, serious as it is a scholarly study. Dissertation Housing Market. Another difference between the two texts is the narrator: Sharon Old’s poem is written in first person. Boy , Irony , Man 905 Words | 3 Pages. Short Story A Conversation with My Father someone who likes to argue with her dad. There is also a strange sense of humor in A Conversation with My Father. The father always says that her . daughter thinks everything is a joke. What he sees as sense of humor is in fact sarcasm from review, his daughter. She is using sarcasm when she says An ex-junkie!

Sometimes it's better than having a master's in education. She might be right, as experience is often as important as a formal education, but the father just replies Jokes. Grace Paley combined. Comedy , Family , Father 1014 Words | 3 Pages. strong but is weak.

Williamson uses irony, “Yes my aunt makes great scones, but it doesn’t mean she should run a cake factory” to emphasise Laurie’s error . and simultaneously asserts Ted’s authority as the clubs president. Moreover, Williamson uses sarcasm , “This is lovely. Really delightful. A Strike threat” to emphasise that Laurie has already resigned and that he hasn’t been sacked and shows Ted’s authority as president taking control of all the situations. If There S Will S Way. Furthermore, Williamson uses power/authority. American film actors , American television actors , English-language films 1330 Words | 4 Pages. bring out this talk under the theme – words are not enough, involve words. But there’s a reason of resume, why they did not restrict emotions and movements in this . talk. I can smile cheekily when I say something sarcastic to support my sarcasm . No one will be able to poster sense the sarcasm when you are saying it with a blank face plainly with words.

And again, words are not enough. People cry, frown, snarl, smile, and resume, laugh. S Will S Way. These are the resume blast review, examples of why words are not enough. You don’t tell people you’re happy. 2001 singles , 2003 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 876 Words | 3 Pages. 9) He also hints at tall skyscrapers that seem to make the skies surrender. 10) In the second stanza Cheng compares the planners to dentists. With a tinge . of sarcasm he says that they seem to be on if there s will s way essay, a mission to resume blast destroy heritage and the past as if those structures are flaws in their way, like rotting teeth. 11) Continuing with sarcasm , he refers to s will unique ancient structures as blemishes or scars that the planners aim at knocking off. 12) The poet believes that the planners have the power, the.

Dying Fetus , Sarcasm , Stop at Nothing 745 Words | 3 Pages. Concepts of review, Identity - American Beauty. life. At the beginning of the film, he feels deeply and phone, fundamentally unsatisfied with his life though as the movie progresses, he gradually recovers his . lost fractured identity and becomes truly happy once again. Carolyn and blast review, Lester use a lot of sarcasm in their dialogue in the beginning of the film. Since Carolyn is a very controlling person, she controls her family to live out the “American Dream.” As shown in the scene of the first family dinner, both Carolyn and Lester still uphold the artificial. English-language films , Family , Identity 800 Words | 3 Pages. the passage of time. Cell Advantages And Disadvantages Essay. Shelley demonstrates that art and language outlast the other effects of power.

It is Shelley's brilliant poetic telling of the story . and not the subject of the story itself, which makes the poem so memorable. Irony and sarcasm also appear when it is said, My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair! Nothing beside remains. This shows that there once was a vast kingdom, but now that kingdom has disappeared. Neither property nor the king. Iambic pentameter , Irony , Meaning of life 740 Words | 3 Pages.

Brooklyn Follies - Text Analysis - Overture. (his native city, his house in the suburbs) III. Irony ? From the very beginning:“someone recommended Brooklyn”, the review, tone is inappropriate a? very . casual, as if he was asking for advice for essays on the scientific a place for resume blast a holiday. If There. Pervades the passage. A sad, wry sarcasm . Resume Review. Nathan has almost “left” the world of the living, he sees everything from a distanciated pt of view. Adopt a distanced stance. ? Nathan does not “beat around the bush”, he describes things as they are, without embellishing them. He refers to his.

Brooklyn , Irony , Paul Auster 836 Words | 3 Pages. even when a friend is essays, being unintelligent, one can be easily agitated with such annoyances. Although violence may seem like a good idea at the time, . Resume Review. sarcasm is a better approach and announcement, it's easier on the knuckles. Sarcasm is less simple, however, so here are some quick tips to make those witty retorts we all love so much. When it comes to sarcasm , all remarks should be lighthearted--after all no one likes a jerk. Pick a phrase that isn't too degrading, but one that gets the review, point across so the. Conversation , Debut albums , Human 476 Words | 2 Pages. Irish beggars as commodities that can be regulated and even eaten.

He is able to poke fun at the dehumanization of the multitudes of poor people in Ireland . by ironically commenting on thesis announcement, what he sees as an blast review, extension of the current situation. Swift's essay seeks to comment on the terrible condition of defense, starvation that a huge portion of Ireland has been forced into, and the inane rationalizations that the rich are quick to submit in order to justify the economic inequality. He is resume, able to highlight the. A Modest Proposal , Infant , Ireland 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Explore the Concepts of Success and Failure in barriers critical a Grammarian’s Funeral and One Other Poem by Robert Browning.

forgiveness when they get to blast heaven. However, much of what he says could be taken with a hint of sarcasm and a sardonic tone. In almost a . patronising way, the speaker describes the man’s downfall; “Oh women were the prize for you! Money gets women, cards and dice”. What follows are three phrases of similar structure arguing that “it’s wiser being good than bad” and two similar points of advice.

Is there a hint of sarcasm when he says this? Along with his frequent repetition of defense announcement, religion and God - for example. Elizabeth Barrett Browning , Irony , Poetry 1383 Words | 4 Pages.

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Nelson Mandela’s Leadership Style Essay. The urge to be an effective leader demands you to become a good manager. When describing the ideal characteristics of a good leader, there are essential skills that a good manger should portray. In this case, it is considered that a good manger should be equipped with human, technical and conceptual skills. These skills are vital in the delivery of organizational services. In addition, such skills will be used to resume review, determine the capacity of a manager in the bid to measure one’s effective leadership. Human skills involve the capability to handle issues that relate to humanity and members of the barriers, society. Technical skills are the tailored skills to deliver some efforts based on the available technical facilities. Lastly, conceptual skills cover multiple issues that an organization desires to review, achieve in the business ventured. Following the integration of these skills in varied dimensions, it is possible to establish the effectiveness in leadership.

As such, it is considered that good managers are effective leaders. Barriers? Although the term leadership and management are interchangeably used when referring to people spearheading organizations or a group of people, they distinctly imply different forms of overseeing people. Leadership involves the incorporation of creativity and innovation in resume blast review, leading people to partake in something that can be believed to be useful for on uk housing, all lives. On the other hand, management involves the blast, understanding of an organizational vision and mission, which allow one guide it as per the formulated plans. Since these two concepts are vital for any organization, one should be a good manager to be an effective leader. This demands the understanding of what makes one a good manger to achieve the attributes of an effective leader. In this essay, I will discuss one of the great leader Mr. Advantages Essay? Nelson Mandela.

His direction and leadership style has given freedom to South African people. Effective Leader – Nelson Mandela. In the twenty first century, leaders are required to build a greater impression in which people believe in strategy, trust in management decisions, and trust in their work. Once people believe in management choice, there will be enthusiasm inside an organization. Such an resume environment helps the organization growing or flourish. A doing well leaders create a surroundings in cooperation inside and outside the organization. (Subir chowdbhury management, 21c financial times prentice hall (2000).

The world hopeful in political leaders but unfortunately, a few of thesis poster, live up to the leadership main beliefs and resume, values. Essays On The? In fact, a lot of political leaders seem to severely be deficient in numerous of the majority necessary leadership qualities. This assay will be analyzing on one of African president ever recognized as dedicated leader; who dedicated his entire life fighting for freedom of his nation. Rolihlahla Mandela was born in blast, Transkei in a small rural community in the easterner cape of phone and disadvantages, South Africa. On 18th July 1918 and named Nelson by one of review, his teachers, Mandela led the struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of South Africa against racial discrimination. As well-known as a democratic leader he was incarcerated for 27 years. Has been awarded the to effective critical, Nobel peace prize in 1993 and 1994 Nelson Mandela been voted as South Africa first black president. (BBC news-Mandela’s life and times2008) The essay will seem at his behavior, characteristics as leader, and the style of his leadership at resume review, last relate his leadership with particular theory of leadership that is transformational leadership model. Leadership is a function of personal and professional qualities (retrospection), the conception of a vision, structure and satisfying a sense of collective purpose, and make sure carrying out, with strategy and culture as two situational or contextual factors (cannon,2004; gil,2006)

Characteristics traits or personality. Mr. Nelson Mandela Charismatic personality he’s self-determined, sense of humor, integrity, strong minded, intelligence, empathy, self-nelson Mandela charisma encouraged people by changing their goals, values, need beliefs and objective he bring about this change by attempt to south Africa people self-idea specifically make the people feel valued and barriers to effective critical, personal identity the resume, lack of resentment over cruel treatment received. Nelson Mandela spiritual strengths beliefs which show the integrity and willingness never to give up (BBC news – Mandela’s life and times 2008) As admired leader. Mr.

Nelson Mandela as peace maker struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of South Africa with multi-racial democracy, During the period of his incarceration sacrificed his family were he was absent in nurture of his children or in any feature of everyday life he has been shared with the world for thesis defense announcement, his struggle for a nation not only for an individual or for own individual family. Mr. Nelson Mandela believed that to be a freedom fighter one must suppress many of personal feelings that make one feel separated individual rather than part for resume review, the liberation of millions of people, not glory for announcement, one individual. Resume Blast Review? (Long walk for freedom chapter 11) Not all freedom fighter live to see their struggle bring about the change they are fighter for if there s will s way essay, in the life time’s sometimes they set the resume blast review, stage for the next generation to realize the fruits of if there there essay, their labor, social change happening when individual make change a choice to fight for justice and against oppression. (Frontline the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s ump; teachers’ guide p11) Nelson Mandela growing up with tribal traditional costumes’ Mr Mandela erudite that listening to others ideas is most important than talk or make own decision without consulting others.

Mandela’s ideas about resolving disagreement grew as developed common sense of individuality and blast review, vision for leading people. Has combined the tactic and procedure observed from tribal chiefs, formal education and experiences to scientific method, the ways of ruling parties. Mr. Mandela observed the ways of oppressors and resume blast, well-known that they did little to dishearten, and in fact give confidence division along with the different tribes or groups of black and essay, Asian South Africans. This taught that leaders might use their power to bring people together or slash apart. (Frontline the blast, long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s ump; teachers’ guide p18.) Nelson Mandela characterized by nature a peaceful and peace-loving man. But over the conduit of life’s exertion, has been forced to make hard choices in order to realize his final objective of a democratic South Africa.

While the ANC’s preliminary policy was one of non-violence, over time felt forced to reconsider its effectiveness and accepted violent behavior as a strategy for cell phone advantages and disadvantages, achieving goal for a South Africa, once returned to original guiding principle of non-violence has transformed from the blast, period of apartheid government to essay on earthquakes, a democratic rule Nelson Mandela as eventually the blast, beneficiary, along with F.W. Deklerk, in 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. The subsequent year has been nominated as first black president of on earthquakes, democratic South Africa. (Frontline; the blast, long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s ump; teachers’ guide p17) Style of his leadership. Under the democratic leadership style Where the focuses of leader is essay on earthquakes, more with a group as an entire and better dealings within the group and leadership function are in collective with the resume, part of team. The group member has a greater say in decision making, determination of police implementation of scheme and dealings (Laurie J. Mullins 2005). Democratic leadership as a style whereby the leader persuade an open trusting and follower oriented relationship. Advantages And Disadvantages Essay? Leaders who adopted encouraged followers to establish their own police provided them with a perspective by explaining in advance the procedures for accomplishing the goals and granted the followers independence to commence their own tasks and congratulating them in blast, an objective manner. If There S Will There S Way Essay? According to bass (1990) leaders adopting this leadership style were described as caring, considerate, and easy to compromise and they also had a sense of responsibility and attachment to resume blast review, their followers.

Many writers see transformational leadership as the similar thing as charismatic, creative thinker or inspirational leadership for instance, kreitner et al. Refers to a leadership as a transforming workers to pursue organisational goals over personality interest, Charismatic leaders followers by essays, creating modification in their goal, values, needs beliefs and aspirations. Such as a new theory of resume, leadership contain greater than recent years evolved as central to understanding leadership with emphasis on transformational leadership where leader stimulates group to essay, change their motives, beliefs and values and resume, capabilities so to essay on earthquakes, the group own attention and individual goal turn into congruent with organization (Bas 1985). An important characteristic of resume review, this leadership is charisma; and certainly conger and kanungo (1987) include developed leadership theory that particularly focuses on measurement. In bass (1990) transformational leadership as a behavioral procedure of being gain knowledge of management, it’s leadership practice with the purpose of methodical consisting of essays method, purposeful and prepared investigate for possible systematic examination and the aptitude to move about resources from resume, areas of slighter to better production, (Bass 1990, P,53-4) the leader attain this simulation in by creating an consciousness of the task of organization and develops group to higher level of ability and potential “ (Mandel and Pherwani 2003, P, 390) furthermore transformational leaders believed to encompass the aptitude to motivate, inspire, and hold up creativity in group. This become visible to subsist achieved throughout transformational leader illustrate evidence of a high degree of individualized thoughtfulness which “the degree to which leader attends to the group observe and listens to the leaders concern by acting as a counsellor (judge and Piccolo, 2004 P. 755) Transformational leadership theory hold further by management author in to effective thinking, the 1980 as method of efficiently carry in relation to organizational change (Avolio et al 1991; Bennis and Nanus, 1985; Tichy and resume blast review, Devanna; 1986 Tichy and Ulrich 1984) these study harassed that transformational leader lend a hand to realign the value and norms (Avolio et al; 1991, P.9) of an if there s will s way essay organization endorse change. These value and blast review, norms are mainly precious while an organization comes across harsh disaster in motivating group in pursuing creative problem solving (Avolio et al; 1991). Organizational changes achieved throughout transformational leaders creating awareness of the goal and task of the organization, according to Mandel and Phewani (2003) this awareness allow group to appear further than own interest through afterwards benefits the group and dissertation, eventually the organizational. According to whitehead, for instance the most significant attribute that a high-quality leader inspiring people by create an environment where it’s acceptable for people to make mistakes and gain knowledge of them, rather than what happened in resume review, the ancient times which to hold responsibility and punish them. Announcement Poster? Leading from this position the acquisition of a high level of commitment from their people than mere compliance. Adair argues with the purpose of truthfully inspirational leader should be aware of the spirit surrounded by resume blast, all people encompass the possible for greatness; inspirational leader connects through the lead, appreciates the potential of others and during trust determination release the powers in others.

Adair refers to cell advantages and disadvantages, the inspired instant acknowledgment and attack of a concise window of opportunity that can take action as an influential means to inspire mutually the leader and the led. Review? (Laurie J. Mullins 2005) Beginning visioning capabilities is an additional leadership skill is method, normally linked with efficiency. This ability consists of a leader being able to build up a strategic vision (Lombardo and McCauley. 1985 Kouzes and Posner. 1993). Bennis and Thomas conclude that individual achievement is partly connected to a leader’s ability to resume review, “come out others in to effective, shared sense” and that effective leaders are able to “mobilize workers” in blast, a “distinct and convincing voice” (Bennis and Thomas, 2002 P 39).

In addition to visioning skills Kotter (1996) recognized align and communicating way, motivating and inspiring workforce and producing useful change as significant leadership skills to be acquired. clearly goal achievement is to effective critical, moreover important (Boyatzis, 1982) on the other hand performance needs to be redirected toward strategic skills (Lombardo and McCauley, 1988) directed at implementing a vision (Hitt, 1988), rather than excessively focusing on technical skills (Lombardo and McCauley, 1988) According to Burns (2002) leaders must keep people focused on resume blast review core values and mission and encourage continuous transformation of the organization as a means of on earthquakes, pursuing its core mission. Fundamental to system-control thinking is an idea of the chase of clear organizational goals designer by review, the manager or leader who then motivates others to act in ways which will achieve these goals. It is suggested that this difficult for a number of reasons. Such ways of thinking about leadership based upon dissertation, a unitary view of organization and are thus motivated to act in ways that will ensure the review, understanding of such goals.

Both transformational and dissertation on uk housing, charismatic leadership theories can be seen to uphold unitary assumptions. Essential to Bass’s theory the view of subordinates transcending self-happiness for the goals of the organization, with Bas and Avolio (1994, p 3) for instance suggesting that “the (transformational) leader creates clearly communicated expectations that followers want to meet up and blast, likewise Conger and Kanango (1987). Although Bass and Avolio (1994) acknowledge that followers hold a various set of views, desires and aspirations, they suggest that through the use of inspirational motivation the leader talented to dissertation on uk housing, support diverse followers around a vision. Thus there remains a belief that high consensus can be achieved and thus conflict, negotiation and blast, politics that are predictable in organizations tend to be marginalized remarkably, Barker (1997) remind of Burns’s (1978) definition of leadership which emphasizes leadership as a practice which occurs within a context of competition and cell essay, conflict. Interesting Bass’s theory of transformational leadership has built upon Burns’s work and thus far downplay important dimension. The following comment from a manager study highlights the realism of conflicting organizational goals. Managers in revision moreover often described the challenges in working with others who assumed very different views and the requirement of politic king to build support for facts: This would seem to resume, advise a slightly different reality to ideas of consensus, cohesion and willing self-sacrifice for thesis poster, the greater high-quality.

Moderately suggests an added complex, untidy realism where conflicts of interest succeed and as such the manager should occasionally behave in uncomfortable ways to persuade others of individual viewpoints. It may be argued that assumptions of a unitary organization might simplify the reality that found organization are somehow set and once achieved the work of the leader done. Again this seen to simplify the case. (Conger and Kanungo, 1987 p.46).reliable with systems-control thinking theories of transformational and charismatic leadership present an blast review individualistic conception of leadership, since the forces on the leader as special person. Indeed there center on a talented individual apparently possession of almost phenomenal, magical powers that may perhaps seen to hypnotize group to act in there s way, conduct wanted by the leader. Words such as extraordinary unconventional and heroic characterize a description of leader behaviors. Bass (1985) p.47,48) for instance, highlights the extraordinariness of transformational, charismatic leader suggesting that the review, unusual vision of charismatic leaders that makes it possible for them to observe around corners stems from greater freedom from internal conflict while the normal manager is a continuing victim of their self-doubts and personal traumas . Alimo-Metcalfe et al (2002) argued that new theory of leadership create dangerous myths since they create a view of leadership unapproachable to the majority usual mortals. Further, the thought that a leader should in essay on earthquakes, several method gifted shows a weakening to accepted wisdom of leadership as an instinctive ability and as such suggests slight completed through way of teaching leadership indeed, in resume review, own employment found several managers who apparent leadership as an inspirational gift and therefore attempts to on earthquakes, teach leadership were seen as limited. A leadership in an attempt study explore the style used in large scale to find out the outcome styles in terms of extra effort effectiveness and satisfaction among employees A transformational leader move up levels of understanding and consciousness about the meaning of resume blast, value of necessary result s and habits of attainment encourage offering up personality interest for the sake of the group or organization. Leadership related directly to organization task and objectives.

Transformational leadership develop inspired way surroundings and creating a mutual vision that is clear and hopeful to employees. Leaders strength necessitates make over corporate strategic objectives into thesis defense announcement an individually concerned vision to motivate and convince reluctant workers of its value. The glowing communicated vision and ambition vital constituent of expecting new behaviors and new instructions for an organization and its employees. Bell, Myrtle P. (2001). Resume? Diversity in organizations. Koonce, Richard. (2001).

Redefining diversity. It’s not just the right thing to barriers to effective critical, do; it also makes good business sense. Kreitner, Robert, and Cassidy Carlene M. (2011). Management. Managing Diversity. Liopis, Glen. (2011). Blast? Diversity Management is the Key to growth: Make it Authentic. Retrieved from. University/College: University of thesis defense announcement, California. Type of resume blast review, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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CHAPTER 4. OSSICULAR DISCONTINUITY. As discussed in Chapter 3, the middle ear serves to transmit sound energy from the ear canal to the cochlea. In order to facilitate the efficient transmission of this energy, the resume blast review eardrum and ossicles act as an impedance-matching transformer, partially matching the high impedance of the cochlear fluids to the low impedance of air in the ear canal. Any process that reduces the efficiency of this sound-conducting mechanism results in conductive hearing loss . There are many causes of conductive hearing loss (Harris and thinking Cueva, 1992); however, only hearing loss caused by discontinuity of the ossicular chain will be discussed in this work. The next section discusses the two most common types of blast review, ossicular discontinuities. Surgical techniques used to repair the ossicular chain are discussed in Section 4.3. In Section 4.4, some of the mechanical issues related to the success of surgery are discussed. 4.2 COMMON DEFECTS. The most common ossicular defect is loss of the incudal long process; the essay second most common defect is combined loss of the incudal long process and the stapes superstructure (e.g., Austin, 1971; Sade and blast review Luntz, 1991). These situations are illustrated in Figure 4.1.

Austin (1971) has reported that loss of the incudal long process. Figure 4.1 Two types of ossicular discontinuities. a) Missing incudal long process. b) Missing long process and stapes superstructure. For clarity, the eardrum and other middle-ear structures have not been shown. Barriers To Effective Thinking! From Donaldson et al . (1992, p.250). alone represents 59% of all ossicular defects; the combined loss of the incudal long process and the stapes superstructure accounts for another 23%. Erosion and the ultimate loss of these bones is often caused by chronic middle-ear disease such as otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear). Discontinuities of the ossicular chain result in conductive hearing loss since vibrations of the eardrum can no longer be transmitted to the cochlea; moreover, the eardrum shields the cochlea from direct stimulation by sound.

The extent of hearing loss in blast humans is measured in terms of the air-bone gap . By definition, this is the number of decibels (dB) by which the air-conduction threshold exceeds the bone-conduction threshold (Katz, 1985; p. 1060). The air-conduction threshold is measured by applying an air-conducted stimulus to the ear canal; it is affected by barriers to effective thinking, both the conductive and resume blast the sensorineural components of the auditory system. The bone-conduction threshold is measured by applying a mechanical stimulus to the skull; it is affected by the sensorineural components of the auditory system. It is essay on earthquakes not possible to tell from the air-conduction threshold alone whether hearing loss is review conductive or sensorineural; however, the difference between the two thresholds, the air-bone gap, can be used as an indicator of conductive hearing loss. A large air-bone gap, say above 20 dB, indicates conductive hearing loss (Glasscock and Shambaugh, 1990). Vartiainen and if there Nuutinen (1992) measured hearing loss in 277 patients with chronic otitis media. Resume! Pure-tone audiograms (graphs of hearing threshold in dB versus frequency) were measured at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz. The mean air-bone gap was determined from the housing market audiograms by averaging the air-bone gaps at resume blast review the three frequencies. They found that loss of the incudal long process resulted in a mean air-bone gap of 32 dB; loss of both the incudal long process and the stapes superstructure resulted in an air-bone gap of dissertation housing, 38 dB.

In laboratory animals, hearing sensitivity can be determined by measuring the pressure required to maintain a constant cochlear microphonic (CM) over a range of frequencies. The CM is a stimulus-related electric potential generated by resume review, sensory receptors in the cochlea (Durrant and Lovrinic, 1984, pp. 152-156). It can be measured by placing an electrode on the round-window membrane. Presumably, the larger the pressure required to maintain a constant CM, the lower is the hearing sensitivity. Wever et al. (1948) determined the hearing sensitivity up to 10 kHz in cats before and after interruption of the s will there incudostapedial joint. They found that after such an encroachment, larger sound pressure was required to maintain the same CM as before; in resume blast fact, the sound pressure required was 60 dB larger than in the normal ear, indicating a hearing loss of 60 dB relative to the normal ear. 4.3 SURGICAL REPAIR. Methods of repair. The goals of surgery are to defense announcement eliminate disease, prevent recurrent inflammation, and/or improve auditory function (Smyth, 1988). Only techniques for improving auditory function will be discussed here.

These techniques have been described by a number of authors (e.g., Austin, 1971; Fisch, 1980; Smith and McElveen, 1988; Lambert and McElveen, 1993 ). Review! In the case where only the long process of the essays method incus is missing, sound transmission is re-established by fitting a prosthesis between the manubrium and the head of the review stapes; often a homograft or autograft incus or malleus head is used to dissertation make the prosthesis (Emmett, 1989). (A homograft is a tissue transplanted between genetically nonidentical individuals of the same species. An autograft is a tissue grafted into resume blast a new position in the body of the same individual. An autograft malleus head would be obtained by surgically removing it from its attachments to the ligaments and by cutting it from the manubrium.) Essentially, the graft is shaped to form a slim strut, a hole is drilled into the medial end of the phone and disadvantages essay strut to accept the head of the stapes, and a groove is carved into the lateral end to articulate with the blast manubrium. Glue is sometimes used to secure the points of contact of the manubrium and stapes with the graft (Fisch, 1980). This surgical reconstruction is called a malleus-stapes assembly (MSA) and is shown in Figure 4.2a. When both the incudal long process and the stapes superstructure are missing, a prosthesis is fitted between the dissertation on uk housing market manubrium and the footplate. This reconstruction is called the malleus-footplate assembly (MFA) and is shown in Figure 4.2b. In both the blast MSA and essay on earthquakes the MFA, the prosthesis is sometimes made longer than required so it exerts tension on the eardrum and the annular ligament of the footplate. This tension stabilizes the strut. Many variations of the basic MFA and blast review MSA exist (e.g., Fisch, 1980; Wehrs, 1982; Frootko, 1987; Mills, 1991).

Some of these variations have come about because of differences in scientific the geometry of the ossicles among patients. Resume Blast Review! For example, in some patients the manubrium is defense announcement directly lateral to the stapes as shown in Figure 4.3a, but in (a)(b) Figure 4.3 Ossicular geometry. a) Manubrium directly lateral to stapes. b) Manubrium lateral and resume blast anterior to stapes. c) Horizontal MSA used in situation (b). Parts (a) and (b) are from Frootko (1987, p.249) and part (c) is from Mills (1991, p.477). others it is located anterior to the stapes as shown in Figure 4.3b. In the latter case, placing a strut between the manubrium and the stapes in the manner shown in Figure 4.2a could result in considerable tilting of the stapedial footplate, a situation that is thought to be undesirable since volume displacements of the cochlear fluids would be reduced (Vlaming and Feenstra, 1986b). Dissertation On Uk Market! To prevent this, the prosthesis may be positioned horizontally as shown in Figure 4.3c. Interest in the use of synthetic materials for middle-ear surgery has also resulted in a great deal of variation in prosthetic design since these materials, unlike autograft bone, are available to the surgeon before entering the operating room; thus, much time can be spent on shaping them. Synthetic materials are also more readily available than ossicular bone, and their sterility and bonding properties make them suitable for use as graft material.

A variety of graft materials have emerged in the past few years. Blast! Among them, Plastipore, an inert high-density polyethylene sponge, has gained some popularity (Emmett, 1989). Two types of prostheses have been designed using Plastipore: the PORP (partial ossicular replacement prosthesis) and the TORP (total ossicular replacement prosthesis). Both prostheses are shown in Figure 4.4. The PORP is on the method similar to the MSA except that sometimes its platform makes contact with the eardrum, while the TORP is similar to the MFA. The porous nature of Plastipore allows tissue ingrowth, making the TORP and the PORP mechanically stable with age (Makek et al ., 1988). Review! Recently, a modified version of the thesis poster TORP, called the Fisch II Spandrel, has been developed (Williams and Lesser, 1992). It is shown in Figure 4.4c. Figure 4.4 Synthetic ossicular prostheses. Blast! a) PORP (Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis). b) TORP (Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis). c) Fisch II Spandrel. Parts (a) and (b) are from Frootko (1987, p.257) and part (c) is from Williams and Lesser (1992, p.263). Other materials used in middle-ear surgery include Bioglass, a chemically active glass (Merwin, 1986); Ceravital, a glass-ceramic material (Mangham and Lindeman, 1990); and hydroxyapatite, the main constituent of the mineral matrix of bone (Grote, 1986; Wehrs, 1989; Goldenberg, 1992).

Bioglass and Ceravital are bioactive, meaning that they are able to form chemical bonds with surrounding tissues. Hydroxyapatite comes in both bioactive and porous forms. These materials have been used to produce a variety of prostheses; however, the basic MFA and MSA designed from ossicular bone remain popular (Emmett, 1989) and will be the only prostheses to be modelled in this work. The success of surgery in humans is assessed in terms of the reduction of conductive hearing loss, which is often measured by the degree of closure of the defense poster air-bone gap. However, there does not appear to be any consistent method of quantifying success. For example, Smyth (1987) has classified closure of the mean air-bone gap to within 11 dB as success; on the other hand, Goldenberg (1992) has defined success as closure to within 25 dB for resume blast, the PORP, using other definitions for other prostheses. Moreover, patients and announcement poster doctors may not necessarily agree as to what is successful (Smyth, 1987). In any case, some closure of the air-bone gap does result when the MSA and MFA are used. For instance, Vartiainen and Nuutinen (1992) reported closure of the air-bone gap to within 20 dB in 58% of patients when the resume review MSA was used.

The situation was worse for the MFA: only 30% of the on uk cases resulted in closure to within 20 dB. Results obtained by resume blast review, other authors are shown in cell advantages and disadvantages essay Table 4.1. Resume Blast! The performance of the MFA has been found to be poorer than that of the MSA in all cases. Table 4.1 Post-operative hearing results for humans with two middle-ear conditions: 1) Absent incudal long process and 2) absent long process and absent stapes superstructure. On Uk Housing Market! Shelton and Sheehy used PORP's and TORP's; MSA's and MFA's made from ossicular bone were used in the other studies. N indicates the number of patients with the particular condition.

The percentage of patients with an air-bone gap of less than 20 dB is also indicated. The effectiveness of prostheses has also been determined in blast review cats. Tonndorf and Pastaci (1986) measured hearing sensitivity over a frequency range of 10 Hz to 15 kHz in cell phone and disadvantages essay anesthetized cats with normal middle ears. Resume Review! They then broke the incudostapedial joint and removed the crura. The ear was then repaired using an MFA, and scientific method the post-operative hearing sensitivity was measured.

They reported a 20-dB loss in hearing sensitivity compared to the normal ear; this is an review improvement over the 60-dB loss reported by Wever et al . (1948) in cats after interruption of the incudostapedial joint. Benitez et al. (1974) determined audiometric thresholds at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz in three normal cats. They then disrupted the incudostapedial joint, fixed the ossicular chain using an MSA, and s will there essay measured audiometric thresholds 31 to 33 months after surgery. They reported average hearing losses of blast, 5, 11 and 26 dB in on uk housing market the three animals post-operatively. Once again this is an improvement over the 60-dB loss reported by Wever et al . after interruption of the ossicular chain. 4.4 MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MFA AND MSA. Relatively little work has been done to assess the mechanics of the surgically corrected middle ear or the importance of resume, mechanical variables. Section 4.4.2 discusses the experimental work that has been done in this area, and Section 4.4.3 discusses the theoretical work that has been done. 4.4.2 Experimental Work. Several mechanical variables may be considered to be of interest in the application of the MSA and MFA: the position of the prosthesis, the tension exerted on the surrounding structures, and the types of connections formed between the prosthesis and the surrounding tissues. Vlaming and Feenstra (1986b) studied some of these issues in human cadaver middle ears using a laser Doppler interferometer.

These authors measured the displacements of a few points on the stapedial footplate in the normal middle ear. They then disrupted the ossicular chain so that in some cases the crura were left intact, whereas in other cases the crura were destroyed. They surgically repaired the former discontinuity using an MSA; the latter discontinuity was repaired using a TORP. The displacements of the footplate were then measured after surgery. They suggested that hearing sensitivity is related to the volume displacement of cochlear fluids so that post-operative volume displacements should be comparable to pre-operative levels for successful results. For the TORP at low frequencies, Vlaming and Feenstra found that the volume displacements of the cochlear fluids measured post-operatively were comparable to levels measured in the normal ear. On the on earthquakes other hand, volume displacements were lower than normal when the MSA was used, suggesting that the TORP should give better hearing results than the MSA. Resume Blast Review! However, clinical results (see previous section) suggest that the MSA works better than the MFA. Since the MFA is similar to s will there the TORP if the platform of the latter does not contact the eardrum, then, based on resume blast review, clinical results, it would be expected that the MSA also works better than the TORP.

Vlaming and Feenstra did not report whether the TORP contacted the dissertation on uk housing market eardrum or not in all of their preparations, but from their discussion it is blast review likely that it contacted the drum in some cases; nevertheless, in all cases, they found the TORP to work better than the MSA. There! The discrepancy between the findings of Vlaming and Feenstra and those of clinicians may exist for resume blast review, several reasons. First, Vlaming and cell Feenstra used ears that were disease-free; however, when surgery is performed in living patients, the middle-ear is usually not free of blast review, disease. The extent of barriers to effective critical, middle-ear disease necessitating the use of the TORP or the MFA is probably more advanced than that requiring the MSA or PORP. Diseases such as otitis media can affect the resume blast mechanical properties of the middle-ear structures (e.g., von Unge et al ., 1992) and would thus account for differences between the results determined by Vlaming and Feenstra and housing market those by clinicians. Second, it is possible that Eustachian tube function may be impaired in living subjects, thus affecting post-operative hearing results (Tos, 1979; Kumazawa et al ., 1993). Eustachian tube dysfunction results in pressures in the middle-ear cavities that are lower than normal (Tos, 1979); such changes could dampen eardrum vibrations (Vlaming, 1987), cause retraction of the eardrum (Tos, 1979), and result in an increase in the incremental stiffness of the middle-ear structures, all of which affect the mechanics of the middle ear.

Third, clinical studies are influenced by blast, hearing loss due to sensorineural damage. The incidence of such damage is small (Tos et al ., 1984; Urquhart et al ., 1992) but could account for some of the discrepancies found between results obtained from cadavers and those from living subjects. Vlaming and Feenstra also studied how the position of a prosthesis affects the displacements of the footplate. They found that the position of the MSA along the on earthquakes manubrium was important. They suggested that the optimal orientation for the MSA is such that it lies along an imaginary line passing through the head of the blast review stapes and the centre of the footplate. In most cases this means that the MSA should contact the manubrium near the umbo. With respect to cell phone and disadvantages essay the MFA, Vlaming and Feenstra did not report the effects of positioning it along the manubrium. However, the position of the MFA on the footplate was varied, and it was found not to significantly affect the resume review displacements of the footplate. For both prostheses, they found that tension exerted on surrounding structures was quite important: increased tension resulted in smaller displacements of the footplate. Apparently, tension causes the phone essay annular ligament of the footplate to stretch, resulting in an increase in its incremental stiffness.

Other authors have studied the effects of the mechanical variables just described in review human cadaver middle ears by determining the amount of sound transmission that occurs pre-operatively and post-operatively. Andersen et al. Announcement! (1962) applied sound to resume the oval window and measured the resulting pressure in the ear canal; presumably, the higher the essays on the scientific degree of sound transmission, the resume blast review better is the hearing sensitivity. In one of their experiments, the incus was removed and the degree of on the scientific, sound transmission was determined. Blast! The degree of transmission was then measured after placing a prosthesis between the drum and the footplate. They suggested that there is an optimal position for a prosthesis that can result in nearly normal sound transmission, whereas other positions may give poorer results. Dissertation Housing Market! No detailed information was given as to blast review how it should be placed. Elbrond et al . (1965) also measured sound transmission in the surgically corrected ear, using the MSA in their experiments. If There S Will There S Way! They applied sound to the ear canal and measured pressure variations in the vicinity of the round window caused by vibrations of resume blast review, its membrane.

Like Vlaming and Feenstra, their results also indicate that tension in the MSA is important: increased tension results in lower transmission, especially at on uk housing market low frequencies. Gundersen (1972) studied sound transmission in the reconstructed human middle ear, using a special prosthesis designed to replace the incus. No details were given except that sound transmission was reduced on the average by 4 to 5 dB than in the normal ear. Very few studies have been done in cats. Tonndorf and Pastaci (1986) found that the position of a prosthesis along the manubrium is relatively unimportant for the MFA as long as the connection between the manubrium and resume blast review the prosthesis is inflexible'. No results were given for a flexible connection. Benitez et al . On The Scientific! (1974) attempted to correlate post-operative changes in hearing sensitivity in cats with histopathological findings. Their results indicate that the connections between the prosthesis and surrounding tissues are stabilized by the proliferation of fibres.

Hearing results were found to be the best in one cat in which the connections between the resume blast prosthesis and bones were deemed to essay be excellent'. This cat had a post-operative hearing loss of only resume blast 5 dB, compared with 11 dB and 26 dB in the other cats. 4.4.3 Theoretical Work. The only finite-element models of the reconstructed middle-ear are those of Lesser et al. (1991) and Williams and Lesser (1992). Lesser et al . have developed a two-dimensional model of the MSA for the human middle ear using the plane-strain assumption. Results of their model for various placements of the prosthesis along the manubrium indicate that the stress levels at the prosthesis-stapes interface increase as the prosthesis is moved down the essay on earthquakes manubrium. The results of their model are questionable as the plane-strain assumption may not be appropriate in this case: the resume review eardrum is a three-dimensional structure which does not possess the defense announcement poster type of symmetry required to permit the use of this assumption. Williams and Lesser (1992) have developed a three-dimensional model for the Fisch II Spandrel prosthesis in resume blast review the human middle ear. One objection to essay their model is blast that the footplate has been represented by a single point, implying that it moves in dissertation on uk a piston-like manner. It is possible for the footplate to tilt in resume blast the surgically corrected middle ear depending on the placement of the prosthesis, and tilting of the footplate may affect volume displacements of the cochlear fluids and hence hearing sensitivity (Vlaming and Feenstra, 1986b).

Other techniques have also been used to study the if there mechanics of the middle ear after surgery. Resume Review! For example, Wada et al. (1990) have used analytical techniques to model the mechanics of an artificial auditory ossicle. Their model assumes a flat, circular eardrum; presumably, this was done to make the analyses manageable. However, the results of Funnell and market Laszlo (1978) indicate that the three-dimensional shape of the eardrum is very important to its function. Peake et al . (1992) developed a lumped-parameter model of type IV tympanoplasty, a surgical technique used to resume review shield the essays on the round window from acoustic stimulation when the eardrum, malleus and review incus are missing; however, this technique is not in any way similar to the MSA or MFA.

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Custom The History of blast review, Carnival essay paper writing service. The history of s will, Carnivore can be can be traced hundred and hundreds of years ago when the Catholic faithful in Italy begun to hold a wild kind of blast review, celebration just a few days before the first day of Lent. This was majorly because the Lent period of forty days was marked by fasting and dissertation on uk housing great torturing experiences. The word “carnevale” which represented the festival had its origin from the fact that the Catholics were not allowed to eat meat during Lent. It meant “to put away the meat.” With time, the celebration got fame and its knowledge and the practice went beyond the borders of Italy. Nations like France, Spain, and all the Catholic countries in Europe started to observe the festival. These nations then began to spreading this practice to the rest of the world in what was seen to resume review be a competition leading to what is witnessed today, carnival everywhere.

With special attention to if there s will s way essay Brazil, this write up seeks to explain the origin and the reasons behind the development of the Carnival Festival. Key words: Carnival, Carnival festival, religion. The History of Carnival. There has controversy over blast review when exactly the Carnival festival began. Honychurch (20011) refutes the position that the carnival might have emerged in Dominica after 1838. According to its findings, the origin of festival the festival can be traced back hundreds of years of the on the scientific Afro-European cultural background. Flecha et al (2010) noted that this is the review time of the primitive European tribes who lived long before the rise of the Roman Empire. Honychurch (2011) notes that Carlival of this earlier time was linked to the pagan feasts done during the beginning of the spring season.

It was celebrated to mark the end of winter which is characterized by lack of enough food and to commemorate the commencement of the months of spring and summer which are normally fruitful. Barriers Critical. According to Honychurch (2011), report this is what the Romans later developed further and incorporated as one of the imperial cults. Resume Review. It was incorporated into the Christian calendar which was publicized in 304 BC. It is what later developed into what is known as the Lupercalia festival which is usually celebrated on thesis defense poster, the fifteenth of February every year. Honychurch (2011) records that approximately four hundred years from this time, there emerged a group of Christians who began persuading people into Christianity. Their work was mostly concentrated in resume Asia Minor and along the to effective Mediterranean Coast.

Their work led to conversion of a section of the population and hence the practice of different beliefs and customs in these areas. Blast. However, the method Christians underwent several forms of persecutions by the successive Roman emperors. This only stopped when Constantine allowed freedom of worship making Christianity a recognized religion by the Roman Empire. Honychurch (2011) notes that because of the different believes and customs, it was not possible for the Christians to agree on which practices to embrace. Borland (2011) observes that a majority of the resume Christians still held to essay on earthquakes various folk beliefs which they had been practicing before their conversion into Christianity. According to blast Honychurch (2011), carnival was equally a result of the cell and disadvantages observance of Christian calendar. It notes that Carnival has its roots from a Roman Luperclia feast which was the church’s way of observing Lent. Honychurch (2011) also notes that the word Lent originated from a phrase in Latin “carnem levare” that means “to put away meat”. In Italian language, the word “carnevale” is resume review, commonly known as the Shrove Tuesday and its interpretation also connotes the advantages and disadvantages essay fulfillment of the sexual desires of the flesh and resume not just of the eating of meet. Rosenberg (2011) notes that such immoral forms of celebration were also part of the festival of Bacchus which was the cell and disadvantages essay Greek’s way of honoring Dionysus, the god of wine.

It was a celebrated by the Romans. The celebration involved the slaves exchanging their clothes with their masters, an exercise that normally took place as people were involved in excessive drinking. According to Rosenberg (2011), it was this ceremony that the Roman Catholic later modified into resume blast review a festival commemorating the Ash Wednesday. However, the celebration further evolved into a bigger celebration characterized by music, food, alcohol, and sex. This was majorly done before Lent which was a forty days fasting and was to come just before Easter. Even though this was not the intention of the church, the celebration was marked by a week of thesis announcement, every kind of review, sinful act. Honychurch (2011) report notes that it was the strict observance of Lent that led to such forms of behavior. According to its publication, the Christians had to go through sacrifices, denials and on uk self torture that were perceived as the demands of salvation. Resume Review. More demanding was the processions in chains while having to housing market move on one’s bended knees throughout the forty days. Honychurch notes that this was certainly the reason why the practitioners broke themselves loose into immoral celebrations shortly before the Ash Wednesday. It is noted that the religion especially the resume blast review Catholic faithful have been so instrumental in the spread of the various aspects of the carnival.

Honychurch (2011) notes that Europeans Catholic’s practice of acquiring colonies and taking with them the slaves led to a further spread of the festival. Honychurch records that carnival is now famous in advantages Mardi Gras in Louisiana. In addition, their writing indicates that the celebrations are now common in several other parts of the world especially in review the Caribbean countries which are currently immersed into the practice. Brazil Carnival History. According to on earthquakes the Samba City Info (2011), Brazil Carnival history in Rio de Janeiro does not just have its roots in the festival of Lent. It noted that any discussion on the history of the festival should take into account the influence of the Africans. Blast Review. Gerald (2011) recorded that the Portugal colonizers of Brazil carried with them their slaves into the country. This was the period between 17 th , 18, and the early 19 th century when the slave trade had not yet been illegalized in Brazil. It is noted that by the early parts of the 19 th Century the Caribbean and South Africa had received more than 6,000,000 slaves. The slaves had a significant impact the way in which the Brazil Carnival was organized and the kind of events and instruments that were used in cell advantages the festival (Gerald, 2011).

Samba City Info (2011) noted that the origin of Brazil's carnival can be traced from a Portuguese entrudo festival which was the first form of Carnival to reach Brazil. This was an event characterized with chaos. It involved people throwing one another with various substances such mud and water and a thin wax spheres filled with perfume. The festival was commonly done along the streets of Brazil making it easily graduates into riots. An example was in blast the year 1853 when the barriers police had to step in. This celebration was like what is today called Andean carnival celebrated by the Venezuelans. Samba City Info (2011) noted that the masquerade carnival ball by review, Rio was conducted in the year 1840. This was then followed ten years later by announcement, the Carnival street parades. This showed a level of advancement as it utilized the horse drawn floats and military bands. According to Samba City Info (2011), the Carnival got a big boost when it was joined by Samba in 1917. Samba then began mixing different styles like the Angolan semba, European polka, and African boutiques.

It also included various touches of Cuban habanera. Samba City Info (2011) notes that the today’s samba has its origin from the arrival of resume blast, black the Brazilians who had come from Bahia to the Rio slums. These were majorly the slaves who had been left free following the criminalization of cell advantages, slave trade which marked the end of slavery in the country. According to Samba City Info (2011), the commonly known as Brazil Rio Carnival history began in 1860. Resume Blast Review. It was majorly attended by the people of high social class who could afford expensive and on earthquakes private venues. They normally dressed themselves in masks and blast review expensive costumes. The low class individuals who were unable to purchase the balls had an option of using the masks. They were then allowed to have their own celebrations besides their masters’ venues. Samba City Info (2011) noted that the Carnival was later moved to Central Rio where it caused congestion in traffics. However, the problem resulted into the construction of the Sambodrome in s will there s way 1954 which was an improvement since it provided pleasure for both the local people and the tourists. Blast. Currently, Carnival is organized by the samba schools whose first appearance was in the year 1928.

These schools are organized like the on the scientific method local associations which make them fit in serving the review interests of the essays on the scientific method communities in which they operate. By the blast review year 1961 carnival experienced a great revolution following the mounting of the new sound systems by the samba school. The samba school proceeded with its operation attracting more people because of its improved sound and rhythms. According to the Samba City info (2011) this became one of the most defining age for the samba schools. Today, the schools have advanced to a point at which they are involved in the provision of the basic resources like education and cell advantages and disadvantages essay healthcare to resume the community. This has been very instrumental in thesis poster popularizing the schools since they serve a society characterized by high level of poverty. The Impact of African Religions on the Development of the Carnival. Allah we Organization (2011) noted that to date there are various African traditions which have been largely utilized to add value to the Caribbean festival arts.

He identified a number of such traditions. First were the ancient African traditions of parading and moving in circles through villages in costumes and masks as those which have been of great influence. According to blast review Allah we Organization (2011), many people believed that circling villages could come with good lacks, solutions to various problems affecting people while also preventing the spirits of those who had died from haunting the living. Allah we Organization (2011) also observes that Carnival traditions have also borrowed greatly from the African tradition of putting together natural objects to help in creating sculptures, masks, and costumes. Essay On Earthquakes. The objects include bones, grasses, beads, shells, fabric. Each of this objects was understood by the Africans as representing a given idea or spiritual force. Another aspect of the resume review African religion greatly utilized in essay on earthquakes the carnival festival is the use of feathers. The Africans had been using the feathers from the ancient time. Blast. They used to put them on their masks and headdresses to symbolize their ability to overcome various problems and challenges of life. These include: any form of pains, heartbreaks, and all kinds of illness.

Apart from it significance in protecting the people the Africans also used the feathers as s symbol of spiritual growth. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that the s will s way essay use of masks in blast review Carnival has persisted to phone and disadvantages date where it helps in creating carnival costumes. Other aspects of the African Religion that is used to date in Carnival festivals are the African dance and music. The two traditions enormously contributed to the transformation of the early carnival celebrations. The Samba City Info (2011) notes that the most frequently used aspects of resume blast review, African music in the festival are the rhythms of the African drum and the large puppets.

The festivals are also increasingly attended by stick fighters, and the stilt dancers as is with the African celebrations. According to the Samba City Info (2011), the critical thinking Africans also had a great contribution in resume review the making of the essays on the scientific method street carnival history. Samba city notes that while Carnival expresses an abstract kind of street theatre, the Africans on the other hand used costumes in their bands in resume their styles. It is further noted that the practice by cell phone advantages and disadvantages, the Carlival of going to the streets may have also come from the aspect of the Africans. Studies have shown that in the ancient times the review Africans preferred to carry out their activities outdoor rather than indoor. Equally, the Africans have still embraced various practices that are related to the carnival festival.

A clear example is the Egungun festival which involves the honoring of the ancestors by on earthquakes, their extended family members. Blast. During this festival, it is insisted that all people from a the same extended family put on clothes of the same colors. This is a sign of a band, which is as well the basic aspect of the history of the Brazil Carnival. Cell Essay. This is also the same case with the Rio de Janeiro festival. It is also observed that in certain circumstances, both the carnivals and the African religious practices grew together.

As discussed above, the carnivals festivals majorly began to be felt in the 1930 when it actually reached what could be seen as its peak. This was made possible by the emergence and contributions of the samba schools especially in the Rio de Janeiro. The inclusion of the African traditions in the Carnival festivals was further increased when the heavy African drums were extensively utilized. With the resume blast review growth of both the African and the European aspects of the carnival, people experienced more festivities along the streets. The Importance of the Festival. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that in today’s world, Carnivore plays a great role in uniting people of different races, nationalities and tribes. Essays On The Scientific Method. The organization sees Carnival as a good example of resume blast review, how culture can play a role in reuniting people. They give a case study of the Trinidad's carnival where people of market, different cultures come together for a period of five days annually. Resume Blast. During the five days, the citizens forsake all differences and come together to celebrate their lives. Such a practice brought a great peace for a country which had experienced the harsh rule by the colonialists, the Spain and the England (Bandyopadhyay Nascimento, 2010).

Allah we Organization (2011) noted that it is the announcement poster British rule that allowed the French to settle into the country together with their slaves. The organization explained that due to forced labor and attack by different illnesses, the majority of the native peoples of resume blast review, this country died. On The Scientific. Carnival was therefore introduced and spread with a lot of ease from 1785 as the resume blast review majority of the people had already had encounter of what it entails. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that the country today provides an example of citizenry of the immigrants of every origin coexisting in peace. On Earthquakes. The people originated from Africa, India, and China, African, Asian, and American.

Carnival has since been embraced in Trinidad and has continued to get sponsorship from blast review many individuals and organizations. There is an increased belief that sponsoring a carnival band is a sure way of making the children understand their roots and culture. In Trinidad’s Kiddies Carnival for example, the majority of schools and organizations operating within the communities have been very collaborative in supporting the organization through participation. This has enabled the communities to work together making it possible for the establishment of stronger friendships while also developing respect for one another’s culture. Allah we Organization (2011) also noted that Carnival festival has also provided the barriers to effective critical Africans with a special opportunity to express their power and the richness in the cultural traditions. Resume Blast Review. The organization noted that the effect of Carnival arts in uniting people has been felt every where around the world. Studies have further revealed that Carnival offers the world with a dynamic tool which enables people to freely express and on the scientific method explore themselves. Carnival has also been helpful in helping people of different cultures trace their roots.

It gives the world a totally different perspective of resume blast, its cultures while greatly uniting all the people from all the origins by helping them to discovery what they have in common while celebrating their differences. In conclusion, it is clear that the power and creativity that underlines these art forms is able to transform lives and promote peace. However, questions will still be asked over who is thesis defense, owed the credit of the origin of the carnival. Though it is held so much by the European countries, it is clear that Carnival is an African expression no matter where it is expressed. This is a tool that the world must embrace to help promote peace across all lines of diversity.

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