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Bad Resume Examples for College Students and How To Fix Them. These bad resume mistakes can hold any college student back. It’s a common feeling; you’ve graduate from college with your great degree and you’re ready to fly into the job market. You’re excited to apply everywhere and really start living. You’re ready to take on college entry essays the world. Sure, you’re not even thinking about the nearly 2 million other graduates out resume dimhrs, there, because you have a pretty good feeling that you’re going to get a job.

No problem! Wait, 2 million other graduates? Yes there are a lot of bad college student resumes floating around! You should always have enthusiasm and optimism when you enter the job market, but the competition is definitely something to consider. You’re going to want to separate yourself from the competition. Employment BOOST helps job seekers stand out every day, so we want to make sure that you do, too.

One of the college entry best ways to separate yourself from the of age essay competition is to look at an example of entry what a bad college resume consists of. Bad Resume Examples for College Students To Avoid. 12345 Madison Avenue. Detroit, Michigan 12345. Cell: 111-111-1111 Email: [email protected] Acme University (2015) Smith Family Pizza (2011-2015) Handled all cashiering duties Cooked pizza Cleaned tabletops, chars, counters Took orders.

Lambda Lambda Lambda Fraternity. I attended social events, fundraising, parties, and sporting events. Debated on weekends, helped fundraise, won many tournaments. Papers Styles. References available upon request. There are quite a few things wrong with this resume. We’ll go through John Smith’s resume step-by-step and show you where he made mistakes. College Entry. The Good: John Smith’s contact information is for the most part, pretty good. He has his address, name, and contact information listed at the top of his resume. He’s easily reachable and hiring managers will be able to papers styles, contact him at any time by phone or e-mail. The Not-So-Good: We recommend that John Smith includes an email that is essays personal and not directly linked to his university.

A lot of and creative thinking times, university emails have a tendency to expire or change formatting. Also, when someone is entering the workforce and adulthood, he or she is going to want to college essays, get rid of papers styles ties that make you seem like they’re fresh out of college essays college. Even though John just graduated, the .edu email gives off the impression that he’s still a student. If he gets a normal email address with his name in it, he’ll be much better served. The Good: It was a good idea for John to research paper ado about, include the name of his university. Believe it or not, there are applications out there that do not have a university listed when they have an education section.

The Not-So-Good: John should have included the degree and entry essays, major that he earned. For example, a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Political Science would have been the right thing to write. Additionally, listing one’s GPA is not necessarily a good idea. If John had earned a 4.0, then it might be alright; for the most part, it’s best to just leave it off. The Good: John listed his job title, place of work, and tenure on essay about environmental his resume. It’s important to essays, have job tenure on the resume because hiring screeners won’t even consider you if you don’t have it. It’s the only way to gauge how much experience you actually have. Of Critical Thinking. The Not-So-Good: Well, to entry, point out the obvious, John has some typos on his resume. That’s always a one-way ticket to resume dimhrs, the “no” pile of resumes. Having typos or grammatical mistakes on entry your resume shows the hiring screeners that you’re careless and research papers management, not quite ready for entry essays the professional world.

A resume is research management styles a document that illustrates your professional branding; it’s not some paper in college that you can turn in for college a grade. Huckleberry. Additionally, John forgot to list his internships on essays his resume. Papers Management Styles. Even though they are unpaid, they show that he has experience outside of part-time jobs that don’t really play a role in his career. You can still include them on your resume when first starting out your job search, but internships that are relevant to your career are what’s going to be most important. Including those internships will also give the resume a sense of direction and college, focus. From this resume, it’s tough to figure out what John’s interests are or what he has experience in. If John includes that he had a summer internship at a state senator’s office, it will help him when he applies to various staffer positions. Research Paper Topics Ado About Nothing. Also, when it comes to the experience that he did list, he basically just reiterated his job duties. This doesn’t really tell the college essays hiring screener anything.

While we mention that a part-time job at his family’s pizzeria may not be in his long-term plans, it’s still considered experience that he can utilize when applying to positions – if he features it correctly. Instead of research styles writing that he “handled all cashiering duties” and “took orders,” he should write something like, “Interfaced with customers over the phone and in entry essays person, utilizing well-trained customer service skills.” Statements like this help show the essay about environmental protection hiring screener that you gained something applicable to other jobs from the experience. This applies to jobs at college all levels. Essay. You should never just list the duties of college entry essays your job. The Good: It was a good idea for John Smith to include that he was a part of the debate club on his resume. Extracurricular activities show that you were active in research management college.

If you excelled in them, they can really help out your application, even for entry essays your first professional job after college. Research Styles. After that first job, though, extracurricular activities that you had in entry college won’t really have a place on topics ado about nothing your resume. The Not-So-Good: John didn’t really show his significance when he listed these positions. If he was the essays president of essay going his fraternity or the captain of the college essays debate team, he should include that. If he didn’t hold a leadership position there, he should still try to resume dimhrs, show how he really made an impact within those organizations.

Instead of college entry essays saying, “I attended social events, fundraising, parties, and essay protection, sporting events,” John could state, “Served as fraternity treasurer and social chair, organizing massive fundraisers and brought in the most money to the fraternity’s charity in Lambda Lambda Lambda history.” In terms of the debate club, John could state, “was ranked in the top ten debaters in the college circuit for college the state of Michigan for all four years.” While this is an example of about and conservation a bad college resume, we understand that resume mistakes should be considered on essays a case-by-case basis. That being said, it’s never a bad idea to read and similarities of critical, revise your resume to make sure that you can keep up with the competition. Thank you for taking the essays time to read Employment BOOST’s Bad Resume Examples for College Students. Similarities And Creative. We do encourage you to share this article with your colleagues, friends and entry, business associates, they will thank you one day! College Resume Mistakes Most Graduates Keep On Making. 09/03/2015 10/20/2016 by Employment Boost.

Manufacturing Resume Mistakes That Require Six Sigma. 05/07/2016 10/20/2016 by Employment Boost. Top 10 Worst Resume Words - Yeah Worst As In That Bad. 08/26/2015 10/20/2016 by Employment Boost. Topics For Much. Bad Resume Summaries You Can Correct Today. College Essays. 04/13/2016 10/20/2016 by essay environmental, Employment Boost.

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No Gumption Essays and Research Papers. Hughes' stories speak of the unfortunate African-Americans neglected and overlooked by a prejudiced society. The recurring theme of how powerlessness leads . to violence is personified by the actions of Sargeant in On the entry, Road, old man Oyster in Gumption , and the robber in Why, You Reckon? Hughes' On the Road explores what happens when a powerless individual takes action on behalf of essay to jail his conditions. The short story illustrates the desperation and resulting violent actions of one man's homeless.

African American , Black people , Harlem Renaissance 845 Words | 4 Pages. non-fictional works, exploring such areas as the credibility, entertainment value and essays, superiority within the distinct character of both, the fictional and . non-fictional genres of literature. The stories, The Richer, the Poorer by Dorothy West and resume dimhrs, My Lack of Gumption , by Russell Baker both taken from The Art of Work (LaRocco Coughlin, 1996, p. 106 and 119) and The Virus, by Craig Brown and Buy a Cellular Phone, Sublet Your Soul by entry essays, Robert Aquinas McNally both taken from The Literature of Work (Murphy, S., Sperling. Character , Fiction , Literature 1386 Words | 4 Pages. Comparing Fiction and Non Fiction. 2007 Lynn Nelson Comparing Narrative in Fiction and Non-Fiction Paper . Comparing Narrative in Fiction and Non-Fiction Paper 1 My Lack of of critical and creative Gumption a non fiction story by Russell Baker and Forty-Five Month a fiction story by college entry essays, R. Management Styles? K. Narayan were two very interesting readings. It was quite amazing to see how two authors with totally unique writing styles portrayed the same message. Character , Family , Fiction 1202 Words | 7 Pages. to do something—due to college essays her M.S.—, so we look it up in my books. Essay About Environmental Protection And Conservation? We usually find the answers we were looking for, if not we google it.

I have long admired her . smarts and I am very proud to be able to call her my mom. I have always admired my mom’s gumption . College? She knows what is right and wrong, and huckleberry finn essay, has taught me how to entry tell the resume dimhrs, difference between them as well. She taught me when I was little to college never accept candy from research papers management, strangers. Essays? She also taught me when I became a teenager to never accept a drink from. English-language films , Grade , Help 907 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative and essay about environmental protection and conservation, Assignment Narrators Answer. cannot have more than one point of entry view unless you craft it to make it work. With the essay, third person point of college entry view u can have more than one point of view . because it is easier to put in more than one point of view. About Environmental And Conservation? (9 points) 4. Think back to “ Gumption .” If the narration had been third-person, would you have sympathized as much with the narrator?

Why or why not? How did the college entry essays, narration affect you? Answer: If the narrator had put the story in a third person narration I would have made the story. Character , Fiction , First person 465 Words | 2 Pages. Leadership characteristics of a successful entrepreneur.

because they have the resume dimhrs, personal drive to put their own ideas into a business venture. It takes a very motivated individual with personal convictions to entry make a . Paper Ado About Nothing? business become a profitable and successful business. Obviously, if a person has enough gumption to take the steps to start their own business, then they are, by nature, very motivated individuals that want to make their project succeed. College Entry? People who are not highly motivated will not become entrepreneurs or will more than likely fail if they try. Charisma , Coffee , Coffeehouse 950 Words | 3 Pages. Autobiographical Incident Unit Test with Answers. this elderly figure helped him through his learning and later he succeeded as a writer.

In “I know why caged birds sing” Ms. Flower is similarities and differences of critical and creative thinking, a mentor to Maya and . make her realize about entry essays how she loves literature and teaches her how to respect others. In “No Gumption ” Ms. Baker was set on the fact to make her son 'Russell' to resume dimhrs become someone significant and so she told him a few options to try out that will make him successful. In this process, Russell realized his interest in writing. (15 points). Fiction , First person , First-person narrative 931 Words | 3 Pages. recalled all of the others. All, that is, except. the entry, B-52 piloted by Major Kong. Their coding equipment having been shot up, they have not received the . Research Paper Topics For Much Nothing? recall code from base. In addition, they have eluded all attempts to shoot them down.

With gumption that is almost admirable, they make it to college entry one of the targets and research papers management, attempt to drop their payload. However, the bomb doors are jammed. College Essays? In a final act of huckleberry finn coming of age wherewithal, Major Kong straddles the bomb, fixes the bomb door wiring just above it, and entry, rides. Dr. Strangelove , Mutual assured destruction , Peter Sellers 911 Words | 3 Pages. unique and special and she did show him that! Not just him but her other foreign students as well, she made them feel special with every baby step they would . take in learning the English culture and research paper for much ado about nothing, language which encouraged them to do better.

No Gumption : In this particular memoir the narrators mother is the mentor. The reasons why this memoir is so different from the entry, other ones is resume dimhrs, because there are related. With that type of relationship the mom tends to college entry care too much or expect too much of her child. Narrative mode , Narrator 818 Words | 3 Pages. William Faulkner's Writer's Duty in Growing Up by Russell Baker. Russell and his mother. When asked if he wants to be the President, Russell replies with a ?no' and says that he wants to be a garbage man. Numerous times . throughout the book, his mother answers in both anger and disappointment Have a little gumption , Russell. Does his lack of interest in being the environmental protection, president mean that he doesn't have any character? Do his goals have to be unrealistic? They should not have to be.

However, in today's society, goals are extremely high. College Entry Essays? The pressure to paper topics for much ado about nothing be accepted. Love , Nobel Prize , Reader 979 Words | 3 Pages. worship in entry, times of struggle because God will save us and even if we die due to essay about and conservation any particular reason, the reward will be Heaven and being united with God . forever. 2. “Undaunted, sitting astride his horse, the coast-guard answered: Anyone with gumption and a sharp mind will take the college essays, measure of two things: what’s said and what’s done.” (Beowulf, pg. 21, lines 286-289) a) The main point of this quote is that true warriors will do what they say and they are not all talk but no action. Resume Dimhrs? The guard. Beowulf , Christian terms , Grendel's mother 867 Words | 3 Pages.

in this day and age. 3. Hard work, without innovation, will mean limited success. a. In the past, hard work alone (measured by productivity), can bring . Entry? recognition such as promotion in the workplace b. Hard work makes workers; but innovation and gumption make captains or pioneers of ado about nothing industry, who will then achieve more success in essays, terms of wealth or fame. c. Workers need to add value with ideas to get recognised, not just do a lot of work. 4. The same argument applies to protection hard work and talent a. The. Conservative force , Energy , Force 910 Words | 3 Pages. son. Conversely, Renaissance men had to entry essays have a quality education, show artistic refinement, act like a gentleman, and have an appreciation for certain areas . of study.

Males of the Renaissance times were also expected to to jail be of a noble birth and have gumption . However, some women did not fit into the stereotype of a typical Renaissance female figure for one reason or another. College Essays? Those special women would be considered more akin to Renaissance men; they went on to be much more accomplished than the coming of age essay, traditional. Florence , House of Gonzaga , Italy 2183 Words | 6 Pages. fairytale in the traditional style, or just a fun film that can be shared with the kids, TANGLED fills the college entry, bill. Essay To Jail? Quick, to the point and essays, entirely enjoyable, . TANGLED takes the traditional Grimm story, gives it some action and the title princess some gumption and takes off in beautiful style, looking much like the finn coming essay, old enchanted films of yore, with 3D that brings up a couple of moving moments and is otherwise unobtrusive. College Entry? Dan Fogelman’s screenplay posits that the witch Mother Gothel has been keeping herself. Brothers Grimm , Byron Howard , English-language films 434 Words | 2 Pages. The Movers of the World and essay to jail, Their Importance to Society. businesses and send and college, receive information. Having the knowledge of essay environmental protection computer science is another way to keep up with daily, monthly and yearly activities.

In . order for a company to keep up with the business world of today they must have someone who has gumption of computer operations. I chose computer science because there are lots of positions that I can get from that degree. College? Although there are different concentrations in that degree I still have plenty of options to choose from with a concentration. Academic degree , Computation , Computer 1034 Words | 3 Pages. Professor Nengo Anthropology March 10 2015 Age of Reason Essay In the resume dimhrs, book The Age Of Reason by Thomas Paine is entry, about the knowledge of inquiring religious . establishments and their own doctrines.

He wants the similarities and differences thinking, audience to think about the common gumptions that can be seen and describe as a substantiation of a god, for college entry, instance from essay environmental protection and conservation, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. He calls for entry essays, higher reasoning, a person who rejects the research papers management styles, scriptures in the bibles that says we are pretending to use the entry essays, words of the. Bible , Deism , God 1467 Words | 6 Pages. inhabitants of the earth that God is faithful and just to those who love Him and keep His commandments. He needed someone to protection save His people in a spiritual . sense. The only person who could have done this was Joseph, for he had the spirit, the college entry, heart and the gumption . Not only did God need someone to save His people spiritually by and creative, showing what having a personal and essays, faithful relationship with Him can do but he need someone who would save them physically. Joesph was just the resume dimhrs, right person. You see, Joseph had.

Adam and Eve , Fall of Man , Garden of Eden 1370 Words | 4 Pages. Nick Rambeau Prof. Burns English 1302 2-14-2013 The One that got away Remember your first crush? Constantly thinking about college entry that other person . Topics For Much? but never finding the gumption within you to actually talk to them? We've all been there, butterflies running rampant in college essays, our stomach and everything else feeling far less important. It was such a big deal to us at essay environmental protection, the time, but as time passed we realized it was nothing. Entry Essays? The story Araby, by James Joyce, is about one young boy who is going through. Boy , Girl , Life 1266 Words | 3 Pages. Overcoming Fear: Five Characteristics of Marine Corps. realize my expression of hope is going, unsound, but these Marines have the swagger, confidence, and hardness that must have been in Stonewall Jackson's Army of the . Shenandoah.”4 Esprit de Corps is college essays, present when units show a degree of pride, vigor, and gumption . Have a strong competitive spirit with other Marines.

Training with other Marines to better one another, shows competitiveness, cohesion, and research paper topics ado about nothing, helps you become more proficient as a Marine; enabling you to entry essays overcome your fear of any task or situation. Commandant of the Marine Corps , Confederate States Marine Corps , Continental Marines 1131 Words | 4 Pages. her lead. Lady Macbeth tells Macbeth that she would have took action herself if Duncan did not resemble her father, portraying Macbeth as a coward if he was . not to go through with the grim task. If Macbeth stood alone, he would not have had enough gumption to murder the and differences and creative, king, meaning he was indeed victimized by Lady Macbeth. College Entry Essays? After the murder, the of age essay, only guilt shown was in Macbeth’s hands. Macbeth’s guilt afterwards shows he was loyal to the king, and that he would not have fulfilled his royal ambitions. Duncan I of Scotland , Judi Dench , King Duncan 1100 Words | 3 Pages. long time and she believed he was not the entry, person, folks claim him to be. By her standing up for what she believes in, she stops a mob attack and meets Boo . Radley for the first time. Going To Jail? Scout Finch was at times rough but also affectionate and essays, she has gumption . Papers Management Styles? As a result, her complicated personality made her difficult to understand throughout the college entry essays, novel.

Clearly, Scout is not a perfect child but she does things that a normal child could not do. Finn Coming Of Age Essay? Work Cited Lee, Harper. To Kill A Mockingbird. New York. Atticus Finch , Harper Lee , Monroeville, Alabama 1243 Words | 3 Pages. thanks for essays, it”. He is going, capable of welding power through sarcastic comments .Thomasheen abuses and threatens Nanna who has to defend Sive. He callously tells . her that she is “a lone woman with you husband feeding worms in entry, his trench. You have terrible gumption with no one left to papers back you” he engages in threats by essays, referring to the “ the county home staring you in the face”.

At that time many old people lived in essay about and conservation, fear of ending their days in such a place. His words have the entry essays, desired effect as Nanna seems. Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 1215 Words | 3 Pages. messages, so that we can choose what we expose ourselves to. Huckleberry Finn Coming Essay? Falsely believing of ourselves as being immune or having control over what we view through the . media will continue to impact us negatively. We should forgo mindless viewing, regain our gumption , patronize the programs and products we truly want and need, take the reigns of influence and choice that we wish to have on advertisers, and not the other way around. Works Cited Kruse, Kevin. Entry? “Ad Pros and Cons.” Online discussion thread. Advertising , Digestion , Human gastrointestinal tract 1363 Words | 4 Pages. underestimated Evie was when he could not understand what her lover had seen in her since from his point of view, his wife was unattractive, plain and dull. . On the research management, whole, George was not aware that there was more in Evie than he had ever had the gumption to see.

Like Mr. Entry Essays? Peregrine, Mr. Clandon had a patronizing attitude towards Angela. Gilbert had a patronizing attitude towards his wife when Angela admitted that she wanted to work. Since Gilbert considered himself the most important thing in Angela’s. Conservative Party , Cost underestimation , Husband 1006 Words | 3 Pages.

openly shared stories of her youth and adulthood, some were about her and and differences thinking, her siblings growing up and sticking together, to college entry the strife of life where she . Resume Dimhrs? admitted to making bad mistakes. Entry Essays? Probably one of the most formable stories was his grandmother’s gumption to be apart of the similarities and differences, war effort against her parents permission. In a sense of Egoism but at the same time being very selfless to her country, she joined the war effort. Essays? Although following part of her parents orders, she did not join the management, military. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Decision making 1223 Words | 4 Pages. Her first words in the story are a question posed to her husband Adoniram: “What are them men diggin’ over there in the field for?” a question that she keeps . repeating until she gets an answer (Wilkins, 1890, p. 371). College Essays? This is finn coming of age essay, a woman who has the gumption to take a stand for what she feels she is college, honestly entitled to of critical thinking and who is willing to be vocal about it if necessary. When the minister attempts to interfere with what she is doing, Sarah tells him, “I’ve got my own mind an’ my own feet, an’ I’m. Barn , Husband , Mallika Sukumaran 620 Words | 2 Pages. a runaway hit. College Entry Essays? The show features the guys experiencing their list of wishes that includes, attending a party at the Playboy Mansion, helping to give birth to . a baby, opening the Six O'Clock News, and research management, dozens more.

Relying on college, goodwill, guts and gumption , small town friends, Duncan, Ben, Dave and Jonnie travel the globe in a donated purple bus to complete a list of '100 things to do before you die' and to help and encourage others to go after their own lists. For every item they complete on their. Barack Obama , Bill Clinton , Democratic Party 546 Words | 2 Pages. Jessica Savan English Composition I 1101-74 Beowulf Talk is easy, but actions speak louder than words. In Beowulf’s case, his actions spoke just as loud . as his words.

This quote from the similarities and differences and creative thinking, book, “Anyone with gumption and entry essays, a sharp mind will take measure of two things: what’s said, and and differences and creative thinking, what’s done” (Heaney 21) can be directly related to Beowulf. Many figures have had much to say, but what have they done? Beowulf made certain to stay true to his promises, far-fetched as they may have been. If he said. Beowulf , Grendel , Grendel's mother 633 Words | 2 Pages.

first automobile company to cross cumulative production of 50 million. In 2011, Hero and Honda parted ways. Entry Essays? According to essay about environmental protection Pawan Munjal, when you become this . Essays? large you want to take your brand global. You want to be nimble and quick. Munjal displayed gumption in jettisoning the Honda name in his branding a mere eight months after the divorce, even though he could have used it until 2014, when Honda's technology support ends.Business Today Pawan Munjal outlined a slew of research aggressive plans that he has already. Board of directors , Gurgaon , Haryana 489 Words | 2 Pages. “faint and tired”.

Two things result from this. Firstly, she sits down on a stool, resulting in her hand brushing against the silk stockings. Secondly, . because of her fatigue, she is college entry, more likely to not have the energy to think properly or have the gumption to bargain like she usually does. Her second mistake was to go shopping on an empty stomach. This will come back to haunt her later, and aid in about protection and conservation, her frivolous spending. As Mrs. College Entry Essays? Sommers sits down on the stool and paper ado about nothing, brushes against the silk stockings. Bargaining , Periodization , Responsibility 605 Words | 2 Pages. I do not mind your being poor. I would have agreed to entry come this morning, nut you did not ask me” (278). Elizabeth-Jane doesn’t ask her father if she can come . with him, she tells him that she’s coming with him.

Over the book she has gained enough gumption that she no longer cares what Henchard wants, Elizabeth-Jane only cares about what he needs. It is for this fact that the readers can classify Hardy as an paper ado about early day Feminist. He portrays Elizabeth-Jane as the only character with any redeemable characteristics. Friendship , Gender , Gender role 1829 Words | 5 Pages. ahead of time. College? As the new campus recruiter, Carl did not ask enough questions. Huckleberry Coming Essay? When the operations manager, Monica Carrolls called to Carl to college entry essays follow up on . the hiring process, he told her that everything was going well.

Poor Carl did not have the gumption to tell Monica the truth about the gravity of the situation he was currently in. Carl has only been employed with the resume dimhrs, company for six months and these are his first hires. Unorganized Schedule Carl did not plan ahead and make any sort of. Case study , Drug test , Employment 1516 Words | 4 Pages. higher value on athletic rather than academic achievement?

Answer: yes, I strongly recommend that the schools in college essays, general should do more of these positive . academic recognition awards; because it can mobilize the students’ enthusiasm and elevate their gumption . And Differences Of Critical? Even more better for essays, the talent-digger. I don’t agree that those regular schools putting higher value on athletic rather than academic achievement. That’s the research topics nothing, job for college entry, the palestra. Question 3:Alberto Mendoza on page 11, do you think the teachers. Academy , Academy Award , Award 553 Words | 2 Pages. too weak or inept to make an effort to turn their lives around and resume dimhrs, become useful citizens of society. If this type of person works they often resent having . to do what they are doing but are unable to choose to change their job, they do not have the gumption or willpower to change.

These people are incapable of making a decision. They are so inept that even if making a decision would improve their circumstances, they can't make that decision for fear they might miss another better opportunity. They are. Dante Alighieri , Divine Comedy , Hell 2159 Words | 6 Pages. Of course, there are problems with the openness and ease of access that eBay allows. But security is the main problem that eBay encounters. Scams and college entry essays, . non-delivery are not frequent, but they do happen. It used to be often times, eBay had no gumption to track down and prosecute those sellers who do not ship, or ship broken items to their buyers; and the same goes for buyers who did not pay (McD 2012).

Now eBay has implemented a Buyer Protection Program that is designed to ensure buyer confidence. Auction , Credit card , EBay 1837 Words | 5 Pages. stock you came from … ye used to essay drink yeer tay out of jampots”, and later: “your father a half starved bocock of a beggar” Mena gives plenty of insults back . – “cackling with your bad tongue”, “that oul’ bloody woman in the corner”, “You have great gumption for a woman with nothing”. Mena is college entry essays, also cranky with Sive, perhaps jealous of the educational opportunities she has - “You’ll come to no good”, “Your uncle and I work ourselves to the marrow of the bones to give you schooling”. By contrast Nanna and. Boy , Girl , Interpersonal relationship 1546 Words | 4 Pages. Four Factors of Organizational Success. company earn over $2.5 billion within three years of his hire. Resume Dimhrs? (Roberts, n.d.). I am not suggesting a change in company culture is necessary, but a leader . must be able to identify the need for change, have the ability to implement such change, and the gumption to do so. Finding a leader with the before mentioned qualifications will aid in college entry essays, corporate success. Four factors working together There are many other factors which could lead to (or prevent) organizational success.

It’s my belief that the. Andrew Grove , Better , Business process improvement 1810 Words | 6 Pages. appropriate description of it within this context. Upon Beowulf’s arrival in Denmark, the sentry stops the crew of Geats as they unload the boat full of . Research Paper For Much Nothing? armor and weapons. Beowulf explains their business, to which the sentry replies: Anyone with gumption and a sharp mid will take the measure of two things: what’s said and essays, what’s done. Essay Going To Jail? I believe what you have told me, that you are a troop loyal to our king. So come ahead with your arms and essays, your gear, and I will guide you. Huckleberry Coming Essay? What’s more, I’ll.

Beowulf , Grendel , Grendel's mother 1778 Words | 5 Pages. and daughter-in-law suggest a move to a Nursing Home for her own convenience, Hagar rebels. “Too bad to deprive them, but if a person doesn't look after . herself in essays, this world, no one else is likely to.” Her next course of action is full of gumption , and is representative of her refusal to bend in research paper for much, the face of external forces and the changes that time brings in its wake. “I can't change what's happened to college entry essays me in my life, or make what's not occurred take place. But I can't say I like it, or. Canada Reads , Leon Rooke , Manawaka 1705 Words | 5 Pages. a pro-protestant nation got involved in paper topics for much nothing, a conflict to save the monarchy and agreed to align with Catholic France. Entry Essays? The fourth motive was of resume dimhrs Cardinal . Richelieu, the prince of Catholic Church partnered with Protestants to defeat Spain. The war gave gumption to college entry essays military entrepreneurs or mercenaries such as Count Mansfeld, Bernard of Saxe-Weimar and research papers management, Albrecht von Wallenstein, whose involvement also energized the war. Entry Essays? Mercenaries played important role. The governments found it difficult to raise armies.

Albrecht von Wallenstein , Bohemia , Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor 1656 Words | 5 Pages. where her and her husband had lived. However, moving to a new place, with new people, and new activities will act as a fresh start for Clara. This could be . a while new life for her to live, even at the age of 80. Many people still have lots of papers management gumption in them, at that age, and are still looking for companionship, and to be loved. As can be found on a website for seniors, “The sex need to some people is romance, companionship, and closeness--often the need for actual sex is quite minimal. In other. Emotion , Family , Grief 1849 Words | 5 Pages. The Admirable Qualities of Hedda Gabler.

as that, especially if they knew they were not on entry essays, the same level as everyone in a social sense. That kind of boldness should be admired and revered, “How did . you sit there and question me so fearlessly?” (Ibsen 1440) One should respect the essay to jail, shear gumption it takes to just speak whatever thoughts no matter how uncouth or even true they are. Because Hedda did feel free to speak her mind, despite her social standing, she was able to use the knowledge that boldness is a sign of authority in order to. Character , Hedda Gabler , Henrik Ibsen 1751 Words | 5 Pages. last line of the college, first verse Antsy tells us that the topics for much nothing, lady’s finger had almost put his heart on ice; he went from feeling like a warm-hearted Christian to a . cold-hearted driver. Entry? In the second verse of the song, Antsy says he may never have the gumption now “to read those one-line sermons.” Before that he says it makes him want to cry.

Antsy was so happy and excited to honk his horn because of the “Honk If You Love Jesus” sticker but now he wants to cry because of the old lady flipping him off. Bumper sticker , Cape Horn , Feeling 882 Words | 2 Pages. prepare an occasional meal or two, this was exactly the kind of thinking which took my relationship on a two week demolition derby that would surprise even . the most critical of skeptics. Similarities And Creative? Asking me to do this for college essays, her had to take quite a bit of gumption , because if I know one thing about myself it’s that I’m extremely difficult to essay environmental protection and conservation work with when I know how to do something very well. Entry Essays? Mostly, it’s because I feel like if I’m able to learn to do something, then everyone I know should be able to learn. Cooking , Dance-pop songs , Education 860 Words | 2 Pages. that Queenie was having friends over if she killed her husband. This piece of the huckleberry coming of age, story might make her look innocent, but it was ten minutes before her . College Entry Essays? friends got there. Research Papers? She waited far too long to call an ambulance or the police. Anyone with any gumption would have immediately called for help and not waited for their friends to do anything.

It makes sense that she did not call right away if she killed him because she would be hiding evidence. The evidence found does not support Queenie’s claim. Death , KILL , Left-handedness 653 Words | 2 Pages. to break into song. The author also states how Critic Greg Ford described Same as “ risible and entry essays, fallible by virtue of resume dimhrs his over aggressiveness” and notes “ . his easily galled and consternated, anything-you-can-do-i-can-do-better desire to prove his gumption and gusto”(Adamson 180). McMurphy proves that he is the same way especially when he bets the college entry essays, other patients he will beat the nurse at her own game. Besides those same qualities, the essay protection, two characters also have a similar way of speaking. Both characters. Bugs Bunny , Daffy Duck , Gold Key Comics 753 Words | 2 Pages.

Should Huck Finn Be Taught in Schools Essay. set him under the trees again and huge his hat on a limb to show who done it (6). Jim’s story about the entry essays, witches shows his childlike, naive way of about thinking . developed from a life in college essays, slavery in which he was sheltered from knowledge. Jim’s lack of gumption allows Twain to fortify the patronizing racist stereotypes that had developed in the South at this time. How Mark Twain depicts Jim in research paper for much ado about nothing, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as well as Twain’s reasoning for college essays, doing so is a reason in and of itself why. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain , Nigger 691 Words | 2 Pages. of dentistry.

Students studying in the field of dentistry must study and have good knowledge of certain courses. One of these courses you must know is research paper nothing, . Biology. They must obtain the knowledge of plant and animal organisms, tier tissues, cell gumptions , interdependencies, and interaction with each other and the environment (MyPlan). Another area of knowledge is medicine and dentistry. In this study you must have a good understanding of the techniques needed when diagnosing and college entry, treating injuries. Dental floss , Dental hygienist , Dental plaque 743 Words | 2 Pages.

role as the oppressed daughter can relate to young girls and their strife with their parents. This is the similarities and differences of critical and creative, main reason the play is taught in lower level . English classes in high school. These young teenagers also can be inspired by Juliet and her gumption to take a stand against her parents’ and their demands of her. A normal, young woman in essays, her position would think twice before counter-arguing her parents. This shows a great deal of and differences and creative character and quick intellect in college, Juliet. Her boldness and about environmental protection, wit.

Characters in college, Romeo and Juliet , Count Paris , Juliet Capulet 2482 Words | 6 Pages. additional costs such as labor cost and transportation cost. If not managed thoroughly, they can militate as huge risks in terms of conducting sourcing. . 3) Advantages of global sourcing There are three major merits of finn coming performing global sourcing; gumption to changes, reduction of cost, and trade barriers avoidance. Essays? To begin with, global sourcing allows a firm to develop capacity to cope with changes in essay about environmental protection and conservation, market condition. College Essays? Importing numerous raw materials and research nothing, resources economically and steadily can be. Global sourcing , International trade , Management 1946 Words | 6 Pages.

Vol. 68 Issue 1, p 25, 3p, 2bw. 2) Gallagher, James. College Costs Continue to Rise Sharply. The (GA) Augusta Chronicle; 5/30/2004. 3) USA Today. Learn . about ways to pay college tuition. Sep. College? 14, 2004. 4) Hempel, Jessi. College Tuition?

Gumption Won't Cover It. Research Papers? Business Week, 5/31/2004, Issue 3885. 5) http://studentloan.citibank.com/slcsite/slcframeset.htm. Citicorp. Oct. College Essays? 26, 2004. Resume Dimhrs? 6) The Washington Post. Textbook Prices On the Rise. Sep. 18, 2004.

7) Stern, Linda. Congrats!?Now. College , College tuition , Community college 2391 Words | 6 Pages. pre-World War II Germany. Entry? H. Lucas Ginn states that there were more gay bars and periodicals in 1920 Berlin, the capitol of research papers management styles Gay Germany, than there were in entry, . Essay Going To Jail? 1980 New York. This movement was of course squashed by college entry essays, the Nazi persecutions. The bravery and gumption to participate in another such movement, one for huckleberry finn coming of age essay, people for who are cruelly considered fruits or dykes, this time in America, fell in part to Harvey Milk. During a battle to stop a proposition in California that would investigate and fire all possible.

Gay , Gay community , Harvey Milk 2435 Words | 6 Pages. Positive Behavior Support. She, along with other teachers, were involved in engaging students in positive activities and rewards for their grades and . behavior. College Entry Essays? I was intrigued by this, and if my school does not have such a program, I want to have the gumption to paper topics for much ado about create it for the better good. Also, if I am seeking to become a part of a community that is not within the school to get advice and tips from entry, other professionals, I could join groups online and be a part of the collaboration and discussion boards. Certified teacher , Child , Classroom 2210 Words | 5 Pages.

enough, and goes on to say that “it is research management, their husbands’ faults if wives do fall” to entry essays such temptations, and that they should know that “their wives have sense . Research Styles? like them” (120). Upon discovering that Othello has murdered Desdemona, only Emilia has the gumption to censure Othello for such a wrongful act, and she is also the only one with the wit to reveal Iago’s machinations as the impetus for it. Though she too pays for this boldness with her life, she dies with her dignity intact, providing some hope. Brabantio , Desdemona , Husband 2068 Words | 6 Pages. stuck in college essays, a boring waitress' job, while telling her that he is a bank robber. She asks him to resume dimhrs prove that he is not a faker, so he shows her his gun and, . Essays? immediately turned on by it's erotic dangerousness, dares him by saying, you wouldn't have the gumption to use it. To impress her, he lets her witness a robbery of a small town country store. brbrAs they make their getaway in a hot-wired car, he introduces himself as Clyde Barrow (played by Warren Beatty). She instantaneously smothers him with. Bonnie and essay to jail, Clyde , Frank Hamer , Henderson Jordan 2142 Words | 5 Pages. While the General Manager was speaking, this gentleman’s phone vibrated and he picked it up and essays, began to scroll through it fiercely.

I was embarrassed for . this man. Not only and conservation, was he tuned in to essays his cell phone when it wasn’t ringing, he had the gumption to completely direct his attention away from the General Manager and tune in to whatever was going on in cyberspace. Not only was he behaving quite rudely, his body language very well may have said “I don’t care what is going on coming of age essay, in this room right. Communication , Eye contact , Graphic communication 2827 Words | 7 Pages. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Essay.

(Kesey 255). Because the men had gone so long without drinking or having fun, they forgot how powerful laughter was. Once they rediscovered it, they are able . to move on with their lives. According to college entry Lupack, “McMurphy proves that he has the same gumption over and over, most explicitly in his bet with the other patients that he will beat the Big Nurse at going to jail, her own game” (Lupack 2). McMurphy’s ability to entry influence the men on the ward through laughter is something that helps the men to gain their own. Ken Kesey , Laughter , Laughter in about environmental and conservation, animals 2740 Words | 7 Pages. Watching what seems like a bunch of losers who have a ton of drama and problems tends to make one feel better about themselves and they lives they are . currently living does not seem so bad. This is an example of upword social comparison. It provides the gumption to make someone want to improve themselves. Reality television and the media depict things like if you are not as skinny as a supermodel then you are not skinny. This can be very damaging to one’s self esteem.

Therefore we watch shows like Honey. America's Next Top Model , Big Brother , Reality television 2889 Words | 7 Pages. units needed supervisors like what the company was founded on; managers who could be trusted and held accountable. If I was a partner in Andersen and . College? realized what was being committed, I would have tried to put an end to it. Maybe if someone had the gumption to stand up for what was right, many jobs could have been saved and investor’s money would not have been lost. Going? Enron, on the other hand, was dishonest from the college entry essays, beginning and research management styles, it was only a matter of time before the college, leaders were caught of wrong doings. Accounting scandals , Arthur Andersen , Conspiracy of Fools 2569 Words | 7 Pages. Roxanne be against the relationship she had going with Henry. Could it be a serious warning or just jealousy?

Days after the little chat she had with . Roxanne Vivian noticed a flicker of resentment in Roxanne’s eyes. Vivian finally got enough gumption or giggle water in her system to huckleberry ask John why Roxanne would say bad things about college entry Henry. Resume Dimhrs? It did not take any time for John to start telling her stories about all the relationship “skeletons” in Henry’s past – including Roxanne. Vivian could not believe. 1920s , Betsy-Tacy , Cosmetics 2773 Words | 7 Pages.

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It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for college enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and similarities thinking, marketing. After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for entry nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in research management, 2013.

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essay on steelpan The Creation of a People’s Music. William R. Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the college essays, expressed permission from author William R. Aho. Published in Latin American Music Review, Vol. 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.

Contents or portions of this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in any way without the expressed permission of the author. The focus of this paper is the class, color, and race components in research papers management the struggle to create a people’s music — a music originally and essentially of the economically disadvantaged and college less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of resume dimhrs African descent. It is essays based on interviews with former and present panmen and pan women in Trinidad and Tobago and also draws on government documents, newspapers, and personal observations during some sixteen months of fieldwork in Trinidad between 1972 and 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of interest to scholars for some time and has given rise to numerous books and scholarly articles and to several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Music, Ethnomusicology and The Black Perspective in Music). Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a community’s boundaries. He has also called attention to the conflict inherent in the social organization of huckleberry coming music (1984:34). Shepherd has observed that an elite musical establishment of college intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an inferior and huckleberry essay less desirable art form and entry essays that music’s value is and differences not a socially shaped reality but an entry essays ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. Essay About Environmental Protection And Conservation! In music, as in much else, writes Shepherd, the college entry essays, ruler’s ideas dominate (1977:1-2). Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in Trinidad’s steelband movement. Trinidad and Tobago is a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the coast of Venezuela.

A British Colony for 165 years and a Spanish one for going 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. Entry Essays! English is the official language (both a dialect and “Standard” English are spoken), and the literacy rate is management styles about 95 percent. Some Hindi and some French patois are spoken. Historically, there has been considerable social and cultural influence from entry essays French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Trinidad and Tobago’s citizens are Christian, about essay about environmental protection one-third of the total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. About the same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and Negro (the official term used there), about entry essays sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and topics for much about one percent is white. Mixed and college white people are generally believed to have a disproportionate share of the wealth, power, and social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. The late Dr. Eric Williams, Trinidad’s popular prime minister for 25 years and a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the members and supporters of the political party he led (the People’s National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just “pans” in Trinidad and Tobago. Beginning in the 1930s, they were created and research paper topics refined in the poorer sections of Trinidad’s capital, Port of entry Spain, by young men of similarities and differences and creative African heritage with little formal education or musical training.

At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and refinement, pitches were added by pounding in and out on the top surface of the drums, and drums of varying depths were created to entry, produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and versatile musical instruments. The small tenor pans may have up to going, 32 different pitches. Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and are tuned either by ear, with a tuning fork, or with an electronic tuning device. The small number of college skilled tuners and panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and a good ear. The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the drum cut down to of critical, the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by throwing water or oil over college entry essays, the drum while it is in a fire. According to a 1952 government report on the steelband movement, “The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the ‘tuner’ who, with his uncanny sense of ear, tempers and resume dimhrs pounds the metal until its notes respond to the tonal pattern deep in the recesses of his soul.” (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of steeldrums is not standardized, so it is usually not possible for two or more steelbands to play well together unless their drums have been tuned by the same person.

The number and position of the notes on the drums vary from tuner to tuner, and the pitches on some of the drums are not arranged in chromatic order, which facilitates striking the notes with the rubber-tipped sticks. Unlike the piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from high to low pitches. There is essays wide variation in research papers styles the types and combinations of entry steeldrums used in paper topics for much a given ensemble, depending on the occasion and the personal preferences of the band leaders and arrangers. Following are the basic types of drums and their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the melody pan or the ping-pong, approximates the soprano voice and plays the melody. It has from 28 to 32 pitches and is about six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about entry one-half inch longer than the single tenor. (c) The second pan is in the alto voice range and about eight inches in depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in a set of two drums, providing the upper register of chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and has about sixteen pitches. It is similarities and differences and creative about fourteen to sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.

(f) The cello pan is in the tenor voice range, about twenty-one inches in depth, and college essays played in sets of three, with eight, eight, and five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in sets of four, with two or three pitches on each drum. It is resume dimhrs about five inches shorter than the full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the full size of the oil drum and plays rhythm in entry essays sets of six or nine. Huckleberry Finn Coming Of Age Essay! Arranged on stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and a piece of steel or heavy iron (sometimes an college essays automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of steel or an iron bar. (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at the start of the resume dimhrs, movement, must attend long and college entry essays frequent rehearsals to memorize their parts for the repertoire. The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the environmental, traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and Class in Colonial Trinidad.

Class, color, and college essays race conflict over musical styles, preferences, instruments, and life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in research colonial Trinidad and continues in a milder form today. Entry! Although some see the conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and race have also played an important role. Essay About Protection! In British colonial Trinidad in essays the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and discrimination against people of African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in 1802: “The coloured militia officers…were stripped of their rank, the troops were racially segregated with…exofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to get police permission to research topics for much nothing, hold a ball and (had to) pay a discriminatory tax… A curfew at 9:30 P.M. was imposed on them, and when on the streets after dark they were obliged to carry a lighted torch.

They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on college entry essays the streets. Research Paper Ado About! Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials’ houses. The free coloureds were subjected to a whole battery of discriminatory’ laws designed to humiliate them and college essays cow them into submission.” (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for centuries in huckleberry Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of any sort of diversions that might “incite the passions” of black people. Dancing and drumming were seen as agan or immoral and as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for slave revolts. Drumming was outlawed in Jamaica in 1792 and in Tobago in college essays 1798. A 1797 law in Trinidad required police permission for the “ coloured classes” to have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and slaves could not even apply for such permission (1972:33). Even after Emancipation in 1834, white and coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. Essay About Environmental And Conservation! They felt it their duty to college essays, rid the country of about and conservation what they considered “barbaric customs” (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in social and religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and the elites considered noise of college that kind to be primitive. Drumming was important also to Trinidad’s East Indians, so this was an resume dimhrs instance of cultural as well as class and racial repression.

The government-introduced Music Bill of 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the attitude of entry many government officials. It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the playing of European instruments by license. Between 6 and 10 P.M. drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). An 1883 ordinance outlawed “singing, dancing, drumming and other music-making by …rogues and vagabonds or incorrigible rogues” and called for the punishment of the owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to Ordinance No. 6 of 1868). About Environmental And Conservation! So vital is the drumming tradition that measures to restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in college Trinidad. Between 1881 and 1891, there were several violent clashes between the police and the people, both East Indians and those of about African heritage, over the use of entry drums in religious and social observances. In one of these, twelve persons were killed and over 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. In the early 1900s, the “tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.

Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of resume dimhrs various lengths and diameters were struck against each other, with sticks, or against the ground to produce sounds of varying pitch. Entry! Bottles and spoons were used for higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and refinement of the steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the resume dimhrs, early tamboo-bamboo sounds and entry the beginnings of the steeldrums: “Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the bandsmen thumping bamboos on the raw pitch, the asphalt on the street. I used to styles, stand at the top of my father’s shop front and look down into the street and see all the goings on of early carnival… I remember the sounds. College Entry! Maybe this is where the African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums… They also had some skin drums. This was also the early beginnings of steelbands.” (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is a calypso singer of international reputation and a historian of Trinidad’s folk music. When I interviewed him in 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in Trinidad had been beating on metal and tin for some years before the steel drum itself was created: “Long ago and to some extent up to now, children used to get together on Good Friday and make an effigy of Judas.

The children would collect all the old cooking utensils—empty milk tins, pieces of iron, pitch-oil tins, and garbage pans or dust bins would be “ borrowed “ for the occasion. They would march back and forth through the district beating their pans while they sang …and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is now known as the steelband, even up to the middle 1940s, before they started to discover notes and produce bits and pieces of melody.” (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of a tamboo bamboo band led by David Leach, from research paper topics nothing George Street in Port of essays Spain, “would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of papers steel from the ‘smith shop in George Street, and any cooking utensil they could find and proceed to beat it in time with the rhythm of the college essays, tamboo-bamboo” (ibid. :3). There are several versions about when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the steeldrum. Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and the organizer and leader for many years of the Casablanca steelband, claims that: “ …way back in research 1935 they had the college entry essays, tamboo-bamboo and playing on of age essay the road, by an accident, one of the leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the bamboos. College! That bamboo happened to break, and in research nothing the excitement and the heat of essays it he wanted something to research, beat. He then run across the road and college entry essays take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the dustbin cover they found out really the essay to jail, dustbin cover had a more stinging and more rhythm sound than the bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on college entry that particular band from Newtown, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, they then went back and they start looking for pans …old paint pans and so on and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.

Whilst they was at that, Gonzalez (a district in essay going Port of Spain) went and college entry start making pans and getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and so on, and this was the birth of the steelbands.” (1983:6) The crucial point in the transition from bamboo to similarities of critical and creative, steel is probably when different pitches were added to the metal drums and melodies could be played on them. There is a consensus that the first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by college entry essays accident, and that one of the research papers styles, first, if not the first, to add notes and play recognizable songs was the entry essays, late Winston “Spree Simon, who is accepted by many Trinidadians as the “father” of steelband music. Here is his version of how notes were added to research paper for much ado about nothing, the crude pans: “I had lent this drum and on coming back to retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in so badly that it had taken on a concave appearance. Essays! Now I just took the drum and research topics for much ado about went on the side of the road and college entry tried to get back the face of the drum to its normal surface. By pounding on the inside with a stone and a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to get four distinct notes, which enabled me to play something of a bugle call—and therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call).” (Martin, 1981)

Steelband music—the discovery and evolution of the instrument itself, the bands that played it, and the entire social organization of the band, its followers and supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the resume dimhrs, entire community where the band was based—was a product of the college, underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by people of similarities and differences and creative African heritage. Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in the customary areas of achievement— education, job, or career—so they channeled their energies and talents into whatever areas were available to them, in spite of, in some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and elites. In the case of steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of their own creation, to express themselves and to define an acceptable and essays comfortable social location for themselves in their own eyes, in the eyes of their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the Desperadoes steelband during the 1940s and 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and resume dimhrs social conditions of the early band members: “Those were the colonial days and …the boys didn’t have much education …they just reached of age for primary school and they left and essays were all unemployed, without a skill… The steelband was the only pursuit at the time a young man could have involved himself in and sort of gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Desperadoes or the Laventille Hill and you go to and differences thinking, another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected.” (1983:3) At the time that the steel drum was being refined, in the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and labor unrest in Trinidad. There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and oil field workers. College Entry! There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. The workers and unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in hiring, pay, and promotions.

There was an and differences of critical thinking awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of exploitation by college entry essays British and other foreign investors in huckleberry coming of age essay Trinidad’s oil companies, sugar estates, and other enterprises. Entry! The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, unopposed by finn coming the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the West Indies to black nationalism and support for Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). During the mid-1930s in Trinidad, a group of entry essays writers and intellectuals started a literary and artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and the poor and huckleberry finn of age repressed in entry general. This entire political, social, artistic, and intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at the least, was very consistent with the development of the newly-emerging steel drum as an innovative musical creation of poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in their self-image, is reflected in an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the arts, and politician, the late Albert Gomes. As a high-ranking government official in similarities and differences of critical and creative thinking the early 1950s, he was asked by the girl friend of a young pan player condemned to hang for murder to intervene on his behalf. Gomes saw the youth and learned that he had killed another young man in a rage because the man had told him that he didn’t know anything about steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in poetry as well as prose in Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by college entry essays Paul Keens-Douglas, show:

Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus’ piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of hard, dry Trinidad soil . . . De pans was playin’ When George dead dat nite, Beatin’ de dark wit’ notes so sweet. Ah fittin’ death for resume dimhrs Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An’ more dan dat ah steelban’ man. An’ now Sugar dead an’ gone. An’ ah see him lyin’ dey on de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,

As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to understand … Before he dead he say ‘beat pan.’ So dey beat when he sick, An’ dey beat when he dyin’

An’ dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in Trinidad play. An’ ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin’ softly, softly, An’ Sugar laughin’ …’’ (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the lives of steelbandsmen at their deaths is not confined to poetic representations but is a fact of real life in Trinidad. When Rudolph Charles, the essays, leader of the Desperadoes steelband, died in 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the late prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. The media mourned him as a national hero, and his body was drawn through the streets of Port of Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.

Thousands jammed the downtown square and the cathedral where his funeral was held. It was attended by the country’s leaders and by similarities of critical and creative the people he had loved and served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by helicopter over Laventille Hill, home base of the Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in the other arts. Patrick Chu-Foon’s sculpture Tribute to the Steelband in entry Port of Spain, Errol Hill’s drama The Ping-Pong, and going the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by Boscoe Holder are just three of the entry essays, better-known examples. Research Papers Management! An example of the enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in their bands was revealed to me at a professional meeting by entry a Trinidadian university professor employed in Canada. He showed me his band’s symbolic tattoo on his arm and seemed as proud of research papers that as of college entry essays his Ph.D. degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the Role of the Steelband in huckleberry finn the National Life reported that the steelband movement brought not only entry essays a knowledge of music to its adherents: “It contributed the discipline of band organization and of steady practice to persons who might never have had such opportunities to acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to proper adjustment to a progressive role in research topics nothing society. Entry Essays! Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the research ado about nothing, leader of the steelband is a member of the Village Council.

There appears also to college essays, be great willingness on the part of the and differences and creative, Village Council to cooperate in such things as the putting on college entry of concerts involving the steelband and the loan of the Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands… Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for musical enjoyment. The urban bands have become quite commercialized and specialized and as a result do not form as integral a part of community life as do the Village bands (with the essay going, exception of Desperadoes and Casablanca).”(1965:9,11) These findings point out an entry important factor—that at least some of the urban bands, and many, perhaps most, of the rural ones, play an important role in the community. It is important to realize that the essay to jail, two or three large bands are from poor communities with little else to college essays, enhance their images. The community band is a source of styles pride to the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and devotes time and energy to making it successful. Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. It is an college essays important social organization in the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an important focus of social activity. Research Management Styles! Furthermore, the leader of a community band may well be an important community leader, as well as act as an intermediary with government officials and the police and civil servants. Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in obtaining jobs for community residents, get them out of trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the late Rudolph Charles of college entry essays Desperadoes.

Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: “The panyard of Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the lofty heights of Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of Port of Spain. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of traditional design and paper for much ado about others of futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the contours of the hill’s peak. Pan is a way of entry life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the lifeblood for this vibrant and creative community… Beside being the band’s captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the band’s low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill.” (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Rudolph Charles’s funeral, claimed that, “Rudy was the Moses of the people of Laventille. We do not even need the police there. Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all.” (Piggott, 1985:3). Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to Charles as “the beacon on Laventille Hill …a lighthouse signal to the forces of papers management styles innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from his peers.” (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to Charles as “a fallen leader—appointed African style by entry essays a council of elders” and essay going to jail as “the General of one of urban Trinidad’s most African populations.

His life symbolized unity and continuity to the people of Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and college essays renewed commitment to the steelband movement.” (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and essay about protection and conservation community leader. In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles’ Desperadoes band, it was observed that: “Charles was an exceptional leader. Dynamic, with personal magnetism and college essays good managerial talents. It was hard to refuse him what he asked for his band. He was a genius in steelband, an innovator. He built discipline in the band, although some of this was achieved through brute force. The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and he was its undisputed leader.

He dispensed money and aid on essay the Hill like a politician.” (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an inventive brain, and that though he used physical strength at times to enforce discipline, he was accepted and respected. “He would intervene in court and at police stations to help his followers. Entry! The doors of similarities of critical and creative thinking government ministries were open to him. He was a skillful manager and a born leader. He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the last several years in Los Angeles. He worked with the village elders, outside the college entry, legitimate county council.” (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).

Not all of the people in the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Some had adopted the attitudes and to jail values of the ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and the entertainments of the poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didn’t want their children hanging out with the rough crowd that frequented the panyards in the early years. Many of the college essays, men there engaged in topics ado about nothing gambling, drinking, carousing, and physical fighting and were generally thought to be a bad element—”badjohns” in Trinidad parlance— who were often in trouble with the law. Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, “I didn’t have to ask my mother’s permission to entry, play pan. I knew her well enough to know that I would be able to hang around pan and panmen only over for much ado about nothing, her dead body” (Marshall, 1972, Vol. 2, No. 1:8). He recalled also that teachers would warn students about hanging around the college entry, panmen, but the panyard was on the path he took to and from school and paper for much he could hear the sounds of the panyard from his schoolroom. “So, in college essays spite of everything we hung around and I came to essay, know Spree (Simon) …and others.” (ibid., No.

2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to represent the dominant middle-class view of steelbands today in Trinidad. At present, they are seen as a unique and creative cultural achievement in which all Trinidadians can take pride. College Entry! This view evolved due to several factors to be discussed later. Unlike an earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and musicians is minimal. About Protection And Conservation! Rather, there is a general feeling of respect and pride for those involved in Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in the Steelband Movement. During the heyday of the steelband era, from roughly 1945 to 1965, there was considerable violence in the movement. There was violence between bands and college between bands and the police. It is generally accepted that the police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the bands made, parading on and conservation the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to use as instruments, and the steeldrum’s lack of acceptance by the government, ruling classes, and police as a legitimate musical instrument. Some also believe the entry essays, police simply harassed people living in the poorer districts. Essay To Jail! Inter-band rivalry was related to territoriality, arguments over girl friends, accusations of college theft of each others’ tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and supporters, or even accident, when, for papers management instance, a bottle was thrown by entry essays someone unrelated to either band.

The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the Canon Farquhar Committee, is instructive in this regard: “The steelband is essentially a creation of the about and conservation, masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and general lack of opportunity for recreation and cultural expression. It was as if in unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to make a distinctive contribution to the cultural life of the West Indies. The typical steelband population is predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of East Indians. To them the steelband is not merely another local institution: it is a way of life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of dress, manner of speech, style of walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and norms of their own. Entry! Unfortunately, however, this unique form of music-making was characterized by feuds between rival bands. These clashes were invariably instigated by and centered around the young women of ill repute who followed the bands. There was, too, that element of what might be described as professional jealousy. These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in the interest of society police intervention became necessary. A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by sensational headlines in the local press, and the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the characteristics of an outlawed minority group. The movement became a menace; clashes developed into pitched battles in which weapons ranging from resume dimhrs sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and cutlasses were brought to bear with an alarming disregard for college human life and property.

There were two fatal woundings. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Police action became more decisive, though at times positively unimaginative, and whole bands and even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas.” (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to essay about protection and conservation, Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and players frog-marched to prison cells (1974:99). Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in the past—the Shouters religion, the calypso singers, and the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by the poor and the blacks. Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of entry essays this era when he wrote that: “…those were the days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to uphold it sovereignty. Those were the going to jail, war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to be safe, if you came from Belmont, you didn’t let night catch you in essays St.

James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didn’t go up Laventille; and if you lived in Morvant, you passed San Juan straight.” (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you’ sister talk to a steelband man.

De family want to break she hand. Lick every teet’ out she mout’ Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of Paul Keens-Douglas’ previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the defensive side of and differences and creative thinking steelband clashes and college essays the concern of panmen for their instruments: An’ in those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to fight. There was no one to pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an’ he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,

For he only fight when he had to. An’ only because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an’ band clash, Sugar take care of he pan first. Like ah baby he used to wrap it up an’ hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in de bush; An’ woe to de man who touch. De pan of Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the incessant noisy practicing, often at times when people wanted peace and quiet.

The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in towns, but up in the hills somewhere. Thus, the police restricted the beating to specific hours (1983:3). Further, recalls Hill: “We always jumped up behind these bands on similarities and differences of critical thinking Carnival Day …and I have been in several …where a rival band is entry coming and they’re actually in a no-man’s land and you can feel the tension in the band as they came closer and closer and closer but no one would leave. On one occasion the bands actually crossed each other on the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybody’s looking and the eyes come out all over your head, looking around to see what’s gonna happen. Essay Going! Occasionally at entry, that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the last thing you’d want to happen because it would immediately be felt that it’s coming from going to jail one of the enemy and all hell would break loose.” (ibid.) The roots of some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to earlier times. According to Ralph Araujo: “In those days, the days of the Great Depression, youth in Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of factional bitterness. Belmont was the center of our lives. Woodbrook was a place where we had to change tramcars. it lay in a direction in essays which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of new girlfriends—and it is interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and Belmont strains.

It was a standing joke…that Belmont boys never married Belmont girls—as we told the girls, they were too “own way.” This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to have created a certain amount of friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and paper topics ado about Newtown boys on the one hand and Belmont boys on entry essays the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in huckleberry finn coming of age that era.”(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and early president of the Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that “turf clashes preceded the college entry essays, development of steelbands and underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the police in any event.” (1983:7). In the eulogy delivered for Wilfred “Speaker” Harrison, early leader of the finn coming of age, Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: “insisted that the early Despers all have tatoos on their backs, chests or forearms, which was to indicate Life Membership, and be given code names. Essays! He was referred to paper nothing, as The Dresden, and on the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in charge of Central Intelligence, Despers. He organized battle practice sessions…for all the men he would select to operate with him in launching attacks on the enemy.” At the height of the violent steelband era, it was not only the government, police, and college essays elites in Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. A calypso of the time advised the government to “ …give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to change their mind. With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to surrender.” (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: “So much different things used to cause them.

A woman from of critical and creative thinking one band, she have a man from essays one bnd and resume dimhrs probably see a next guy from entry a next band. That is one of the factors. Then…sometimes …like tunes bands playing—this band playing this tune say the next one take their tune. Resume Dimhrs! In a dance where drinks is concerned— anything, anything at all, because that was a era that violence was very high. So anything could start a fight.” (1983:4)

Concerning the weapons used in clashes, Tony Slater states that, “bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun …a lot of people get damaged, a lot of instruments get damaged; ‘67 was the worst, it was a total wreck. All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of jealousy.” (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: “There was a certain amount of turf rivalry, which there is in any type of group activity. For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the college essays, Rock and guys said, ‘You’re from Belmont and similarities and differences thinking you should not be walking in entry essays Woodbrook.’ It had nothing to do with the quality of your music, it had nothing to coming of age, do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Invaders so that the boy from Desperadoes got annoyed. My experience in 1953 when steelbands were asked to come on the road for college the coronation of Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. Huckleberry Of Age Essay! It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Some little incident sparked it off and it got real messy.

You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to me got his cheek cut open with a razor. That was the scariest part, you just saw the flesh part and you saw the teeth and a couple minutes after, the blood. Entry Essays! One guy came charging at me with what looked like a piece of a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and resume dimhrs all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the bridge of college essays his nose and that I remember also seeing the bone just go white and essay to jail the guy’s eyes closed and he flaked out and I disappeared. College! But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Within minutes there were sirens and everybody scattered.

Nor were there any sort of vindictive feelings in that particular battle.” (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in finn essay Trinidad, and many movies with violent war, gangster, and Western themes. The steelbands took on some of the college entry essays, films’ names, individual steelbandsmen took actors’ names for their nicknames and emulated actors’ behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of these movie-inspired names. Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: “ …those were the days when we used to see a lot of these films with Back to Bataan and Robert Taylor and Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of them just lived in the cinema in those days. Resume Dimhrs! Most of college entry essays them didn’t work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of similarities and creative thinking wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to go to the next matinee and college essays after seeing a good war picture they want to do the same thing, and this is research paper topics for much ado about what caused a lot of thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.

It was like a game. College Essays! You would see fellas go up and resume dimhrs say, ‘Look, we going up to beat Casablanca tonight. Essays! Invaders, we going and beat the Invaders.’ You hear how the essay about environmental protection and conservation, names are, all war names. College! Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and so and they meet on this corner. Men used to walk with razors in their waist.” (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an important one, a source of identity for many young Trinidadian males that had to be maintained, even if only as a front. Bertie Marshall reports, “I cultivated my badjohn image.

But my badjohnism was a pose really. Still, it was necessary to cultivate the image. And I managed to do this yet at huckleberry finn coming, the same time keeping my hands clean—except for a couple of gambling cases which were no big thing, really. But the image was an important thing in college those days.” (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. 5:9) Positive Influences of the Steelband Movement. Not all of the experiences of the steelband movement were negative. There are success stories on resume dimhrs all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in 1983: “I have to be very grateful to steelband.

Because I left this country in college entry 1956 . and going to jail lived in the UK and up to this day I am making a living from steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the whole of Europe, the Middle East, Far East, and still playing.” (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for personal growth and college entry essays the development of leadership skills that they found useful in other areas of topics for much their lives. Curtis Pierre, in response to an open-ended query about steelband, said that: “A lot of the distance I’ve covered in entry essays my life both in terms of essay about a businessman, as a father, as an organizer, I can safely say that the essays, experience I’ve gained, I owe it completely to my exposure in the steelband world. I’ve learned how to deal with people, I’ve learned how to handle people, I’ve learned how to take insults, I’ve learned how to of critical, give. You know, it is really a forge for straightening out your whole approach to life.” (1983:10) George Yeates reports on a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the police-band violence of the early steelband era: “I had been able to command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the police, because most of the essays, time the police would come and call me and ask me to go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.

Superintendent Barnes would always come and call me to go speak to both sides because when it came to Despers, and research paper for much I held the college entry, reins of Despers, I would try to going to jail, keep them out of any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in the band that I run because I am thinking in entry preparing the band for the music festival and improving the arts, improving the instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.”(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of Steelbands. A precise ordering of the factors that influenced the gradual acceptance of steelband music is huckleberry finn of age not possible, since they overlapped and since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the chronology of events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about acceptance in another area. The factors contributing to steelbands’ greater acceptance include the following: 1. Acceptance by several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and college entry essays politicians. 2. Papers Styles! Government concern, expressed in committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Commercial sponsorship. 4. College! Successful exportation to and enthusiastic reception of essay to jail steel bands in foreign countries.

5. College Entry Essays! Open support from the about environmental protection, People’s National Movement political party. 6. Involvement in the bands of white, light-skinned, and entry essays better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in the instruments. 8. The playing of semi-classical and resume dimhrs classical music. 9. Involvement of steelbands in college music festivals, in churches, at funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.

10. A resurgence of Black Power and pride in the early 1970s. Support of Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to huckleberry finn coming essay, gain social acceptance of steelband music, instruments, players, and supporters. Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the tide of popular and official opinion of steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. Essays! He was “frequently at the office of the Commissioner of Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against provocative acts by the police.

But the police were no more than instruments of the prevailing prejudice… The root cause of resume dimhrs it all was intense class feeling.” (Gomes, 1974:99). At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to which he had just been elected, Gomes said, “Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves …and that the music should belong to one particular class… Personally, while I sit and college entry enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to the fact that we have got to live among a people …of divers races and creeds, and that we cannot fit these in a particular design.” (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the finn essay, steelband movement. Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the essays, Invaders steelband into her theater for a performance in 1948 and also got a number of middle-class young men and to jail women involved in steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: “ …the government appointed a committee in November of 1949 to investigate the implications of the (steelband) problem and in April of 1950 the college entry, steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and research management styles Tobago Steel Bands Association… With the setting up of machinery for negotiating with the Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the steelband is now known, is no longer regarded as an college entry outlawed nuisance. These orchestras perform at social clubs, hotels, concerts and dances and, in essay and conservation many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.

It is college entry essays hopefully significant too, to observe the research for much nothing, formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of both sexes.” (Farquhar, 1952:5). College! A major concern of the committee was expressed in its findings: “The cohesion and unity inherent in the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and research paper topics directed into college entry essays constructive channels. Resume Dimhrs! The steelband movement is a people’s movement. It has captured the imagination and energies of the youth of our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and recreational interests can be advantageously organized. The steelband movement and entry the problems which stem from environmental protection and conservation it must he viewed as an integral part of the general pattern of social and college entry essays economic life peculiar to the masses of the colony. In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is resume dimhrs imperative need for an awakening of a national sense of community responsibility.” (ibid.: n.p.)

Although the 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the college entry, Steelband Association’s leadership and cooperation, it could observe that: “ …the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the similarities and differences of critical, social situation in respect of gang warfare and that the college entry essays, Association (which was formed partly for that purpose) and coming essay the National Steelband have improved the situation in entry respect of coming of age essay inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the steelbands as such pose no problem to the peace and essays order of society” (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended “continuing most vigorously the struggle for social acceptance of the Steelband Movement at home and acceptance and recognition of the movement abroad.” Commercial sponsorship of the bands was another, to some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Resume Dimhrs! Nevertheless, the bands needed the legitimacy, status, funding, and perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in the 1950s. They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the drums themselves, and the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and public relations benefits. They sometimes sent the bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, “From then onwards, this is where I can say that Despers has been the trendsetters…for good behavior in essays the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to fight…they were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of held them.” (1983:7)

Other panmen expressed their views on research papers management the role of sponsorship in the steelband movement. Curtis Pierre thought: “It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the underprivileged, when this thing started to evolve and the costs started to go up, the bands who had a sponsor …you found that those bands were better. College Entry! And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and resume dimhrs the government got onto entry it and decided, ‘Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to the business community to sponsor their bands.’ So from a devious motive came a very good end result. It went out of control in the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for a band.” (I983:4) “Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the tension). To me it give and it takes. Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. Resume Dimhrs! And a lot of essays bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.

Sponsors have done a lot. They needed money to progress and of critical and creative sponsorship assisted a lot of bands to progress. Essays! Some bands don’t need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the bands with sponsors, those are the progressive bands today.” (1963:8). Pat Chu-Foon’s opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: “Well, long after when they settle down properly and they were like gentlemen of pan, and pan started to make history in for much Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to assist to choose sponsorships here and college entry essays there.” (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in fact, until after the successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in the increasing acceptance of steelband music was its exportation to other countries.

In 1951, under the sponsorship of the Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to play at the Festival of Britain, and to France. Research Styles! The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the band “convincingly demonstrated the entry, possibilities of the steel orchestras as a distinct and original contribution to the field of music.” (1952:n.p.). Errol Hill has observed that: “They were very successful, and once the pan became recognized as a new kind of musical form in England, then the local population had to accept it. Once people outside said, ‘this is great, there’s something here that needs development.’ “(1983:5) Led by police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the band amazed the European audiences. A London correspondent wrote: “People smiled indulgently as the rusty pans were rolled off the research paper topics for much ado about nothing, cart and set up. It seemed impossible that music could come out of such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and the band swung into Mambojambo. College! Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the topics nothing, music.” (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Manchester Guardian found the band’s playing of entry Toselli’s Serenade “equal to finn coming of age, anything that a first-class band could offer. College Essays! The playing is wonderfully skilled.” (ibid. :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. And Creative Thinking! There is a U.S.

Navy steelband organized with the help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in the United States, and other Trinidadian promoters. This spread is at once the essays, result of, and evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the People’s National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. “After 1956, with the coming to power of Williams’ People’s National Movement, we saw a change in the whole psychology of the people. They had at last got in essay about environmental protection and conservation a government of their own that purported to represent the people. They were moving toward self-government.

It was necessary to establish an indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to find those elements of our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and Tobago. The calypso was one, the steelband was another. And I think as a result of this that the steelband began to come into its own.” (1983:8-9) J. College Entry! D. Elder supports this view: “The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the demonstration, at State level, of the admission that Trinidad popular music and musical festivals are elements of a high order in the national culture and that government has responsibility to so recognize it and give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is vitalizing; it has been effective in raising to a high status not only the traditional music…but it has also elevated the total folk cultural complex to a status never known in the past. Folklore in all its forms has suddenly attained an attractive status. This new awakening in the whole society to the fact that the topics nothing, folk and their art and college craft are important, must be put down squarely to the new attitude of government.”(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, “the PNM had an papers management appeal for the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the steelbands. Steel bandsmen became the unofficial ‘army’ of the PNM in 1956.” (1982:391). George Yeates, in a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to simply move in college entry essays and play in an area in support of resume dimhrs a political candidate, that could almost assure election.

They could do this even without a police permit to play. Entry! The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in any event, would not want to shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. Similarities And Creative Thinking! And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in the PNM areas prospered after they came to power, but then so did many others, because of the cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the PNM does get Despers and other bands to essays, help it. About Protection! The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and they take people to the polls. A political party split in essays one band caused bloodshed before the election, and for some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the PNM Band, because they played at everything the PNM had in Laventille. The PNM office was near their practice yard, and although the PNM officials always praised the band and promised to help them, “I have never gotten any of the things promised me by members of of critical government over the last fifteen or sixteen years. Still, we played as the PNM Band.” (Marshall, Vol.

2, No. 4:4). Although the evidence is mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and bands play with respect to each other, Curtis Pierre points out that, clearly, the steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: “You would look at the number of bands and they are made up of essays fifty guys each, and each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in his family. If you get hold of some of research management styles those bands and you multiply by essays forty and then multiply by five, you have a sizable voting population.” (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the research for much, Middle Class. The acceptance of steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over college entry essays, the strenuous objections of their parents, teachers, friends, and relatives. Curtis Pierre became involved in going to jail 1949: “I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from my parents, ‘What the essays, hell you doing with this thing here? I don’t care who plays that. This is the underprivileged.’” (1983:1).

The grouping in my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of thing was just not done by people in to jail that class” (ibid. :2). Pierre attributes to his group the change in the degree to which steelbandsmen and women are accepted in society: “We have been told it’s because of our group…that …’ You fellas made a breakthrough. College Entry! You guys don’t realize what you did. You fought society and you said, We’re going to make this thing great’”(1983:3). Concerning the racial makeup of his band, Dixieland, he says that, “it could be considered what the people here would call fair-skinned boys. And there was not a predominance of Negroes in it at all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in those days. And that’s true, middle class had a certain color. It no longer applies today… These boys from the best schools,…you found they were all fair-skinned.” (ibid. :6).

Teacher, pan player, and arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about when people like myself, who might have the benefit of huckleberry of age essay a secondary school education, began to come into the bands. So people began to college entry, look, the public at large began to look at paper for much ado about, it a little differently.” (1983:3). The principal of my college, Queen’s Royal College, was an English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. Essays! He couldn’t really understand how I could get involved in that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at the time.” (ibid.:6). Research For Much! The band he joined at age thirteen, the college essays, Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: “They were very glad to have us.

It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and we had a privileged place in the band. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to follow the crowd. But following the crowd for me didn’t mean getting involved in violence. It just meant playing pan…having a good time within the limits of certain standards. I saw my role should have been to try to uplift them, rather than my coming down. This is how I saw it.” (ibid.:7-8).

George Goddard believes that only when middle-class youth began being brought up on charges before the police magistrates did public concern over steelband grow and efforts begin to “reform” the movement and work with it. Resume Dimhrs! This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the Committee on the Role of Steelband in college entry essays National Life reported that much of the struggle for social acceptance has been fought by persons outside of the groups from research ado about nothing which the original steelbands sprang: “The efforts…of Dixieland (a group of the entry essays, St. Topics! Mary’s pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of entry teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the early 1950s. Now we find that there is an appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in the Steelband Movement and research papers management the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in our society as middle class.

Racial integration has perhaps been the most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Entry Essays! Born in circumstances rather confined to one ethnic group—the Negro—it has spread to every ethnic group in society…We have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the coming of age, population…The steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to the integration of the races.” (1965:10) Changes in the Repertoire and Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the instruments became more refined and melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and semi-classical music, and as they performed at college entry, local and foreign music festivals and competitions, in churches, at weddings, and at middle and upper class social gatherings. Curtis Pierre believes that the music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to improvements in the instruments.

“The instruments can be tuned better and research papers styles you can afford a better class of arrangers, musically, and college entry essays they’re not afraid to tackle any type of music. When that kind of music is played, it will naturally attract a more curious and probably a better style of individual to play.” (1983:8-9). Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to learn to play the classics in order to use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of their instruments and huckleberry finn of age essay their own abilities, not to please others or to be more accepted by them. They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and arranger Pat Bishop points out that at first the playing of classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. They were shocked that such “lofty” music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the steel drum unworthy of the effort. But the pan players persisted and gradually their music was accepted. (1985:2). According to Scoon, compared to college, the early days of the steeldrum, the sound of today’s instruments is to jail far more refined, mellower in tone, and there is a much wider range of college pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of going drum, and the repertoire consisted primarily of calypsoes and Latin music. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of college entry essays arrangements used.

Considerable talent and research styles ingenuity in tuning and designing the instruments has evolved, and more is known about working the metal and tempering it. The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Essays! Influences from jazz and fusion and constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to resume dimhrs, verify the observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to engage in sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to maintain and increase the latter’s interest and support by striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and entry essays a broader repertoire. They were also motivated by their own inner desire to stretch their talents and the potential of their instruments by taking on more challenging musical scores and of critical and creative thinking showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and entry the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and essay going an instrument of humble origins. The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at first informally and then more formally at competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in steelband music to college entry essays, expand and excel. The middle-class social contexts in which they were asked to essay, play also had an impact on the kinds of music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of these, Dr. Sydney Northcote from England, at first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to hail the music as “truly astonishing.” In 1956 he commented that “their performance was orchestral in every way.

The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the playing of a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of college acquiring with the steelband an orchestral precision.” (Hill, 1972:52). The enthusiastic reception of about and conservation steelbands by the U.S. armed forces stationed in Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in the carnival celebrations. Today it is entry not unusual in Trinidad to hear and see live steelband music in of age essay church services, at college, funerals, at wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to the high costs of steel bands, competition from U.S. And Differences Of Critical! music styles, and the bands’ more limited repertoire (they have largely become “one-tune bands” for the annual carnival steelband competition). Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for their employees, and children’s steel bands. Summary and Analysis of Factors of Social Change. The gradual acceptance of steelband music seems to have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by essays social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and huckleberry finn coming favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for acceptance, tolerance, change, and involvement.

Government concern led to the formation of a steelband association of concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the general citizenry. After foreign acceptance of the music and the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in college entry essays the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and even excelling at going, it, involvement in college it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). Politically and historically the mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and West Indian identity and pride. Essay Protection And Conservation! Great Britain was granting independence to its colonies. Local political leaders needed and wanted the support of the masses and essays would not have been wise to oppose a form of musical and cultural expression that was so vital to papers management styles, their identity. As the college, instruments developed a more refined and mellow tone, and as they were used to play semi-classical and classical pieces, the middle classes slowly began to accept them.

Because their social and personal identities had been so closely linked to steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the greater involvement of government and the middle class. Generally though, because of greater involvement in formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the era of the rise of the resume dimhrs, steel bands, and they developed alternate and supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to essays, have benefited from the involvement of the middle classes because sponsorship and support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and tuners, as well as to purchase quality instruments and uniforms, and at times to resume dimhrs, travel abroad. This is a question on which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. Their role in the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the steel bands playing while they are parading.

The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of moving on entry the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to essay going, hinder their effectiveness at carnival. They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by disc jockeys. Panorama, the steelband competition at carnival, has caused bands to focus on essays one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for ftes and other social events. The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the whole carnival and not just one part of it. Research Ado About Nothing! Some bandsmen will move from a band unsuccessful in the preliminary rounds of the competition to play for bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the essays, legendary loyalty to a particular band has decreased. Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and and differences and creative thinking command very high salaries for preparing music for essays the annual Panorama competition. Resume Dimhrs! Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to support a band and $100,000 is not uncommon. The players do not earn much money, the bulk going to the captains and arrangers. In 1985 the Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to college entry essays, fte promoters to hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to support their national heritage throughout the year (Obika, 1985:1). It is hard to similarities of critical and creative thinking, keep bands together throughout the year. Some feel that drug use is part of this problem; others point out essays, that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in essay going school), and television.

More people play alternate roles in entry essays society and find the pan player role merely subsidiary. Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of resume dimhrs players from the schools and in return provide pan instruction in their panyards. Entry Essays! Pan seems to reflect less cultural and national pride today. Essay About Protection! More panmen need and want pay. Curtis Pierre contends that today’s steelbands are too large to be hired for social events such as weddings or ftes. He feels they should number about fifteen players and use amplifiers to cut the costs and increase bookings (1983:8).

Socioeconomic class, color, and race have affected the creation and evolution of steelband music in Trinidad and college Tobago. African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by the British colonial government and later by resume dimhrs many elite or status-seeking black and colored persons who wished to college entry, disassociate themselves from the music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidad’s poor urban masses of African heritage. Because the instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to symbolize important, even vital, forms of cultural and racial expression, the poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and papers styles eventually winning the support, encouragement, and active assistance of a few key people in Trinidad and college entry abroad. The organization of the bands provided needed social roles for players and opportunities for bandleaders to develop and demonstrate leadership skills and thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Huckleberry Finn Coming Essay! Not all of this leadership was channeled into entry violent conflicts with other bands or the police, and many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in work or life in general. Resume Dimhrs! Their self-image, as well as that of the players, was enhanced by their roles in college the steelband. As the steelbands gained favor both at home and abroad, they were viewed as symbols of going to jail individual, racial, community, and national pride and as a unique creative accomplishment. As recognition from college entry abroad grew so too did support at home from finn coming essay higher-status persons. The several factors that contributed to the gradually increased acceptance of the bands, the players, their instruments, and music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at the expense of the bands’ independence and entry that it came about only after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands’ behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and higher-status people had joined the and differences and creative thinking, movement and college the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on its own merits, but was changed by those who could confer legitimacy and higher status on it. Paget Henry, writing on essay to jail decolonization and college entry neocolonialism, has observed that there is a locally rooted demand for foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. As a result of colonial domination, the colonized ceased to have an easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.

Elements of it had now been systematically imposed from without. Similarities And Differences And Creative! (Henry and Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the demand for the words, songs, ideas, and college entry essays other products of the of critical, local cultural system. There was a greater demand for foreign cultural products. Decolonization only essays partially uprooted the essay going, set of social and essays psychological processes that generated the demand for imported culture. The demand for foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the cultural system is the institutionalization of a growing American presence (ibid.:117). This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and musicians blame the lack of resume dimhrs what they consider sufficient local support for the steelband on entry the influx of American music and lifestyle in general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to research, “live like Yankees” at essays, the expense of their own culture’s contributions. Huckleberry Coming Of Age Essay! Although steelband music has become much more accepted in Trinidad and college entry essays Tobago and abroad, it still faces competition from foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by technology, costs, and a lingering and deeply-rooted self-denigration on the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for the invaluable assistance of Anthony and Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of Arts and Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of topics for much ado about Providence, RI , and entry essays Arima, Trinidad and Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the National Endowment for paper for much nothing the Humanities, the Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and entry essays the talented and dedicated steelbandsmen and women of resume dimhrs Trinidad and Tobago. 1. Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 2. Entry! Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

3. Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of a Belmont Boy, Port of Spain, Trinidad and resume dimhrs Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 5. Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of Spain, Trinidad and essays Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Going! Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. College Essays! Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Resume Dimhrs! Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and college entry Tobago. 9. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 10.

Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Vol. 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. Essay To Jail! DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.

Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the entry essays, Traditional Calypso of going Trinidad and Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: University of the West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. Entry Essays! E., 1952, Report of the Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 15. Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago.

16. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Development, Philadelphia: Institute for environmental the Study of college entry Human Issues. 18. Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of Texas Press. 19. Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and Tobago. 21.

Interim Report of the Committee Appointed to Consider the Role of the Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. Paper Topics For Much Ado About! F., 1981, Music of the college entry essays, Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. Research Papers! 4., Port of college essays Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and finn coming of age essay Tobago Tourist Board. 24. Entry Essays! Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Can’t Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.

Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, “Steeldrums,” Faces: The Magazine about similarities and differences of critical and creative People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, “The Bertie Marshall Story,” Tapia, Vols. 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. College Entry Essays! Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 31. Pierre, Curtis, n.d., “History of the Drum” Script for slide/tape program, Port of research management Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 32. Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Tobago. 33. Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and college essays Tobago. 34.

Seeger, Peter, 1961, The Steeldrums of Kim Loy Wong, New York: Oak Publications. 35. Shepherd, John C., 1979, “Music and Social Control: An Essay on resume dimhrs the Sociology of Musical Knowledge,” Catalyst, 13:1-54. 36. Slater, Tony, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 37. Warner, Keith Q., 1982, Kaiso!

The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and Social Foundations of Music, edited and translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

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Centralized Backup … aka Jason#039;s Blog. Gold standard of data protection methods goes through sea of change. Not too long ago, the essays gold standard for protecting organizational data involved using a disk-to-disk-to-tape process. First, a copy of production data went to secondary disk to expedite rapid recovery if needed, and then the data went to essay and conservation tape for long-term retention. College Entry? Previously, some organizations used only tape, and a few moved to using only disk when that became cost-effective. Even then, most IT groups knew it made more sense to use a combination of the two media types to leverage what they did best: disk for research topics nothing recovery, tape for retention. Fast forward a few years and the gold standard for college essays data protection methods boiled down to employing backups, snapshotting and resume dimhrs replication, specifically the following: Backups to provide multiple previous versions over an extended timespan; Snapshotting to college entry essays deliver the fastest recovery from topics for much a near-current version; and college entry essays Replication for going to jail data survivability at an alternate location. Some have argued that one of these data protection methods should usurp the others depending on entry, your point of view. But the fact is the best approach has always been to use each process for what it does best, in a complementary manner with the resume dimhrs others. Here we are today, and it appears the gold standard for protecting data, or at least the de facto standard at enterprise-scale organizations, has changed once again.

It now centers on using multiple data protection methods per workload, namely employing the following: Importantly, since most of those “everything else” backup products do not protect data generated from software-as-a-service applications such as Office 365, Google Docs or Salesforce, most enterprises end up using four different types of data protection products. Do we really need four backup products? No, but because the approach to protection is college entry already so fragmented, many IT operations admins — and even senior IT decision makers — are often no longer able to persuade their vAdmin and research papers styles database admin colleagues that a unified product would really work better. This situation is really the fault of vendors — specifically, the unified-product vendors who haven’t invested enough in marketing awareness of the entry essays economic benefits and technical proofs regarding how their products support varied workloads as well as niche offerings. Arguably, this lack of effective promotion is more of a high-impact factor in the lack of unified data protection uptake than any lack of to jail, engineering to actually deliver equitable protection capabilities. College Entry? Until vendors fix this messaging problem, today’s data protection-related fragmentation will continue.In the meantime, having each administrator perform their own backups for the technological areas under their domain is huckleberry finn essay a dangerous practice. College? Think about it: Most workload or platform admins only really care about being able to achieve 30-, 60- or 90-day rollbacks, for example. They are not worried about 5-year, 7-year or 10-year retention rules.Corporate data must be protected to a corporate standard, however, which can include adhering to long-term retention and deletion requirements. That’s a consideration regardless of how fragmented the actual execution of protection. So, right now, some organizational data is being under-protected and some overprotected.

This situation of varying data protection methods is essay environmental making organizations vulnerable. Another thing to college note is that gold standards do not necessarily replace one another. Resume Dimhrs? Many organizations may be using two, three or four backup products per workload . But they are still supplementing those backups with snapshots and replicas. That’s actually a wise move, as no backup offering can replace the college entry agility that comes with snapshotting or replication. They’re also still using disk for resume dimhrs rapid restoration and tape for long-term retention. And many are now adding cloud-based protection (disaster recovery as a service, for example) to achieve added agility. At the end of the day, what these admins and the organizations they work for should care most about is the agility and college essays reliability of the protection effort — regardless of the various mechanisms and media used to facilitate that protection. We are going to have heterogeneous protection media, and we are going to have multiple data protection methods.

With those realities in mind, to avoid unnecessary risk, the answer might be to management have as close to a common catalog, control layer (for policy management) and console as possible. That way everyone will understand what is really going on across an environment via a single pane of entry essays, glass, regardless of fragmentation behind the scenes. Wrap-Up on Backup from Microsoft Ignite (with Video) As ESG often tries to do, here is resume dimhrs a short summary video of ESG’s impressions from a major industry event – Microsoft Ignite, held in Atlanta over college essays, September 26-29, 2016 – from a backup perspective. In the video, I suggested that Microsoft is a leader in Windows data protection. Certainly, this is not to disparage the many Microsoft partners that have built whole companies and to jail product lines around data protection. And from a revenue perspective, their backup offerings wouldn’t register at all. But … Almost every version of college essays, Windows has shipped with a built-in backup utility to address the immediate, per-machine need for ad-hoc backups or file roll-back, with today’s “Previous Versions” functionality more closely resembling software-based snapshots than “backup” per se. That said, it has always been recognized that a more full-featured, multi-server solution is almost always warranted. Of course, Microsoft has been producing Volume Shadowcopy Services (VSS) for over a decade, which is the underpinnings of how any backup vendor protects data within Windows systems. Microsoft has been shipping its “for sale” backup offering, Data Protection Manager (within System Center), for over a decade.

And though a good number of Hyper-V centric environments use DPM, the greater impact is how DPM gave/gives Microsoft insights into how to improve VSS, thereby improving all data protection offerings in essay market. The point is – Microsoft is not new to college entry “backup.” It hasn’t previously been a monetary focus, but they have consistently recognized backup as intrinsic to a management story and research paper for much nothing assured satisfaction with Windows Server and college entry its application server offerings. All of that may be changing with Azure as the crown jewel of the Microsoft ecosystem and OMS as a cloud-based management stack. Azure Backup is a key pillar of OMS, just like “backup” is to jail a key pillar to many management strategies, alongside “provisioning,” “monitoring,” and entry “patching.” IT Operations folks that are responsible for the latter three activities are continually wanting to do backups (as preparation for recoveries) as well … which makes Azure Backup something to watch for similarities and differences thinking its own sake, and the sake of the college essays data protection market in 2017 as many organizations are reassessing their partners during their embrace of cloud services. This week, the newly unencumbered Veritas (from Symantec) relaunched its premier user event – Veritas Vision. To Jail? There was a palpable energy that resonated around “ we’re back and college ready to resume our leadership mantle, ” starting with an impressive day one from main stage: Bill Coleman (CEO) started the event by making “ information is everything ” personal by tying medical data to a young girl with health struggles, which gave context that would resonate with everyone — which then got “real” by huckleberry of age revealing her as Bill’s niece.

Ana Pinczuk (CPO) introduced us to entry the journey that Veritas wants to partner with its customers and ecosystem – from finn of age what you already rely on Veritas for to ambitious data management and enablement, with an impressive array of announcements, almost all of which coupled Veritas’ established flagships with emerging offerings that unlock some very cool data-centric capabilities. Mike Palmer (SVP, Data Insights) , who is arguably the best voice on college entry essays, the Veritas stage in a very long time, delivered a brilliant session describing data and metadata through the movie InsideOut, tying the movie’s memory globes to data, the colors to meta data, combined with formative insights, pools of repositories and outcomes, etc. I’ll be hard pressed to essay going to jail use any other analogy to describe metadata for a long time to college come. Vendors, if you want to see how to completely nail a keynote, watch the recordng of resume dimhrs, Mike’s session. And that was just the first two hours. Along the essays way, the essay environmental protection and conservation new Veritas also wanted everyone to know that they are combining two decades of storage/data protection innovation with a youthful, feisty aggressiveness against perceived legacy technologies, with EMC + Dell being the entry essays punchline of many puns and direct takedowns. That could have come across as mean or disrespectful, but was delivered with enough wit that it served to essay about environmental protection bring the college essays room together. The competitive digs may have had arguable merit, but they clearly cast Veritas as a software-centric, data-minded contrast to hardware vendors – with a level of spunk that ought to energize its field, partners, and customer base. As further testament to their approach for combining flagships with emerging offerings, many of the breakouts leveraged multiple, integrated Veritas products for solution-centric outcomes — which candidly is research styles their best route to the ambitious journey that Veritas is embarking on. Glueing together their new journey through integrated solutions that are then underpinned by products (instead of jumping straight to what’s new in product X this year) will be a key to watch for entry as the and creative thinking new Veritas continues to redefine itself. As a reminder that “Veritas” is much more than “NetBackup,” check out their current portfolio.

For further impressions on the event, check out ESG’s video coverage from the event: Congratulations Veritas on a fresh vision (and Vision) that ought to propel you into some exciting opportunities. Is Your Data Protection Strategy Suffering a Civil War? I am a huge fan of the Marvel movies. College? Each of the individual hero movies has done an awesome job contributing to research management the greater albeit fictional universe.

Each of the entry essays heroes has their unique role to management styles play within the entry Avengers team. And yet, in protection and conservation the latest movie that released on college entry essays, Blu-Ray today, it appears as if this colorful array of heroes is divided. They have similar goals, but what seems to similarities of critical thinking be opposing methods that put them at odds with each other. Data protection can have similar contradictions. The Spectrum of entry, Data Protection activities can seem similar. We often talk about the management spectrum as a holistic perspective on the myriad of college entry essays, data protection outcomes—and the research paper for much nothing potentially diverse tools that enable those outcomes. And yet, sometimes, the spectrum can appear opposed to itself: Some in essays your organization are focused on “d ata management ” ( governance, retention, and compliance ) which focuses on how long you can or should retain data in research management a cost-effective way that unlocks the value of the entry essays data.

Others in your organization are focused on “d ata availability ” ( assured availability and BC/DR ), as part of ensuring the essay about environmental users’ and the business’ productivity. Do these goals actually contradict? No. But … you have to start with the core of what is common: data protection, powered by college entry a complementary approach of backup, snapshots, and going to jail replication. But as backup evolves to data protection, many come to essays a crossroads where that evolution only goes down one path or the other—data management or data availability. We’ll have to wait until next year to see how the Avengers reconciles to a single team again—but you can’t afford to wait that long. Start with your core focus areas and then evolve toward the edges, as opposed to coming from the edges in.

Why you still need backup … and beyond. The foundation of any data protection, preservation, and paper for much ado about nothing availability strategy is grounded in “backup,” period. Entry Essays? Yes, a majority of research paper nothing, organizations supplement backups with snapshots, or replicas, or archives, as shown in what ESG refers to as the Data Protection Spectrum: And as much as some of those other colors (approaches to data protection) can add agility or flexibility to entry a broader data protection strategy, make no mistake that for most organizations of research papers management, any and all sizes, backup still matters ! In fact, ESG wrote a brief on the relevance of backup today, within the context how other methods supplement backups and vice versa. College? ESG is now making this brief publicly available, courtesy of Commvault. In fact, Commvault believes so much in resume dimhrs this backup-centric and yet comprehensive approach to data management, protection, and college recovery, that they’ve invited me to speak at finn coming essay their Commvault GO conference in October at a session aptly named, Why you still need Backup….and Beyond (session description below) ESG research shows that for entry the past five years, improving data backup and recovery has consistently been one of the IT priorities most reported by essay to jail organizations. However, to evolve from traditional backup to true data management is to get smarter on all of the college entry essays iterations of data throughout an infrastructure, including not only the backups/snapshots/replicas/archives from data protection, but also the primary/production data and essay going to jail the copies of data created for non-protection purposes, like test/dev, analytics/reporting, etc. Further, the cloud offers a new way to approach data protection, disaster recovery and college some of those non-protection use cases. In this session, leading industry analyst, Jason Buffington discusses the trends in data protection today and market shifts that customers MUST understand in order to keep pace with the changing IT landscape.

My thanks to essay Commvault for syndicating the essays brief and the chance to share ESG’s perspectives on how the realm of data protection and data management is changing, and what to look for as it does. See you in Orlando ! Amazon (1) Appliances (14) Application-Protection (7) Archive (3) Articles in Publications (4) Backup-to-Disk (37) BC-DR (20) Big Data (1) Book (8) Business Process (4) BYOD (7) Channel-and-SPs (1) CloudBackup (28) CommVault (1) Consumerization of resume dimhrs, IT and BYOD (5) Continuous Data Protection (1) CustomerStory (9) Data Protection (3) Data Protection IT Pros (2) Deduplication (2) Dell (6) DPM (75) DRaaS (2) EMC (17) Endpoint-Devices (10) ESG (80) Events (23) Exagrid (2) Gaming (2) Handheld Gaming (1) Healthcare (1) Heterogeneous-Backup (6) High Availability (3) Hitachi HDS (1) HP (5) Hyper-V (6) IBM (3) Image-based backup (1) Infographic (2) iSCSI (5) Jason (29) Microsoft (50) MS SystemCenter (72) MS Windows Server (9) NetApp (2) News (13) Nook (1) OpsMgr (10) Quantum (3) Quest (1) Rants and Raves (1) Regulatory Compliance (2) Religion (1) Riverbed (1) ROI-TCO (1) SaaS software-as-a-service (2) Scouting (3) Sepaton (2) SLA service levels (1) SMB (6) Snapshots (2) Social Networks (1) Storage (22) Surface (2) Symantec (4) SystemCenter (2) Tape (2) TechTarget (1) Veeam (1) Veritas (1) Videos and Webcasts (52) Virtualization (21) VMware (15) Webcasts (3) Windows (1) WindowsPhone (1) WIndows Server (12) Windows Storage Server (9) Xbox (26) My blog posts and tweets are my own, and do not necessarily represent the views of my current employer (ESG), my previous employers or any other party. I do not do paid endorsements, so if I am appear to college entry be a fan of something, it is based on my personal experience with it. If I am not talking about research paper topics for much ado about nothing your stuff, it is either because I haven't worked with it enough or because my mom taught me if you can't say something nice . College Entry?