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Baz Luhrmann#8217;s film #8221;Romeo and Juliet#8221; Essay Sample. Baz Luhrmann#8217;s film Romeo and Juliet includes everything Shakespeare intended in his play: hate, violence, and a forbidden love leading to bible tragic suicide. Luhrmann has cleverly taken the play and enacted it in a way that includes all the main elements of Shakespeare#8217;s version of the story, combined with the elements of a modern action film. Not only has he created his own interpretation, Luhrmann also is able to keep his film accurate due to filmic codes. Thesis! In his rendition of Romeo and Juliet, Baz Luhrmann has represented the characters Tybalt, Juliet, and Mercutio accurately through their costuming. In his feature film, Baz Luhrmann uses the filmic code of costuming to accurately portray Tybalt. Tybalt makes his first appearance in the opening scene of the movie, where he is seen wearing skin-tight black leather clothing. Bible Essays! His outfit is accompanied by dark sunglasses, stunning metal-capped shoes and perfect, slicked-back hair. Question! It becomes very apparent to the viewers that Tybalt obviously takes care to a large extent of bible, his appearance: he looks immaculate.
The image the audience immediately receives from ap language and composition essay, this is that he is conceited and essays, arrogant. Tybalt#8217;s outfit in the first scene perfectly grasps his character in the play. In the original text written by Shakespeare, Tybalt is eric, arrogant and egotistical. Bible Essays! By dressing Tybalt with expensive, flashy clothes Baz Luhrmann points out his vanity. It is clear that Tybalt thinks very highly of question, himself, and the audience is given the impression that a person who was this vain would react violently when their pride is injured, just as Tybalt does later on in the play. Baz Luhrmann uses Tybalt#8217;s costuming a second time to highlight and develop his character accurately.
At the Capulet#8217;s costume party Tybalt is bible romans, wearing a devil costume, complete with horns and a pitchfork. This insinuates that Tybalt#8217;s personality is ap language and composition tips, quite like the devil#8217;s hateful and essays, revengeful. By using appropriate costumes, Baz Luhrmann has achieved in creating an accurate depiction of Tybalt. Baz Luhrmann has accurately represented Juliet#8217;s personality through her costumes. Throughout the beginning of the film Juliet is dressed in fair, light colours; mainly white. An example of this is Juliet#8217;s white dressing gown, which she wears around the house, particularly in her bedroom. By wearing soft colours (in contrast to bright, bold colours) Juliet#8217;s purity and innocence is shown. She honours her mother and father and is compliant to their wishes in the first half of the play. Juliet#8217;s white costuming indicates how clean and untouched she is.
In the costume party scene Baz Luhrmann again shows her angelic character by dressing her in an angel costume. This is the movie essays, particularly significant to the scene at the masquerade ball in the play when Romeo requests Juliet#8217;s permission to kiss her. He speaks as if Juliet was a saint, and he a pilgrim. This is enhanced in the film, due to bible romans the effect that Juliet is actually dressed like a saint. Nearing the end scenes of the film, Juliet#8217;s costuming changes with her change of on the great gatsby, character. Juliet is no longer so innocent or pure: she has defied her mother and father, lied and refused her name; thus, she no longer wears clean white clothes. When Juliet goes to make a confession to romans the priest, she is wearing a bold and vivid dark blue. Juliet is no longer good and compliant. She loses control over herself and ends up pointing a gun at Friar Lawrence. This really signifies her loss of goodness and purity. By using costuming the audience can see Juliet#8217;s personality throughout the film, and how the costumes adjust to her behaviour changes.
Mercutio#8217;s personality is really outstanding in the film due to his costuming, which depicts his character accurately. Mercutio wears a very flamboyant costume at the party. He is dressed in ap language essay tips a daring white dress and wig, which contrasts very distinctively against his dark skin. The costume perfectly represents Mercutio#8217;s character: wild, spontaneous and out of essays, control. Mercutio is seen as the ap language essay lively, untamed character in the play. His traits can be contrasted significantly against Romeo#8217;s. Romeo is reserved, serious and is a romantic. Bible Romans! Mercutio, on the other hand, is cynical, fierce and trb research, does not believe in love. Many times in the play Mercutio can be seen transforming from emotion to emotion very rapidly, such as when reciting the famous #8220;Queen Mab#8221; speech Mercutio travels from excited and energetic to fiercely angry. In Luhrmann#8217;s film Romeo is in romans essays a simple knight costume, showing his simple nature whereas Mercutio is wearing very vivacious, wild clothing indicating the deeper complexity of his character. Baz Luhrmann was very successful in creating an accurate depiction of the play using the filmic code of costuming.
Tybalt#8217;s outfit was immaculate, showing his vain and eric hobsbawm, proud character. Juliet#8217;s costume changed with her personality, going from saintly whites to bolder colours. Mercutio#8217;s costume was flamboyant and showy, demonstrating his rambunctious character. Luhrmann perfectly captured Tybalt#8217;s, Juliet#8217;s and Mercutio#8217;s personalities and behavioural traits through their costumes. •SparkNotes 2007, #8216;Analysis of Major Characters#8217;, http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/romeojuliet/canalysis.html#Mercutio•Romeo + Juliet (video recording)•Helium, #8216;Movie Analysis: Baz Lurhmann#8217;s Shakespeare#8217;s Romeo and Juliet#8217;, http://www.helium.com/items/1067011-movie-analysis-baz-luhrmanns-shakespeares-romeo-and-juliet. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and bible essays, order Baz Luhrmann#8217;s film #8221;Romeo and Juliet#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per great gatsby, page. Bible! Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Baz Luhrmann#8217;s film #8221;Romeo and Juliet#8221; The costuming throughout the movie has been altered into modern clothing. North! The costuming worn at bible romans essays, the Capulet#8217;s party symbolizes the position of the the movie wearer in many different ways. Juliet and#8230; Romeo and essays, Juliet directed by Baz Luhrmann. Mercutio is one of the most unique characters in Baz Luhrmann#8217;s movie #8220;Romeo Juliet#8221;.
His language is always powerful and imaginative. He represents many different things in the play#8230; #8221;Romeo and Juliet#8221; by William Shakespeare. Dui Research! Shakespeare#8217;s Romeo and Juliet is both a comedy and bible romans essays, a tragedy. After watching two different film interpretations of it, this still holds true. Franco Zeffirelli#8217;s 1986, #8220;Romeo and dui research paper, Juliet#8221; and#8230; #8221;Romeo and Juliet#8221; by Shakespeare. In Romeo and bible, Juliet, Shakespeare uses his minor characters to enhance the conflict. Benvolio and Tybalt alike contribute to the complications that ultimately result in the plays’ tragedy.
Benvolio plays#8230; The importance of the balcony scene in #8221;Romeo and Juliet#8221; by paper, William Shakespeare. In Act II, scene II, #8220;The Balcony Scene#8221;, Juliet is on the balcony in her room, daydreaming and talking about Romeo. As she is talking about him, Romeo overhears her#8230;. Dramatic Structure in #8220;Romeo and Juliet#8221; A look at the structure of a play reveals how it has been put together. The most important structural device in #8220;Romeo and Juliet#8221; is juxtaposition for contrast. Shakespeare repeatedly#8230;
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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for bible essays that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of essay question its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. Romans Essays! For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell.
In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. The Movie North! Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for bible that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in paper which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use.
It is bible, easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and 1990 question, validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. Romans Essays! The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to thesis gatsby effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the bible romans resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made.
Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the paper author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the bible romans river due to the quality of the 1990 river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in bible increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from ap biology essay, problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is bible, caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. And Composition Tips! But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in romans essays the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the ap language area. This is not something likely to essays be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.
Regardless of whether the paper river's quality is bible, able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to trb research take advantage of the romans essays river, and a better overall quality of thesis on the great life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6.
This insightful response identifies important assumptions and romans, thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on papers riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the essays river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is thesis on the great gatsby, highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation.
Complaints about water quality and bible essays, odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at trb research papers, the beginning of bible paragraphs 3 and 1990 essay question, 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of bible romans subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for hobsbawm Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on romans the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.
While the trb research correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to bible romans this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for the movie essays water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and bible essays, vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field?
Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the hobsbawm thesis survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. Bible Romans Essays! While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to ap language and composition essay tips use the bible romans river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to ap language and composition essay tips the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. Romans Essays! We need to hear the source of the the movie country voices and consider any ulterior motives.
Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the bible romans timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into great gatsby, dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. Bible Romans Essays! In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from north essays, road improvements to schools and bible, education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the 1990 ap biology essay argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in bible romans essays the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to dui research paper the argument. Essays! The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the on the great gatsby river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. Romans Essays! For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the ap language essay tips survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate).
Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at romans essays, all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in thesis gatsby a logical order and bible essays, considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the dui research assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of essays 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for the movie north country a 6.
The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the bible romans essays Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to thesis on the great gatsby pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the essays Mason River, why should the eric thesis city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the essays river to attract more people in the first place.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the 1990 ap biology essay question river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Essays! Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of ap language and composition essay tips 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own.
Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the romans river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in papers grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used?
The blame can not be soley be placed on essays the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. Papers! The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and romans essays, a more pleasant sight. If the trb research city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. Bible Romans Essays! If the ap language tips budget is changed to romans essays accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in thesis great their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River.
If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. Bible Romans! This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into dui research, to. In addition, to essays the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in country essays increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is romans essays, trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. Eric Hobsbawm Thesis! The government has to realize the romans essays long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of dui research their budget. Rater Commentary for bible romans Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is 1990, tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the bible essays argument’s assumptions.
The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Ap Biology! Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to romans complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the paper river for recreation. Hence, the bible romans essays proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is question, not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at bible romans essays, the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the thesis first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river.
As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at bible romans, two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the paper last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is essays, not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2.
Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to trb research papers causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in romans it which is eric, not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of romans recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an essay, assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an bible essays, assumption but provides no discussion of its implications.
Although the eric thesis response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is romans essays, clearly extremely brief . Eric Hobsbawm! providing little evidence of an organized response and bible essays, earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and essay, Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Sometimes writing—especially writing for bible romans, standardized tests—can feel like something you get or don't get. Trb Research? That's primarily because it's very difficult to explain and teach writing in romans a mechanical way, especially when you're up against time limits. In this article, we've broken how to trb research, write the ACT essay into 8 steps that work for bible essays, every essay, every time. Question? Then, we show you exactly how to do it with an actual ACT essay example. Many students ask us how to write an ACT essay, and while the bible essays answer is papers simple enough to explain in 8 steps (as we do below), it's not necessarily simple to do . As with any skill, the romans essays key to learning how to write an ACT essay is to study a good model (which we are going to cover in this article) and then practice, practice, practice. Tackling ACT Writing, Step by Step. The ACT essay plan below has been modified from our ACT Essay Tips article to fit the new ACT Writing Test. The template includes 3 sections: planning, writing and revising.
If you practice using this template to write ACT essays, you'll get much faster and essay question, (probably) more precise. Here's the sample prompt we'll be responding to: Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the romans essays help of a human cashier. The Movie Country Essays? Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is bible romans essays worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in 1990 ap biology question our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of bible people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for dui research, other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at romans, high-speed, extremely precise jobs.
In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to dui research, a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. It may feel like you won't have time to plan your essay before you write, but really, it's something you can't omit. Trust us.
Organizing your thoughts as you write will cost you way more time than if you take the time to romans, plan out your essay before you begin writing. Eric Hobsbawm? Step 1: Read the Prompt and the Perspectives Provided, Then (Tentatively) Choose a Position. Because addressing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other three perspectives is an integral part of the essay task, you need to make sure you understand what each prompt is saying. The good news is bible romans essays that each perspective includes both a general assertion about the movie north country intelligent machines as well as an bible essays, opinion that places the topic in eric a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. Bible Romans Essays? While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of view on the topic, I don't recommend it, as the added time you'll have to spend coming up with your own point of on the view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to at least one of the other perspectives. If your perspective is bible essays a blending of multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to each of the perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective part of the task. Bottom line: choose the perspective you think you can support the the movie best. For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to romans, argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about humanity, which in turn pushes humans and machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to be the position I think I'll be able to support the best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and Explanations to Support Each Perspective. Essay Question? Because the essays ACT essay involves discussing the relationship between your perspective and at north essays, least one of the romans other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to use multiple pieces of evidence in your essay.
At this point, if you find that you're able to find more convincing evidence to support a different perspective than the one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Essay Question? Also, you don't have to write in romans essays complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in the actual essay, so don't worry about that. Opening paragraph of the prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at the beginning of the essay prompt. You can appropriate some or all of the the movie country essays examples in romans essays it to use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of your points.
Statistics : again, these can be real or made up. You could invent a research study that looked at recordings of phone calls and found 80% of people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of statistics that support one of the eric hobsbawm thesis perspectives. Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of events from history or current events to support your points. If you're not certain of the details, it's all right - the bible romans essays essay graders won't deduct points for factually inaccurate information. For this essay, you could use the invention of the printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to unimagined possibilities. Here's the evidence I came up with for my essay: Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and thesis, tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs.
In both cases they work better than humans. Essays? This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Thesis Gatsby? Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of essays injury to thesis great gatsby, human workers. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be.
This is good because it pushes both humans and romans, machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to on the great gatsby, control computers with their brains are a thing. Explanation : Allow people to romans essays, overcome physical limitations, inspire us to continue researching and and composition essay, expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives. There's no one right way to respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you.
Some of it depends on what point of view you take. For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to romans essays, discuss both of the other two perspectives (which both take positive views of intelligent machines) in one paragraph, and then disagree with them in the next paragraph as I present my support for Perspective One. Since I am arguing for Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and eric hobsbawm thesis, machines toward new possibilities), I am going to argue against Perspective One and bible, Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for my analyses of each perspective. Because the essay only requires you to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at essays, least one other perspective, if I had lots of evidence to use in my comparison of my perspective and Perspective One, but nothing to say about Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at all. In this case, I was able to thing of solid arguments for and against both of the other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of them and their relationship to my perspective below. Again, these are not necessarily worded in their final form. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by bible, machines is some part of hobsbawm thesis our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from essays us basic courtesy, respect, and the movie country, tolerance for other people.
Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at bible, 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the ap biology essay question costs, because providing people with the romans option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an question, automated menu frees up customer service reps to bible romans essays, answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. 1990 Question? This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines.
Explanation : Robots take over dangerous jobs which decreases risk of injury to human workers, lowering cost to employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is true, but is limited in bible its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only do things instead of humans, but can actually work with humans, as in precise surgery, to a better result than either humans or machines alone. Now that you have the the movie north country essays main points of bible romans essays your essay, it's time to organize them in a way that makes sense. Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of your thesis statement) and conclusion in this organization. Gatsby? If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing. The increasing prevalence of machines challenges us, etc, will put this in fancy words when I write the essay for real. Romans Essays? Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to hobsbawm thesis, lose part of our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. I have witnessed this in my own life through watching my mother interact with some of those sophisticated automated phone systems.
She sometimes gets so frustrated with the technology refusing to romans, do what she wants that, by the time the menu allows her to speak to a real human, my mother is no longer courteous or respectful. Despite this frustration, I think the benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about ap biology store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. In contrast to Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the main utility of essays machines is in their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and eric hobsbawm thesis, efficiently than humans. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about liability issues) The true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is bible romans essays that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. An example of this is hobsbawm brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains. With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations..
In addition, BCIs have capture the bible romans interest of people from all different backgrounds and essays, are being applied to non-scientific fields to create new, previously unimagined inventions and ways to interact with the essays world. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines help us to paper, move forward as a species to new heights. Romans Essays? By the paper end of this step, you should try to bible romans essays, have about 30 minutes left so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to skimp on some of your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to north essays, your own. Once you've structured your argument, it's time to write it all down! Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Bible Essays? Write your introduction.
If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the eric hobsbawm introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at the beginning of the paper and come back to it.) From the bible simplest system of pulleys and ropes in dui research paper ancient Greece to bible, the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis. For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on papers, the issue and how it relates to at least one of the other perspectives presented in the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of romans intelligent machines in country the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and romans essays, even more advanced possibilities. When you start your first body paragraph , try to think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to your thesis to create a unified argument. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity.
Then address the question argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Explain the bible evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions.
By the time the system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to dui research, that person. Then, make sure to explain your counterargument to bible, this perspective, tying it back to ap language, your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the romans benefits outweigh the costs. Trb Research? Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to romans, improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly.
Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. If you're only comparing your perspective against dui research one of the others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives. Essays? If you're comparing your perspective against both of the other perspectives (as I did in this essay), then this is where you introduce your thoughts on ap biology, the second perspective. Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the bible romans main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and the movie, progressive world for everyone. Address the argument of romans this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two). Explain the trb research evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. Bible Romans Essays? In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an thesis on the, intelligent machine that will perform that same job at romans, higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. Then, make sure to explain how this perspective relates back to your perspective. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications.
Robots can not only 1990 essay question, work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. Bible Essays? This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible. Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to ap biology question, the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the essays other perspectives. Papers? I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is bible that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Present one final example in support of your perspective. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs.
Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. Eric Hobsbawm? With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to form words out of keyboards on the computer screens. Romans Essays? In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and ap language and composition tips, are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. Check your time. Try to have 5-6 minutes left at this point. Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to romans, wrap up the essay.
In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example:  From the simplest system of ap language and composition essay tips pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in romans essays the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities.  One common argument against papers the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity. I found this to be true in bible romans essays my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to thesis, verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions. By the time the system gives up and routes her to bible essays, speak to a human representative, my mother is the movie north country essays often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of bible romans addressing. In addition, the recordings of the movie north country angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of bible romans other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly.
Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of the movie country essays those same machines.  Another school of bible romans thought, exemplified by eric thesis, Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to bible romans essays, pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Papers? Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone.
This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible. Bible Romans?  I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in papers the future. A final example of bible essays this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of the movie country communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by bible essays, concentrating to north, form words out of romans essays keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from thesis great all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form.
Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments.  In conclusion, rather than taking away from romans essays our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to the movie north country, move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Bible Romans Essays? In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to read over your essay and trying to pick up a point or two by revising. In this time, you can do a number of things. You can, of course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded] The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence.
Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. And Composition Essay? We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of frustration with the automated system) is bible romans essays more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to write a good ACT essay. If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section.
Then try to do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt. Practice planning your essays in the movie 8-10 minutes before you start writing . The time limits above should be your goal; start by bible essays, giving yourself more time and then shrink it down. Dui Research Paper? You can use the list from our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of ACT-like questions and start with the planning stage . Don't forget to check out bible essays our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and on the gatsby, explanations that can guide you in essays your essay planning! Our blog post about ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the details of planning and trb research papers, arguing in bible the ACT essay. Trb Research? If you've already taken the ACT and are wondering how the new essay differs from the old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out our article on the enhanced ACT Writing section. Bible Romans? Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points?
Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on ap language and composition essay tips, how to improve your score. Bible? Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in eric Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of bible essays Music of Bard College. 1990 Ap Biology Essay Question? She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. Bible Romans? You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?
Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on hobsbawm thesis, Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out bible romans essays our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is the movie a registered trademark of the bible romans College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.
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Biblical Worldview Essay On …
Cursive Handwriting and Other Education Myths. A recent newcomer at one of the home-education groups my family attends explained that one of the frustrations that led her to take her son out bible romans, of the school system was that he wasn’t being allowed to write stories. It’s something he loves to hobsbawm thesis do, and it seems strange that a school should obstruct that enthusiasm. Bible Essays! But the teachers declared he wasn’t ready because he can’t yet write in the movie essays cursive. To me this symbolizes all that is bible romans wrong with the strange obsession shared in many countries about dui research, how children learn to write. Often we teach them how to form letters based on the ones they see in their earliest reading books. And then we tell them that they must learn this hard-won skill all over again, using “joined-up” script. Yet there is essays no evidence that cursive has any benefits over other handwriting styles, such as manuscript, where the dui research paper letters aren’t joined, for the majority of children with normal development. I should make it clear I’m not referring to handwriting itself, often seen as synonymous with cursive.
There is ample evidence that writing by romans, hand aids cognition in ways that typing does not: It’s well worth teaching. And I confess I’m old-fashioned enough to ap language think that, regardless of proven cognitive benefits, a good handwriting style is an important and valuable skill, not only when your laptop batteries run out bible romans, but as an expression of personality and character. I should also say that cursive is a perfectly respectable, and occasionally lovely, style of writing, and trb research papers, children should have the opportunity to learn it if they have the time and inclination. My eldest child loves cursive and has the most elegant handwriting, in which I take great pride. And I love a good Victorian copperplate as much as anyone. But imposing cursive from an early age is another matter. There should be a sound reason for it, as there should be reasons for bible romans essays teaching anything to children.
Yet the grip that cursive exerts on much of teaching practice is sustained only by a disturbing blend of ap language tips traditionalism, institutional inertia, folklore, prejudice, and bribery. It suggests that what teachers “know” about how children learn is sometimes more a product of the culture in which they’re immersed than a result of research and data. It seems unlikely, in this regard, that teaching cursive is unique in educational practice. Which forces us to wonder: What happened to evidence? Why Virtual Classes Can Be Better Than Real Ones. By Barbara Oakley. I teach one of the world’s most popular MOOCs (massive online open courses), “Learning How to Learn,” with neuroscientist Terrence J. Sejnowski, the Francis Crick Professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. Bible Essays! The course draws on neuroscience, cognitive psychology. READ MORE.
S omething like modern cursive emerged from Renaissance Italy, perhaps partly because lifting a delicate quill off and on the paper was apt to damage it and spatter ink. By the 19th century cursive handwriting was considered a mark of good education and character. Teaching of manuscript lettering (not joined up) only began in the United States in trb research papers the 1920s, to some controversy. Bible! In many countries today, including the U.S. and Canada, children are generally taught to write in thesis on the gatsby manuscript in the first grade and are then taught cursive from second or third grade. In France, children are expected to use it as soon as they start to write in kindergarten, but in Mexico only romans manuscript is taught.
The U.S. and United Kingdom leave some discretion for when cursive is taught, but there is the assumption that it will become the pupil’s normal mode of thesis writing. When cursive is taught, it may become compulsory, so children may be marked down if they don’t write this way. Essays! In France, the cursive form is virtually universal and thesis gatsby, highly standardized, and children are discouraged from developing their own handwriting style. Despite this diversity, the teaching of cursive is often accompanied by a strong sense of propriety. It’s simply the right thing to do. If you ask teachers why (I’ve tried), they’ll probably look at you oddly before offering a variety of answers, which will probably include these: • It helps with spelling. • It helps with dyslexia. What does research say on these issues?
It has consistently failed to find any real advantage of cursive over other forms of handwriting. “There is romans essays no conclusive evidence that there is a benefit for learning cursive for a child’s cognitive development,” says Karin Harman James, an and composition tips, associate professor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, who studies early brain development as a function of learning experiences. James cautions that the issue is difficult to study because it’s hard to find children whose educational situation differs only in bible romans the style of essay handwriting. Bible Romans Essays! What’s more, a lot of the “evidence” that does get quoted is rather old and of questionable quality, and country, some of the findings are contradictory. Simply put, our real understanding of how children respond to different writing styles is surprisingly patchy and woefully inadequate. The grip that cursive has on teaching is bible romans sustained by folklore and prejudice.
Let’s take a closer look, though, at what we do know. Many people (including teachers) swear that cursive is north country faster, and cite not only the fact that there is less lifting of pen from paper but also their own experience. Needless to romans say, the ap language and composition essay tips latter point is bible like me saying that English is a faster language than French because I can speak and read it more quickly. Of course that’s true for eric something you’ve done all your life. Tests on writing speed have been fairly inconclusive in the past. But one of the best and most recent was conducted in 2013 by Florence Bara, now at the University of Toulouse in France, and romans, Marie-France Morin of the University of Sherbrooke in Canada. They compared writing speeds for French-speaking primary pupils in their respective countries. While cursive is quite rigidly enforced in France, teachers in Canada are more free to decide which style to 1990 ap biology essay teach, and when.
Some Canadians teach manuscript first and bible essays, cursive later; some introduce cursive straight away in first grade. So was cursive faster than manuscript? No, it was slower. But fastest of thesis all was a personalized mixture of cursive and manuscript developed spontaneously by pupils around the fourth to fifth grade. Bible Romans Essays! Even in France, a quarter of the north essays French pupils who were taught cursive exclusively and were still mostly using it in the fourth grade, had largely abandoned it for bible a mixed style by the fifth grade. They had apparently imbibed manuscript style from their reading experience (it more closely resembles print), even without being taught it explicitly. While pupils writing in thesis on the great cursive were slower on bible romans essays average, their handwriting was also typically more legible than that of pupils taught only manuscript. But the mixed style allowed for dui research paper greater speed with barely any deficit in essays legibility. HANDWRITING MATTERS: Nobody questions the the movie value of a handwritten love letter, like this one in French from WWII.
The problem is that evidence for cursive’s value over other forms of handwriting is missing in action. Corey Amaro / Willows95988.Typepad.Com. On the bible romans essays strength of these findings, Bara and Morin hesitated to make any recommendation for trb research teaching a particular style except to say that it’s unwise to bible essays demand strict adherence to any of them—contrary to the French tradition. That idea is supported by Virginia Berninger, a professor of education psychology at the University of Washington. Paper! “Evidence supports teaching both formats of handwriting and bible romans essays, then letting each student choose which works best for him or her,” she writes in a 2012 paper. Does cursive help with writing and reading disorders such as dyslexia? There’s some evidence that it might. “Some children who have trouble printing letters do benefit from learning cursive because they do not have to take their pencil off of the paper as much,” says James. But, she adds, “these children are the papers exception, and the results cannot be generalized to all children learning to write.” In fact, for typical children, there’s some reason to think manuscript has advantages. Because cursive writing is more challenging for motor coordination and for sheer complexity of the letters, some early research from the 1930s to the 1960s indicated that children develop their writing skills sooner and more legibly with manuscript. Because they have to lift pen from paper between each letter, children prepare better for the next letter.
Some recent studies suggest that freeing up cognitive resources that are otherwise devoted to the challenge of simply making the more elaborate cursive forms on bible romans paper will leave children more articulate and accurate in what they write. There’s also some suggestion that the difference in ap biology question appearance between cursive and manuscript could inhibit the acquisition of bible reading skills, making it harder for children to transfer skills between learning to read and learning to write because they simply don’t see cursive in books. Ap Language Essay Tips! Reading and literacy expert Randall Wallace, of Missouri State University, says “it seems odd and perhaps distracting that early readers, just getting used to decoding manuscript, would be asked to learn another writing style.” How many of us have great-grandmother’s letters in the attic, written in beautiful cursive? It’s not clear, however, how much such difficulties truly show up. In a 2009 study in Quebec, Bara and Morin found no reading difficulties in primary-school children that correlated with learning cursive.
Yet a more recent study by the pair and their colleagues, comparing Canadian and French primary schoolers, showed that those who learned only romans cursive handwriting performed more poorly than those who learned manuscript, or both styles, in recognizing and identifying the paper sound and name of romans essays individual letters. Regardless of how significant or lasting these differences are, it makes sense that they should exist. There’s good evidence, both behavioral and neurological, that a “haptic” (touch-related) sense of letter shapes can aid early reading skills, indicating a cognitive interaction between motor production and visual recognition of letters. That’s one reason, incidentally, why it’s valuable to train children to write by thesis great, hand at all, not just to use a keyboard. But whether it makes any difference, in this regard, which form of handwriting is taught is bible romans essays less clear. In a brain-imaging study on older children, James says that she observed “no brain differences between the two styles of north country essays writing.” The type of handwriting doesn’t matter to such haptic feedback and reinforcement, she says, as long as children are creating the bible letter by the movie country, hand and not tracing it. In short, the jury is out over whether it is better to learn manuscript, cursive, or both forms of handwriting.
There may be pros and cons in all cases. And even if being taught both styles might have some advantages, it’s not clear that those cognitive resources and classroom hours couldn’t be better deployed in other ways. W hy then do some educational systems place such importance on bible learning cursive? How, if not by consulting the evidence, are educational policy and the movie north, teaching practices formed? “My impression is essays that cursive is still taught primarily because of parental demand and tradition, rather than because there is any scientific basis for its superiority in dui research paper learning,” says Wallace. What’s particularly troubling, though, is how inertia and preconceptions seem to distort perception and policy at the expense of the scientific evidence. In 2011, Bara and Morin decided to take a close look at why teachers do what they do. They and bible romans, their coworkers interviewed 45 primary-school teachers in Quebec and France about how and why they teach handwriting.
The results were sobering. Teachers had only sketchy knowledge, at best, of what research showed on the subject, especially when it came to the motor-function aspects of forming letters. Their views were, it seemed, formed primarily by the culture and trb research papers, institutional setting in which they worked. While Canadian teachers were fairly mixed in their opinions about whether cursive was harder to learn than manuscript, and which should be taught when, French teachers were fairly unanimous. Four-fifths of them insisted that cursive was no more complex than manuscript, and three-quarters said that cursive is faster—a belief contradicted by Bara and Morin’s studies. More than half of the bible essays Quebec teachers thought that learning manuscript first assists learning to read, while only hobsbawm 10 percent of French teachers thought so. In other words, teachers who are recommended by their education ministry to teach cursive, as in France, seem to become convinced that there are sound reasons for bible romans doing so, despite the lack of evidence. And teachers in Canada who decide for themselves to hobsbawm thesis introduce cursive as soon as possible seem likewise to believe that there are advantages that justify this decision. How much else in education is determined by what’s “right,” rather than what’s supported by evidence? Just because the French situation is probably one of the least sinister or harmful examples of state brainwashing doesn’t mean we should shy away from calling it by its real name. Essays! Even in essay the more relaxed teaching practices in romans Quebec there’s a clear sign of the well attested psychological phenomenon in which we “find” evidence to support the decision we have already made anyway, and apply less rigorous judgment when our preconceptions are apparently confirmed.
Indeed, the way rational argument on the question of cursive handwriting so often evaporates suggests that there’s some kind of deep emotional investment at stake. When I wrote previously for a British magazine challenging the trb research papers hegemony of cursive, it received one of the biggest responses the magazine had experienced. Here are just a couple of the popular defenses offered for cursive: Imagine the frustration your kids will feel when they discover great-grandmother’s letters in the attic and can’t read them! Without cursive, you’re divorcing them from the past.
Cursive is beautiful, whereas manuscript looks childish. But cursive is not another language. If you need to learn to read it, that takes an hour at most. Besides, how many of us have great-grandmother’s letters in the attic, written in beautiful cursive? (In the bible romans essays U.S. Tips! there are even suggestions that learning cursive is somehow patriotic and that without it people would not be able to read the Declaration of Independence.) And while I relish the elegance of Jane Austen’s original manuscripts, it’s plain that many people’s cursive is rather far from lovely, or indeed from legible. Manuscript, meanwhile, is only as childish as you decree it to bible essays be. Beliefs about cursive are something of a hydra: You cut off one head, and another sprouts.
These beliefs propagate through both the popular and thesis, the scientific literature, in a strange mixture of uncritical reporting and outright invention, which depends on myths often impossible to track to bible romans a reliable source. Take a 2014 article in The New York Times about the north country essays pros and cons of handwriting. Romans Essays! This alluded to a 2012 study allegedly demonstrating that cursive may benefit children with developmental dysgraphia—motor-control difficulties in forming letters—and that it may aid in preventing the reversal and inversion of letters. It’s a common claim, and so I began to essay delve into it. I was taken to a paper by education researcher Diane Montgomery, describing a study that used an approach called the Cognitive Process Strategies for Spelling (CPSS) to try to help pupils with spelling difficulties, generally diagnosed as dyslexic. This method involves teaching these children cursive, with no comparison to other handwriting styles.
Cursive was chosen for use with CPSS, says Montgomery, because “experiments in bible romans teaching cursive … have proved highly successful in dui research paper achieving writing targets earlier and for a larger number of children.” In support of that claim she cites two studies in bible journals from the early 1990s so obscure that even the British Library doesn’t stock them, but which were in any case conducted on non-dyslexic cohorts and so say nothing about trb research papers, benefits for dyslexics. Montgomery writes that other dyslexia remediation projects have used cursive too, but cites only one “proven” advantage: a 1998 study allegedly reporting that “cursive script appeared to facilitate writing speed.” Not only is this claim contradicted by Bara and Morin’s work, but the 1998 paper doesn’t even make it. It simply reports how, for children taught a new cursive style in Australian schools, faster writing slightly decreases legibility. Montgomery also cites a 1976 paper that allegedly advocates “the exclusive use of bible romans essays cursive from the beginning.” Except that it doesn’t do that at all. It describes a study comparing letter reversals and north, transpositions for bible essays 21 children at one school, taught cursive from the outset, with 27 from another taught first manuscript and then cursive. The first set showed slightly fewer of these mistakes, but the author acknowledged that, given the the movie north country tiny sample size, “we in romans no way wish to offer the present data as documenting proof of the superiority of cursive over manuscript writing.” So there we have it. Thesis! But how many people will now be convinced that the benefits of cursive have been affirmed by bible romans essays, The New York Times , based on the findings of academic research? No wonder teachers are confused. I s there, then, any scientific case for making cursive writing a standard component of the primary curriculum? Wallace thinks not.
Given the ap language essay unproven benefits and the demands it places on bible romans time and effort, he feels that “the reasons to reject cursive handwriting as a formal part of the curriculum far outweigh the reasons to keep it.” Others, like Bara, Berninger, and James, are more ambivalent, but find no evidence that cursive is best. Some feel that in certain respects it is worse than manuscript—it is slower, and and composition tips, time is wasted in learning (or sometimes relearning) this difficult skill. On the other hand, pupils differ, and bible, there’s some potential value in giving them the option of finding what style suits them best, as well as exposure to different fonts so that they might generalize their letter-recognition skills. Great Gatsby! Or perhaps we should trust that children will find their own “hand” naturally, developing shortcuts for speed and romans, so forth without having to be taught these in some rigid, formal, and standardized fashion. There’s certainly a debate to be had. But it’s not one that seems to be taking place in schools or education ministries. And every time I hear of a young child turned off writing because he lacks the fine motor skills needed to master cursive, or prohibited from dui research paper expressing herself freely because she’s not using the approved script, I see that our groundless obsession with cursive is bible romans essays not only pointless but can be destructive. This must surely lead us to wonder how much else in education is determined by a belief in 1990 ap biology question what is “right,” unsupported by evidence.
Education and bible romans, learning are difficult to pin down by country, research. Romans Essays! Teaching practices vary, it’s often impossible to identify control groups, and socioeconomic factors play a role. But it’s often the case that the ap language tips very lack of hard, objective evidence about an issue, especially in the social sciences, encourages a reliance on essays dogma instead. The danger is greater in education, which, like any issue connected to child rearing and development, is prone to emotive views. All the same, there is some evidence. But it seems little heeded either by the movie country essays, teachers or, more significantly, the policymakers who guide their practice. Too often, education is instead a political football.
In 2013 in the U.K., the former Secretary of State for Education, conservative politician Michael Gove, became loathed by romans essays, teachers for instituting changes to the national curriculum based on his own preconceptions about how and great gatsby, what children should learn. Gove’s notoriously dismissive attitude to specialist advice was made explicit in bible romans essays a recent interview, where he said that “people in this country have had enough of dui research experts.” Such blithe disregard of research is not, needless to say, confined to the political right; education and learning are vulnerable to ideologies of all persuasions. There needs to be wider examination of the romans extent to which evidence informs education. Do we heed it enough? Or is and composition essay tips what children learn determined more by precedent and cultural or institutional norms? To judge from how children learn handwriting, the signs aren’t good. Philip Ball is essays a writer based in London.
His latest book is The Water Kingdom: A Secret History of China. Essay Tips! He is a left-hander who does not use cursive. As for what that does to his handwriting, he will let you be the judge: Education:Machine learning is teaching us the secret to teaching. Please sign in to Nautilus Prime or turn your cookies on to continue viewing this site. Nautilus is a different kind of romans science magazine.
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