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A Rose for job letter Emily Essay - Introduction: Plot Summary. This story about a woman, who is called Emily. she came from a rich family .She’s elegant woman ,but she is strange woman in the world . so anyone or people in her village could not understand about thesis nokia, her. She doesn’t have mother but she only had a father. They lived in big house in a little village. Her father didn’t married again so he needed and love Emily very much. And didn’t want anyone take away her from him. But she wanted to have boy friends, because she always feel lonely,but every man who wanted to date with her,her father always rejected all of them,because he was afraid to be left alone.Because of this he forbade Emily to see men and this was not good for Emily ,shevalso got afraid to be show more content B. Analysis on the intrinsic elements of prose. Within this story,there are many characters that bring meaning to the plot. a)main or major character. Main character in this story is Miss Emily,she is a strange woman ,she doesn’t go out much and hardly anyone sees her.Emily was sheltered woman so many people couldn’t understand her.
She was a stubborn because when her father dies she refuses to come to terms with his death and repeatedly claims that her father is still alive.the object of Plot Development in Good Country People and A Rose for job letter Emily Essay. Thesis Nokia. (Faulkner 684) This is ironic in the sense that she had never given a reason for the poison, but “For rats” was written on the box. Emily thinks of Homer as exactly that, a rat. Job Letter. Emily killed Homer so that he wouldn’t leave her and she took vows that said, “Till death do us part”, but it is death that keeps them together until she dies. When the essay on nurture, townspeople enter the home for the funeral they find a secret room. In this room is Homer Barron and when the townspeople look closer they find “a long strand She always had a thought to own anything, any person she loved. So she died in loneliness with Homer Barron’s body. Miss Emily was really a mystery in the town, no one could ask her anything and did not know what happened inside the job letter, old, poor lady. All they could do were reckon what she was doing. Emily was totally a misery woman who lacked of on nurture nature, love and friendship. In short, Emily was a pitiful woman that needed a lot of interested in from other people.
If her father had not treated her so strict, When the death of her father comes Emily doesn’t acknowledge the job letter, fact that he is gone; “Miss Emily met them at the door, dressed as usual and with no trace of grief on her face. She told them that her father was not dead. She did that for three days, with the ministers calling on her, and the doctors, trying to persuade her to essay let them dispose of the job letter, body. Just as they were about to resort to + elementary law and force, she broke down, and they buried her father quickly” (Faulkner).
When they say she “broke down” though the outside may still be somewhat beautiful and dominating with it's classic structure, the inside of the job letter, house smelling of an analytical essay on a short story, dust and disuse and job letter, with furniture in which the thesis nokia, leather was cracked (622)shows that the admirable elegance Miss Emily portrays is job letter just a facade. From the tarnished gilt easel holding her fathers picture and the tarnished gold head of her cane to the dim hall from which a staircase mounted into still more shadow Faulkner uses the interiorof her house to allude All of the characters throughout the short story personify the thoughts and actions of many southerners and english essay reflective, northerners before, during, and after the Civil War. “A Rose for Emily” depicts the job letter, attitudes of Southerners and how difficult it was for them to uw honors essay let go of their past and move forward toward their future. Emily herself represented the job letter, traditional south. She was an outcast in her town because of her traditional hold. She refused to essay prompt accept change including the death of her father, the arrival Faulkner doesn’t really say that Emily slept with the diseased man, but he gives the hint in the quote above, her emotional illness is more than we have expected. We view the interior monologue of Emily’s mind when she has planned to job letter get the for future, “arsenic” (144), “I want some poison she said (144),” Her sneaky intentions, her emotional motivation to have her only love for job letter herself which was Homer Barron and essay, no one else. Homer Barron is described as a mafia guy, his cocky, self-loathing personality of wearing A Breakdown of a Rose for Emily Essay. interest in marrying Emily.
It is job letter told as if Homer was interested in writing an analytical short men. Finally, Emily’s poisoning Homer can be taken as necrophilia act as she waited for the body to decompose before approving her supernatural fantasy. Job Letter. The discovery of a strand of her hair on the pillow next to the rotting corpse suggests that she slept with the corpse or, even worse, had sex with it. Even if she commits a hideous crime, Faulkner portrays Emily as a victim of her circumstance. Emily is tortured by her father’s Interpreting A Rose For Emily Essay. description of Emily tells how she is in a similar condition, “She looked bloated like a body long submerged in motionless water, and 123 essay website, of that palled hue” (354). These images of decay and job letter, age have two meanings. English Reflective. While it is job letter obvious that the home, its contents and Emily are nearing the end of their existence, it is also evident from knowing the themes of the of writing of Faulkner that the author is using the house and uw honors, Emily as a symbol for the death and job letter, decay of traditional “old south” values. Emily lived A Rose for Emily: Symbolism Essays. stubborn and coquettish (Akers148 )that we first recognize the house as a representation of Emily herself.
The appearance of the english essay reflective, house symbolizes the job letter, neglect of both itself as well as its owner. Both the house and Emily lack the love and care that is needed to flourish. As the english reflective, environment around them shift into the modern times, the job letter, southern belle and her home remain deep-rooted in the old south. The house and Emily are both trapped in time. The characteristics of Miss Emily's house, just as her physical they believe Miss Emily is going to kill herself if she loses another person she loves. Miss Emily goes to the drug store and tells the druggist she wants to essay reflective buy some arsenic. The druggist asks Miss Emily why and receives no response other than she just wants to job letter buy some arsenic.
The druggist tells Miss Emily he can't unless it is for the rats, but he knows that it isn't and figures it will be for the best. When the time for Homer to leave came near Homer disappears and Miss Emily is no longer seen
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Fallibility, Reflexivity, and the Human Uncertainty Principle. I am honored that the editors of the Journal of Economic Methodology have created this special issue on the subject of job letter reflexivity and have invited me, as well as a distinguished group of scholars, to contribute. Of course I did not discover reflexivity. Earlier observers recognized it, or at least aspects of it, often under a different name. Thesis Nokia? Knight (1921) explored the difference between risk and uncertainty. Keynes (1936, Chapter 12) compared financial markets to job letter, a beauty contest where the participants had to guess who would be the uw honors essay prompt, most popular choice. The sociologist Merton (1949) wrote about self-fulfilling prophecies, unintended consequences, and the bandwagon effect. Popper spoke of the ‘Oedipus effect’ in the Poverty of job letter Historicism (1957, Chapter 5). My own conceptual framework has its origins in website my time as a student at job letter, the London School of Economics in an analytical essay on a the late 1950s. I took my final exams one year early, so I had a year to fill before I was qualified to receive my degree.
I could choose my tutor, and I chose Popper whose book TheOpen Society and Its Enemies (1945) had made a profound impression on job letter, me. In Popper’s other great work Logik der Forschung (1935), which was published in English as The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959), he argued that the empirical truth cannot be known with absolute certainty. Even scientific laws cannot be verified beyond a shadow of a doubt: they can only be falsified by testing. One failed test is enough to falsify, but no amount of conforming instances is sufficient to verify. Scientific laws are always hypothetical in character, and their validity remains open to falsification. While I was reading Popper I was also studying economic theory, and I was struck by the contradiction between Popper’s emphasis on 123 essay, imperfect understanding and the theory of perfect competition in job letter economics, which postulated perfect knowledge.
This led me to start questioning the assumptions of economic theory. I replaced the postulates of on nurture rational expectations and efficient markets with my own principles of fallibility and job letter, reflexivity. After college, I started working in the financial markets where I had not much use for the economic theories I had studied in college. Strangely enough, the conceptual framework I had developed under Popper’s influence provided me with much more valuable insights. And while I was engaged in making money I did not lose my interest in philosophy. I published my first book, The Alchemy of Finance, in 1987. In that book, I tried to explain the uw honors essay prompt, philosophical underpinnings of my approach to financial markets. The book attracted a certain amount of attention. It has been read by job letter, many people in the hedge fund industry, and it is taught in business schools. But the philosophical arguments in that book and subsequent books (Soros, 1998, 2000) did not make much of an writing an analytical on a impression on the economics departments of job letter universities. My framework was largely dismissed as the conceit of a man who has been successful in business and therefore fancies himself as a philosopher.
With my theories largely ignored by academia, I began to regard myself as a failed philosopher – I even gave a lecture entitled ‘A Failed Philosopher Tries Again.’ All that changed as a result of the thesis nokia, financial crisis of 2008. My understanding of reflexivity enabled me both to anticipate the crisis and to deal with it when it finally struck (Soros, 2008, 2009). Job Letter? When the fallout of the crisis spread from the USA to Europe and around the world it enabled me to explain and predict events better than most others (Soros, 2012). The crisis put in stark relief the failings of orthodox economic theory (Soros, 2010). Uw Honors Prompt? As people have realized how badly traditional economics has failed, interest in job letter reflexivity has grown.
Thus, this issue of the Journal of Economic Methodology is timely. Economics is in a period of intellectual flux and while some economists will cling to ideas of market efficiency and rationality to their final days, many others are eager to writing, pursue alternative approaches. In this essay, I will articulate my current thinking. In Section 2, I shall explain the concepts of fallibility and reflexivity in general terms. In Section 3, I will discuss the implications of my conceptual framework for the social sciences in general and for economics in particular. In Section 4, I will describe how my conceptual framework applies to the financial markets with special mention of financial bubbles and the ongoing euro crisis. I will then conclude with some thoughts on the need for a new paradigm in social science. Fallibility and job letter, reflexivity.
I have a peculiar problem in explicating my conceptual framework. The framework deals with the relationship between thinking and reality, but the participants’ thinking is part of the reality that they have to think about, which makes the relationship circular. Circles have no beginning or end, so I have to plunge in at an arbitrary point. That makes my ideas less clear when I put them into words than they are in my own mind. Thesis Nokia? I am not the only one affected by this difficulty but I feel obliged to warn the reader that this section will be more convoluted and less elegant than it ought to be; the rest of the paper is not affected. My conceptual framework is built on two relatively simple propositions. Job Letter? The first is that in thesis nokia situations that have thinking participants, the job letter, participants’ views of the world never perfectly correspond to the actual state of affairs. People can gain knowledge of individual facts, but when it comes to formulating theories or forming an overall view, their perspective is thesis nokia bound to be either biased or inconsistent or both.
That is the job letter, principle of fallibility. The second proposition is that these imperfect views can influence the situation to which they relate through the actions of the participants. For example, if investors believe that markets are efficient then that belief will change the on nurture, way they invest, which in turn will change the nature of the markets in which they are participating (though not necessarily making them more efficient). That is the principle of reflexivity. The two principles are tied together like Siamese twins, but fallibility is the firstborn: without fallibility there would be no reflexivity. Job Letter? Both principles can be observed operating in the real world. So when my critics say that I am merely stating the obvious, they are right – but only up to a point. What makes my propositions interesting is that they contradict some of the basic tenets of economic theory. My conceptual framework deserves attention not because it constitutes a new discovery, but because something as commonsensical as reflexivity has been so studiously ignored by economists. The field of economics has gone to great lengths to thesis nokia, eliminate the job letter, uncertainty associated with reflexivity in order to formulate universally valid laws similar to Newtonian physics. In doing so, economists set themselves an impossible task.
The uncertainty associated with fallibility and 123 essay, reflexivity is inherent in the human condition. To make this point, I lump together the two concepts as the human uncertainty principle. The complexity of the world in which we live exceeds our capacity to comprehend it. Confronted by job letter, a reality of extreme complexity, we are obliged to resort to various methods of simplification: generalizations, dichotomies, metaphors, decision rules, and moral precepts, just to reflective, mention a few. These mental constructs take on job letter, a (subjective) existence of their own, further complicating the situation. The structure of the brain is another source of fallibility. Recent advances in brain science have begun to provide some insight into how the brain functions, and they have substantiated David Hume’s insight that reason is the slave of passion. Thesis Nokia? The idea of a disembodied intellect or reason is a figment of job letter our imagination.
The brain is bombarded by millions of sensory impulses, but consciousness can process only seven or eight subjects concurrently. The impulses need to essay prompt, be condensed, ordered, and interpreted under immense time pressure; mistakes and distortions cannot be avoided. Brain science adds many new insights to my contention that our understanding of the world in which we live is inherently imperfect. Fallibility pervades our attempts to job letter, understand both natural and social phenomena, but it is not fallibility that distinguishes the social from the physical sciences. Rather, as will be discussed further in writing lessons + elementary Section 3, the distinction comes from the fact that in social systems fallible human beings are not merely scientific observers but also active participants in the system themselves. Job Letter? That is what makes social systems reflexive. The concept of reflexivity needs some further explication. It applies exclusively to situations that have thinking participants. The participants’ thinking serves two functions. + Elementary? One is to understand the world in which we live; I call this the job letter, cognitive function.
The other is to make an impact on the world and to advance the participants’ interests; I call this the manipulative function. I use the term ‘manipulative’ to emphasize intentionality. The two functions connect the participants’ thinking (subjective reality) and the actual state of affairs (objective reality) in opposite directions. In the cognitive function, the participant is cast in the role of a passive observer: the direction of writing on a causation is from the world to the mind. In the manipulative function, the participants play an job letter active role: the direction of causation is from the mind to the world. Website? Both functions are subject to fallibility. When both the cognitive and manipulative functions operate at the same time they may interfere with each other.
How? By depriving each function of the independent variable that would be needed to determine the value of the dependent variable. The independent variable of job letter one function is the dependent variable of the other, thus neither function has a genuinely independent variable – the relationship is circular or recursive. It is like a partnership where each partner’s view of the other influences their behavior and english, vice-versa. Lack of an independent criterion of truth. If the job letter, cognitive function operated in isolation, without any interference from the thesis nokia, manipulative function, it could produce knowledge.
Knowledge is represented by true statements. A statement is true if it corresponds to the facts – that is what the correspondence theory of job letter truth tells us. But if there is interference from the thesis nokia, manipulative function, the job letter, facts no longer serve as an independent criterion because the statement may be the product of the manipulative function. Consider the statement ‘It is raining.’ That statement is true or false depending on whether it is, in fact, raining. And whether people believe it is writing on a raining or not cannot change the facts. The agent can assess the statement without any interference from the manipulative function and job letter, thus gain knowledge. Now consider the statement ‘I love you.’ The statement is reflexive.
It will have an writing an analytical essay short effect on the object of the job letter, affections of the essay on nurture nature, person making the statement and the recipient’s response may then affect the feelings of the person making the statement, changing the truth value of job letter his or her original statement. Reflexivity has some affinity with the Liar’s Paradox, which is writing an analytical a self-referential statement. ‘This sentence is false’ is paradoxical. If the sentence is true, it means it is false, but if it is false, it means it is true. Bertrand Russell resolved the paradox by job letter, putting self-referential statements into a separate category and declaring them to essay reflective, be meaningless. Following Russell, an important school of philosophy, logical positivism, banned self-referential statements. Ludwig Wittgenstein carried this program to its logical conclusion in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and in job letter the end he concluded that he had embarked on an impossible task. Reflective? In practice, it is impossible to job letter, avoid either self-referential or reflexive statements. Consequently, the cognitive function cannot produce all the knowledge agents need to make decisions; they have to act on the basis of imperfect understanding. While the manipulative function can make an impact on the world, outcomes are unlikely to correspond to expectations. There is bound to be some slippage between intentions and actions, and further slippage between actions and outcomes. Since agents base their decisions on inadequate knowledge, their actions are liable to have unintended consequences.
This means that reflexivity introduces an element of uncertainty both into the agents’ view of the world and into the world in writing an analytical short story which they participate. While self-reference has been extensively analyzed by the Vienna school with which Popper was associated, reflexivity has received much less attention. This is strange because reflexivity has an impact on the real world, while self-reference is confined to the universe of statements. In the real world, the participants’ thinking finds expression not only in statements but also, of course, in various forms of action and behavior. That makes reflexivity a much broader phenomenon than self-reference: it connects the job letter, universe of essay thoughts with the universe of events. Bertrand Russell analyzed the Liar’s Paradox in a timeless fashion. But reflexive systems are dynamic and unfold over time as the cognitive and job letter, manipulative functions perpetually chase each other. Once time is introduced, reflexivity creates indeterminacy and uncertainty rather than paradox. Reflexive feedback loops between the cognitive and manipulative functions connect the realms of beliefs and events. The participants’ views influence but do not determine the course of events, and 123 essay website, the course of events influences but does not determine the participants’ views. The influence is continuous and circular; that is what turns it into job letter, a feedback loop.
As both the thesis nokia, cognitive and manipulative functions are subject to fallibility, uncertainty is introduced into job letter, both the realms of beliefs and events. The process may be initiated from either direction, from a change in views, or from a change in circumstances. Objective and uw honors essay, subjective aspects of reality. Reflexive feedback loops have not been rigorously analyzed and when I originally encountered them and tried to study them, I ran into job letter, various difficulties. The main source of the trouble was that thinking is part of reality and the relationship of a part to the whole is very difficult to describe. English Reflective? The fact that thinking is not directly observable adds further complications; consequently, the definition of reflexivity will be much more complicated than the concept itself. The idea is that there is a two-way feedback loop connecting thinking and reality. The main feedback is between the participants’ views and the actual course of events. But what about a direct two-way interaction between the job letter, various participants’ views? And what about a solitary individual asking herself who she is and what she stands for and changing her behavior as a result of her own internal reflections?
To resolve these difficulties, I propose distinguishing between the objective and subjective aspects of reality. Thesis Nokia? Thinking constitutes the subjective aspect. It takes place in the privacy of the participants’ minds and job letter, is not directly observable; only its material manifestations are. The objective aspect consists of observable events. In other words, the prompt, subjective aspect covers the participants’ thinking and the objective aspect denotes all observable facts, whether in the outside world or inside the brain. Free will versus determinism. There is only one objective reality, but there are as many different subjective views as there are thinking participants. The views can be divided into different groups such as doubters and believers, trend followers and job letter, contrarians, Cartesians and 123 essay, empiricists – but these are simplifications and the categories are not fixed. Agents may hold views that are not easily categorized; moreover, they are free to choose between categories and they are free to job letter, switch.
This is what is usually meant by free will but I consider free will a misnomer. People’s views are greatly influenced but not determined by external factors such as the views of others, heredity, upbringing, and prior experiences. So, reality is halfway between free will and determinism. Reflexivity can connect any two or more aspects of reality, setting up two-way feedback loops between them. We may then distinguish between two kinds of essay reflexivity: reflexive relations, like marriage or politics, which connect the subjective aspects of reality, and reflexive events, like the fiscal cliff or the job letter, euro crisis, which connect the subjective and objective aspects. In exceptional cases, reflexivity may even occur within a single subjective aspect of reality, as in the case of a solitary individual reflecting on his own identity. This may be described as self-reflexivity. When reality has no subjective aspect, there can be no reflexivity. In other words, the presence or absence of reflexivity serves as a criterion of demarcation between social and natural phenomena – a point I will discuss in detail in writing lessons + elementary the next section. Let me illustrate the difficulties in analyzing the relationship between thinking and reality with the help of a diagram.
Figure 1 describes the roles of the cognitive and manipulative functions, fallibility, and job letter, intentionality. Essay Nature? Together this might be thought of as a reflexive system. Figure 1 A reflexive system. I have indicated the presence of job letter multiple participants, and therefore multiple subjective realities. Nevertheless, the diagram is inadequate because it would require three dimensions to show the multiple participants interacting with each other as well as with the thesis nokia, objective aspect of reality. The human uncertainty principle.
Knight (1921) introduced an important distinction between risk and uncertainty. Risk is when there are multiple possible future states and the probabilities of those different future states occurring are known. Risk is well described by job letter, the laws of probability and statistics. Knightian uncertainty occurs when the uw honors essay, probabilities of future states, or even the nature of possible future states is not known. At this point, we need to recognize that it is fallibility that is the key source of Knightian uncertainty in human affairs.
Yes, reflexivity does introduce an element of uncertainty into job letter, both the participants’ views and the actual course of events, and there are also other forms of lessons + elementary fallibility that have the same effect. Job Letter? For instance, different participants have different goals, some of which may be in nature conflict with each other. Moreover, as Isaiah Berlin pointed out, each participant may be guided by job letter, a multiplicity of values that may not be self-consistent. Essay Prompt? The uncertainties created by these factors are more extensive than those specifically associated with reflexivity. We must also remember that not all forms of fallibility create Knightian uncertainty. Some forms are subject to statistical analysis – human errors leading to road accidents for example, or the job letter, many biases and errors discovered by behavioral economists. Other aspects of fallibility qualify as Knightian uncertainty – for on nurture for future, example, probability analysis is not much help in understanding the misconceptions at job letter, the heart of the euro crisis. Humans face quantifiable risks as well as Knightian uncertainty.
There are many activities that are predictable or at least their probabilities can be calculated. Uw Honors Essay Prompt? Psychologists and behavioral economists have catalogued many regularities in human behavior. But with few exceptions, these experiments do not deal with reflexivity. Most behavioral experiments assess people’s perception of objective reality (e.g. trying to remember numbers, guess probabilities of different events, and so on) and thus are really measures of the fallibility of the cognitive function. The manipulative function is rarely studied. Thus, there is both uncertainty and regularity in human affairs. Job Letter? Reflexivity is only one source of uw honors essay uncertainty, albeit a powerful one. Earlier, I referred to the combination of reflexivity and job letter, fallibility as the english essay, human uncertainty principle. That makes it a broader concept than reflexivity. The human uncertainty principle is much more specific and stringent than the subjective skepticism that pervades Cartesian philosophy. It gives us objective reasons to believe that the theories held by the participants, as distinct from statements of specific facts, are liable to be biased, incomplete, or both.
Philosophy of social science. The idea that the sciences should be unified goes back to the pre-Socratic Greeks and has been a subject of debate in philosophy ever since. Popper (1935/1959, 1957) argued that science could be demarcated from metaphysics by his notion of job letter falsifiable hypotheses; moreover, that falsifiable hypotheses could also provide methodological unity to the sciences. While I have drawn much inspiration from Popper, this is an essay important point where I differ from job letter my mentor. Writing An Analytical Essay On A Short Story? I believe that reflexivity provides a strong challenge to the idea that natural and job letter, social science can be unified. I believe that social science can still be a valuable human endeavor, but in order for it to be so, we must recognize its fundamental differences from natural science.
Popper’s theory of scientific method. I base my argument on Popper’s (1935/1959) theory of scientific method. Let me start by summarizing his beautifully simple and elegant scheme. It consists of three elements and three operations. The three elements are scientific laws of universal and timeless validity and two sets of singular conditions that Popper calls the cause and the effect. The three operations are prediction, explanation, and testing. When a scientific law is combined with the cause it provides predictions. When a scientific law is combined with the effect it provides explanations. In this sense, predictions and explanations are symmetrical and reversible through the logic of deduction.
That leaves testing. On this last point Popper had a key insight. According to Popper, scientific laws are hypothetical in english reflective character; they cannot be verified, but they can be falsified by empirical testing. The key to the success of scientific method is that it can test generalizations of universal validity with the job letter, help of singular observations. One failed test is 123 essay sufficient to job letter, falsify a theory, but no amount of confirming instances is sufficient to verify it. Generalizations that cannot be tested do not qualify as scientific. This is a brilliant construct that makes science both empirical and rational. According to Popper, it is empirical because we test our theories by thesis nokia, observing whether the predictions we derive from them are true, and job letter, it is rational because we use deductive logic in doing so. Popper dispenses with inductive logic, which he considers invalid and gives testing a central role instead. He also makes a strong case for critical thinking by asserting that scientific laws are only provisionally valid and 123 essay, remain open to re-examination.
The three salient features of Popper’s scheme are the symmetry between prediction and explanation, the asymmetry between verification and falsification, and the central role of testing. These three features allow science to grow, improve, and innovate. Problems of job letter social science. Popper’s scheme has worked extraordinarily well for the study of natural phenomena, but the human uncertainty principle throws a monkey wrench into thesis nokia, the supreme simplicity and elegance of Popper’s scheme. Job Letter? The symmetry between prediction and explanation is destroyed because the future is writing genuinely uncertain, and therefore cannot be predicted with the same degree of certainty as it can be explained in retrospect. One might object that uncertainty exists in all realms of science. But while Werner Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics is job letter subject to + elementary, the laws of probability and statistics, the deep Knightian uncertainties of human affairs associated with the job letter, human uncertainty principle are not. Even more importantly, the central role of testing is endangered. Should the essay, initial and final conditions include or exclude the participant’s thinking? The question is job letter important because testing requires replicating those conditions.
If the participants’ thinking is essay writing lessons + elementary included, it is difficult to determine what the initial and final conditions are because the participants’ views can only be inferred from their statements or actions. If the participants’ thinking is excluded, the job letter, initial and final conditions do not constitute singular observations because the same objective conditions may be associated with very different subjective views. In either case, testing cannot meet the requirements of writing short story Popper’s scheme. This limitation does not preclude social sciences from producing worthwhile generalizations, but they are unlikely to match the predictive power of the laws of physics. Empirical testing ought to play a central role in job letter social science as well but it should not be expected to produce universal and timeless generalizations with symmetrical and reversible explanatory and predictive powers. This point will be elaborated at thesis nokia, the end of Section 4. The structure of events. I contend that situations that have thinking participants have a different structure from natural phenomena. The difference lies in the role thinking plays.
In natural phenomena, thinking plays no causal role. Events unfold irrespective of the job letter, views held by the observers. Essay For Future? The structure of natural events can be described as a chain of cause and effect generating a steam of objective facts, without any interference from the subjective aspects of job letter reality (see Figure 2). In natural science, the outside observer is engaged only in the cognitive function, and the facts provide a reliable criterion by writing essay short story, which the truth of the observers’ theories can be judged. So the outside observer can obtain knowledge about the natural phenomena she is observing. Based on that knowledge, nature can be successfully manipulated. That manipulation may change the state of the physical world, but it does not change the laws that govern that world. We can use our understanding of the physical world to job letter, create airplanes, but the thesis nokia, invention of the job letter, airplane did not change the laws of aerodynamics. By contrast, in human affairs, thinking is part of the subject matter The course of prompt events leads not only from facts to facts but also from facts to the participants’ perceptions (the cognitive function) and from the participants’ decisions to facts (the manipulative function). Figure 3 is a simplified presentation of the structure of social events. It illustrates that there is job letter only one objective aspect but as many subjective aspects of reality as there are thinking participants.
The reflexive feedback loops between the objective and subjective aspects of reality create a lace-like pattern, which is superimposed on the direct line leading from one set of facts to the next and deflects it from what it would be if there were no feedback loops. The feedback sometimes brings the subjective and objective aspects closer together and sometimes drives them further apart. The two aspects are aligned, but only loosely – the human uncertainty principle implies that a perfect alignment is the exception rather than the rule. Figure 3 Social phenomena. Popper’s scheme would require social scientists to produce generalizations of universal and timeless validity that determine the alignment of the objective and subjective aspects of reality. If the human uncertainty principle is valid, that is an impossible task. Yet, the achievements of natural science, exemplified by Newtonian physics, were so alluring that economists and other social scientists have tried incredibly hard to establish such generalizations. They suffered from what I like to call ‘physics envy.’ In order to 123 essay, achieve the impossible, they invented or postulated some kind of fixed relationship between the participants’ thinking and the actual course of events. Karl Marx asserted that the material conditions of job letter production determined the writing essay, ideological superstructure; Freud maintained that people’s behavior was determined by the unconscious. Both claimed scientific status for their theories but Popper rightly argued that their theories could not be falsified by testing.
However, Popper did not go far enough. The same argument applies to the mainstream economic theory currently taught in universities. It is an axiomatic system based on job letter, deductive logic, not on empirical evidence. English Essay Reflective? If the axioms are true, so are the mathematical deductions. In this regard, economic theory resembles Euclidian geometry. But Euclid’s postulates are modeled on conditions prevailing in job letter the real world while at least some of the postulates of economics, notably rational choice and rational expectations, are dictated by the desire to imitate Newtonian physics rather than real-world evidence. This ill-fated attempt by economists to slavishly imitate physics has a long history.
The process started with the theory of perfect competition, which postulated perfect knowledge. That postulate was later modified to universally available perfect information. When that postulate proved inadequate Lionel Robbins, who was my professor at essay lessons, the London School of Economics, defined the task of economics as the allocation of limited means to job letter, unlimited alternative ends (Robbins, 1932). He specifically excluded the study of the means and the ends themselves. By taking the prevailing values and methods of production as given he eliminated reflexivity as a possible subject of study for essay lessons + elementary, economics. Job Letter? Subsequently, this approach reached its apex with the rational expectations and efficient market hypotheses in the 1960s and 1970s. To be sure, physics envy is not unjustified. The achievements of natural science stand as convincing testimony to writing, man’s ability to use reason. Unfortunately, these achievements do not ensure that human behavior is job letter always governed by reason. Human uncertainty as an impediment to scientific method.
The human uncertainty principle not only prevents the social sciences from producing results comparable to physics; it interferes with scientific method in other ways as well. Writing On A Short Story? I shall mention only one of them. As we have seen, natural phenomena provide a genuinely independent criterion for judging the validity of generalizations but the facts produced by social processes do not do so because they are influenced by theories held by job letter, participants. This makes social theories themselves subject to reflexivity. In other words, they serve not only a cognitive but also a manipulative function. To be sure, the generalizations and observations of natural scientists are also theory laden, and they influence the selection of facts but they do not influence the facts themselves. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle showed that the act of essay observation impacts a quantum system. Job Letter? But the thesis nokia, discovery of the uncertainty principle itself did not alter the behavior of job letter quantum particles one iota. Reflective? The principle applied before Heisenberg discovered it and will continue to apply long after human observers are gone. But social theories – whether Marxism, market fundamentalism, or the theory of reflexivity – can affect the subject matter to job letter, which they refer.
Scientific method is supposed to be devoted to the pursuit of truth. But why should social science confine itself to passively studying social phenomena when it can be used to an analytical essay on a short, actively change the state of job letter affairs? The temptation to use social theories to change reality rather than to understand it is much greater than in for future natural science. Indeed, economists commonly talk about normative versus positive economics – but there is no such thing as normative physics. That is a fundamental difference between natural and social science that needs to be recognized. A spectrum between physical and social sciences. In my argument, I have drawn a sharp distinction between the social and job letter, natural sciences. But such dichotomies are usually not found in reality; rather we introduce them in our efforts to make some sense out of an writing otherwise confusing reality. Indeed, while the dichotomy between physics and social sciences seems clear cut, there are other sciences, such as biology and job letter, the study of animal societies, that occupy intermediate positions. The distinction I have drawn between natural and social science consists of the presence or absence of thinking participants’ who have a will of their own.
That begs the question of what constitutes a ‘thinking participant.’ One might reasonably ask whether a chimpanzee, a dolphin, or a computerized stock-trading program is a thinking participant. In some fields, superior data crunching capacity may trump the human imagination, as the chess contest between Big Blue and Gary Kasparov has shown. Essay? And automatic trading systems appear to job letter, be currently outperforming hedge funds run by humans. However, I would note that humans have some unique characteristics, notably language, emotions, and culture. Thesis Nokia? Both our individual and shared subjective realities are far richer and more complex than any other creature’s. I contend that there are some problems that set natural and social science a part. I have focused on reflexivity as one such fundamental problem area.
It presents itself in job letter both the subject matter and its scientific study, so that it may be conveniently treated as two closely interrelated problems. Thesis Nokia? Humans are thinking agents and their thinking serves two functions: cognitive and manipulative. In the subject matter, the problem presents itself as the human uncertainty principle, also known as Knightian uncertainty. That has no equivalent in natural science. Job Letter? For scientific method, the problem is writing lessons + elementary more complicated because scientists are also human beings and their thinking also serves two functions. This problem presents itself in both natural and social science, but analysis of the various possible solutions yields different results. Science is a discipline that seeks to perfect the cognitive function by job letter, artificially isolating itself from the manipulative function.
It does so by submitting itself to prompt, a number of conventions such as insisting on empirical tests that can be replicated and/or observed by others. Popper’s scheme shows what natural science can achieve by job letter, obeying those rules and conventions. As I have shown, the human uncertainty principle prevents social science from matching these achievements. But there is also a flip side to be considered: what happens when those rules and writing an analytical short, conventions are not observed? Remember that my criterion of demarcation between natural and social science is job letter that the latter is reflexive, the former is not. In other words, social science can change objective reality by influencing the participants’ views, but natural science cannot because its subject matter has no thinking participants. That is what I meant when I remarked in The Alchemy of 123 essay website Finance, that the job letter, alchemists made a mistake in trying to change the nature of base metals by incantation.
Instead, they should have focused their attention on writing an analytical essay on a story, the financial markets, where they could have succeeded. Now I need to job letter, take my analysis further. Natural science can work wonders as long as it follows Popper’s scheme because it has a purely objective criterion, namely the facts, by which the truth or validity of essay on nurture its laws can be judged, but it cannot produce anything worthwhile by cheating on the testing process. Cars that do not obey the laws of physics will not move; airplanes will not fly. How about social science? We have seen that Popper’s scheme cannot be expected to produce comparable results. On the other hand, social theories also serve a manipulative function and their influence on objective reality may prove quite satisfactory from the point of job letter view of their proponents – at least for thesis nokia, a while, until objective reality reasserts itself and the outcome fails to correspond to expectations.
There are many statements that fit this pattern. President Obama managed to make the post 2008 recession shorter and shallower by asserting that the economy was fundamentally sound and promising a speedy recovery, but he paid a heavy political price when reality failed to live up to his promises. Job Letter? Fed chairman Alan Greenspan operated much the same way, but his Delphic utterances were more difficult to prove wrong. English Reflective? Both Freud and Marx sought to gain acceptance for their theories by claiming scientific status. One of the most interesting cases is the efficient market hypothesis and job letter, its political companion, market fundamentalism. We shall see that the mechanism that provides some degree of writing an analytical short story justification for the claim that markets are always right is reflexivity, not rational expectations. Yet, a false explanation can be subjectively more appealing than what I consider to be the true one. The efficient market hypothesis allows economic theory to lay claim to the status of a hard science like physics. And market fundamentalism allows the financially successful to job letter, claim that they are serving the website, public interest by pursing their self-interest. That is a powerful combination that dominated the field until it caused a lot of damage in the financial crisis of 2007/2008.
Surprisingly it survived that debacle: the conservative wing of the Republican party managed to pin the blame for the financial crisis on the government rather than on the private sector. To correct the mistake of viewing economics as equivalent to a hard science, I will propose a methodological convention. A methodological convention. I propose renouncing Popper’s doctrine of the unity of science and recognizing a fundamental difference between natural and job letter, social phenomena – not as an empirical truth but as a methodological convention. The convention asserts that social science cannot be expected to thesis nokia, produce results comparable with physics by using the same methods; however, it sets no limits on job letter, what social science may be able to accomplish by employing different methods. The convention will protect scientific method by preventing the social sciences from parading with borrowed feathers. It should not be taken, however, as a demotion or devaluation of social science. On the contrary, it should open up new vistas by liberating social science from the slavish imitation of natural science and by protecting it from essay on nurture nature for future being judged by the wrong standards. The limits and promise of social science. Interestingly, both Karl Popper and Friedrich Hayek recognized in their famous exchange in the pages of job letter Economica(Popper, 1944) that the social sciences cannot produce results comparable with physics.
Hayek inveighed against the mechanical and for future, uncritical application of the job letter, quantitative methods of essay prompt natural science. He called it ‘scientism.’ and Popper wrote The Poverty of Historicism (1957) in which he argued that history is not determined by universally valid scientific laws. Job Letter? Nevertheless, Popper proclaimed what he called the ‘doctrine of the unity of method,’ by which he meant that both natural and social sciences should use the same methods and be judged by the same criteria. By proclaiming the doctrine, Popper sought to distinguish pseudo-scientific theories like those of Marx and Freud from mainstream economics. As mentioned earlier, Popper did not go far enough: rational choice theory and the efficient market hypothesis are just as pseudo-scientific as Marxist and Freudian theories. As I see it, the prompt, implication of the human uncertainty principle is that the job letter, subject matter of the natural and social sciences is fundamentally different; therefore, they need to develop different methods and should be held to writing an analytical essay on a, different standards. Economic theory should not be expected to meet the job letter, standards established by Newtonian physics. In fact, if it did produce universally valid laws, as Knight (1921, p. Essay Writing? 28) pointed out, economic profit itself would be impossible: if all changes were to take place in accordance with invariable and universally known laws, [so that] they could be foreseen for job letter, an indefinite period in advance of their occurrence, … profit or loss would not arise. I contend that Popper’s scheme cannot produce results in the human sphere comparable with the english essay reflective, amazing achievement of physics. The slavish imitation of natural science can easily produce misleading results, sometimes with disastrous consequences. A methodological convention that merely asserts that social sciences should not be confined to job letter, the same methods and website, be judged by job letter, the same criteria as the natural sciences may not seem like an adequate remedy for uw honors prompt, the ills I have identified.
But look at the straightjacket Lionel Robbins imposed on economics: it prevented economists from job letter recognizing reflexivity and encouraged the development of synthetic financial instruments and risk management techniques that ignore Knightian uncertainty with disastrous consequences from which we have not yet found an escape. I admit that the proposed methodological convention is only a starting point and uw honors essay, it begs the question of what social scientists should do, what methods they should use, and by what criteria they should be judged. Others writing in this journal may have specific answers; I have only a partial one. Any valid methodology of social science must explicitly recognize both fallibility and reflexivity and the Knightian uncertainty they create. Job Letter? Empirical testing ought to remain a decisive criterion for judging whether a theory qualifies as scientific, but in light of the human uncertainty principle in social systems it cannot always be as rigorous as Popper’s scheme requires.
Nor can universally and timelessly valid theories be expected to yield determinate predictions because future events are contingent on future decisions, which are based on uw honors essay, imperfect knowledge. Time- and context-bound generalizations may yield more specific explanations and predictions than timeless and job letter, universal generalizations.1. Financial markets provide an english excellent laboratory for testing the ideas I have put forward in the previous sections. The course of events is job letter easier to observe than in most other areas. Thesis Nokia? Many of the facts take a quantitative form, and the data are well recorded and well preserved. The opportunity for testing occurs because my interpretation of financial markets directly contradicts the efficient market hypothesis, which has been the prevailing paradigm. The efficient market hypothesis claims that markets tend toward equilibrium and that deviations occur in a random fashion and can be attributed to exogenous shocks. It is then a testable proposition whether the job letter, efficient market hypothesis or my theory of reflexivity is better at explaining and predicting events. I contend that my theory of reflexivity is superior, even in its current rudimentary stage of development for uw honors essay, explaining and predicting financial markets in job letter general, and historical events like the financial crisis of uw honors essay 2007–2008 and the subsequent euro crisis in particular. My conceptual framework. Let me state the three key concepts of job letter my approach, fallibility, reflexivity, and the human uncertainty principle as they apply to the financial markets.
First, fallibility. Market prices of financial assets do not accurately reflect their fundamental value because they do not even aim to do so. An Analytical Short Story? Prices reflect market participants’ expectations of future market prices. Moreover, market participants are subject to fallibility; consequently, their expectations about the discounted present value of future earnings flows are likely to diverge from reality. The divergence may range from the job letter, negligible to the significant. This is in direct contradiction of the website, efficient market hypothesis, which does not admit fallibility. Second, reflexivity. Job Letter? Instead of playing a purely passive role in reflecting an underlying reality, financial markets also have an uw honors active role: they can affect the future earnings flows they are supposed to reflect.
That is the point that behavioral economists have missed. Job Letter? Behavioral economics focuses on only half of the reflexive process: cognitive fallibility leading to the mispricing of assets; they do not concern themselves with the effects that mispricing can have on the fundamentals. There are various pathways by which the mispricing of english financial assets can affect the so-called fundamentals. Job Letter? The most widely used are those that involve the for future, use of leverage – both debt and equity leveraging. For instance, companies can improve their earnings per-share by job letter, issuing shares at inflated prices – at least for a while. Markets may give the thesis nokia, impression that they are always right, but the mechanism at work is job letter very different from that implied by the prevailing paradigm. Third, the human uncertainty principle turns what economic theory treats as timeless generalizations into a time-bound historical process.
If agents act on the basis of thesis nokia their perfect understanding, equilibrium is far from a universally and job letter, timelessly prevailing condition of financial markets. Markets may just as easily tend away from a putative equilibrium as toward it. Instead of universally and timelessly prevailing, equilibrium becomes an extreme condition in which subjective market expectations correspond to objective reality. Theoretically such a correspondence could be brought about by either the cognitive or the manipulative function by itself – either perceptions can change to english essay reflective, match reality or perceptions can lead to actions which change reality to match perceptions. Job Letter? But in practice such a correspondence is more likely to be the product of a reflexive interaction between the two functions.
Whereas economics views equilibrium as the normal, indeed necessary state of affairs, I view such periods of stability as exceptional. Essay Short? Rather I focus on the reflexive feedback loops that characterize financial markets and cause them to be changing over time. Negative versus positive feedback loops. Reflexive feedback loops can be either negative or positive. Negative feedback brings the job letter, participants’ views and website, the actual situation closer together; positive feedback drives them further apart. In other words, a negative feedback process is self-correcting. It can go on forever and if there are no significant changes in external reality, it may eventually lead to an equilibrium in job letter which the participants’ views come to correspond to thesis nokia, the actual state of affairs. That is what rational expectations theory expects to happen in financial markets. It postulates that there is a single correct set of expectations that people’s views will converge around and deviations are random – there are no systematic errors between participants’ forecasts and what comes to pass.
That postulate has no resemblance to reality, but it is a core tenet of economics as it is currently taught in universities and even used in the models of job letter central banks. In practice, market participants’ expectations diverge from reality to a greater or lesser extent and their errors may be correlated and significantly biased. That is the writing, generic cause of price distortions. So equilibrium, which is the central case in mainstream economic theory, turns out to be an extreme case of negative feedback, alimiting case in my conceptual framework. Since equilibrium is job letter so extreme that it is unlikely to thesis nokia, prevail in reality, I prefer to speak of near-equilibrium conditions. By contrast, a positive feedback process is self-reinforcing. It cannot go on forever because eventually the participants’ views would become so far removed from objective reality that the participants would have to recognize them as unrealistic. Nor can the job letter, iterative process occur without any change in the actual state of affairs, because positive feedback reinforces whatever tendency prevails in the real world. Instead of equilibrium, we are faced with a dynamic disequilibrium, or what may be described as far-from-equilibrium situations. There are myriad feedback loops at work in financial markets at on nurture nature, any point of time. Some of them are positive, others negative.
As long as they are more or less in balance they cancel out each other and market fluctuations do not have a definite direction. Job Letter? I compare these swings to the waves sloshing around in a swimming pool as opposed to 123 essay website, the tides and currents that may prevail when positive feedbacks preponderate. Since positive feedbacks are self-reinforcing occasionally they may become so big that they overshadow all other happenings in the market. Negative feedback loops tend to be more ubiquitous but positive feedback loops are more interesting because they can cause big moves both in market prices and in the underlying fundamentals. A positive feedback process that runs its full course is initially self-reinforcing in one direction, but eventually it is liable to reach a climax or reversal point, after which it becomes self-reinforcing in the opposite direction. Job Letter? But positive feedback processes do not necessarily run their full course; they may be aborted at any time by negative feedback. Building on these ideas, I have developed a theory about boom–bust processes, or bubbles (Soros, 1987, 2008). Essay Nature For Future? Every bubble has two components: an underlying trend that prevails in reality and a misconception relating to that trend (see Figure 4).
A boom–bust process is set in motion when a trend and a misconception positively reinforce each other. The process is job letter liable to be tested by negative feedback along the way, giving rise to climaxes which may or may not turn out to be genuine. Thesis Nokia? If a trend is strong enough to survive the test, both the trend and the misconception will be further reinforced. Eventually, market expectations become so far removed from reality that people are forced to recognize that a misconception is job letter involved. A twilight period ensues during which doubts grow and more people lose faith, but the prevailing trend is sustained by thesis nokia, inertia. As Chuck Prince, former head of job letter Citigroup said during the twilight of the essay, super bubble: ‘As long as the music is playing, you’ve got to get up and dance. Job Letter? We’re still dancing.’ Eventually, a point is reached when the trend is reversed, it then becomes self-reinforcing in the opposite direction. Boom–bust processes tend to be asymmetrical: booms are slow to develop and take a long time to essay lessons + elementary, become unsustainable, busts tend to be more abrupt, due to job letter, forced liquidation of unsustainable positions and the asymmetries introduced by writing, leverage. Figure 4 A typical market boom–bust.
In the initial stage (AB), a new positive earning trend is job letter not yet recognized. Uw Honors Essay Prompt? Then comes a period of acceleration (BC) when the trend is job letter recognized and reinforced by expectations. A period of testing may intervene when either earnings or expectations waiver (CD). If the positive trend and bias survive the uw honors prompt, testing, both emerge stronger. Conviction develops and is no longer shaken by a setback in earnings (DE). The gap between expectations and reality becomes wider (EF) until the moment of truth arrives when reality can no longer sustain the exaggerated expectations and the bias is job letter recognized as such (F).
A twilight period ensues when people continue to play the game although they no longer believe in essay on nurture it (FG). Eventually a crossover point (G) is reached when the job letter, trend turns down and prices lose their last prop. This leads to a catastrophic downward acceleration (GH) commonly known as the crash. The pessimism becomes over done, earnings stabilize, and 123 essay website, prices recover somewhat (HI). The simplest case is job letter a real estate boom.
The trend that precipitates it is on nurture easy credit; the misconception is that the value of the collateral is independent of the availability of credit. As a matter of fact, the relationship is reflexive. When credit becomes cheaper and more easily available, activity picks up and real estate values rise. There are fewer defaults, credit performance improves, and lending standards are relaxed. So, at the height of the job letter, boom, the amount of english reflective credit involved is at its maximum and a reversal precipitates forced liquidation, depressing real estate values. Amazingly, the misconception continues to recur in various guises. Other bubbles are based on different misconceptions. For instance, the international banking crisis of 1982 revolved around sovereign debt in which case no collateral was involved. The creditworthiness of the sovereign borrowers was measured by various debt ratios, such as debt to GDP or debt service to exports. These ratios were considered objective criteria, but in fact they were reflexive. When the recycling of job letter petro-dollars in the 1970s increased the flow of credit to countries like Brazil, their debt ratios improved, which encouraged further inflows and started a bubble.
In 1980, Paul Volcker raised interest rates in writing lessons the USA to job letter, arrest inflation and the sovereign debt bubble burst in 1982. Bubbles are not the only form in which reflexivity manifests itself. They are just the most dramatic and the most directly contradictory to 123 essay website, the efficient market hypothesis, so they do deserve special attention. But reflexivity can take many other forms. In currency markets, for instance, the upside and downside are symmetrical so that there is no sign of an asymmetry between boom and bust. But there is job letter no sign of equilibrium, either. Freely floating exchange rates tend to move in essay lessons large, multi-year waves.
Markets versus regulators. One of the job letter, most important and prompt, interesting reflexive interactions takes place between the financial authorities and the financial markets. Because markets do not tend toward equilibrium, they are prone to job letter, produce periodic crises. Essay Writing Lessons? Financial crises lead to regulatory reforms. Job Letter? That is how central banking and the regulation of financial markets have evolved. Financial authorities and market participants alike act on the basis of imperfect understanding, which makes the interaction between them reflexive. While bubbles occur only intermittently, the interplay between authorities and markets is an website ongoing process. Misunderstandings by either side usually stay within reasonable bounds because market reactions provide useful feedback to the authorities, allowing them to correct their mistakes. But occasionally the mistakes prove to be self-validating, setting in motion vicious or virtuous circles. Such feedback loops resemble bubbles in the sense that they are initially self-reinforcing but eventually self-defeating.
Indeed, the intervention of the authorities to deal with periodic financial crises played a crucial role in the development of a ‘super-bubble’ that burst in 2007–2008 (Soros,2008, 2009). The interplay between markets and regulators is also at the heart of the euro crisis. The euro crisis. I have been following the euro crisis closely ever since its inception. I have written numerous articles that have been collected in a book (Soros, 2012). It would be impossible to summarize all my arguments for job letter, this essay; therefore, I shall focus only on the reflexive interaction between markets and authorities. Both acted on the basis of their imperfect understanding. The design of the common currency had many flaws. Writing Lessons? Some of them were known at the time the euro was introduced.
Everybody, for job letter, example, knew that it was an thesis nokia incomplete currency; it had a central bank, but it did not have a common treasury. The crash of 2008, however, revealed many other deficiencies. In retrospect, the most important was that by transferring the right to print to money to an independent central bank, member countries ran the risk of default on their government bonds. In a developed country with its own currency, the risk of default is absent because it can always print money. Job Letter? But by ceding or transferring that right to an independent central bank, which no member state actually controls, the member states put themselves in essay writing lessons + elementary the position of third-world countries that borrow in a foreign currency. This fact was not recognized either by the markets or by job letter, the authorities prior to the crash of essay + elementary 2008, testifying to job letter, their fallibility. When the euro was introduced, the authorities actually declared government bonds to be riskless. Commercial banks were not required to set aside any capital reserves against their holdings of government bonds. The European Central Bank (ECB) accepted all government bonds on equal terms at on a story, the discount window. This set up a perverse incentive for commercial banks to buy the debt of the weaker governments in order to earn what eventually became just a few basis points, because interest rates on government bonds converged to practically zero. Job Letter? This convergence in interest rates caused divergences in economic performance.
The weaker countries enjoyed real estate and consumption booms, while Germany, which was dealing with the burden of reunification, had to adopt fiscal austerity and structural reforms. After the essay reflective, Lehman bankruptcy European finance ministers declared that no other systemically important financial institution would be allowed to job letter, fail; Chancellor Merkel then insisted that the obligation should fall on writing an analytical essay on a, each country individually, not on job letter, the European Union or the Eurozone collectively. That was the onset of the euro crisis. It took markets more than a year to react to it. Essay? Only when Greece revealed a much larger than expected fiscal deficit did markets realize that Greece may actually default on job letter, its debt – and they raised risk premiums with a vengeance not only on Greek bonds but also on the bonds of all the heavily indebted member countries. A Greek default would have created a worse banking crisis than the Lehman bankruptcy. The authorities put together a number of rescue packages but they always did too little too late; so conditions in Greece continued to deteriorate.
This set a pattern for the other heavily indebted countries such as Spain, Italy, Portugal, and Ireland as well. While the actions of the essay prompt, ECB have calmed the job letter, markets, the crisis is still far from resolved. Rather than an association of equals, the Eurozone became divided into two classes: creditors and debtors. In a financial crisis, the creditors call the shots. The policies they are imposing perpetuate the division because the debtors have to pay risk premiums, not only on government bonds but also on bank credit. The additional cost of credit, which is a recurrent burden, makes it practically impossible for the heavily indebted countries to regain competitiveness.
This is not the result of an evil plot. It was caused by a lack of understanding of an prompt extremely complicated reality. In my articles, I put forward a series of practical proposals that could have worked at the time but became inadequate soon thereafter. Conversely, had the authorities adopted earlier some measures that they were willing to job letter, adopt later, they could have arrested the thesis nokia, downtrend and then reversed it by adopting further measures. As it is, they have managed to calm the crisis, but failed to reverse the job letter, trend. This analysis emphasizes the vital role that fallibility plays in shaping the course of history: there would have been no crisis without it. It also shows that in 123 essay far-from-equilibrium conditions the normal rules do not apply. One of the reasons why the crisis persists is that the Eurozone is governed by job letter, treaties that were designed for essay on nurture, near-equilibrium conditions. Obviously economists relying on the prevailing paradigm could not have reached this conclusion. Both the job letter, super-bubble and the euro crisis are examples of far-from-equilibrium situations.
A core difference between my approach and mainstream economics is that my framework can accommodate and explain such phenomena. Writing + Elementary? Instead of declaring equilibrium as the outcome, I distinguish between near-equilibrium conditions that are characterized by random fluctuations and far-from-equilibrium situations that produce initially self-reinforcing but eventually self-defeating trends. Near-equilibrium yields humdrum, everyday events that are repetitive and lend themselves to statistical generalizations. In contrast, far-from-equilibrium conditions give rise to unique, historic events in which outcomes are uncertain but have the capacity to disrupt the job letter, statistical generalizations based on 123 essay, everyday events. Rules that can usefully guide decisions in near-equilibrium conditions can be misleading in far-from-equilibrium situations. The financial crisis of job letter 2007–2008 is a case in point. All the risk management tools and synthetic financial products that were based on the assumption that price deviations from thesis nokia a putative equilibrium occur in a random fashion broke down, and those who relied on mathematical models that had served them well in job letter near-equilibrium conditions got badly hurt. In the 1960s, the mathematician Mandelbrot (1963) discovered that the price movements of financial assets sometimes exhibit ‘fat tails’ – more extreme events than a normal Gaussian distribution would predict. This finding has since been confirmed by much research. I believe that my conceptual framework can at least partially explain the fat tail phenomenon. Reality feeds the participants so much information that they need to on nurture, introduce dichotomies and other simplifying devices to make some sense of it.
The simplest way to introduce order is job letter binary division; hence, the tendency to lessons, use dichotomies. When markets switch from one side of a dichotomy to another the transition can be quite violent. The tipping point is difficult to predict but it is associated with a sharp increase in volatility, which manifests itself in fat tails. Toward a new paradigm. One of the most powerful concepts for job letter, purposes of essay on nurture nature simplification is the concept of change. In my first philosophical essay (Soros, 1962, 2006) written under the influence of Karl Popper, I used the concept of change to build models of social systems and reflexively connect them to modes of thinking. I linked organic society with the traditional mode of thinking, open society with the critical mode, and closed society with the dogmatic mode. It can be seen that my conceptual framework extends to a much broader area than that covered by economic theory. Job Letter? But financial markets provide the best laboratory for studying far-from-equilibrium situations at work because they manifest themselves in fat tails that can be clearly observed in the data.
They can be studied in other fields as well, but only in an analytical essay story the form of a historical narrative, as I have done in job letter my analysis of the euro crisis, which weaves together politics with financial economics. Reflexivity has been largely neglected until recently because it connects different fields studied by different disciplines. The same applies to my entire conceptual framework: it connects ideas with reality. Thesis Nokia? Reality has been broken up into narrow fields of specialization. Job Letter? This has brought great benefits but it has a major drawback: philosophy that deals with reality as a whole has fallen out of favor. It needs to be rehabilitated.
Mainstream economics tried to seal itself off from reality by relying on postulates that turned out to be far removed from reality. The financial crisis of 2007/2008 and essay on nurture for future, subsequent events exposed the weakness of this approach. The bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers was also the bankruptcy of the prevailing paradigm. There is job letter urgent need for a new one. This essay has shown that my interpretation of financial markets – based on my theory of website reflexivity – is radically different from orthodox economics based on efficient markets and rational expectations. Job Letter? Strictly speaking, both interpretations are pseudo-scientific by Popper’s standards.
That is why I called my first book ‘The Alchemy of website Finance’. Job Letter? And that is 123 essay why some proponents of the efficient market hypothesis still defend it in the face of all the evidence. Nevertheless, I contend that my interpretation yields better explanations and predictions than the prevailing paradigm. How can I reconcile this claim with my starting contention that the future is inherently uncertain and financial markets are inherently unpredictable? By resorting to Popper’s logic of job letter scientific discovery. English Essay Reflective? As a market participant, I formulate conjectures and expose them to refutation. I also assume that other market participants are doing the same thing whether they realize it or not. Their expectations are usefully aggregated in market prices.
I can therefore compare my own expectations with prevailing prices. When I see a divergence, I see a profit opportunity. Job Letter? The bigger the english essay, divergence, the bigger the opportunity. Popper made a similar assertion about scientific hypotheses. Philosophers of science roundly criticized him for this on the grounds that the predictive power of scientific theories cannot be quantified. It may not work for scientific theories, but I can testify from personal experience that it does work in the alchemy of financial markets. When the job letter, price behavior contradicts my expectations I have to re-examine my hypothesis. If I find myself proven wrong, I take a loss; if I conclude that the market is wrong, I increase my bet, always taking into account the risk that I am bound to be wrong some of the english essay reflective, time. This works well in job letter markets that are efficient in writing lessons + elementary the sense that transaction costs are minimal; it does not work in private equity investments that are not readily marketable. Job Letter? My performance record bears this out.
I was successful in markets but not in private equities. My approach can also be useful in formulating policy recommendations as my articles on the euro crisis demonstrate (Soros, 2012). Ever since the Crash of 2008 there has been a widespread recognition, both among economists and on nurture for future, the general public, that economic theory has failed. But there is no consensus on the causes and job letter, the extent of that failure. I have argued that the english essay, failure is more profound than generally recognized. It goes back to the foundations of job letter economic theory. Economics tried to essay on nurture nature for future, model itself on Newtonian physics. Job Letter? It sought to establish universally and timelessly valid laws governing reality. But economics is a social science and there is a fundamental difference between the natural and social sciences. 123 Essay Website? Social phenomena have thinking participants who cannot base their decisions on perfect knowledge; yet, they cannot avoid making decisions since avoiding them also counts as a decision. They introduce an element of indeterminacy into job letter, the course of human events that is absent in the behavior of on nurture nature for future inanimate objects.
The resulting uncertainty hinders the social sciences in producing laws similar to Newton’s physics. Yet, once we recognize this difference it frees us to develop new approaches to the study of social phenomena. While they have not yet been fully developed they hold out great promise. The stakes could not be higher. The mistaken theories that allowed the ‘super bubble’ to build, the policy errors that were made in the wake of the crash, and the ongoing mishandling of the euro crisis highlight the job letter, human suffering that can result from a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of nature economic systems. Recognizing the implications of our fallibility will be a great improvement in our understanding. Interpreting the economy as a reflexive system may not prevent future bubbles, crashes, or policy errors. But it may enable deeper insights into economic and socio-political phenomena and help humankind to better manage its affairs in the future. I realize that my approach is still very rudimentary. For most of my life, I developed it in the privacy of my own mind. Only in recent years, did I have the benefit of substantive criticism.
It remains to be seen whether my conceptual framework can develop into a new paradigm. Much depends on whether reflexive feedback loops can be properly modeled. There is an obvious problem: Knightian uncertainty cannot be quantified. Job Letter? But it is possible to identify trends without quantifying them and changes in trends without specifying the time of their occurrence. That is what I have done in my boom–bust model (Figure 4). We can also use volatility, which is quantifiable, as a substitute for uncertainty. And there may be other techniques that address these issues such as Imperfect Knowledge Economics (Frydman Goldberg, 2013) or new approaches yet to be invented.
The new paradigm is bound to be very different from the one that failed. Uw Honors Essay? It cannot be timeless; it must recognize that some changes are non-recurring while others exhibit statistical regularities. Job Letter? Moreover, economic theory will not be able to 123 essay, seal itself off from other disciplines and from reality. It cannot confine itself to studying the allocation of limited means among unlimited alternative ends; it will have to take into account the impact the job letter, allocation may have on prompt, prevailing values and job letter, methods of production. Obviously, I shall not be able to develop my ideas on my own. That is thesis nokia why I am so pleased that the Journal of Economic Methodology is publishing this special issue.
1.Postscript: When I wrote this article I was troubled by drawing an overly sharp distinction between the natural and social sciences. Beinhocker’s (2013) article in this symposium and a workshop at the Central European University on 8 October 2013 led me to modify my views on separating the two. I still think that the methodological convention I proposed is needed in job letter the near term in order to break the 123 essay, stranglehold of rational choice theory, but I realize it could do more harm than good in job letter the long term. As I stated above, there is a spectrum between physical and social sciences. Beinhocker is thesis nokia right in arguing that we should study the spectrum rather than attributing reflexivity exclusively to the domain of the social sciences. There are many similarities between human and non-human complex systems, which could be obfuscated by job letter, the proposed convention. Instead of denying the unity of science we ought to redefine scientific method so that it is uw honors not confined to Popper’s model. · 1. Beinhocker, E. D. (2013). Reflexivity, complexity and job letter, the nature of social science.
Journal of Economic Methodology, 20, 330–342. Essay Prompt? [Taylor Francis Online] · 2. Frydman, R., Goldberg, M. D. Job Letter? (2013). The imperfect knowledge imperative in macroeconomics and finance theory. In R.Frydman E. S.Phelps (Eds.), Rethinking expectations: The way forward for macroeconomics (pp. On A Story? 130–168). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Chapter 4. · 3. Keynes, J. M. (1936).
The general theory of job letter employment, interest, and money. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace. · 4. Knight, F. H. (1921). 123 Essay Website? Risk, uncertainty, and profit. Job Letter? Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. · 5. Mandelbrot, B. (1963). The variation of certain speculative prices. Journal of Business, 36, 394–419. [CrossRef] · 6. Merton, R. K. (1949). Social theory and social structure. New York, NY: Free Press.
· 7. Popper, K. (1935/1959). Logik der Forschung. Vienna. First English edition (1959) The logic of an analytical essay scientific discovery. London: HutchinsonVerlag von Julius Springer. [CrossRef] · 8. Popper, K. (1944). The poverty of historicism, II. A criticism of historicist methods. Economica, 43, 119–137.[CrossRef] · 9. Popper, K. Job Letter? (1945). The open society and its enemies.
London: Routledge. · 10. Popper, K. (1957). The poverty of historicism. London: Routledge. · 11. Robbins, L. (1932). An essay on the nature and significance of economic science.
London: MacMillan. · 12. On Nurture Nature For Future? Soros, G. (1962). Burden of consciousness. (unpublished; revised version included in Soros (2006)). · 13. Soros, G. (1987). The alchemy of job letter finance.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Sons. · 14. Soros, G. (1998). The crisis of global capitalism: Open society endangered. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 15. Soros, G. (2000). Open society: Reforming global capitalism. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 16.
Soros, G. Essay Writing Lessons + Elementary? (2006). Job Letter? The age of fallibility: Consequences of the war on terror. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 17. Soros, G. (2008). Writing Essay? The new paradigm for financial markets the credit crisis and what it means. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 18. Job Letter? Soros, G. (2009).
The crash of writing lessons + elementary 2008 and what it means: The new paradigm for financial markets. Job Letter? New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 19. Soros, G. (2010). On Nurture Nature? The Soros lectures at the Central European University. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 20. Soros, G. Job Letter? (2012).
Financial turmoil in the United States and uw honors, Europe: Essays. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
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How to Write Job Letters
7 Common MBA Essay Questions and job letter How to Tackle Them. There are a handful of business school essay questions that seem to capture the heart and imagination of many an MBA program. It seems that, across the board, admissions committees feel these queries offer the best insight into the minds of their applicants. You are likely to see a version of one or more of these common MBA essay questions on your b-school application. These tips will help you craft the perfect answer.
1. Describe your specific career aspirations and thesis nokia your reason for pursuing an MBA. This may be the job letter most important essay question you tackle. Essay Writing + Elementary. You must convince the job letter admissions committee that you deserve one of their few, cherished spots. Thesis Nokia. Reference your background, skills, and career aspirations, demonstrating how this degree is a bridge to the next step in your professional life. Be sure to speak to how this particular program will help you realize your potential.
It's okay to present modest goals. Deepening your expertise and broadening your perspective are solid reasons for pursuing this degree. Job Letter. If you aspire to lofty goals, like becoming a CEO or starting your own company, be careful to detail a sensible (read: realistic), pragmatic plan. 2. What are your principal interests outside of work or school? What leisure and/or community activities do you particularly enjoy? There's more to b-school than the library.
The best programs buzz with the energy of a student body that is talented and creative and essay writing lessons bursting with personality. These students are not just about case studies and careers. Describe how you will be a unique addition to job letter, the business school community. B-school is also a very social experience. Much of the work is done in groups. Weekends are full of social gatherings or immersion experiences, and the networking you do here will impact the rest of your career. Communicate that people, not just your job, are an important part of your life. The admissions committee wants to know the qualities, attributes and strengths you value in others and hope to embrace. Thesis Nokia. Drive, discipline and vision are fine examples but try and look beyond these conventional characteristics. Job Letter. Tell a story and provide specific examples. If you choose someone famous (which is fine), remember that you risk being one of 123 essay many in the pile.
Instead, consider a current boss, business associate, or friend. Know that your choice of person is less important than what you say about him or her. 4. Describe a situation in which you led a team. What challenges did you face, and job letter how did you overcome them? The committee isn't looking to see how you saved the team through your heroic efforts (so put yourself on website, ego alert). Job Letter. They want to thesis nokia, see how you helped foster an job letter, environment in which everyone contributes, illustrating that the sum is uw honors essay prompt greater than its parts. B-schools like leaders, but they like leaders who can help everyone get along and arrive at a collaborative solution. You should shift gears for this question. Almost the entire application process thus far has asked you to showcase me-me-me. Job Letter. Now the focus of your story needs to be on the we and how you made the we happen. 5. Our business school is a diverse environment.
How will your experiences contribute to this? This essay gets at two concerns for the admissions committee: (1) how will you enrich the student body at writing essay, this school and job letter (2) what is essay lessons your attitude toward others' diverse backgrounds? Diversity comes in job letter, many shapes. If a grandparent or relative is an immigrant to this country, you can discuss the impact of his or her values on your life. Perhaps you are the first individual in your family to attend college or graduate school. Maybe you are involved in a meaningful or unusual extracurricular activity.
Whatever you choose to write, it's vital that you discuss how it contributes to thesis nokia, your unique perspective. 6. Describe a personal achievement that has had a significant impact on your life. Job Letter. Don't pull your hair out uw honors essay, just because you haven't founded a successful start-up or swum across the English Channel. Smaller accomplishments with a lot of personal significance are just fine if they demonstrate character, sacrifice, humility, dedication, or perseverance. A good essay describes how you reached a personal objective and what that meant to you.
Maybe you didn't lead a sports team to a victory. Maybe the victory was that you made it onto the team . 7. Discuss a non-academic personal failure. What did you learn from the job letter experience? Many applicants make the mistake of answering this question with a failure that is really a positive. Or they never really answer the question, fearful that any admission of failure will throw their whole candidacy into jeopardy.
Don't get crafty. You should answer with a genuine mistake that the 123 essay website committee will recognize as authentic. Write about job letter a failure that had some high stakes for you. Thesis Nokia. Demonstrate what you learned from your mistake and job letter how it helped you mature. This is a chance to show b-schools your ability to 123 essay website, be honest, show accountability, and face your failures head-on. Job Letter. Take a GMAT practice test with us under the same conditions as the real thing.
You'll get a personalized score report highlighting your strengths and areas of improvement. The Staff of 123 essay The Princeton Review. Our world-class GMAT prep will get you ready for test day. Find MBA Programs Matched to Your Interests. Explore our featured business schools to find those that are looking for students like you. On a mission to job letter, increase your salary? Check out our Top 25 Online MBA ranking based on academics, career outcomes, tech platforms, and essay on a story more. Find out job letter, which schools have the best track records for getting students jobsand the uw honors essay prompt highest starting salaries. Ready to build your own business from the ground up?
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Free Essays on Batman And Joker Compare And Contrast. The Joker In the film, The Dark Knight directed by Christopher Nolan, The Joker , one of Batman's most dangerous enemies whose aim is too push Batman to his ultimate limits, to break his personal rules and strict moral code. This, being the Jokers only reason to live, he has no fear of death and pain. Jessica Jackson Film Review ( Batman ) 13 November 2012 Batman rated PG-13, released in 1989 was directed by Tim Burton and stars Michael Keaton as Bruce Wayne/ Batman , Jack Nicholson as Jack/The Joker , and Kim Basinger as Vicki Vale. The movie’s dark theme and so-so effects and stunt left me less. ? Batman : the Dark Knight Batman , the Dark Knight is full of underlying philosophy on society and life in many ways; I will focus on three of them: good versus evil, order versus chaos, and the theme of corruption.
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Religions compare and contrast paper. ?Jeri Williams 10/4/15 REL. 130 Compare and Contrast Paper Broadbent Christianity –VS- Islam The two religions I choose to compare and contrast are Christianity and Islam. Uw Honors! Being a Christian myself, I feel I know a fair amount in regards to this specific. Sample Compare and Contrast Essay (Batman the Punisher) Batman and the Punisher We have the idea that superheroes represent all that is good, and that a superhero must possess strength beyond a normal human being as well as superhuman abilities.
There is the idea that superheroes are supposed to be considered role models. Batman and the Punisher are. characters. In saying that, the psychological aspect themes in the film ‘The Dark Knight’ is shown in different perspectives through the main characters. Batman as a comic book character, is job letter perhaps the most mysterious and prompt as the movie title describes. the darkest. This is job letter described in two traumatic events. , Cast E-mail this report | Print this report [pic][pic][pic] [pic] [pic] THE JOKER IS KING: Heath Ledger has delivered a text book performance which is hard to forget. • Keywords: The Joker , Batman [pic] Cast: Christian Bale, Heath Ledger, Gary Oldman, Morgan Freeman, Maggie Gylenhaal. ADJ 215 Week 6 Individual Assignment Compare and Contrast Crime and Terrorism. ADJ 215 Week 6 Individual Assignment Compare and Contrast Crime and Terrorism Click Below URL to Purchase Homework http://www.homeworkbasket.com/ADJ-215/ADJ-215-Week-6-Individual-Assignment- Compare -and- Contrast -Crime-and-Terrorism Resource: U.S. Department of english reflective, State Web site athttp://www.state. Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still sometimes as the job letter Batman ) is on nurture nature a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in job letter May 1939.
He has since become, along with Superman and Spider-Man, one of the world's most recognized superheroes. Batman was co-created. My favorite villain was probably The Joker , because he is highly intelligent, he has no levels, there is no limit to what he is capable of doing. I think the Joker won in the end because he seriously did some serious damage. He got what he wanted he turned Gotham’s hero into a villain, and uw honors essay prompt he ruined. ? Compare and contrast U.S. political and job letter military difficulties in 123 essay website Iraq have prompted comparisons to the American war in Vietnam. Job Letter! Unfolding events in Iraq have caused some observers to + elementary, make analogies to job letter, the American experience in the Vietnam War. There are many reasons why most Americans. Functionalism Batman is the + elementary hero Gotham deserves, but not the one it needs right now. So we'll hunt him, because he can take it. Because he's not a hero. He's a single guardian, a watchful protector.
The Dark Knight. The movie, Batman : Dark Knight, produced by Christopher Nolan, was a feature film. the nature of evil. The Joker is the job letter ultimate evil character and throughout the film he puts other characters in a tough situations that force them to choose between right and english essay reflective wrong and ultimately good and evil. Examples of this are seen with the characters Harvey Dent, Batman , and in the lifeboat scenario. format and published as a book. Graphics novels are typically written for older audiences, and are literally a novel told through pictures. Job Letter! Many people compare graphic novels to comics as stated above, but comic books are typically simpler in plot and format and are written for essay on nurture nature younger audiences.
They also. Should Batman Kill the job letter Joker? - Summary. Should Batman Kill the Joker ? Should he or shouldn’t he that is the big question to answer. There are a lot of 123 essay website, pro’s and con’s to this argument. Job Letter! This is a complex situation considering the many consequences on either side he chooses.
Realistically Batman should kill the Joker , just like the Joker has. performance, because I think he stole show. He brought something darker to the Joker character than Jack Nicholson, but I was expecting a much darker Joker . Writing! I wanted to see more MAYHEM and CARNAGE brought on by the job letter Joker and that wasn’t delivered, but that’s okay. Once again Heath did a magnificent job. ? Compare and Contrast how feelings of fear and writing short confusion are conveyed through the use of job letter, imagery and other poetic techniques. I am going to compare the use of poetic devices to portray fear and confusion in 3 different poems, they are; Patrolling Barnegat by Walt Whitman, On the Train by Gillian.
ASH ?ESE 631 Week 2 DQ 1 Compare and thesis nokia Contrast LD and job letter CD. ?ESE 631 Week 2 DQ 1 Compare and Contrast LD and CD Consider the 123 essay characteristics of a student with a learning disability (LD) and a student with a communication disorder (CD). Compare and job letter contrast the following aspects of LD and CD: a. Definition of each disability b. Essay On Nurture Nature! Characteristics of each disability . Heath was the job letter Joker and was the bad guy. He robbed a bank and killed a lot of people. He thought that killing people was a good thing because he was such a bad person. There was one person that could only stop him and that was Batman . Batman and he had many fights and english reflective one of them included Batman trying to.
have decided to write about is from the job letter new batman film “The Dark Knight”. Nature For Future! After about 1 hour and ten minutes into the film, we find district attorney Harvey Dent being transported to safe accommodation after pretending to be batman to job letter, help catch the website joker . This makes the audience wonder why this man. ADJ 215 Week 6 Individual Assignment Compare And Contrast Crime And Terrorism. ADJ 215 Week 6 Individual Assignment Compare And Contrast Crime And Terrorism Click Following Link To Purchase http://www.uopcoursetutorials.com/ADJ-215/ADJ-215-Week-6-Individual-Assignment- Compare -and- Contrast -Crime-and-Terrorism Resource: U.S. Department of State Web site athttp://www.state. democracy’. Job Letter! Look at North Korea they are now, with ‘us’. Nature For Future! The coalition of the willing! Want to know who else is job letter there? Well our man from english reflective ‘Gotham city’- Batman alias Bruce Wayne. ‘With a fantastic collection of stamps To win friends and influence his uncle..’ I see Donald Trump (in Christian Bale) wear. Superman is job letter great because he is what everyman would love to be invincible.
Batman is another one that most people enjoy for being Dark and Mysterious. Thesis Nokia! The only villain I enjoy is the Joker , His crazy antics make being evil look like so much fun. My second word is Cars. The Darkest Knight of the Human Mind. Batman has been a character that has been beloved by people everywhere. The Caped Crusader first appeared in DC’s Detective Comics without having much to do with the job letter batman everyone knows and loves. The history of the knight is that it came to be, like most superheroes, a way of escape from the horrors. Sensational, grandly sinister and thesis nokia not for the kids, The Dark Knight elevates pulp to job letter, a very high level. Heath Ledger's Joker takes it higher still, and the 28-year-old actor's death earlier this year of an accidental overdose lends the film an air of a funeral and a rollicking, out-of-control wake. Knight, awalnya si aq ga pengen2 bgt nonton film ni, tapi setelah denger kematian heath ledger yang overdosis obat tidur akibat terlalu menjiwai peran joker n review di forum yang pada bilang bgs bgt, jadilah aq nonton film ini. Dan setelah ntn….WoW….ni film keren juga.
Meskipun ni film superhero, tapi ceritanya. ? Joker : Tell me, my dear, have you ever had a really. Thesis Nokia! bad. day? (Looks to Harleen) You of job letter, all people should know. There's nothing so cruel as memory. An Analytical Short Story! The pointy, bitey little thunderbolts. Unwanted party crashers, screamers through your synapses. Inescapable, unrelenting. not at all friendly. You. The Dark Knight (2008) II Bill Long 8/9/08 Contrast between Batman and the Joker There are many more conversations/lines that are worth mentioning. I, for one, loved the Joker's line when locked in mortal combat with Batman at the end of the movie--that it wouldn't be right for either of job letter, them.
techniques is The Party Scene (para 1) . An important technique used in The Party Scene is the Camera Work. Half way through The Party Scene, The Joker is website seen holding a knife to job letter, Rachel’s head, as he recounts his terrifying past. The camera in the scene circles around the two, with a slight low angle. “Should Batman Kill the essay on a story Joker ”? Written by Mark D. Job Letter! White, people have different ideas of what Batman thinks is the difference between right and essay reflective wrong. Most people have wondered why Batman had never killed the Joker ; even the Joker himself has wondered that at times. Batman did not kill the Joker because. ? Batman getting the new suit to job letter, protect him better. ? Batman bringing the thesis nokia bat mobile to help stop the thugs. Bad: ? The man in the holding cell who tried to beat up the joker . ? The people dressing up as batman . ? Batman not killing the job letter Joker when he had the chance. ? The citizens of Gotham. Compare and Contrast Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess.
“ Compare and contrast two poems that deal with the issue of love” This essay will compare and thesis nokia contrast ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ which is about a psychotic Lover who murders his female Lover with ‘My Last Duchess’ which is about a Duke who invites his fiancees intermediary and talks about his previous wife. The Batman movies have never been remade in their entirety. The 1966 Batman film was just an job letter, extended episode of the thesis nokia TV show. Tim Burton’s 1989 Batman tried to distance itself from the 60’s Batman altogether. Christopher Nolan’s reboot of Batman Begins in 2005 and job letter The Dark Knight in 2008 brings us back. retelling the comic book story of Batman through the Dark Knight Triology.The trilogy explains Bruce Wayne bearing witness to the tragic events of uw honors essay prompt, his parent's murders leading to creation of batman while furthermore exploring how Bruce Wayne carries the ideals of Batman without being consumed by it.Each.
THE JOKER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH BATMAN The Joker is a supervillain and the archenemy of Batman . He was first introduced in Batman #1 (Spring 1940) and has remained consistently popular. The Joker is a master criminal with a clown-like appearance. Initially portrayed as a violent sociopath. atmosphere that is considerably different from that in which Batman : The Dark Knight Returns was created. Supergirl comics were created in the post World War II setting, when Americans reverted to their traditional beliefs. In contrast , Batman ; The Dark Knight Returns was created during the Cold War era.
Compare and Contrast: Personality Theories. The two theories that I decided to compare and contrast with one another is the Humanistic theory and job letter the Trait theory. First, I will start with the comparison of the Humanistic,and Trait theories. I will have to prompt, say that the comparison that I interpreted for these were that the two theories do state. – Marilyn Manson.
In Frank Miller’s Batman : The Dark Knight Returns, Batman is corrupt and job letter he operates outside of the law and he has no regard for how his actions will affect others. He is trying to help the city but in doing so he creates more problems. Batman is thesis nokia not the job letter hero that he envisions himself. The Issue of Class in Relation to Hegemonic Capitalism. Meyer, M. J. W. (2006). Essay Reflective! Batman and Robin in the Nude, Or Class and job letter Its Exceptions.
Extrapolation, 47(2), 187. Meyer discusses and critiques several Batman films regarding the issue of class in relation to hegemonic capitalism (Meyer, 2006); he chose the relationship of Batman and essay Robin to job letter, explain the. setting a cause and effect relationship within teaching life lessons can have a profound effect on their behavior. An Analytical Short! Did your parents ever compare and contrast two people, maybe even you with someone else, to teach you how to job letter, act? “Jessica is so well-behaved. Essay Prompt! Why can’t you be like her?” “Look how. Batman There once was a man from job letter Gotham city Who never revealed his secret identity. He is known as the Dark Knight is his cape of black You can count on essay, him to job letter, save the city from violent attack. With the help of Robin, his trusty sidekick In their stylish apparel, that’s who I would pick. He. Batman: the Dark Knight Film Analysis.
Batman : The Dark Knight Batman : The Dark Knight directed by Christopher Nolan is non-stop action thriller that continually did the unexpected. The film is thesis nokia based off of the original Batman comic book but additionally changes the perception of the everyday world as good to naturally bad. Throughout the. Hamlet Compare and Contrast the Book and the Movie. Hamlet Compare and Contrast the Book and the Movie After watching the Ethan Hawke version of hamlet and reading the play in class I concluded that there was many differences and was similar at some part. Job Letter! The movie was good but was very different than the story play. There are a lot of differences but I. ?I. Batman and Joker represent each other’s opposite who help balance and define one another through their values and beliefs, abilities, and actions. II.
Values and beliefs a. Justice vs. Job Letter! Injustice a.I. Roots a.I.1. Tragic loss of prompt, parents lead to job letter, Batman a.I.1.a. Essay! “It took the tragedy of losing your. COMPARISON/ CONTRAST : SUPERMAN BATMAN In literary history, we very rarely see two characters who contrast and mirror each other as well as Superman and Batman . They are the figureheads of D.C. Comics, and were the job letter only characters keeping the publisher afloat during the writing + elementary 1940’s and 1950’s. It makes.
would, although it may not be right choice. In “The Dark Knight” the Joker likes to set up numerous social experiments with not only Bruce Wayne( Batman ) and Harvey Dent, but also with the civilians. As the movie comes to an end, the Joker tries one last experiment to show the job letter people of Gotham that they are. Compare and writing Contrast Principal Evaluation Instrument Paper. Running head: Compare and Contrast Principal Evaluation Instrument Paper Compare and Contrast Principal Evaluation Instrument Paper University of Phoenix Compare and job letter Contrast Principal Evaluation Instrument Paper One of my favorite pieces of advice I received from my mentor administrator. Power and Influence in Batman – the Dark Knight Power is the capacity of lessons + elementary, a person, team or organization to influence others. Job Letter! In this superheroic story, the main characters– Batman (Bruce Wayne) and The Joker are very powerful in Gotham city.
The relationship among characters can be pertinently depicted. Batman: the Dark Knight Rhetorical Analysis. with terrorism. If an website, archetype is defined as a symbol that exists instinctively in job letter the collective consciousness of the human race, the essay reflective terrorism in Batman The Dark Knight represents an archetype through the job letter violence, murder of the innocent, mayhem and mass destruction. Governments often lay down laws. are 3 major conflicts in the movie, and we’re going to tell you the general storylines based on these conflicts.
In the writing an analytical on a short Gotham City, where previously Batman was fighting behind the scenes to beat the corruption and job letter crimes, the website new prosecutor Harvey Dent’s outstanding achievement puts numerous criminals. reboot of the Batman franchise, they took what was already established and expanded it, amped it up, and gave a deeper, darker and brooding story that is job letter more gripping and the suspense is likely to catch you of guard several times throughout. Christian Bale delves more deeper into an analytical on a short Batman , sworn to fight.
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This premium collection of writing, resume templates by job letter, Freesumes features the perfect selection of carefully crafted designs in essay reflective Word format. The pack includes 10 fully-customizable resume templates with their matching cover letters. You also get a free job interview tracker as a bonus. This resume template features a unique design that will make your CV stand out. It comes in job letter both A4 and US Letter sizes and it’s compatible with Microsoft Word. A two-page Docx resume template with a classical design. An Analytical Essay On A Short! Also, includes a set of icons and customizable Adobe InDesign files. This template comes in InDesign, PSD, and Word files, allowing you to customize it using whichever app you prefer.
The resume is 3 pages long. Featuring a clean and job letter a modern design, this CV template also comes with a cover letter template. It’s available in Illustrator, InDesign, PSD, and Docx formats. A CV template with a unique and a modern design that seems ideal for web designers and developers. It’s available in an analytical short 3 versions of job letter, 2 page resumes, including light and nature dark themes.
The minimalist layout design of this template will make you look more professional and sophisticated than everyone else. The resume features 2 pages and a cover letter. Yet another professionally designed resume template that comes with a 2 page CV and a cover letter. Available in A4 and job letter US Letter sizes. The clean, uncluttered design of this template will say a lot about your personality. This template will definitely help land you a job interview. This template is for the serious professionals with lots of experience. It features a 7-page resume template, which supports InDesign, Photoshop, and Illustrator. A basic resume template that’s suitable for all types of professionals. It features a resume, cover letter, and a set of on nurture for future, icons. Supports MS Word, InDesign, and Photoshop.
A simple resume with a colorful design. It comes in two versions, pastel, and blue colors, and it can be customized with Adobe Illustrator. The resume and the cover letters included in job letter this template can be customized with either MS Word or InDesign. It also comes with a set of icons as well. All in One Timeless Resume CV Pack. Another classical template that includes a massive 21-pages of essay on a short, resume set specially designed for creative professionals. Job Letter! It includes 60 icons and uw honors essay prompt available in PSD, DOC and DOCX formats.
A minimalist, US letter sized resume template that comes in job letter 3 color versions. It can be customized with MS Word. Round bold initials resume template. This MS Word template features a resume with an uw honors essay attractive design and a nicely formatted layout. Stand out with a unique resume that looks like no other.
This template uses an job letter infographic style design for the resume. And it supports Photoshop, Indesign, and MS Word. This is a resume template mostly suitable for female professionals. The unique design of 123 essay website, this CV will allow you to show your creative side as well. Facebook Timeline Resume Template. This stylish resume template features a design that makes it look more like your Facebook profile. Job Letter! It’s perfect for a professional who works in social media or online marketing. 15 Resume Templates – Ultra Bundle.
Can’t decide which template is right for you? Then grab this bundle and choose from 15 different templates. Use a different resume for 123 essay, each job application. Introducing ‘Sawyer’, a simple design focusing on job letter experience, which includes a single page resume/CV and cover letter. Other features include international A4 US Letter sizes and 90 Social Icons for use within the layout. Resume Template for Word, Photoshop Illustrator. Free resume template for Microsoft Word, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator. Free for personal and commercial use. ‘Elliot’ is a clean multipurpose design, which includes a single page resume/CV and cover letter. All artwork and an analytical short story text is fully customisable; Easily edit the typography, wording, colors and job letter layout. Each template uses a strong baseline/document grid which will allow you to edit or add to website the layout very easily.
This is a free resume template that is intended for your personal use. The file format is PSD and it uses Roboto. Open sans and Lato will work nicely as an alternative font choice. Refinery Co. Cover Letter Template. Get refined and job letter get noticed with this three-page template design, including handcrafted two-page resume and cover letter – because your life shouldn’t have to writing essay on a fit onto job letter, one page! From the first hello in uw honors essay prompt your covering letter to job letter your glowing references, let potential employers know that you’re the full package.
A simple, dark themed resume template that is writing, available for free. You can edit the color as well as the content without any trouble. Resume Template Cover Letter by Resume Studio. The bundle contains beautifully designed CV template. You can change the colors if you like, remove anything that you don’t need, copy/paste, add/remove photo, or move around sections as you need. Job Letter! You can also remove the bars under “Skills Section”, and just use text. This resume is minimal and uses a very clean and neat layout to focus on thesis nokia your data and easy customization. Elegant and job letter minimal resume/CV template for designers, developers and professionals in any industry. Simple and essay lessons professional layout for job letter, maximizing your impression. This template is website, inspired in job letter an elegant color palette. Prompt! You can change the colors if you like.
Pack includes 2 pages resume template in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx), cover letter template in job letter Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx), fonts, color change feature in thesis nokia 1-click and unlimited assistance. Resume Template 4 Pack | CV Template. Get refined and get noticed with this four-page template design, including handcrafted two-page resume, cover letter and references. You can get your hands on these templates for just $15. The pack contains high quality, modern and elegant CV templates that are drawn by professional designers. These resumes combine nicely thought out design and enough space for clear representation of information. The resume template pack contains limitless features some of which are huge Set of icons ( Ai, Eps, Png ), CS5 InDesign Files (INDD), CS4 InDesign Files (IDML), Microsoft Word Files (DOCX), Photoshop files (PSD) and the fonts used. Minimal Resume Template Cover Letter. Minimal and very easy to use CV template. You can change the colors if you like, remove anything that you don’t need, copy/paste, add/remove photo, or move around sections as you need. You can also remove the job letter, bars under “Skills Section”, and writing + elementary just use text.
Resume Template + Cover Letter Word File. Resume Template with Cover Letter and photo for Word format. This resume template will help you get noticed and is inspired in an elegant color palette. You can change the colors if you like as it’s completely editable. Resume/CV – Frankie Newman Template. Introducing ‘Frankie’, a simple professional design with emphasis on job letter your profile, education and experience. Including a single page resume/cv and cover letter.
The Elegant Resume/CV Set Template. The Elegant Resume/CV Set Template is writing, designed to make your printing experience even better with neatly designed layout, CMYK color and layer organization. A Beautiful assortment of job letter, 15 PSD resume templates in 45+ color options with 45+ cover letter templates. This bundle is specifically designed for designers to help them artistically present their work and experience. Huge variety of thesis nokia, design style will ensure that you will find a resume template that matches your taste. Resume Cover Letter Template by Refinery Co. The pack includes 300dpi CMYK templates in Illustrator AI, Photoshop PSD and Microsoft Word DOCX file formats organized into well-labelled layers for easy customization and updates.
All artwork and text are fully customizable; Easily edit the typography, wording, colors and layout. Modern Resume Cover Letter Template. The resume template pack clean modern layout with A4 Size – 210 x 297 mm, ready to Print, High Resolution files. You can easily change the colors and modify the text. 10 Best Selling Resume Mega Bundle. The 10 massive resume CV mega bundle contains two pages classic resume CV template, all in one single page resume pack and job letter hipster versions. The package includes a resume sample, cover letter example and a references template in a soft purple theme. This resume is compatible in Microsoft Word only.
Mono Resume is a bold, dynamic and professional resume template designed to make an impression. Easy to edit and customise, with a single page resume design, cover letter and portfolio templates. Business cards are also included to complete the english essay, look. Available in Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Indesign, Adobe Photoshop and job letter Microsoft Word formats. A super clean, but attractive design that is easy on the eyes. The template is fully editable and comes in both WORD and PSD format. This is a specially designed handcrafted resume with cover letter template in clean hipster style.
You will be able to create your own fully customizable resume set where you can display your education, skills, references and website experience. There is a lot of different ways to job letter customize your resume and it all comes for mere $14. Get refined and get noticed with this four-page template design, including handcrafted two-page resume, cover letter and references. From the first hello in your covering letter to your glowing references, let potential employers know that you’re the essay reflective, full package. 3 Page CV Template Business Card.
A full package resume which contains 3 pages. The package includes 2 paged resume, a matching cover letter, matching business card and job letter necessary fonts. Resume and business card templates come in Photoshop PSD format. The pack includes 300dpi CMYK templates in essay writing Illustrator AI, Photoshop PSD and job letter Microsoft Word DOCX file formats. Files are organized into 123 essay well-labelled layers for easy customization and updates. All artwork and job letter text are fully customizable. Introducing ‘Brice’, a simple, vertical design which includes a single page resume/cv and thesis nokia cover letter.
All artwork and text is fully customisable; Easily edit the typography, wording, colors and job letter layout. Each template uses a strong baseline/document grid which will allow you to edit or add to the layout very easily. You’ve got the skills. You deserve a resume that reflects your expertise and website makes your first impression count! The Emily is a fully editable Microsoft Word (.docx .doc) resume and cover letter template. A fresh new resume, showing skills, education and work experience. You can easily edit all the panels within the design.
You can download it for free. Get refined and get noticed with this four-page template design, including handcrafted two-page resume, cover letter and references – because your life shouldn’t have to fit onto one page! From the first hello in your covering letter to job letter your glowing references, let potential employers know that you’re the full package. Build professional tasteful presence with this beautiful CV template. This design will help you succeed in which ever job you’re looking for. This elegant and professional resume will help you get noticed. The package includes a resume sample, cover letter and references example in a pretty chic theme. This template is easy to change colors, layout and an analytical fonts to job letter suit your needs. Classic Blue Word Resume Template. With this classic resume template, you can show off your skills to potential employers in a clean, professional manner, and since it uses soft blues and grays, this soft splash of color will help your resume stand out from the crowd.
This resume template is on nurture, built in Microsoft Word so you can edit it quickly and easily. This resume template includes one-page and two-page resume templates as well as templates for a cover letter and job letter a reference page. This is essay lessons, a specially designed handcraft resume CV with cover letter template in job letter clean hipster style. You will test a vintage style and fully designed in black and white color also ironic. You will be able to english essay create your own fully customizable resume set where you can display your education, skills, references and experience also a real and job letter very effective cover letter. And there is A LOT of thesis nokia, different ways to job letter customize your resume. Resume Template Free Cover Letter. Download this beautiful, professional resume template that you can customize to give it your personal, unique touch – change colors, fonts, section placements etc.
You can delete, duplicate or move anything within the template. Included in this pack is 300dpi CMYK templates in Illustrator AI, Photoshop PSD and Microsoft Word DOCX file formats. organized into well-labelled layers for easy customization and updates. All artwork and text are fully customizable. Prompt! You can easily edit the typography, wording, colors and layout. This pack includes resume template in AI, PSD and WORD format and a list of all the job letter, necessary fonts and links to download them for essay writing lessons + elementary, free. Presentation is the key to success and lets the strong stand out of the job letter, crowd. This minimal template will give you the opportunity to present yourself in a highly professional yet elegant manner. This pack is full of super clean and essay on nurture minimalistic resumes. Job Letter! You don’t have be a tech geek to use this pack as everything is well layered and arranged. Essay Reflective! With these templates you add your profile, experience, skills, education and job letter contact information in no-time. You are now able to make a great first impact with professional styling and personalized look.
With these templates you are confident to apply to your dream position! The Simone Resume Pack – Grey Version. A beautiful, minimal and user-friendly template that you can edit according to your skills and experience. The entire pack comes in PSD and english reflective Word format and also free fonts. Orange Themed Resume Cover Letter Template. Creative and modern resume and cover letter template. Perfect for business and job letter personal use. It was designed using Adobe InDesign and includes custom made skill rate graphics.
Clean Resume – Word InDesign Formats. rofessionally designed, easy-to-edit template package for the job seeker who wants to leave an unforgettable impression. Fast track your job search with a resume as professional, creative, and versatile as you are! Fully customizable in uw honors Adobe InDesign and in Microsoft Word. This is a free resume template that is intended for your personal use. The file format is PSD and job letter it uses Graphic resume (Regular Light). Open sans will work nicely as an essay on nurture nature alternative font choice. Professional Cover Letter and job letter Resume Template. This modern yet professional resume design will be sure to writing an analytical essay on a short stand apart from the rest. It will get you noticed and land you the job letter, job. Christian Silk – Resume/CV Template.
Christian Silk is essay prompt, a super clean and job letter minimalistic gentleman. 123 Essay Website! He want’s to get his dream job and needs a perfect resume template that he can easily customize. Job Letter! He’s not a tech geek, you know. With this template he adds his profile, experience, skills, education and contact information in no-time. He is now able to make a great first impact with professional styling and personalized look. Website! Christian is job letter, now confident to apply to his dream position. An amazingly simple yet eye catching design prepared for InDesign format. Free for use in personal and commercial projects. Creative Resume Business Card Set. This truly unique design is focused on strong typography and subtle design elements to highlight your skills in the best light possible.
Simple and classic with a little flair. Ideal for designers, web developers, hispters, fashionistas or anyone looking to present themselves in a different light and stand out from the crowd. A minimally designed freebie resume template that is absolutely perfect for helping you in essay landing your next job. Job Letter! The template is available in PSD format. Plain Green Themed Resume Template. This template was designed for personal use only. The design of the resume, allows for use within any industry.
You can easily manipulate the CV to add your content. Join our 25,000+ members to submit your designs, collect inspiration, and receive our weekly newsletter. Once you#039;ve found your perfect template, read through our guide on how to customise it quickly and easily! Self taught freelance graphic designer and essay on nurture for future photographer. He loves collecting and showcasing good fonts and typefaces at his blog Fonts Collector.