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An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and structure, mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to eb white essay excerpt support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of write analytical, publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Eb White! Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks.
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Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in research papers in working, us is eb white essay that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Term Paper On Shingles! Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible).
In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the excerpt sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and write analytical, should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the essay Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to essay 2013 #8220;a caliph who had stepped out eb white essay from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the master thesis in industrial author or the year of publication is already mentioned in eb white essay excerpt, the sentence there is mail no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the essay excerpt name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.
5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of term on shingles, books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and excerpt, cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in master in industrial, the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of excerpt, source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Thesis Engineering! Title of eb white essay, work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in research papers capital, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order.
Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of essay excerpt, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. Master Thesis In Industrial Engineering! (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Eb White! Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing.
Level one is the write essay structure first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for essay, succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the write structure titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in eb white essay, APA format. Mail Resume! A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number.
A “running header” in eb white excerpt, APA style contains a short title of the essay. Engineering! The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the eb white essay top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the analytical name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.
APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the excerpt full form is paper on shingles mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the eb white essay APA essay writing format. Term On Shingles! The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA.
As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the eb white essay excerpt student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an resume tips, easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the eb white essay essay.
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Eb white essay excerpt
King Henry IV, Part I Characters Analysis. King Henry IV, Part I Characters Analysis features noted Shakespeare scholar William Hazlitt's famous critical essay about the characters of King Henry IV, Part I. IF Shakespear's fondness for the ludicrous some-times led to faults in his tragedies (which was not often the excerpt, case) he has made us amends by in industrial the character of Falstaff. This is perhaps the most substantial comic character that ever was invented. Sir John carries a most portly presence in essay excerpt the mind's eye; and in him, not to speak it profanely, we behold the with truth essay, fulness of the spirit of wit and humour bodily. We are as well acquainted with his person as his mind, and his jokes come upon essay us with double force and resume relish from the quantity of flesh through which they make their way, as he shakes his fat sides with laughter, or lards the lean earth as he walks along. Eb White Excerpt! Other comic characters seem, if we approach and handle them, to resume tips, resolve themselves into air, into thin air; but this is embodied and palpable to the grossest apprehension: it lies three fingers deep upon the ribs, it plays about the lungs and the diaphragm with all the force of animal enjoyment. His body is like a good estate to eb white excerpt, his mind, from which he receives rents and revenues of profit and pleasure in kind, according to its extent, and the richness of the soil. Wit is often a meagre substitute for pleasurable sensation; an effusion of spleen and petty spite at the comforts of others, from feeling none in itself.
Falstaff's wit is an emanation of a fine constitution; an thesis in industrial, exuberance of good-humour and good-nature; an overflowing of his love of laughter and good-fellowship; a giving vent to his heart's ease, and over-contentment with himself and others. He would not be in character, if he were not so fat as he is; for essay, there is the greatest keeping in essay structure the boundless luxury of his imagination and the pampered self-indulgence of his physical appetites. He manures and nourishes his mind with jests, as he does his body with sack and sugar. He carves out his jokes, as he would a capon or a haunch of venison, where there is cut and eb white come again; and pours out upon them the oil of gladness. His tongue drops fatness, and in of my experiments truth the chambers of his brain it snows of meat and drink.
He keeps up perpetual holiday and open house, and we live with him in a round, of invitations to a rump and dozen. —Yet we are not to suppose that he was a mere sensualist. All this is as much in imagination as in reality. Eb White Essay! His sensuality does not engross and resume tips stupefy his other faculties, but ascends me into the brain, clears away all the dull, crude vapours that environ it, and makes it full of nimble, fiery, and delectable shapes. His imagination keeps up the ball after his senses have done with it. He seems to have even a greater enjoyment of the freedom from restraint, of good cheer, of his ease, of his vanity, in eb white the ideal exaggerated description which he gives of them, than in thesis in industrial engineering fact. He never fails to eb white excerpt, enrich his discourse with allusions to eating and drinking, but we never see him at table. He carries his own larder about with him, and he is thesis in industrial, himself a tun of essay, man. His pulling out the bottle in term the field of battle is a joke to shew his contempt for glory accompanied with danger, his systematic adherence to his Epicurean philosophy in the most trying circumstances. Again, such is his deliberate exaggeration of his own vices, that it does not seem quite certain whether the account of his hostess's bill, found in essay excerpt his pocket, with such an the story truth, out-of-the-way charge for capons and sack with only one halfpenny-worth of. bread, was not put there by himself as a trick to humour the eb white essay excerpt, jest upon mail his favourite propensities, and as a conscious caricature of himself. He is eb white, represented as a liar, a braggart, a coward, a glutton, etc., and yet we are not offended but delighted with him; for he is thesis in industrial engineering, all these as much to amuse others as to gratify himself. He openly assumes all these characters to shew the humourous part of them.
The unrestrained indulgence of his own ease, appetites, and conveni-ence, has neither malice nor hypocrisy in eb white essay it. In a word, he is an actor in himself almost as much as upon the stage, and we no more object to the character of Falstaff in a moral point of resume tips, view than we should think of eb white essay, bringing an master thesis, excellent comedian, who should represent him to the life, before one of the police offices. We only consider the number of pleasant lights in which he puts certain foibles (the more pleasant as they are opposed to the received rules and necessary restraints of essay excerpt, society), and essay do not trouble ourselves about the consequences re-sulting from them, for no mischievous consequences do result. Sir John is excerpt, old as well as fat, which gives a melancholy retrospective tinge to the character; and by the disparity between his inclinations and his capacity for enjoyment, makes it still more ludicrous and fantastical. The secret of Falstaff's wit is for tips, the most part a masterly presence of mind, an absolute self-possession, which nothing can disturb. Eb White Excerpt! His repartees are involuntary suggestions of his self-love; instinctive evasions of everything that threatens to mail resume, interrupt the career of his triumphant jollity and essay self-complacency. His very size floats him out of all his difficulties in a sea of rich conceits; and he turns round on the pivot of his convenience, with every occasion and at a moment's warning. His natural repugnance to tips, every unpleasant thought or circumstance, of itself makes light of objections, and provokes the most extravagant and licentious answers in his own justification. His indifference to eb white essay, truth puts no check upon his invention, and the more improbable and unexpected his contrivances are, the more happily does he seem to be delivered of them, the anticipation of their effect acting as a stimulus to on shingles, the gaiety of his fancy. Eb White Excerpt! The success of one adventurous sally gives him spirits to undertake another: he deals always in round numbers, and his exaggerations and excuses are open, palpable, monstrous as the father that begets them.
His dissolute carelessness of what he says discovers itself in the first dialogue with the Prince. Falstaff. By the Lord, thou say'st true, lad; and of my essay is not. mine hostess of the tavern a most sweet wench? P. Henry. As the honey of Hibia, my old lad of the.
castle; and is not a buff-jerkin a most sweet robe of. Falstaff. How now, how now, mad wag, what in thy. quips and thy quiddities? what a plague have I to do with. P. Henry. Why, what a pox have I to essay, do with mine. hostess of the tavern? In the same scene he afterwards affects melancholy, from pure satisfaction of heart, and professes reform, because it is the scholarship 2013, farthest thing in eb white the world from his thoughts. He has no qualms of master, conscience, and therefore would as soon talk of them as of anything else when the humour takes him. Falstaff, But, Hal, I pr'ythee trouble me no more with.
vanity. I would to God thou and I knew where a com- modity of eb white, good names were to be bought: an old lord of. council rated me the other day in the street about you, sir; but I mark'd him not, and yet he talked very wisely, and. in the street too. P. Henry. Thou didst well, for wisdom cries out in papers in working the. street, and no man regards it. Falstaff. O, thou hast damnable iteration, and art indeed. able to corrupt a saint. Thou hast done much harm unto.
me, Hal; God forgive thee for essay excerpt, it. Before I knew thee, Hal, I knew nothing, and 2013 now I am, if a man should speak. truly, little better than one of the wicked. Eb White! I must give over. this life, and I will give it over, by the Lord; an I do not,
I am a villain. Write Essay Structure! I'll be damned for never a king's son in. P. Henry. Eb White Essay! Where shall we take a purse to-morrow, Jack? Falstaff. Where thou wilt, lad, I'll make one ; an I do.
not, call me villain, and mail resume baffle me. P. Henry. I see good amendment of life in thee, from. praying to purse-taking. Falstaff. Why, Hal, 'tis my vocation, Hal. 'Tis no sin. for a man to labour in his vocation.
Of the other prominent passages, his account of his pretended resistance to the robbers, who grew from essay excerpt four men in buckram into eleven as the imagination of his own valour increased with his relating it, his getting off when the truth is in industrial engineering, discovered by pretending he knew the Prince, the scene in which in the person of the old king he lectures the Prince and gives himself a good character, the soliloquy on honour, and description of his new-raised recruits, his meeting with the chief justice, his abuse of the Prince and eb white essay Poins, who overhear him, to Doll Tearsheet, his reconciliation with Mrs. Quickly who has arrested him for the story experiments with truth, an old debt, and whom he persuades to pawn her plate to lend him ten pounds more, and the scenes with Shallow and Silence, are all inimitable. Of all of them, the scene in which Falstaff plays the eb white essay excerpt, part, first, of the King, and then of Prince Henry, is the one that has been the most often quoted. We must quote it once more in illustration of our remarks. Falstaff. Harry, I do not only marvel where thou spendest thy time, but also how thou art accompanied: for mail tips, though the camomile, the more it is trodden on, the faster it grows, yet youth, the more it is wasted, the sooner it wears. That thou art my son, I have partly thy mother's word, partly my own opinion; but chiefly, a villainous trick of thine eye, and a foolish hanging of thy nether lip, that doth warrant me.
If then thou be son to me, here lies the point;—Why, being son to me, art thou so pointed at? Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a micher, and eat blackberries? A question not to be ask'd. Eb White Excerpt! Shall the son of England prove a thief, and take purses? a question not to be ask'd. There is a thing, Harry, which thou hast often heard of, and it is known to many in our land by the name of pitch: this pitch, as ancient writers do report, doth defile; so doth the company thou keepest: for, Harry, now I do not speak to thee in drink, but in tears; not in the story of my with pleasure, but in passion; not in words only, but in woes also:—and yet there is a virtuous man, whom I have often noted in thy company, but I know not his name. P. Henry.
What manner of man, an eb white excerpt, it like your majesty? Falstaff. A goodly portly man, i'faith, and a corpulent; of write essay, a cheerful look, a pleasing eye, and a most noble carriage; and, as I think, his age some fifty, or, by'r-lady, inclining to threescore; and now I do remember me, his name is Falstaff: if that man should be lewdly given, he deceiveth me; for, Harry, I see virtue in his looks. If then the fruit may be known by the tree, as the essay excerpt, tree by the fruit, then peremptorily I speak it, there is virtue in write structure that Falstaff: him keep with, the essay excerpt, rest banish. And tell me now, thou naughty varlet, tell me, where hast thou been this month? P. Henry. Dost thou speak like a king? Do thou stand for me, and I'll play my father. Falstaff. Depose me? if thou dost it half so gravely, so majestically, both in word and matter, hang me up by the heels for a rabbit-sucker or a poulterer's hare. P. Henry.
Well, here I am set. Falstaff. And here I stand:—judge, my masters. P. Of My Experiments With Truth! Henry. Now, Harry, whence come you? Falstaff. My noble lord, from Eastcheap. P. Eb White Excerpt! Henry.
The complaints I hear of thee are grievous. Falstaff. S'blood, my lord, they are false:—nay, I'll tickle ye for master, a young prince, i'faith. P. Eb White! Henry. Swearest thou, ungracious boy? henceforth ne'er look on me. Thou art violently carried away from paper on shingles grace: there is a devil haunts thee, in the likeness of eb white, a fat old man; a tun of man is thy companion. Why dost thou converse with that trunk of tips, humours, that bolting-hutch of beastliness, that swoln parcel of excerpt, dropsies, that huge bom-bard of sack, that stuft cloak-bag of guts, that roasted Manning-tree ox with the pudding in his belly, that reverend vice, that grey iniquity, that father ruffian, that vanity in years? wherein is he good, but to taste sack and research in working drink it? wherein neat and cleanly, but to carve a capon and eat it? wherein cunning, but in essay craft? wherein crafty, but in villainy? wherein villainous, but in all things? wherein worthy, but in nothing?
Falstaff. Essay 2013! I would, your grace would take me with you; whom means your grace? P. Henry. Eb White Essay Excerpt! That villainous, abominable mis-leader of. youth, Falstaff, that old white-bearded Satan. Falstaff. My lord, the man I know. P. Henry. I know thou dost. Falstaff. But to say, I know more harm in him than in myself, were to say more than I know.
That he is old (the more the pity) his white hairs do witness it: but that he is (saving your reverence) a whore-master, that I utterly deny. Term On Shingles! If sack and sugar be a fault, God help the eb white, wicked! if to be old and merry be a sin, then many an old host that I know is damned: if to be fat be to be hated, then Pharaoh's lean kine are to be loved. No, my good lord; banish Peto, banish Bardolph, banish Poins: but for sweet Jack Falstaff, kind Jack Falstaff, true Jack Falstaff, valiant Jack Falstaff, and therefore more valiant, being as he is, old Jack Falstaff, banish not him thy Harry's company; banish plump Jack, and mail tips banish all the world. P. Henry. I do, I will. [Knocking; and Hostess and Bardolph go out. Re-enter BARDOLPH, running,
Bardolph. O, my lord, my lord; the sheriff, with a most monstrous watch, is at the door. Falstaff. Out, you rogue! play out the play: I have much to say in the behalf of that Falstaff. One of the most characteristic descriptions of Sir John is that which Mrs.
Quickly gives of him when he asks her What is the gross sum that I owe thee? Hostess. Marry, if thou wert an honest man, thyself, and the money too. Thou didst swear to eb white essay excerpt, me upon a parcel-gilt goblet, sitting in contest scholarship my Dolphin-chamber, at the round table, by a sea-coal fire on Wednesday in Whitsunweek, when the essay excerpt, Prince broke thy head for likening his father to a singing man of Windsor; thou didst swear to me then, as I was washing thy wound, to marry me, and make me my lady thy wife. Essay Contest Scholarship 2013! Canst thou deny it? Did not goodwife Keech, the butcher's wife, come in essay excerpt then, and thesis in industrial engineering call me gossip Quickly? coming in to borrow a mess of vinegar, telling us, she had a good dish of prawns; whereby thou didst desire to essay, eat some; whereby I told thee they were ill of 2013, a green wound? And didst thou not, when she was gone down stairs, desire me to be no more so familiarity with such poor people; saying, that ere long they should call me madam? And didst thou not kiss me, and bid me fetch thee thirty shil-lings? I put thee now to thy book-oath; deny it, if thou canst. This scene is to us the most convincing proof of Falstaff's power of gaining over the good will of those he was familiar with, except indeed Bar-dolph's somewhat profane exclamation on essay excerpt, hearing the of my experiments truth, account of essay excerpt, his death, Would I were with him, wheresoe'er he is, whether in heaven or hell. One of the topics of exulting superiority over others most common in essay scholarship 2013 Sir John's mouth is his corpulence and the exterior marks of good living which he carries about him, thus turning his vices into commodity.
He accounts for the friend-ship between the eb white essay excerpt, Prince and Poins, from their legs being both of a bigness, and compares Justice Shallow to a man made after supper of a cheese-paring. There cannot be a more striking grada-tion of character than that between Falstaff and Shallow, and Shallow and Silence. It seems diffi-cult at in working, first to fall lower than the squire; but this fool, great as he is, finds an admirer and humble foil in his cousin Silence. Vain of his acquaintance with Sir John, who makes a-butt of him, he exclaims, Would, cousin Silence, that thou had'st seen that which this knight and I have seen!- Aye, Master Shallow, we have heard the chimes at midnight, says Sir John. To Falstaff's observation, I did not think Master Silence had been a man of this mettle, Silence answers, Who, I? I have been merry twice and once ere now. What an idea is here conveyed of essay, a prodigality of living?
What good husbandry and economical self-denial in his pleasures? What a stock of write, lively recollections? It is curious that Shakespear has ridiculed in Justice Shallow, who was in some authority under the king, that disposition to unmeaning tautology which is the regal infirmity of later times, and which, it may be supposed, he acquired from talking to his cousin Silence, and receiving no answers. Falstaff. Eb White Essay! You have here a goodly dwelling, and a rich.
Shallow. Barren, barren, barren; beggars all, beggars. all, Sir John; marry, good air. Spread Davy, spread Davy. Falstaff. This Davy serves you for good uses. Shallow. A good varlet, a good varlet, a very good varlet. By the mass, I have drank too much sack at supper. A. good varlet. Now sit down, now sit down.
Come, cousin. The true spirit of humanity, the thorough knowledge of the stuff we are made of, the practical wisdom with the seeming fooleries in the whole of the garden-scene at Shallow's country-seat, and just before in the exquisite dialogue between him and Silence on the death of old Double, have no parallel anywhere else. In one point of view, they are laughable in analytical essay the extreme; in another they are equally affecting, if it is essay excerpt, affecting to shew what a little thing is research in working, human life, what a poor forked creature man is! The heroic and serious part of these two plays founded on eb white essay, the story of Henry IV. is not inferior to the comic and essay contest farcical. The characters of eb white, Hotspur and Prince Henry are two of the most beautiful and dramatic, both in themselves and from contrast, that ever were drawn. They are the essence of chivalry. We like Hotspur the best upon the whole, perhaps because he was unfortunate.—The characters of write analytical structure, their fathers, Henry IV. and old Northumberland, are kept up equally well. Henry naturally succeeds by eb white essay excerpt his prudence and caution in keeping what he has got: Northumberland fails in his enterprise from an of my experiments with essay, excess of the same quality, and is caught in the web of his own cold, dilatory policy. Owen Glendower is a masterly character.
It is as bold and original as it is intelligible and thoroughly natural. The disputes between him and Hotspur are managed with infinite address and insight into eb white essay, nature. We cannot help pointing out here some very beautiful lines, where Hotspur de-scribes the fight between Glendower and Mortimer. —When on write analytical structure, the gentle Severn's sedgy bank, In single opposition hand to essay, hand,
He did confound the scholarship, best part of an essay, hour. In changing hardiment with great Glendower: Three times they breath'd, and mail tips three times did they drink, Upon agreement, of swift Severn's flood; Who then affrighted with their bloody looks, Ran fearfully among the trembling reeds, And hid his crisp head in the hollow bank, Blood-stained with these valiant combatants. The peculiarity and the excellence of Shakespear's poetry is, that it seems as if he made his imagination the hand-maid of excerpt, nature, and nature the mail resume tips, plaything of his imagination. He appears to have been all the characters, and in essay all the situations he describes.
It is as if either he had had all their feelings, or had lent them all his genius to express themselves. There cannot be stronger instances of this than Hotspur's rage when Henry IV. forbids him to speak of Mortimer, his insensibility to essay contest, all that his father and uncle urge to calm him, and his fine ab-stracted apostrophe to honour, By heaven, me-thinks it were an easy leap to pluck bright honour from the moon, etc. After all, notwithstanding the excerpt, gallantry, generosity, good temper, and idle freaks of the mad-cap Prince of Wales, we should not have been sorry if Northumberland's force had come up in write analytical structure time to decide the eb white, fate of the battle at paper on shingles, Shrewsbury; at least, we always heartily sympathise with Lady Percy's grief, when she exclaims, Had my sweet Harry had but half their numbers, To-day might I (hanging on Hotspur's neck) Have talked of Monmouth's grave. The truth is, that we never could forgive the Prince's treatment of Falstaff; though perhaps Shakespear knew what was best, according to the history, the essay excerpt, nature of the times, and of the man. We speak only as dramatic critics.
Whatever terror the French in those days might have of Henry V., yet, to the readers of poetry at present, Falstaff is the better man of the two. We think of him and quote him oftener.
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Eb white essay excerpt
Designing an Authentication System: a Dialogue in Four Scenes. Copyright 1988, 1997 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. Originally written by eb white excerpt Bill Bryant, February 1988. Cleaned up and converted to HTML by Theodore Ts'o, February, 1997. An afterword describing the changes in master thesis Version 5 of the Kerberos protocol was also added. This dialogue provides a fictitious account of the eb white design of an resume, open-network authentication system called Charon. As the essay excerpt dialogue progresses, the characters Athena and Euripides discover the problems of security inherent in an open network environment. Each problem must be addressed in the design of Charon, and the design evolves accordingly. Paper. Athena and essay Euripides don't complete their work until the dialogue's close. When they finish designing the system, Athena changes the system's name to Kerberos, the name, coincidentally enough, of the authentication system that was designed and implemented at MIT's Project Athena.
The dialogue's Kerberos system bears a striking resemblence to the system described in Kerberos: An Authentication Service for mail resume tips Open Network Systems presented at eb white essay excerpt, the Winter USENIX 1988, at Dallas, Texas. Well suppose I say something like the following: I want my electronic mail, so I contact the mail server and the story experiments with essay ask it to send the excerpt mail to master thesis in industrial, my workstation. In reality I'm not the entity that contacts the mail server. I'm using a program to eb white excerpt, contact the mail server and retrieve my mail, a program that is a CLIENT of the mail service program. But I don't want to say the client does such-and-such every time I refer to a transaction between the user and a network server. I'd just as soon say I do such-and-such, keeping in mind of course that a client program is doing things on my behalf. Is that okay with you? Okay. I guess I should describe the system, huh? Let's say you want to mail tips, use a service, the mail service. In my system you cannot use a service unless, ah, Charon tells the service that you are who you claim to be.
And you can't get the okay to essay excerpt, use a service unless you have authenticated yourself to Charon. When you request authentication from Charon, you have to tell Charon the contest service for which you want the okay. If you want to use the mail server, you've got to tell Charon. Charon asks you to prove your identity. You do so by providing your secret password. Charon takes your password and compares it to the one that is registered for you in the Charon database. If the two passwords match, Charon considers your identity proven. Charon now has to convince the essay excerpt mail server that you are who you say you are. Since Charon knows all service passwords, it knows the mail service's password.
It's conceivable that Charon could give you the password, which you could forward to the mail service as proof that you have authenticated yourself to Charon. The problem is, Charon cannot give you the password directly, because then you would know it. The next time you wanted mail, you could circumvent Charon and use the mail server without correctly identifying yourself. You could even pretend to be someone else, and use the mail server in that other person's name. So instead of giving you the term mail server's password, Charon gives you a mail service TICKET. This ticket contains a version of your username that has been ENCRYPTED USING the MAIL SERVER'S PASSWORD. Ticket in hand, you can now ask the mail service for your mail. You make your request by eb white telling the mail server who you are, and furnishing the ticket that proves you are who you say you are. The server uses its password to contest scholarship, decrypt the ticket, and if the ticket decrypts properly, the server ends up with the eb white excerpt username that Charon placed in the ticket. The service compares this name with the name you sent along with the engineering ticket.
If the eb white excerpt names match, the tips mail server considers your identity proven and eb white proceeds to give you your mail. What do you think of those apples? That sounds good to me. So the ticket looks something like this: (She scrawls the following on a pad of paper:) But I think I know a way to fix this problem. Or to at least provide a partial fix to it. I think Charon should include more information in write essay structure the service tickets it produces. In addition to the username, the ticket should also include the NETWORK ADDRESS from which the user asked Charon for the ticket. That gives you an additional level of security. I'll illustrate. Suppose I steal your mail ticket now.
The ticket has your workstation's network address in it, and this address does not match my workstation's address. In your name I forward the eb white excerpt purloined ticket to the mail server. The server program extracts the username and contest scholarship 2013 network address from the ticket and attempts to eb white essay excerpt, match that information against the username and research papers in working network address of the entity that sent the ticket. The username matches, but the network address does not. The server rejects the ticket because obviously it was stolen. So the revised ticket design looks like this: She scrawls the following on a chalkboard: I'll start with the first requirement: you should only have to use your password once. I've met this requirement by inventing a new network service.
It's called the ticket-granting service, a service that issues Charon tickets to users who have already proven their identity to Charon. You can use this ticket-granting service if you have a ticket for it, a ticket-granting ticket. The ticket-granting service is really just a version of Charon in as much as it has access to the Charon database. It's a part of eb white, Charon that lets you authenticate yourself with a ticket instead of a password. Anyhow, the authentication system now works as follows: you login to a workstation and use a program called kinit to contact the Charon server.
You prove your identity to of my experiments with, Charon, and the kinit program gets you a ticket-granting ticket. Now say you want to get your mail from the mail server. You don't have a mail server ticket yet, so you use the ticket-granting ticket to get the mail server ticket for you. You don't have to use your password to get the new ticket. Like I said, I've solved that problem as well. The thing is, when I say you have to contact Charon to get the ticket-granting ticket, I make it sound as though you have to eb white, send your password in cleartext over the network to the Charon Server.
But it doesn't have to be that way. Here's really what happens. Thesis In Industrial. When you use the kinit program to get the ticket-granting ticket, kinit doesn't send your password to eb white essay, the Charon server, kinit sends only your username. Charon uses the username to 2013, look up your password. Next Charon builds a packet of data that contains the ticket-granting ticket. Before it sends you the packet, Charon uses your password to encrypt the packet's contents. Your workstation receives the ticket packet. Essay. You enter your password. Kinit attempts to decrypt the ticket with the password you entered. Master In Industrial. If kinit succeeds, you have successfully authenticated yourself to Charon.
You now possess a ticket-granting ticket, and that ticket can get you the other tickets you require. How's that for some fancy thinking? Look at it this way. Suppose you are using an insecure workstation. In the course of eb white essay, your login session you acquire a mail service ticket, a printing service ticket, and a file service ticket. Suppose you inadvertantly leave these tickets on the workstation when you logout. Now suppose I login to essay contest scholarship, the workstation and find those tickets.
I'm feeling like causing trouble, so I make the workstation think that I am you. Since the tickets are made out in eb white essay excerpt your name, I can use the mail client program to access your mail, I can use the essay contest file service client to essay, access and remove your files, and I can use the printing command to run up huge bills on your account. All because these tickets have been accidentally left lying around. And nothing can keep me from copying these tickets to a place of my own. Resume Tips. I can continue to use them for all eternity. But that's an easy fix. We just write a program that destroys a user's tickets after each login session. You can't use tickets that have been destroyed. Well obviously your system must have a ticket-destroying program, but it's foolish to essay, make users rely on such a thing. You can't count on users to remember to research capital, destroy their tickets every time they finish a workstation session. And even if you rely upon essay, your users to destroy their tickets, consider the following scenario.
I've got a program that watches the network and copies service tickets as they zip accross the network. Suppose I feel like victimizing you. I wait for the story of my with you to begin a workstation session, I turn on my program and copy a bunch of your tickets. I wait for you to finish your session, and excerpt eventually you logout and leave. I fiddle with my workstation's network software and change its address so that it matches the address of the workstation you were using when you acquired the tickets I copied. Term Paper On Shingles. I make my workstation believe that I am you. I have your tickets, your username, and the correct network address. I can REPLAY these tickets and use services in your name.
It doesn't matter that you destroyed your tickets before you ended your workstation session. The tickets I have stolen are valid for as long as I care to use them, because your current ticket design does not place a limit on the number of times you can reuse a ticket, or on essay how long a ticket remains valid. Euripides goes to the chalkboard and scrawls the following: This is write analytical essay just for the sake of argument. I've copied your tickets. Now I wait for you to logout.
Suppose you have a doctor's appointment or a class to attend, so you end your workstation session after a couple of hours. You are a smart boots and have destroyed your copies of the tickets before logging out. But I've stolen your tickets, and eb white essay they are good for about six hours. That gives me ample time to pillage your files and print one thousand copies of whatever in in working capital management your name. See, the eb white essay excerpt lifetime-timestamp business works fine in the event that a ticket thief chooses to replay the ticket after the ticket has expired. If the thief can replay the ticket before that . . . The two head for analytical essay the coffee machine. The next morning in Euripides' office. Athena knocks on the door.
Right. That is a clumsy solution at best. (Pause.) Ah, how do I proceed with my argument? (She ponders for a moment.) All right, I'm going to restate the problem again, this time in eb white excerpt the form of analytical structure, a requirement. A network service must be able to prove that the person using a ticket is the same person to whom that ticket was issued. Let me trace the authentication process again and see if I can tease out an appropriate way to illustrate my solution to this problem. I want to use a certain network service. I access that service by starting a client program on my workstation. The client sends three things to the service machine-- my name, my workstation's network address, and the appropriate service ticket.
The ticket contains the name of the person it was issued to and the address of the workstation that person was using when he or she acquired the ticket. Eb White Essay Excerpt. It also contains an expiration date in the form of a lifespan and a timestamp. All this information has been encrypted in the service's Charon password. Our current authentication scheme relies on the following tests: Can the service decrypt the ticket? Has the ticket expired? Do the name and resume tips workstation address specified in the ticket match the essay name and address of the person who sent the ticket? What do these tests prove?
The first test proves that the ticket either did or did not come from Charon. If the ticket cannot be decrypted, it did not come from the real Charon. The real Charon would have encrypted the ticket with the service's password. Charon and the service are the resume tips only two entities that know the service's password. Excerpt. If the ticket decrypts successfully, the service knows that it came from the real Charon.
This test prevents folks from building fake Charon tickets. The second test checks the ticket's lifespan and of my experiments with truth timestamp. If it has expired, the service rejects the eb white essay excerpt ticket. This test stops people from using old tickets, tickets that perhaps were stolen. The third test checks the ticket-user's name and address against mail resume the name and address of the eb white essay person specified in the ticket. Essay. If the test fails, the ticket-user has obtained (perhaps surreptitiously) another person's ticket.
The ticket is of course rejected. If the names and addresses do match, what has the test proved? Nothing. Scallywags can steal tickets from the network, change their workstation addresses and usernames appropriately, and rifle other folks resources. Eb White Essay. As I pointed out yesterday, tickets can be replayed as long as they haven't expired. They can be replayed because a service cannot determine that the person sending the ticket is actually the ticket's legitimate owner. The service cannot make this determination because it does not share a secret with the research papers capital management user. Look at eb white essay, it this way. If I'm on engineering watch at Elsinore, you know, the excerpt castle in Hamlet , and you are supposed to relieve me, I'm not supposed to let you take my place unless you can provide the correct password. That's the case where the two of research papers in working, us share a secret.
And it's probably a secret that someone else made up for everyone who stands on watch. So I was thinking last night, why not have Charon make up a password for the legitimate ticket-owner to share with the eb white essay service? Charon gives a copy of this session key to the service, and a copy to the user. When the service receives a ticket from a user, it can use the session key to test the user's identity. She scrawls the essay scholarship following on a chalkboard: The service's copy of the excerpt session key comes inside the ticket, and the service gets the key when it decrypts the ticket. So the ticket looks like this:
When you want to get to experiments with, a service, the client program you start builds what I call an eb white essay excerpt, AUTHENTICATOR. The authenticator contains your name and your workstation's address. The client encrypts this information with the mail resume session key, the copy of the excerpt session key you received when you requested the ticket. After building the authenticator, the client sends it and the ticket to the service. The service cannot decrypt the authenticator yet because it doesn't have the session key. That key is in the ticket, so the service first decrypts the ticket.
After decrypting the ticket, the service ends up with the the following information: The ticket's lifespan and timestamp; The ticket-owner's name; The ticket-owner's network address; The session key. The service checks to see if the ticket has expired. If all is well in that regard, the service next uses the session key to decrypt the authenticator. If the decryption proceeds without a hitch, the master thesis service ends up with a username and a network address. The service tests this information against the name and address found in the ticket, AND the name and address of the excerpt person who sent the ticket and authenticator.
If everything matches, the service has determined that the ticket-sender is on shingles indeed the eb white essay excerpt ticket's real owner. Athena pauses, clears her throat, drinks some coffee. I think the session key-authenticator business takes care of the replay problem. Well, it might. Essay Contest Scholarship. Let's see, the client program builds the eb white authenticator, then sends it with the ticket to the service. You copy both ticket and authenticator as they move from my workstation to the server. But the ticket and authenticator arrive at the server before you can send your copies. If the write analytical essay structure authenticator can only be used once, your copy of it is excerpt no good, and you lose when you attempt to replay your ticket and authenticator. Well, that's a relief. So all we have to do is invent a way to resume, make the authenticator a one-time usable thing. No problem.
Let's just put a lifespan and timestamp on them. Suppose each authenticator has a lifespan of eb white, a couple of minutes. When you want to use a service, your client program builds the authenticator, stamps it with the current time, then sends it and the ticket to the server. The server receives the ticket and authenticator and goes about its business. When the server decrypts the authenticator, it checks the authenticator's lifespan and timestamp. Master Thesis Engineering. If the authenticator hasn't expired, and everything else checks properly, the server considers you authenticated.
Suppose I copied the athenticator and ticket as they crossed the network. Eb White Essay Excerpt. I have to thesis, change my workstation's network address and my username, and I have to do this all in a couple of minutes. That's a pretty tall order. Essay Excerpt. In fact I don't think it's possible. Unless . . . Well, here's a potential problem. Suppose that instead of copying the ticket and authenticator as they travel from truth, your workstation to the server, I copy original ticket packet that comes from Charon, the packet you receive when you ask Charon to give you a ticket. This packet, as I recall, has two copies of the eb white essay excerpt session key in it: one for you and one for the service. Thesis In Industrial Engineering. The one for the service is hidden in the ticket and excerpt I can't get to it, but what about the term paper on shingles other one, the one you use to build authenticators? If I can get that copy of the session key, I can build my own authenticators, and if I can build my own authenticators, I can break the system.
That's something I thought about last night, but then I traced the process of acquiring tickets and found that it wasn't possible to steal authenticators that way. You sit down at essay, a workstation and use the kinit program to get your ticket-granting ticket. Kinit asks for your username, and after you enter it, kinit forwards the name to the story experiments with truth essay, Charon. Charon uses your name to essay, look up your password, then proceeds to build a ticket-granting ticket for you. As part of this process, Charon creates a session key that you will share with the analytical essay structure ticket-granting service. Eb White Essay Excerpt. Charon puts a copy of the session key in the ticket-granting ticket, and puts your copy in the the ticket packet that you are about to essay, receive. But before it sends you this packet, Charon encrypts the whole thing with your password. Charon sends the packet across the network.
Someone can copy the packet as it goes by, but they can't do anything with it because it has been encrypted with your password. Specifically, no one can steal the ticket-granting session key. Kinit receives the ticket packet and prompts you for a password, which you enter. If you enter the correct password, kinit can decrypt the packet and give you your copy of the session key. Now that you've taken care of the kinit business, you want to get your mail. You start the mail client program.
This program looks for a mail service ticket and eb white essay excerpt doesn't find one (after all, you haven't tried to write analytical essay, get your mail yet). Eb White Essay. The client must use the ticket-granting ticket to contest, ask the ticket-granting service for a mail service ticket. The client builds an authenticator for the ticket-granting transaction and encrypts the authenticator with your copy of the eb white essay ticket-granting session key. The client then sends Charon the write analytical structure authenticator, the eb white excerpt ticket-granting ticket, your name, your workstation's address, and term paper on shingles the name of the mail service. The ticket-granting service receives this stuff and runs through the authentication checks. Eb White Essay Excerpt. If everything checks properly, the ticket-granting service ends up with a copy of the session key that it shares with you. Write Structure. Now the ticket-granting service builds you a mail service ticket, and during this process, creates a new session key for you to share with the mail service. The ticket-granting service now prepares a ticket packet to send back to your workstation. The packet contains the ticket and eb white your copy of the mail service session key. But before it sends the packet, the ticket-granting service encrypts the engineering packet with its copy of the TICKET-GRANTING session key. That done, the packet is sent on eb white essay excerpt its way.
So here comes the mail service ticket packet, loping across the network. Suppose some network ogre copies it as it goes by. The ogre is out of luck because the packet is encrypted with the ticket-granting session key; you and the ticket-granting service are the only entities that know this key. Since the ogre cannot decrypt the on shingles mail ticket packet, the excerpt ogre cannot discover the MAIL SESSION KEY. Without this session key, the ogre cannot use any of the mail service tickets you might subsequently send across the network. So I think we're safe. What do you think? You are so kind. ( Euripides clears his throat. ) Last night, while visions of the story of my experiments truth essay, session keys and authenticators danced in your head, I was trying to find new problems with the system, and I found one that I thought was pretty serious.
I'll illustrate it by eb white essay way of the following scenario. Suppose you are sick of your current job and have determined that it is in your best interest to move on. You want to print your resume on the company's wizz-bang laser printer so that headhunters and potential employers can take note of your classiness. So you enter the printing command, and direct it to send the resume to the appropriate print server. The command gets the proper service ticket, if you don't already have it, then sends the ticket in your name to essay 2013, the appropriate print server. Essay Excerpt. At least that's where you think it's headed. You don't in the story of my with fact know that the request is headed for the right print server. Suppose that some unscrupulous hacker--say it's your boss--has screwed system around so that he redirects your request and its ticket to the print server in his office.
His print service program doesn't care about the essay ticket or its contents. It throws away the ticket and sends a message to your workstation indicating that the ticket passed muster, and essay contest scholarship 2013 that the eb white server is ready and write analytical essay willing to print your job. The printing command sends the job to eb white essay excerpt, the fraudulant print server and the enemy ends up with your resume. I'll state the problem by way of contrast. Without session keys and authenticators, Charon can protect its servers from false users, but it cannot protect its users from false servers. Write Analytical Structure. The system needs a way for client programs to authenticate the server before sending sensitive information to the service. The system must allow for mutual authentication . But the session key solves this problem as long as you design your client programs properly. Eb White Essay. Back to the print server scenario. Term Paper. I want a print client program that makes sure the service it's sending jobs to is the essay legitimate service. Here's what such a program does.
I enter the printing command and give it a filename, the name of my resume. Mail. Assume that I have a print service ticket and eb white essay session key. The client program uses the session key to build an authenticator, then sends the authenticator and ticket to the supposed print server. The client DOES NOT send the resume yet; it waits for a response from the service. The real service receives the ticket and authenticator, decrypts the ticket and extracts the session key, then uses the session key to research papers in working management, decrypt the authenticator. This done, the essay service runs all the appropriate authentication tests. Assume the tests confirm my identity. Now the server prepares a reply packet so that it can prove its identity to the client program.
It uses its copy of the session key to encrypt the reply packet, then sends the packet to the waiting client. The client receives the on shingles packet and attempts to decrypt it with my copy of the eb white excerpt session key. Thesis. If the packet decrypts properly and eb white essay yields the correct server response message, my client program knows that the server that encrypted the packet is the real server. Now the client sends the term resume job to the print service. Suppose my boss screwed around the system so that his print server poses as the one I want. My client sends the authenticator and ticket to the print service and waits for a response. Eb White. The fake print service cannot generate the term on shingles correct response because it cannot decrypt the ticket and get the essay excerpt session key.
My client will not send the job unless it receives the correct response. Papers Capital Management. Eventually the client gives up waiting and exits. My print job does not get completed, but at least my resume did not end up on eb white excerpt the desk of the enemy. You know, I think we have a solid basis on which to implement the of my experiments Charon Authentication System. The dialogue was written in 1988 to essay, help its readers understand the fundamental reasons for research papers why the Kerberos V4 protocol was the way it was. Over the years, it has served this job very well. When I converted this document to HTML, I was amazed how much of this document was still applicable for the Kerberos V5 protocol. Although many things were changed, the basic core ideas of the eb white excerpt protocol have remained the same. Indeed, there are only two changes where Kerberos V5 differs from mail resume tips, description of the Kerberos protocol in this dialoge. The first change was born out of the recognition that using a small five minute time skew wasn't necessarily sufficient to eb white, prevent replay attacks from an attacker who used a program to automatically grab the ticket and the authenticator as they traversed the network, and then immediately resent them to with truth essay, launch a replay attack. In Kerberos V5, authenticators are made to be truly once-only by having servers which accept tickets to have a replay cache which keeps note of authenticators have been presented to the server recently.
If an attacker tries to snatch an authenticator and reuse it, even during the five-minute acceptance window, the eb white replay cache will be able to determine that the authenticator has already been presented to the server. The second major change to the protocol is of my that the ticket is no longer encrypted in the user's password when it is sent from the Kerberos server to kinit during the initial ticket exchange. The ticket is eb white already encrypted in the ticket granting server's secret key; furthermore when it is actually used to obtain other tickets, it gets sent in the network in the clear anyway. Hence, there is no reason why the ticket should be encrypted again in the user's password. (The rest of the Kerberos server's reply to term paper, the user, containing for example the user's copy of the ticket session key, is still encrypted in the user's password, of course.) A similar change was also made to the ticket granting service (TGS) protocol; tickets returned by TGS are also no longer encrypted by the ticket-granting ticket's service key, since application tickets are already encrypted by the application server's secret key.
So for example, the packet that in Kerberos V4 which would have looked like this: where K_Y is eb white read X encrypted using key K_Y and In Kerberos V5, the KDC_REPLY now would look like this: Of course, there are many new features in Kerberos V5 as well. Term. Users can now securely forward their tickets so that they can be used at another network location; in addition, users may also delagate a subset of their authorization rights to a server, so that the server can act as a proxy on behalf of a user. Other new features include the ability to essay, replace DES with a more secure cryptographic algorithm, such as triple-DES. Readers who are interested in more of the changes between Kerberos V4 and V5 are invited to read The Evolution of the Kerberos Authentication System, which was authored by Cliff Neumann and the story experiments essay Theodore Ts'o.
I hope you've enjoyed this quick little introduction to the Kerberos protocol. Essay Excerpt. I wish you well in your futher explorations!