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Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Un article de la revue Meta. Volume 59 , Numero 2 , Aout, 2014 , p. 260–277. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 2014.

Salons. Liquor Manager Cover. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. This paper offers an overview of the development of a dissertation abstract, Legal Translation Studies as a major interdiscipline within Translation Studies. It reviews key elements that shape its specificity and constitute the shared ground of cover letter, its research community: object of study, place within academia, denomination, historical milestones and key approaches. This review elicits the different stages of moi megavideo, evolution leading to the field’s current position and its particular interaction with Law. The focus is placed on commonalities as a means to manager cover letter identify distinctive reference points and avenues for on madrid spain further development. Store Manager Cover. A comprehensive categorization of legal texts and the systematic scrutiny of contextual variables are highlighted as pivotal in defining the commentary scope of the discipline and in proposing overarching conceptual and methodological models. Store Manager Cover. Analyzing the a dissertation abstract applicability of these models and their impact on legal translation quality is considered a priority in order to reinforce interdisciplinary specificity in line with professional needs. Le present article propose un tour d’horizon du developpement de la traductologie juridique, une interdiscipline majeure de la traductologie.

Il passe en revue des elements-cles qui ont faconne sa specificite et qui constituent pour les chercheurs un terrain commun : son objet d’etude, sa place dans le monde universitaire, sa denomination, ses etapes historiques et ses principales approches. Les differents stades de son evolution sont decrits jusqu’a son etat actuel, ainsi que son interaction particuliere avec le droit. L’accent est mis sur les points communs afin d’identifier des reperes distinctifs et d’etablir des pistes pour son futur developpement. Store Manager. La categorisation exhaustive des textes juridiques et l’examen systematique des variables contextuelles sont mis en valeur pour delimiter le champ de la discipline et proposer des modeles conceptuels et methodologiques integraux. Commentary. L’analyse de l’applicabilite et de l’impact de ces modeles sur la qualite des traductions juridiques est consideree comme une priorite pour consolider la specificite interdisciplinaire en accord avec les besoins professionnels. Las innovaciones mas originales y fecundas resultan de la recombinacion de especialidades situadas en el punto de confluencia de varias disciplinas. 1. Liquor Manager Cover. Legal Translation Studies: (inter)discipline, subfield or specialization?

After decades of consolidation and expansion, Translation Studies (TS) is structure experiencing a marked trend towards increasing specialization by area of practice and liquor manager letter, research (see, for example, Brems, Meylaerts et al . In Essays. 2012). Cover Letter. An initial emphasis on building self-assertive conceptual models beyond linguistic-oriented theories paved the way for more sophisticated approaches to specific branches of translation in contact with other disciplines. Since the empowering “cultural turn” (Snell-Hornby 2006) of the 1980s and 1990s, TS has progressively engaged in an “interdisciplinary turn” (Gentzler 2003) characterized by new paths of inquiry, and a “technological turn” (Cronin 2010) favored by new computer tools and interaction with Information Technology. In fact, given the intrinsic nature of translation as carrier of poem names, knowledge across fields and the myriad of influences shaping the emergence of its modern theories (Holmes 1972/1988), TS is “genetically predisposed” to interdisciplinary development. It is through the shared concern with communication that other disciplines engage with translation; in turn, the need to grasp and convey nuances ultimately lead translators and TS scholars to enrich their analytical models with insights from the domains that underpin specialized discourses. This has been the case of legal translation over store the last three decades, to the point that, as few would question nowadays, Legal Translation Studies (LTS) has become one of the most prominent fields within TS.

LTS will be understood here as an purchase (inter)discipline concerned with all aspects of translation of liquor store manager cover letter, legal texts, including processes, products and commentary essay, agents. Linguistic mediation between legal systems or within multilingual legal contexts (such as international or multilingual national systems) and the academic study of liquor manager cover, such mediation require the coherent integration of concepts from TS, Linguistics (as drawn upon through TS) and poem in essays, Law. Without these elements, it can be argued that legal translation as a problem-solving activity would be an unreliable exercise, and LTS would not stand where it stands today. This intermingling is an example of hybridization, which, according to Dogan (1997b: 435), implies “an overlapping of segments of disciplines, a recombination of knowledge in liquor store, new specialized fields” that constitutes a major source of commentary in an, knowledge production and innovation in all sciences. The consideration of an cover interdisciplinary field like LTS as “discipline” or “interdiscipline” tends to essayez moi megavideo depend on the recognition of liquor, scholarly work by academic institutions (McCarty 1999, Munday 2001), and on essayez moi megavideo, the degree of autonomy of the field: New disciplines emerge not only as knowledge grows and manager cover letter, spreads but also as power relations and reputations change within academia. Historically, new disciplines have often emerged at the interface of existing ones, and so at first they inevitably have the nature of interdisciplines. Structure Research Essay. […] Each of liquor manager, these new fields could be called an interdiscipline rather than a discipline: they have started life as hybrids, as cross-border areas between neighbouring fields. Indeed, these new fields query the very borders they straddle, challenging us to think in different ways. Chesterman 2002: 4. Whether the interdisciplinary nature of a field is made explicit or not, most disciplines nowadays engage with others to some extent. However, this communication might not be unproblematic between new and long-established disciplines, and as shown by the history of TS, academic emancipation might take considerable effort.

Even if this process is structure research essay still relatively recent, and full recognition is yet to be achieved in some academic constituencies, LTS has clearly benefited from the manager cover letter consolidation of TS in general. If the overriding priority was once to claim TS’s own territory in between adjacent fields, scholars in specialized branches such as LTS are now taking interdisciplinarity into structure new territory on the basis of TS-specific paradigms. In this “turn,” the interdisciplinary vocation of liquor manager, TS is unfolding, far beyond the discussions and influences that put TS on the academic map. The study of legal translation as part of academic training and research programs has grown exponentially and evolves comfortably within TS. In this context, terms such as “subfield,” “subdiscipline,” “branch” or “specialization” are often used to refer to basic a research paper legal translation and LTS as subdivisions or categories of translation and TS, respectively. Although the question of manager, denominations will be addressed in section 3, it is worth noting at this point that “legal translation” is structure research used here to refer to the area of practice and the subject of study, while “Legal Translation Studies” (“LTS”) is store manager letter reserved for essays spain the academic discipline, even if “legal translation” is commonly used to liquor store cover refer to the same discipline. In other words, it is presupposed that legal translation is to LTS what translation is to TS. In the next sections, we will focus on in essays, the key elements that shape the identity of LTS today: object of study, place within academia, denomination and historical evolution. For young and dynamically-changing disciplines, this kind of stocktaking exercise can be particularly useful and even a necessity.

Chesterman (2002: 2), making this point in liquor store, relation to TS, suggested that “scholars tend to focus on their particular corners, and to write, communication between different sections of the field may suffer, as people stress more what separates approaches than on what unites them – at least in the initial stages.” Indeed, after a period of intense growth, surveying the store cover letter common ground of the LTS research community can help to steps to write underpin the collective vision and specificity of this maturing field. Situating an emerging discipline across academic boundaries is liquor store cover essentially a question of identifying its specific problems and methods. In the purchase a dissertation abstract case of LTS, the consideration of legal translation as a category in its own right has been rarely challenged in liquor store, the past few decades (Harvey 2002, Mayoral Asensio 2002). Research Essay. The distinctive concern of liquor manager cover, LTS with all aspects of legal translation systematically draws scholars’ attention to the long-debated issue of what defines legal texts. These have been variously classified according to main textual functions (for example, Bocquet 1994, Sarcevic 1997), or according to names discursive situation parameters (for example, Gemar 1995, Borja Albi 2000, Cao 2007). These classifications converge on the identification of three major groups of texts: normative texts, judicial texts and store manager, legal scholarly texts (from more prescriptive to more descriptive and/or argumentative in nature). However, models based on situational elements understandably offer further subdivisions. A Dissertation. For instance, contracts are included within normative texts in categorizations according to primary function, whereas they are classified under a separate heterogeneous group of “private legal texts” (for example, Gemar 1995, Cao 2007) or “texts of store manager, application of law” (Borja Albi 2000) in the latter models. The addition of more specific categories according to situational elements seems to be a natural evolution in the scrutiny of legal texts. On the one hand, the blend of functions in legal texts (for example, judgements with a normative value in common law systems) and their high degree of intertextuality (with the typical role of moi megavideo, written sources of law as primary references in language use across legal text typologies) call for further differentiation. On the other hand, what matters most for store manager legal translation is the characterization of essayez, groups of manager letter, texts corresponding to specific varieties or styles of legal language, and this is essayez generally a question of text producers and liquor letter, purposes in poem, communicative situations.

Since legal language is “a set of related legal discourses” (Maley 1994: 13) and not a uniform language, legal translators need to discriminate the features of the different styles reflected in original texts as part of translation-oriented analysis. As highlighted by Alcaraz Varo and store manager, Hughes (2002: 103) when advocating “a more systematic awareness of text typology,” “the translator who has taken the trouble to recognize the research formal and stylistic conventions of a particular original has already done much to liquor manager translate the text successfully.” Apart from the language of legislators, judges or scholars, it is possible to identify, for instance, a category of texts characterized by the “language of notaries” ( langage des notaires ; lenguaje notarial ), which accounts for a considerable number of legal texts in certain countries. Commentary. Texts drafted by legislators, judges, scholars or notaries on manager, a particular aspect of probate law, for example, will share key concepts and phraseology (the legislative text normally conditioning and impregnating the other uses), but purposes and a dissertation, discursive conventions will certainly vary by text type. As in other social sciences, subdivisions are ultimately determined by the lens through which textual realities are observed. Liquor Cover. In turn, legal text typologies comprise a variety of legal genres and subgenres (for example, different kinds of contracts). In the case of legal scholarly writings, texts usually take shape as subcategories of general genres such as journal articles or academic textbooks. They are not always addressed to legal experts (for example, a press report on the details of a particular legal reform, comparable to a report on economic affairs written by an economist), and essayez, their stylistic features can be rather heterogeneous, but they all share a minimum degree of manager letter, thematic specialization in descriptive and argumentative functions. The prominence of different typologies will mirror the peculiarities of each legal system, while specific legal genres will not always match across jurisdictions. On Madrid Spain. Overall, the more specific the categorization gets (textual function, text type and genre), the more layers of information are activated on discursive conventions, but also the less universal and store manager, the more culture-bound those layers become. Beyond the commentary in an essay differences between categorization models, there is consensus around the hybridity of legal texts, which reflects the high interdisciplinarity of liquor manager letter, law in dealing with all aspects of names, life.

A piece of legislation on financial products, an liquor store manager cover letter agreement on the provision of to write, chemical engineering services or an arbitration award on liquor store manager letter, the conditions of trade within the shipbuilding industry will require research on names, technicalities associated with other specializations. While thematic crossings between fields in store manager, different branches of law and essayez, legal settings are countless, those encountered in the area of business and finance are traditionally highlighted to illustrate how often two specializations can merge in specific texts; and this can result in store cover letter, the classification of legal texts with predominantly non-legal specialist language under other branches of translation. However, in commentary in an, the examples provided, the text would remain of a legal nature and the subject of legal translation, as would be the manager case in instances where legal discursive features are minimal (for example, in certain private legal instruments) or intentionally tempered with non-specialist discourse (for example, through plain language movements). In mapping the “textual territory” of LTS, discrepancies persist at its fringes, particularly regarding the place assigned to texts not dealing with legal matters but used in legal settings. These texts can hardly be considered legal texts if they were not intended for legal purposes, even when they are subsequently used in legal settings. A Research. For instance, a personal letter or a scientific report which becomes evidence in court proceedings could be translated by a legal translator or be required for certified or sworn translation, but this would not make them legal texts, as claimed by some authors (Abdel Hadi 1992: 47, Harvey 2002: 178).

It is precisely “non-authoritative statements” by letter, lay participants in commentary in an, the legal process that Harvey (2002: 178) evokes in order to question the “supposed special status of legal translation.” He includes contracts, wills, expert reports and court documents in letter, what he calls “ ‘bread and butter’ activities for lawyers and legal translators,” and considers that a “more inclusive definition of what constitutes a legal text would cover documents which are, or may become, part of the judicial process.” Echoing this view, Cao (2007: 11-12) identifies “ordinary texts such as business or personal correspondence, records and certificates, witness statements and expert reports” as part of “legal translation for general legal or judicial purpose,” and emphasizes that “ordinary texts that are not written in legal language by legal professionals” constitute “a major part of the translation work of the legal translator.” However, while these texts could be submitted to a legal translator in steps, legal settings analyzed in LTS, they cannot be systematically considered legal texts. A scientific expert report on the use of hormones in cattle production with no trace of legal matters or legal language will not lose its scientific nature in a legal setting; and liquor store manager cover letter, a further distinction must be made between non-lawyers’ texts initially intended for legal purposes (such as private agreements) and ordinary texts produced for other purposes but later used in steps to write, legal settings (for example, personal correspondence). This distinction helps to delimit the boundaries of legal translation: as opposed to the latter texts, private legal instruments prepared by laypersons, even if more unpredictable in style than other legal text types, include certain performative discourse features in store manager cover letter, more or less formal provisions, and tend to follow certain legal genre conventions with frequent influences from professional legal models. Adopting a pragmatic and conciliatory approach, it can be concluded that the link between legal theme and/or function and linguistic features is confirmed as minimum common denominator of essayez moi megavideo, legal texts (even if at varying degrees):

Legal texts constitute or apply instruments governing public or private legal relations (including codified law, case-law and contracts), or give formal expression to specialized knowledge on legal aspects of cover letter, such instruments and purchase a dissertation, relations; These functions follow certain linguistic patterns that are characteristic of varieties of legal language in different discursive situations, allowing for the identification of legal text types (according to text producers and store manager, purposes), as well as legal genres (according to more specific textual functions and conventions); Legal texts can also contain a great amount of specialized language from non-legal fields covered by law, while legal scholarly writings comprise a wide range of subcategories of general genres such as journal articles and textbooks. Categorizations based on legal function, theme and discourse serve to differentiate “legal translation” from other categories reflecting context or type of translation and including legal texts but not exclusively: “judicial translation” (even if the bulk of texts in this setting will be comprised under the legal judicial text type); “sworn/official/certified translation” (albeit predominantly reserved for texts of a legal nature); or “institutional translation” (with a traditionally high presence of legal and administrative text subtypes, but a diversity of themes and other specialized discourses). Categorization of legal texts. Notarial instruments can be considered as a specific category in civil law countries. Table 1 integrates the criteria outlined above as a way of overcoming the traditional emphasis on civil law systems in the translation-oriented categorization of legal texts. Despite differences in the relevance and legal effects of particular text types by commentary essay, legal system, and despite the difficulty in proposing comprehensive categorization models, it is most useful to situate specific genres within general text types in order to better frame the comparison of discursive features.

For instance, the lawmaking role played by judicial decisions in common law countries cannot be equated with that of most judicial rulings in civil law systems, and their discursive features vary by liquor manager, genre and commentary in an, jurisdiction. Yet, they share certain core elements (associated with text producers and purposes) that are paramount to the legal translator’s comparative analysis. The complex reality summarized in Table 1 delineates a vast scope which demands enormous versatility of legal translators and must be acknowledged in LTS as a condition for building universally-valid conceptual models. LTS scholars have often focused on particular legal relations and text types (predominantly legislative) as a basis for generalizations on legal translation. [2] The variability of liquor store manager letter, legal linguistic phenomena and translation settings requires not only flexibility but also regular updating on discursive features, particularly in relation to the more dynamic branches of basic, law and the impact of supranational convergence processes on such features. 3. Disciplinary contours and denominations. As mentioned above, LTS comprises the study of processes, products and agents of translation of legal texts as a professional practice, including specialized methodologies and competence, quality control, training and sociological aspects. Liquor Store Cover Letter. Against the purchase a dissertation abstract above background, once the “textual territory” of legal translation has been defined, the manager cover letter position of purchase a dissertation abstract, LTS between TS, Linguistics and Law can be pinpointed as represented in liquor store manager cover letter, Figure 1 below. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS [3] LTS builds on the core concepts of TS theories common to all translation specializations, including all aspects of translation methodology, that is, declarative and operative knowledge of the translation process and problem-solving procedures (translation-oriented analysis, translation strategies and competence). These concepts and metalanguage lie at the heart of any branch of translation as subject of structure research essay, study, including LTS.

In turn, in liquor letter, developing its own communicative, cultural and cognitive approaches, among others, TS has drawn on in an essay, notions from Communication Studies, Cultural Studies and Psychology, while studies in liquor cover, Translation Pedagogy, Translation Sociology and Translation Technology emerge as a result of crossings with other disciplines. However, the major neighboring discipline from which TS has borrowed most heavily is Linguistics, particularly subfields or approaches within the realm of Applied Linguistics which offer relevant variables on language use and research, tools for translation-oriented and contrastive analysis: Text Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Contrastive Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, Terminology, Pragmatics, etc. LTS marries such insights to legal theory and practice in cover, the dissection of poem names, legal discourses, terminology, genres and texts for store cover translation from a TS perspective. It is in the interface between TS (with its diverse influences) and Law that LTS finds its natural place in steps to write paper, the academic landscape. LTS crucially relies on networks of legal knowledge in liquor store cover letter, order to build interdisciplinary theories and methods. Categorizations and analysis of the different systems and branches of law are indeed a key component of research for in essays and on legal translation. In the case of international law, translation plays a central role in liquor store cover letter, rendering legal instruments multilingual in essayez, institutional settings, which attracts considerable attention in liquor, LTS, as has been traditionally the case with multilingual national systems.

In the scrutiny of the different branches of law for essayez translation purposes, Legal Hermeneutics and Comparative Law stand out for their functionality: they offer useful techniques for the interpretation of legal texts and for the contrastive analysis of legal concepts and sources across systems. Cover. Legal comparative methodology has proved particularly relevant to legal translation, and on madrid, its importance for LTS is nowadays uncontested (see section 4). Even if the purposes of legal comparative practice and store manager letter, legal translation practice are different (shedding light on legal issues as opposed to applying adequate translation techniques), both share the basic to write a research same interest in deconstructing semantic elements in their legal contexts in liquor store cover, order to determine degrees of correspondence for decision-making (see, for example, works by legal experts De Groot 1987, Sacco 1992, Vanderlinden 1995, Brand 2007). Poem. A mutually instrumental relationship can be identified: comparative methods are paramount in linguistic mediation between legal systems, while translation is often necessary in the comparison of such systems by legal experts (see, for example, De Groot 2012). It is largely by merging general translation methodology with such legal analysis that LTS’s methodological specificity is store cover letter reinforced. The interdisciplinary concern with legal language is shared by the adjacent field of commentary in an, Legal Linguistics, which analyzes features of legal discourses at large, including comparative studies in store, Contrastive Legal Linguistics (see, for example, Mattila 2013), but lacks the structure distinctive TS core of LTS. Cover. As opposed to the latter, Legal Linguistics can be monolingual and not necessarily concerned with the processes of linguistic mediation which have led to the recognition of LTS as a separate discipline.

In other words, Legal Linguistics is to LTS what Linguistics is to TS. Although the purchase abstract distinction between Legal Linguistics and LTS is already well-established (in parallel to the distinction between Linguistics and TS), their shared interest in legal language explains the overlap of certain definitions and denominations, particularly in liquor store manager cover, French. In this language, “ jurilinguistique ” is often used to refer to steps studies on both legal language and legal translation. This is store manager largely due to the origin of the term in the Canadian context, where concerns about linguistic rights, and the quality of commentary, Canada’s French-language legal texts in particular, led to growing linguistic awareness since the 1960s, and cover, eventually resulted in structure essay, a tailor-made system of co-drafting of Canadian legislation (see, for example, Covacs 1982 and Gemar 2013). The challenges of liquor store manager, bilingual legal drafting, beyond the confines of traditional perceptions of legal translation, became the object of scholarly work under the label of “ jurilinguistique ,” as coined by Jean-Claude Gemar (1982), [4] and translated as “Jurilinguistics” for the same volume. It was defined as follows: Essentiellement, la jurilinguistique a pour objet principal l’etude linguistique du langage du droit sous ses divers aspects et dans ses differentes manifestations, afin de degager les moyens, de definir les techniques propres a en ameliorer la qualite, par exemple aux fins de traduction, redaction, terminologie, lexicographie, etc. selon le type de besoin considere. Gemar’s conception of Jurilinguistics matches standard definitions of Legal Linguistics (“ linguistique juridique ”) as a field within Applied Linguistics, but with a marked comparative dimension (that is, along the lines of Contrastive Legal Linguistics) suited to the Canadian origin of the term: “ etude du langage (langue et discours) du droit comme objet de recherche et d’analyse par les methodes de la linguistique (appliquee). Au Canada, cette etude est le plus souvent comparative (anglais-francais) ” (Gemar 1995, II: 182). From this perspective, jurilinguistique is considered as a disciplinary expansion from and transcending legal translation: “ La terminologie et la jurilinguistique, entre autres, procedent directement de la traduction – de l’anglais vers le francais, plus particulierement – et des difficultes qu’elle pose dans le contexte d’un Etat (federal) bilingue et bijuridique ” (Gemar 1995, II: 2). Commentary In An Essay. [5]

Considering these nuances, and as rightly noted in manager cover letter, the Termium database, “ jurilinguistique ” and “ linguistique juridique ,” and “Legal Linguistics” and “Jurilinguistics” in English, are not always regarded as perfect synonyms. In any case, the debate on the overlap between Legal Linguistics ( linguistique juridique ) and LTS ( traductologie juridique ) should not hinder the steps to write paper distinction between these complementary sister interdisciplines and their denominations. In English, the liquor use of “Legal Translation Studies” has grown significantly with the expansion of the subject field; [6] “Legal Linguistics” is also well-established, [7] and “Jurilinguistics” commonly refers to the Canadian tradition. In French, “ jurilinguistique ” is essayez widely used for the reasons explained above, often as interchangeable with “ linguistique juridique ” (despite the persistent connotations of each term; see, for example, Cacciaguidi-Fahy 2008), and co-exists with the specific term for LTS “ traductologie juridique ” and its variant “ juritraductologie .” In the case of Spanish, the use of “Traductologia Juridica” is rather limited to date; “traduccion juridica” (the name of the activity) is predominantly preferred to refer to the discipline. This use, mentioned in section 1 and also found in English and French, seems particularly frequent in Spanish. Finally, “Linguistica Juridica” and “Jurilinguistica” follow the liquor manager cover same pattern as in essayez, English, with the latter mostly linked to the Canadian tradition. Even if these names are all compatible, and liquor store manager, different culture-bound scholarly labels are a healthy sign of academic diversity, the research essay consolidation of liquor store cover, uniform denominations for LTS in line with its status within TS would contribute to research its clear identification and liquor letter, further cohesion. Research. In this sense, “ traductologie juridique ” and “ Traductologia Juridica ,” by analogy with “ traductologie ” and “ Traductologia ,” as well as “Legal Translation Studies,” would be expected to find increasing echo within the store manager letter academic community, together with general denominations of “legal translation” as object of study. Let us briefly delve into the historical evolution which has led to the position of LTS outlined above. Rather than an exhaustive review of structure research essay, approaches and liquor store cover letter, authors, an structure research overview will be outlined with focus on major stages and illustrative markers of development. In spite of store manager, its relatively short history, there is already enough perspective to in an identify a few stages in the emergence and consolidation of LTS.

Its recognition as academic field has been associated with that of TS in general since the 1970s, and stimulated by the school of Jurilinguistics in Canada. As a prelude to jurilinguistique , in the first Meta volume ever devoted to LTS, Gemar (1979) already presented legal translation as a new discipline, and highlighted the constraints and liquor manager, specificity of its subject matter. While recognizing that “ il reste encore trop d’inconnus ,” he regarded his own contribution at the time as a possible “ point de depart a l’etablissement d’une veritable methodologie ” of abstract, legal translation, and identified the need for an interdisciplinary approach: “ toute approche devrait s’inspirer d’une forme de logique juridique, seul facteur essentiel de la marche epistemologique parce qu’il part d’un fait etabli, celui de la realite du droit et passe par la methodologie qui represente le moyen entre la pratique et la theorie ” (Gemar 1979: 53). In the same special issue of the store manager cover journal, Michel Sparer’s views on the cultural dimension of legal translation illustrate how an emphasis on culture-bound communication was crystallizing as a means of empowerment of professionals in Canada: “ Nous nous sommes debarrasses depuis peu de la fidelite litterale pour adopter avec profit une conception plus affinee et plus autonome du role du traducteur, celle qui consiste a traduire l’idee avant de s’attacher au mot ” (Sparer 1979: 68). Legal experts such as Pigeon (1982), also from Canada, and De Groot (1987) contributed to the debate on the implications of incongruities between legal systems for legal translation, and vindicated the relevance of functional equivalence and comparative legal methods, respectively. In the same period, Sarcevic (1985), in a specific journal article, and Weston (1991), in a legal linguistic analysis of the French legal system, made new inroads into the analysis of translation techniques as applied to legal texts. After this initial period of increasing focus on specific issues and transition from traditional theories, LTS entered into a crucial stage in the mid-1990s as a result of several converging factors. To Write. Firstly, three monographs were entirely devoted to paradigms of liquor manager, legal translation by leading representatives of the essayez first generation of LTS scholars: Bocquet (1994, later expanded in 2008), Gemar (1995) and Sarcevic (1997), subsequently followed by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002) and Cao (2007) over store manager cover letter the span of a decade. In spite of differences between their approaches, they all analyze features of legal language and translation problems resulting from conceptual incongruency, taking pragmatic and legal considerations into account, and defending the moi megavideo active role of the legal translator.

These theories contributed to further defining the scope and letter, academic profile of the field, and have inspired many contemporary researchers and translators. In fact, this period can be considered as catalytic for the development of shared conceptualizations in LTS and for the formation of a global LTS community. This was favored by in an essay, two additional factors: 1) the use of new electronic communication media, which gradually made the liquor store manager cover letter dissemination of research results much more dynamic and abstract, accessible, as opposed to the slower-moving and geographically-limited expansion in the initial period; and 2) the liquor manager flourishing of TS in general, with the proliferation of academic programs including legal translation and the exponential increase in purchase a dissertation abstract, the number of researchers in LTS. As the store cover first and most comprehensive work of poem in essays, its kind in today’s lingua franca , Sarcevic (1997) soon became a particularly influential landmark. Her contribution to the progress and internationalization of LTS was pivotal in that she integrated into her analysis new TS communicative theories, especially those by store manager letter, German-speaking scholars (such as Holz-Manttari, Reiss, Snell-Hornby, Vermeer or Wilss), as well as several contexts of translation not bound to any single language pair. As Sarcevic (2000: 329) put it herself, “by analyzing legal translation as an act of communication in the mechanism of essayez, law,” she attempted “to provide a theoretical basis for legal translation within the framework of modern translation theory.” However, Sarcevic (1997: 18-19; 2000: 331-332) remained critical of the universal applicability of liquor manager letter, Vermeer’s skopos theory to legal translation. It was the next generation of basic to write, researchers that tested and store manager cover, fully embraced functionalist theories, particularly Nord’s version of skopos theory (Nord 1991a, 1991b, 1997), as a useful general framework in LTS (for example, Prieto Ramos 1998 and 2002, Dullion 2000, Garzone 2000). Equally receptive to these theories, Peter Sandrini and Roberto Mayoral Asensio should also be mentioned as major proponents of LTS applied research in essay, the German-speaking countries and in the Spanish context over the same period, especially for their work on comparative analysis of legal terminology (Sandrini 1996a, 1996b) and the translation of official documents (Mayoral Asensio 2003). Another milestone of that period was the international conference “Legal Translation: History, Theory/ies, Practice” held at the University of Geneva in February 2000. Its proceedings, probably the most frequently quoted in LTS, epitomize the field’s dynamism at the turn of the millennium and the role played by the Geneva school of LTS (within Geneva’s School of Translation and Interpreting, ETI, today FTI).

As noted by Bocquet (2000: 17), legal translation had been ETI’s main pole of excellence in translation since its foundation, and a communicative approach (“ la methode communicative axee sur le produit de traduction ,” as described in Bocquet 1996) had been applied there in manager, previous decades. This is abstract not surprising considering that: 1) the store manager cover letter debate on abstract, the spirit versus the letter of the liquor store letter law had originated in multilingual Switzerland at the beginning of the 20 th century (that is, even earlier than in Canada), in essay, the context of the translation of the manager cover Swiss Civil Code from German into the other national languages (see thorough analysis by Dullion 2007); and on madrid spain, 2) ETI’s programs had been designed to respond not only to the needs of liquor manager, national institutions but also, crucially, to those of Geneva-based international organizations, some of essays on madrid spain, whose professionals also contributed to training in various language combinations. [8] This multidimensional orientation continues to shape the Geneva school of LTS as strongly pragmatic (with emphasis on liquor manager, improving models for practice on the basis of professional evidence) [9] and in an, inclusive (of multiple influences, target languages and purposes, including a prominent institutional component and store cover, a long-standing combination of translation and legal expertise in training and research). In the “catalytic period” reviewed, the Geneva school was a key player in advocating LTS’s specific approaches and essays on madrid, denominations “ traductologie juridique ” and “ juritraductologie ” (see, for example, Bocquet 1994 and Abdel Hadi 2002), and established itself as an academic crucible in liquor store manager letter, the field. The leading figure of the Canadian school, Jean-Claude Gemar, joined the ETI in 1997 and took part in in essays, the creation of the GREJUT [10] research group on legal translation with Claude Bocquet and Maher Abdel Hadi a year later. The subsequent introduction of a legal translation specialization at postgraduate level (today MA) in 2000 and the abovementioned conference the same year also illustrate the new momentum in LTS. Since the mid-2000s, a growing constellation of researchers have continued to expand the interdiscipline by applying cross-cultural paradigms to different branches of manager cover letter, law, legal genres and essayez, settings in letter, many jurisdictions and languages, and by broadening cross-cutting topics, such as specific competence models, pedagogical issues, or the use of corpora and new resources in purchase a dissertation, legal translation (for example, Biel 2010). Store Letter. While computer-assisted translation tools have attracted growing attention in the context of the “technological turn,” machine translation in particular has not been a primary focus in essay, LTS. This does not seem surprising in a field in which the complex layers of system-bound legal meaning and interpretation make automatic semantic processing a real challenge (see, for example, Hoefler and Bunzli 2010) for the machine production of usable drafts.

As predicted by Mattila (2013: 22), “legal translation will remain an essentially human activity, at liquor store least in essayez, the near future.” Nonetheless, further computational developments and statistical-based experiments on well-defined areas could trigger new interdisciplinary insights. More interestingly, the letter relationship between legal translation and essays, comparative law is being further advanced from an LTS perspective (see, for example, Engberg 2013 and Pommer 2014), while legal experts such as Ost (2009) and Glanert (2011) have recently acknowledged the manager new status of TS and the relevance of its paradigms in poem names in essays, studying processes of legal convergence. If we adopt Kaindl’s (1999) model of liquor store manager cover letter, analysis of a dissertation abstract, interdisciplinary development of TS in general, the increasing dialogue between LTS scholars and comparatists can even be regarded as a symptom of liquor store letter, transition from names LTS’s “importing stage” of development to one of more “reciprocal cooperation” on issues of shared interest. The academic self-confidence gained by liquor cover letter, LTS internationally is also apparent in basic to write, scholars’ perceptions of its autonomy. The following definitions illustrate the evolution: “Far from being recognized as an independent discipline, legal translation is regarded by liquor manager letter, translation theorists merely as one of the many subject areas of special-purpose translation, a branch of translation studies” (Sarcevic 1997: 1); “ La traduccion juridica, una disciplina situada entre el derecho comparado y la linguistica contrastiva ” (Arntz 2000: 376); “ La juritraductologie est une nouvelle discipline qui cherche a determiner les regles methodologiques applicables a la traduction juridique ” (Abdel Hadi 2002: 71); “ La traductologie juridique est un sous-ensemble de la traductologie au sens large ,” “ un domaine encore balbutiant ” (Pelage 2003: 109, 118); “The debate on the relationship between Legal Translation Studies and the overarching discipline of Translation Studies is essays spain still in its infancy, with positions varying according to the degree of liquor cover, specificity or commonality ascribed to the new discipline” (Megale 2008: 11) (translated by the author); [11] “legal translation studies is an interdiscipline which is situated on the interface between translation studies, linguistics, terminology, comparative law, and cultural studies” (Biel 2010: 6). The intensification of structure research essay, scholarly work in liquor store letter, LTS is reaching areas where the abstract impact of previous academic advances has been more limited to date. At the same time, the letter impressive number of voices and publications on spain, LTS has brought a certain sense of dispersion, which is compounded by the (paradoxically) insufficient communication still persistent between LTS researchers in liquor store cover letter, different languages (Monzo Nebot 2010: 355) in spite of increasing internationalization since the mid-1990s. The remarkable expansion of LTS in the past three decades explains the keen interest in in an essay, stocktaking that has motivated this paper. A review of the field’s development has led to the identification of three historical periods: 1) an initial stage of transition from traditional translation theories since the late 1970s, mostly marked by legal linguistic approaches and the Canadian school of cover letter, Jurilinguistics; 2) a catalytic stage between the mid-1990s and structure research essay, the mid-2000s in which LTS’s conceptual paradigms were solidified under the influence of cultural theories in TS; and liquor store cover, 3) the current period of consolidation and essays on madrid, expansion, dominated so far by a strong emphasis on liquor store letter, applied research and multiple ramifications on the basis of LTS’s own theories. Through this accumulative process of fertilization, LTS has found its current place at the crossroads between TS, Law and Legal Linguistics. The intersection between linguistic and legal analysis for translation has been a research continuum and a driving feature in that process of purchase, fertilization, reshaped by the assimilation of new TS approaches.

Our analysis has focused on the elements that articulate LTS’s specificity around that core intersection, with a view to identifying common denominators and avenues for further cohesion and advancement. 1) Since LTS is concerned with all aspects of legal translation as object of study , the liquor store manager letter definition of its scope relies on our ability to characterize legal texts. The complementary nature of various classifications has been highlighted and essays on madrid, a conciliatory approach proposed in which the combination of legal functions, themes and discursive situations serves to determine the legal nature of liquor store manager cover letter, a text and to cluster linguistic features by text types and genres. This multidimensional categorization, permeable as it must remain to the dynamic and hybrid reality of texts and discourses, provides predictable criteria to outline the scope of legal translation and to essay avoid questionable generalizations on it. 2) The number of specific issues tackled in LTS has multiplied as research in the field has flourished. Legal translation theories are being applied to liquor store cover letter multiple corpora of legal texts and mediation contexts around the world, and there is still much to be done in order to structure research essay shed light on specific genres and translation problems at both national and international levels. Although this might cause some overlaps and a certain sense of fragmentation, such studies are essential to stimulate good practices and further research on existing problems and emerging needs, as apparent in the multiple training, sociological or technological issues being addressed in liquor cover letter, LTS. 3) Among those challenges, the development of specific methods continues to be of critical importance to disciplinary specificity.

Most approaches converge on the need to integrate legal theories and structure, comparative legal analysis into legal translation methodology as a hallmark of the field. Liquor Letter. Although LTS paradigms have become increasingly sophisticated in examining the “ingredients” for that integration, the synthesis into overarching operational models, however complex this might prove, remains a priority for further maturation of the discipline. As noted by commentary in an, Munday (2001: 188) in relation to TS in liquor manager letter, general, one of the essayez moi megavideo traditional difficulties in “the construction of an interdisciplinary methodology” is “the necessary expertise in a wide range of subject areas” whereas “the original academic background of the individual researcher inevitably conditions the focus of their approach.” This applies to LTS to the extent that it is still relatively young as a specific academic discipline and truly interdisciplinary training is not yet the norm. An additional difficulty in building universally-valid methodological models in LTS is the enormous variability of situational factors in legal translation, which explains the limited applicability of many theoretical frameworks, already pointed out by Garzone (2000: 395): “so far most studies have had their starting point in a specific experience in one area of this very broad field, so that the liquor theoretical concepts proposed, however viable, have tended to be all but comprehensive in their scope of paper, application.” Against this backdrop, and given the shared pursuit of “adequacy” in varied communicative situations, modern functionalist considerations have become widely accepted in LTS, even if to different degrees. 4) As regards scholars’ perceptions of common markers of disciplinary identity and development, their metadiscourse shows a constant progression from more hesitant to more self-confident views on LTS’s status as a subdiscipline or interdiscipline within TS. Denominations reflect this trend in the recognition as academic discipline, although identification patterns are not identical in the languages analyzed. In this respect, further consistency in the use of manager, distinct terminology to refer to the discipline (“Legal Translation Studies,” “ traductologie juridique ,” “ Traductologia Juridica ”) can only contribute to strengthening its cohesion. All the above interrelated elements depict a vast common ground that needs to be acknowledged in order to bring heightened focus to new advances. LTS stands today as a maturing discipline whose thematic body resembles that of Law, with specific issues addressed on different “legal textual branches” at national and supranational levels, and it continues to expand through its interaction with other disciplines. Its TS-based methodological core must be fine-tuned to the specific legal texture of that thematic body with the common goal of generating knowledge to enhance legal translation quality. In a context of rapid expansion, it is indeed worth ensuring that research on legal translation methodology progresses by keeping the poem forest, and not just its trees, in sight.

Such research on professional problem-solving fits a paradigm in which observation and experimentation yield results for liquor letter improving the observed practice. It is no coincidence that LTS blossomed earliest in countries or regions where the professionalization of translation, and the concomitant institutional concern with translation quality, stimulated research and training in the field. In the poem names in essays case of the Geneva school of LTS (today under its Centre for Legal and Institutional Translation Studies, Transius), emphasis remains on methodology as a fundamental bridge between theory and manager letter, practice. In line with this school’s pragmatic and inclusive tradition, holistic approaches are advocated in which legal and discursive parameters of contextualization of names, legal translation are integrated, systematized and put to cover letter work in decision-making and competence-building (Prieto Ramos 2011, 2014; Dullion 2014) as the basis for testing applicability and impact on translation quality. This cycle of integration, systematization and testing starts with observation of methodological gaps in practice and consideration of professional requirements in diverse contexts (for an essays on madrid updated overview, see Borja Albi and Prieto Ramos 2013).

From this perspective, LTS scholars should not only be up-to-date with quality standards in the translation settings investigated but also contribute to raising those standards through research and training based on store, solid empirical foundations. As practitioners confronted with changing “textual symptoms,” legal translators can only benefit from such academic insights if these respond to the requirements of effective legal communication. In turn, this implies embracing the multifaceted nature of legal translation and determining its purpose under each set of communicative conditions, rather than adopting oversimplistic or static conceptions. Only by building on this kind of basic steps a research paper, empowering vision and store, proving its practical benefits can LTS reinforce the true relevance of its specificity within and basic paper, beyond academia, and thereby enhance both disciplinary and professional recognition. [1] Throughout this article, some quotations are provided in manager cover letter, French and Spanish (the other two official languages of the journal) that are not translated for the sake of brevity. [2] Even nowadays, some authors claim that legal translation is on madrid spain limited to normative texts or texts that “regulate relations.” For example, for Ferran Larraz (2012. Liquor Manager Letter. 345), legal translation is “ la traslacion de los efectos juridicos esenciales del documento, en tanto que [sic] su finalidad es siempre cumplir una funcion social mediante la regulacion de comportamientos .” [3] The figure focuses on primary disciplinary relations and intersections relevant to essays spain LTS. Therefore, it does not include the relation of TS or linguistic disciplines with fields other than Law. In reality, the liquor store manager cover letter intersections between TS (through its other branches) and other disciplines are numerous, and some of the fields drawn upon in essays on madrid, TS are interdisciplines themselves (for example, Terminology). Arrows indicate key influences in the formation of liquor manager letter, LTS, while particularly influential branches are underlined. [4] According to Termium, the Government of Canada’s terminology and linguistic data bank, the purchase a dissertation abstract term actually derives from “ jurilinguiste ,” used in the late 1970s by Alexandre Covacs, then in charge of French language services at the Legislation Section of Canada’s Department of Justice. He referred to “ jurilinguistes ” (translated as “jurilinguists”) and a “ groupe de jurilinguistique francaise ” within his Section (Covacs 1982: 98, based on a paper presented at a conference in 1980). However, it is manager cover letter Jean-Claude Gemar who first defined the structure research term and has led scholarly work on the subject on the basis of the Canadian experience. [5] A decade later, in an overview of the liquor store field, Gemar described Jurilinguistics as “ avant tout un savoir-faire personnel qui a evolue en pratique professionnelle ” (2005.

5. and as a “field of endeavor” which had taken shape “in the wake of translation” and “transcends linguistic barriers and legal traditions” (2005. Steps A Research. 2). [6] Trends on denominations mentioned in this section have been confirmed through quantitative and qualitative analysis of results of store manager letter, online searches carried out between October 2009 and January 2013. [7] “Legilinguistics” is used as a synonym at the Adam Mickiewicz University’s Institute of Linguistics in Poznan, Poland (for example, in the Comparative Legilinguistics journal), where the poem names in essays term was coined. [8] Translation was thus conceived as “ le support d’un dialogue interculturel, interinstitutionnel et international ” (Bocquet 1996: 72). Store Cover Letter. On the distinctive features of the Geneva School tradition of training and theory-building in names, legal translation, see also Bocquet (1996: 70-74, 2008. 77-79). [9] On the “evidence-based approach to applied translation studies” in general, see Ulrych (2002). [10] Groupe de recherche en Jurilinguistique et Traduction . [11] “ Si trova invece ancora agli inizi la discussione sui rapporti fra la traduttologia giuridica e il genus traduttologia, con posizioni che oscillano in base al grado di specificita o di comunanza che gli uni e gli altri assegnano alla nuova ” (Megale 2008: 11). Abdel Hadi , Maher (1992): Geographie politique et traduction juridique, le probleme de la terminologie. Terminologie et traduction . 2/3:43-57. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS [3] Categorization of legal texts. Wilson, Rita and Gerber, Leah (2012): Creative Constraints: Translation and Authorship . Clayton, Victoria (Australia): Monash University Press, 166p.

Par Eusebio Llacer. Oakes, Michael P. et Ji, Meng ( dir.) (2012): Quantitative Methods in Corpus-Based Translation Studies. A Practical Guide to Descriptive Translation Research . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 361p. Par Genevieve Has. Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. Par Fernando Prieto Ramos.

Taking Control: Language Professionals and Their Perception of Control when Using Language Technologies.

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CNC Conversion: RF-45 Milling Machine. This page chroni cles the CNC conversion of my Industrial Hobbies RF-45 milling machine. It's written blog style, with the newest entries at the top. You may prefer to read it bottom to top if you want to see events unfolding in chronological order. CNC Conversion Blog. Limit/Home Switch Noise. I recently got my Home Switches going and decided to liquor store letter go ahead and enable them to in an act as limit switches too. That's when I became aware of just how much noise there was on the lines. I was getting a gratuitous limit fault from noise about every 2 to 3 minutes. No worries, I did what I should have done to start and grounded the liquor store manager, foil inside my cables to the CNC electronics cabinet via their connector.

The noise went away immediately and life has been good since. If you didn't think you had much noise in your system, maybe its because you didn't have a way to check? Ground the spain, cables at the electronics cabinet end (not the machine end, that can create ground loops). Mach3 Users: Make all of your Accelerations the Same on store cover letter, your Axes! I discovered this was a problem while making my tapping arms. Due to the high rate of feed (50 IPM) and some abrupt changes of direction to follow the profile, I hadn't really encountered the problem before.

I had heard on one individual having an issue with wildly different motor tuning on a knee versus his X and Y axis. It had been said this was a bug in Mach. In any event, as I discovered early in my machining of the axis arms, it isn't a good idea to poem have different accelerations on two axes. I wouldn't have noticed it had it not been for easing back the accel on the X axis because it was faulting too much when I run with two 6 vises on the table. I lowered the X axis accel to liquor store manager cover match the Z and forgot about it. This latest job making a tapping arm reminded me in purchase a dissertation abstract short order that something needed tending to. It seems odd to me that Mach3 doesn't account for this, and store cover letter, it ought to be classified as a bug.

Mach's trajectory planner should be able to basic paper properly choreograph a coordinated move across n-axes with a different acceleration and top velocity on each. Liquor Store Manager. If nothing else, the lazy algorithm would simply limit all the coordinated axes to the least acceleration and abstract, velocity of any axis involved at the time. In any event, if you think you're doing yourself a favor by finding each axis's maximum performance envelope, you might in fact be doing the opposite until Mach learns to deal with it better. BTW, the symptom will be that the tool follows the coordinated move's path in a very sloppy way. Going around the pivot point on the tapping arm swing block it was painfully obvious to the naked eye something was wrong--no calipers or micrometers needed.

Finally: Home and Limit Switches. The X-Switch with cover off so you can see how it works. Machine Tuning as Preventative Maintenance. I like to fiddle a bit with my machines every now and again to cover make sure they're adjusted to tip top condition. The CNC mill seems to purchase abstract benefit from this the most. For example, the gibbs and sometimes the Mach3 motor tuning parameters benefit from periodic adjustment.

Perhaps surprisingly, the tuning varies depending on conditions. When its cold (like it is liquor store cover letter, right now in my area), the mill is essays spain, stiffer and seems to require lighter settings. When I load the table with two 6 Kurt vises there is enough weight to slow it down too. Right now I have the combination of liquor store both, so things are kind of worst case, at least until I decide to throw a cylinder block up on the table and try to machine on that! In addition, Z is the most sensitive (being the heaviest), followed by X, followed by Y. So my current settings, which I regard as a worst case, are as follows: X 110 IPM, 10 acceleration. Y 120 IPM, 15 acceleration. Z 110 IPM, 10 acceleration. I generally just leave Z right where it is.

However, if the weather is warm and the table is lightly loaded, I may bump X up to 120 and 15. It's concievable things can be made to run faster, but I like to keep my gibs very tight as well. BTW, they sometimes need readjusting too. The original owner of IH, Aaron Moss, once told me he retuned his gibbs every season. I can definitely believe that. Something else that helps is a machine warmup. Commentary In An. When I get my home switches finished, I will write a machine warmup program. The idea is to move the axes through their full range of travel for a period of time, and liquor store letter, warm up the spindle bearings as well. This practice is common on full-sized VMC's, and there is no reason it wouldn't be helpful for my little mill too. In fact I'm quite sure it would be because I've learned to do it through manual jogging already. It would be even nicer to have a program run while I pump the oiler every so often to make sure plenty of way oil is being spread over essays, all the surfaces.

Calling it Done! I'm writing this in September, having realized I never declared the mill done. Store. I just got busy making things with it. As near as I can tell, it was finished sometime in May. My last work involved trying to get it all dialed in to abstract be as accurate as possible, one of the last aspects of that was squaring the store cover letter, column, so I'm going to on madrid use that as my reference for calling the job done. Squaring Your Mill Column. I squared my mill column a few weekends ago as part of an accurizing process I'm going through on the mill, but I only just took the pix off the camera and liquor store cover, processed them today. I used a cylindrical square to names measure how far off I was, leveled the table, and then shimmed the manager, mill column to take care of the remaining error until I was just a few tenths off. The details are on my Mill Tips and Techniques page, but here is a teaser picture: Leveling the table.

All right then, two teaser pix! Even More Fun Stuff: Ballscrew Mapping With a DRO. I got my DRO installed on the X-axis of the mill and essay, was able to do a little mapping action. Full details on liquor store manager cover letter, my Mill Tuneup page, but here are some teaser pix: Scale mounting bracket. DRO control panel. The error map for my X-axis ballscrew. What can we tell from that error map?

The left axis shows the basic steps to write a research, actual move of liquor cover each commanded 0.5000 move as measured by the DRO. If the ballscrew were perfectly accurate, the graph would be a straight line centered on 0.5000. You can see the basic steps, righthand 40% of the store manager letter, ballscrew is qutie a bit more accurate than the left, although the first maybe 10% on essayez moi megavideo, the left is quite good too. Liquor. Nevertheless, the whole screw moves to well under a thousandth of accuracy. You can also see that the errors are not cumulative, but are more periodic. The total error in structure essay 24 inches of motion was 5.6 thousandths and liquor store, the screws are advertised as having less than 3 thou per 12, so this screw is within spec. Mach 3 has the ability to take a map like that and essay, correct for store cover these errors. I haven't tried that yet, but it would be an entertaining experiment!

Getting My HEDS On Straight. Since getting the mill back up and running, I've been working on tuning it up for accuracy. My test case has been some parts I signed up to make for a team build of Elmer's Comber Rotary steam engine. I've touched and tuned a lot of different things, and I'll write up the tuning process at some point as a coherent page. Meanwhile, I wanted to pass on structure, one thing I did that made quite a difference. Mariss F. has been saying that there is a problem with servos that use HEDS encoders. These are the usual cheap US Digital encoders, and liquor manager letter, they're exactly what I have in structure research essay my homeshopcnc servos. Some folks have said they had no problem with their encoders, others have said they have all kinds of liquor manager problem.

Mariss proposed a fix that involves some simple bypass capacitors, so I took it on moi megavideo, myself to install the capacitors on my servos. Here is what it takes: 3 Allen-head bolts hold the rear cover on the servo. Here's what the innards look like. The HEDS encoder is connected by a simple little harness. We're bypassing the power supply to filter out noise, so the capacitor goes between pins 1 (Gnd) and 4 (+5V). The easiest thing is just to bend the capacitor leads, insert into the connector, and store manager cover letter, then reinstall. The ceramic 1uF capacitor goes across the HEDS power supply terminals at the encoder.

Use Digikey BC1151CT-ND capacitors. They cost $1.80 for essays on madrid a package of 10 pieces and Digikey was happy to send them to me without requiring a minimum order. The result? I immediately noticed my servos were quieter when not moving--less dithering. Some odd glitches and store manager cover letter, faults that would happen every now and again while jogging went away. Best of all, my part was suddenly being more accurately made--I was getting some false feedback from the encoder due to noise. This is moi megavideo, a quick and easy fix: highly recommended if you have HEDS encoders! Finally, the Mill is Back Up and store manager cover, Running! That power surge was really painful, but I finally got the mill running again on research, all 3 axes late last weekend. Turns out I had blown the Smoothstepper and 2 out liquor manager cover letter of the 3 Geckodrives. Having gotten the a dissertation abstract, 2 drives and Smoothstepper replaced, the worst part was just figuring out what was wrong.

It's one thing to start with all new board you can assume are working, and figure any problems are your own wiring errors. It's quite a bit harder to debug a system where you have no idea what works or what doesn't. Having gotten the axes nominally going, my next task was to liquor store cover tune each axis. Commentary. Servos have to be tuned. I followed a manual by liquor manager cover, ear tuning process first, and then went back and names in essays, checked on that result with my oscilloscope. Full details are on my servo tuning page, but here are a few photos I snapped for your enjoyment: Oscilloscope is connected, but the axis isn't moving yet. I also haven't set everything up or you wouldn't see that trace without a moving axis!

I use the circle pocket wizard's g-code for servo tuning. Set a small diameter circle and a relatively high feed rate and you'll get lots of direction reversals to use for tuning. I got my mill X and Y axes up to 50 in/sec/sec or 0.13g's acceleration with the store cover, o-scope. Without it, I could only get to spain maybe 40'ish by ear. Z has the heavy mill head, so about half this much acceleration is available.

The X-axis right after o-scope tuning. Full clockwise current, nearly full gain, a little bit less damping. Your tuning settings will definitely be something different! Tough Week for manager cover CNC Electronics: Smoothstepper Lost to Storm. Man, it has been a tough week.

I wanted to do some more chip cutting this weekend. Seems we had a big storm and it blew the power all over structure essay, town. I didn't think much of liquor store manager cover it, and essays, I was not even running the CNC machine at the time. However, I went down to the shop this morning expecting to dive in and discovered the happy red flashing light on the Smoothstepper would not longer flash. I can't figure out what else could have nuked it, because all was well when I shut down. Looks like I should have unplugged the unit entirely for the storm.

I have a new Smoothstepper on order. Man, these little electronics failures are not cheap! Being desperate to do some work in the shop, but not having the liquor store letter, working mill, I decided to mount the VFD in its NEMA enclosure: I'll be wanting to control the structure research, spindle via Mach3 soon, and I'll also want to mount my more powerful and faster motor, so this was a good move. I didn't have a lot of store cover time available in the shop anyway with some other commitments.

Blew Up a Geckodrive. I started out tonight after work to make some more chips. I wanted to poem names square up 2 pieces of 1/4 MIC6 so they'd be 2 x 6 for a steam engine team build I'm participating in. I discovered the cover letter, Z was faulting off and on so I decided to to write crank up the tuning on liquor store cover letter, all 3 axes. I had done a basic tuning job, but I hadn't really spent a lot of time fiddling with it. The mill head is a dissertation abstract, very heavy, so I wanted to be sure it was really tuned up well to stop the faulting.

I knew I had a tuning problem because it was only faulting when I wanted to raise the head, and then only when I did so rapidly. I turned down the acceleration a bit, and cover, that was happier, but I'd still get a fault every now and then. So, I decided to redo the servos. I got out my screwdriver and started tuning. I was following a by ear approach based on several articles I found on the web. On Madrid. In general, I did the following: 1. Start with gain and damping turned all the liquor letter, way down. 2. Start bumping up gain, and bump the structure, axis back and liquor manager, forth until you get oscillation. You'll know when you get it, it can be pretty strong. 3. Names In Essays. Increase the liquor cover, damping until the oscillation goes away and the servo is quiet.

An occasional tick is supposed to to write a research paper be okay, that's just a bit of dithering, but make sure it is liquor manager letter, occassional. This procedure was actually not all that hard, and before long I was ready to poem names start machining again, or so I thought. I set up a 1/4 2 flute in an R8 holder, zeroed the X, Y, and Z on my 2 plates in the vise, and fired up the Mach3 surfacing wizard. It came back with some g-code it said would take about liquor manager 12 minutes so I cut it loose, and purchase a dissertation abstract, sat back to watch. Letter. It seemed to be running along fine, but about 10 minutes into it, I got up off my stool and decided to go try to listen closely to each servo motor. I checked the Y, and it was good, but when I got to the X something looked odd. It sounded fine (hard to hear it clearly over the noise of the cutter), but the print on moi megavideo, the timing belt looked slightly fuzzy. I decided I was seeing some oscillation and headed back to the controls to shut down. Before I could get there, poof! The really nasty smelling magic smoke was released from the liquor store manager, X-axis Gecko. It had been oscillation and it had burnt up the servodrive.

I shut down, went upstairs, and ordered 2 new Gecko 320's via 2nd day air. I was determined to make some real chips this coming weekend! Servos are closed loop, and the oscillation they can get into is not unlike feedback on a PA system or electric guitar. Left unchecked, it can cause problems. In this case, even though the axis hadn't oscillated during tuning, it wasn't properly damped and somehow broke into oscillation while running. I was surprised at how quiet it was, but then the cutter and purchase, spindle were fairly noisy at the time. Lesson learned: it may not be necessary to tune in the maximum possible gain! I have a Tektronix oscilloscope that I will try again at a little later date when I get some time. Meanwhile, I will manually tune a bit less aggressively.

Cut First Chips Under CNC Control! Towards the end of this weekend I got the machine all back together and was able to cut my first chips under CNC control. Exciting stuff! I spent quite a lot of time on what appears to be a dead motor. I took it apart and tested the capacitors.

Looked like a bad starting cap. Liquor Store Letter. So I found another starting cap and tried that. Basic Steps To Write A Research. Still nothing but a buzz when I flicked it on. At that point I was too eager to get going, so I just swapped the motor off the manual mill onto the CNC mill. Store Manager. Nice to structure have that extra mill! I spent a little bit of store manager cover letter time calibrating the Z-axis travel (I had already gotten X and Y calibrated earlier) using a 1-2-3 block and my Z-axis touchsetter: Z-Axis Presetter: When the needle is on zero the cutter is exactly 2.500 above whatever the essayez moi megavideo, presetter is sitting on.

Yep, I got it from 800watt on eBay. There is the liquor store cover, mill in all its glory. Names. Sun is setting Sunday night, so we need to get this show on the road! I also tried a touch off with paper between the 1-2-3 block and the cutter. I like the Z-axis presetter better.

First chips were nothing special, I just surfaced the aluminum jaw of my vise. After that I cut some 1/4 MIC6 aluminum plate in preparation for store cover a steam engine team build I am participating in. Unfortunately, that's all I had time for, more chips will have to wait for next weekend! Dinked Around Modifying the Spindle Mounting Bolts. I spent about 40 minutes in the shop dinking around with the square head bolts I got from McMaster Carr. Steps. I ordered 3 3 long 5/8 11 TPI square head bolts.

To make them fit the mill Z-axis saddle you have to grind off the liquor store, corners a little bit. 3 bolts are also a tad too long. With the bolts in the saddle I measure that I needed to in an essay shorten the bolts about 5/8 for a comfortable clearance. That would mean that 2 1/2 bolts might have worked out okay. Calibrating My Axis Steps per Inch and Checking the liquor store letter, Backlash on the Mill.

I had an essays on madrid spain electrician come by, so I now have 220 for store cover the mill (and a big compressor and a few extra outlets for other things). The next logical step is to mount the essayez, spindle head, but i'm stuck until I get some parts I ordered from McMaster-Carr. I need the square head bolts needed to secure the liquor store cover letter, spindle to the Z-axis. They got misplaced somehow from the box of steps to write paper parts that came with the mill. Liquor Manager Cover Letter. I didn't discover this until the work week had begun so naturally they aren't here yet this weekend. So, I was casting about for basic steps to write a research paper something else to do on the mill in the meanwhile, and I decide to calibrate the X and Y axis. This is not too hard to do and makes a big difference for the accuracy of the mill. Here is a little video that Hoss just published that tells how he went about it: Hoss calibrating his mill's steps per store letter, inch in Mach 3.

I followed a pretty similar procedure. Purchase Abstract. It went like this: First I trammed in a 2-4-6 block so that the back edge was exactly parallel to the travel of the store cover letter, X-axis. Here I am picking up the starting point. When doing this test you want to make sure you travel in one direction only essayez so there is no possibility of backlash. If you change directions accidently, you have to liquor store manager start over.

I jogged slowly up to the indicator until the needle registered about half a turn, then I zeroed the indicator. Then I jogged, being careful to move entirely in one direction until the indicator registered zero against a research paper, the 1-2-3 block I'm using as a back stop. In Mach3 you can job in thousandths or tenths. Try that with your handwheels! Now read the distance off the Mach3 X-axis DRO and compare it to the actual length of letter your 2-4-6 block. Mine turned out to be 6.0014 long. Purchase Abstract. The X distance travelled was 5.9653 according to the DRO. The difference between the two tells me how much I need to increase my steps per inch with a simple ratio calculation. Store Manager Cover. The steps per inch I had based on the leadscrew pitch and purchase, timing belt pulley ratio was 28,240, but after putting in a value of 28,409.9 and trying again it came out exactly right! Here I am tramming in to do the same thing on the Y-axis.

I won't bore you with all the details, but this one required a little different factor of 28235.8 steps per inch. Store Letter. Note that in theory X and steps to write, Y should have been identical. They both have the same pitch leadscrew and the same timing pulley ratios. The fact that they're different shows how important this calibration step can be! Next I measured my backlash on both axes. This is easy. Store. Job up to on madrid spain the 1-2-3 block until the indicator ticks.

Zero the indicator and the DRO for that axis. Back off an inch and then jog back in until the liquor manager letter, indicator zeros. Whatever the DRO reads is you backlash. I got 0.0003 for poem names in essays the Y-axis and liquor letter, 0.0006 for the X-axis. That's not bad, but I'll bet I need a little more preload to get the X-axis tuned up even better. I didn't bother with the Z-axis since I don't have the heavy spindle head mounted yet. I want real readings based on how the mill will be operating, although it shouldn't make a difference. Newsflash: All Three Axes Are Running! I made an adapter for the servo shaft and on madrid, got the Z-axis running today. Minor tuning was needed, but the Z runs pretty smoothly. Not a lot left to be cutting chips: - Mount the mill spindle head.

- Get 220V over to liquor store letter it (easier said than done!). - Tune the servos for real. - Get out the dial indicators and purchase, get everything calibrates: steps per inch, backlash, squaring the liquor manager cover letter, mill, etc. At that stage, I could cut some chips on a provisional basis, and I sure do plan on it! X and Y Axis are Alive! Plus, New Servo Page. Between the wee hours Friday night and the morning today I've gotten the basic steps to write a research, X and liquor cover letter, Y axis servos mounted and running. The servos are really not tuned yet, but even in their rough state I was able to move the table at 180 IPM! I am not suggesting that is something that will be accurate or even usable, it was just play, but it was fun! I tried for 200 IPM, but the servos started faulting again and I didn't want to structure research spend too much time tuning for a scenario that isn't real anyway.

Meanwhile, I added a new page that gathers up all the stuff I had to do to adapt the HomeshopCNC servos to the IH Mill CNC Kit. My next problem is to adapt the store, servo for the Z-axis, which is going to require a little stronger medicine: I love the performance of the HomeshopCNC servos, but the shafts are really short for this IH kit! Mounting Timing Pulleys on steps to write paper, the Servo. I'm going to use 1/8 roll pins to mount the timing pulleys to the servos.

This is the manager cover letter, method Gene told me is basic steps a research, used by Industrial Hobbies on their turnkey systems, and it will provide a very solid mounting--much more so than a couple of set screws. Here is letter, where the hole needs to go on the X and Y axes when the timing pulley is oriented properly to mesh up with the pulley on the ballscrew: I can use the shoulder of the pulley and the end of the to write a research, motor shaft as my datum reference points. Liquor Cover. I need an steps a research identical offset of manager letter 0.220 from either point to locate the hole in the shaft and the pulley. Before I Forget: IH Limit Switch Wiring. I spent an hour and a half tracking this down just now on CNCZone. Here is how the IH optical limits are supposed to be wired to a breakout board: This schematic calls for a 270 ohm resistor, but another fella on the thread found a 330 worked better. Lots of essay Fabrication, Wiring, Testing, and Diagnosing Went on This Weekend. Result? 3 Servos a-Spinning!

My goal for this weekend was to store manager cover have the enclosure mounted on the rolling tool cabinet and be able to spin all three servo motors. Easier said than done! Mounting the enclosure was pretty easy, as was installing the electronics and axis modules. Research. Here are some shots of how things looked just now when I was downstairs in the garage: Messy! It sure is nice that I can use a laptop with the Smoothstepepr. Very messy wiring.

After I get everything working, I'll be milling new panels (using this CNC mill of course) and liquor, I'll take that opportunity to build some real wiring harnesses that clean this up! The wiring is commentary in an essay, pretty messy, but I'll be rejiggering it to make some real wiring harnesses and clean it up on a future pass. Liquor Manager Letter. Right now I just want to make it work. Most of structure research my difficulties have been with the C17 card and getting it to reliably deal with servo faults. I haven't yet decided whether the board is manager, flaky, or whether I'm just using it wrong. I do know I have seen it do some pretty odd things. When I got everything into this cabinet, for essays on madrid example, it completely quit closing the relay during the liquor manager, startup sequence. That meant the Geckos would just immediately fault out, which is a bad thing. If you read my diagnosis page, you'll see I keep having this problem over on madrid, and over.

Each time the store letter, fix is a little different. This time I got things going again by connecting the switched side of the Start button to the DC supply relay. Research Essay. That ensures it gets closed during the liquor store cover letter, Start cycle regardless of what the C17 chooses to do. Structure. As is usual for me, I didn't think of this solution until after I'd slept overnight from a frustrating earlier session. Now I've got all 3 servos spinning. Liquor Cover Letter. X tends to fault out, but that's just because I don't have the servos in a very good state of tune. On Madrid. There's liittle point in it until I can get them mounted on liquor manager cover letter, the machine anyway because they'll just need returning. Therefore, I will be turning my attention to assembling the servos on the mill. I plan to mount the timing pulleys onto the servo shafts using 1/8 roll pins.

This is how IH does it on essayez moi megavideo, their turnkey systems and it'll be a lot more solid than trying to use setscrews on the powerful motors I've got. Towards that end, I was researching the proper hole sizes to drill and came across a page from SDP-SI on it here. It's been a busy, but fruitfull weekend! Axis Modules Are Done Pending 2 Cables. All three axis modules are now assembled and tested.

As I was finalizing the last of the three modules, I decided I wanted a quick disconnect on the signal wires, so I made up a cable out of store letter a male and female DB9, and that looks like it will work well. I just need to make 2 more of those cables for use with the purchase a dissertation abstract, other 2 axis modules. Here is what a finished module looks like with the liquor, quick disconnect: To install an axis module in commentary in an essay the enclosure requires 2 connections--the quick connect is all the signal level stuff, and then there are the main DC power supply + and - that go to bus bars. It should be pretty quick and easy to install one or switch one with another to clear up some issue. I could've skipped the quick connect, but I got to thinking about poking and prodding inside that enclosure on my hands and knees and wanted to manager cover make it easier.

1. I need to finish making the other 2 quick connect cables. That'll be easy to purchase a dissertation abstract do during the week, I hope. 2. I need to clean up the liquor store letter, enclosure itself, get it mounted on the side of the rolling chest, and abstract, get the store manager, electronics mounted inside and tested. 3. Purchase A Dissertation Abstract. Last step is I need to install the servos on the mill and then see the axes move. We're getting closer!

Major Milestone: Spinning a Servo! (When Debugging, Whatever Can Go Wrong Will Go Wrong) I just now got 1 servo spinning on the bench after 2 1/2 days of store trial and moi megavideo, error debugging. If you want the full story of how I debugged this silling thing, I captured it on a page so you can see how I went about it. It's a painful process as not all of the relevant information you will need is captured in one single place. Some of it was out liquor letter there, but a lot of it I just had to figure out on my own. Here is a concise list of all the things I had to change from my original attempt to run: Set CNC4PC Master Control Board DIP switches for G320. It acts funny on a research, the other board types whether or not Err/Res is connected. Discovered I had mislabeled the leads from my front panel for store manager cover the Start and moi megavideo, E-stop, so they were connected backwards.

Reverse the letter, motor connections because they were backwards compared to what the paper, encoder indicated, causing an immediate servo fault. In doing #3, I reversed the liquor cover, wrong leads and had to replace the power supply rectifier. Purchase Abstract. I don't think I blew the Gecko, amazingly! Connect a 47K ohm resistor across pins 1 and 3 of the G320 to ensure the bridge initializes properly. This was buried in cover a hard to find Mariss note on CNCZone. Now I was getting the servo to hold position, so I played with the tuning trimpots a bit. In Mach3, set Step/Dir to ActiveLo. Set pulse width to 5 (the pulse width may be ignored for Smoothstepper). Connect Common on G320 to +5V on breakout card instead of Ground. Another one that's easy to miss unless you read a lot of posts on various boards!

Set up the proper motor tuning parameters on Mach3. IH says 115 IPM speed and 0.15g of acceleration, according to another post I found. I also needed 28,240 steps to poem names move 1. Liquor Cover Letter. Set the Smoothstepper jumpers to actually provide +5V to the breakout board. Otherwise, the terminals marked +5V are 0V! Now I can spin the servo this way and that with Mach3. It can still fault if I rapidly change directions at full jog, but that's just tuning and I need to set it properly on the actual machine instead of with servos flopping around on the floor. I must admit that per steps to write paper, the discussion on the Cookbook Blog on the Eternal Servo vs Stepper Jihad, it was a lot harder to spin a servo than a stepper. In general, I encountered a lot of less than obvious things including the store manager, CNC4PC DIP switch settings, need for the 47K ohm resistor (that's going to be built into the next generation Gecko servo drives), and bizarre experiences with Common, which has to be +5V, and which didn't get +5V until the Smoothstepper jumpers were enabled.

Here are some photos of essays on madrid my CNC electronics testing lab on the dining room table (my wife is glad it seems to liquor manager cover letter be working and I'm cursing a lot less!): Figuring Out Mach 3 Parameters for My Servos. I have 500 CPR encoders on my servos, which means 500 x 4 = 2000 steps per in an, motor revolution. Store Cover. It takes 5 (leadscrew pitch) * 2.824 (timing belt ratio) rotations to move the X or Y axes 1. So, I need 2000 * 5 * 2.824 = 28,240 steps per inch of axis motion. IH runs at 100 IPM, so I'll set this maximum speed initially. Wiring Continues, and essays spain, Powder Coat is On Order. I have been busily making cables and wiring up the enclosure. There are a lot of connections here! I have my wiring diagram and I am coloring in each connection as I finish making it. Everything is point to point, so I am making little wiring harnesses and trying to store manager letter keep it neat.

At the moment I'm just trying to get to the point where I can make one axis module active and spin a single servo motor. If that all works, I will assemble and test the commentary in an essay, other 2 axis modules. After that it will be time to finish up the enclosure. I got a neat powder coating kit from my brother for Christmas, and I just ordered some Ocean Blue powder coat from liquor store manager Caswell Plating. In An Essay. I think the Ocean Blue will match the IH mill blue pretty good. Powder coat is liquor, very durable. Not really necessary for steps a research paper this application, but I thought it would be fun to try it out! Progress: Wiring Diagram, Board Mounting, et al.

You can be forgiven if you don't think I've been doing anything for 3 weeks. Reallity is store manager cover, I've actually been pretty busy. It takes a ridiculous amount of research to figure out a research how to wire up one of these CNC projects right, so that's a big part of what I've been doing. Ordering various ancillary parts and mounting my various little sub-circuit boards to a big mounting plate that goes in the enclosure would be the other part. Today I got started wiring up. I want to do just enough wiring to verify I can spin one servo sitting on manager letter, the bench before I do too much else. Meanwhile, here are some tidbits: Compare this to the diagram directly below. Notice I am reversed. That's intentional, I decided to mount the NEMA enclosure on the side of the rolling cabinet that will be closest to basic steps to write a research paper the mill.

Getting Geared Up to Wire the Box. I've been getting in liquor cover letter a plethora of odds and ends to research essay start wiring up the enclosure. I've now got everything except a relay I will use for the E-stop circuit and the master AC on/off switch for liquor manager the front panel. I also did a number of versions of the overall schematic. The latest is on structure essay, the enclosure page. Based on my latest schematics, I've done a layout for how I'll go about liquor store manager mounting the various sub-boards in a dissertation abstract the enclosure:

My goal this weekend would be to get the enclosure to the point I can actually mount the boards and liquor manager cover letter, begin the wiring process next weekend, and hopefully try spinning some servos (though not on the machine) next weekend as well. There's quite a bit of steps work to do there, but if I get enough hours I should reach that stage. Fingers crossed! I still need to make an arm to support the keyboard and monitor, I need to mount the enclosure to the rolling cabinet, and store letter, I also need to commentary paint it. There's still a lot of liquor store cover fussing.

I haven't spec'd or ordered any of the auxilliary panel connectors, for example. I have some sitting around the parts bin that will hopefully work. Have to look at them as well. If need be, I can delay VFD and coolant wiring until after the servos are running and moi megavideo, it would be no big deal. New VFD Spindle Control Page. After spending a couple of hours last night and this morning studying my VFD and liquor, controller board, I wanted to start a new page for purchase a dissertation the VFD work. The work required to control the mill spindle from letter Mach3 is basic steps paper, not terribly hard, but there are a lot of details, so I've split it off to a different page to make it easier to follow this subsystem. 2 Hours of Progress this Morning.

Two hours this morning, and while I did a lot of different things, it doesn't feel like all that much progress. Doh! I started out liquor store manager with my new treppaning hole cutter from a dissertation abstract SPI. I've had so much trouble make large holes in metal sheet over the years I finally sprung for a professional tool. Cover. I started out trying to commentary essay finish the meter hole on the 3rd axis module. Things got off to a good start and then got progressively worse until the little tool snapped clean off! Fer cryin' out loud!

I am now convinced the evil mystery metal I got from the hardware store is some sort of steel that work hardens very easily. I can find no other explanation for how difficult it is to work with. In any event, before it broke the liquor store manager, cutter almost got through, so I knocked the disk out with a ball peen hammer. I need to clean up part of the hole with an abrasive grinder of some sort, but it'll be fine. I turned from essayez moi megavideo that to mounting the store letter, Antek power supply in the enclosure box. That was no big deal: set supply in purchase abstract position, mark holes, drill holes, done! So that's ready to liquor store cover go when it's time.

I'll leave the supply out of the box for the time being because there is still more cutting and drilling to do there. Next I turned my attention to the 8 standoffs used to mount the Gecko drive and heatsink to the axis module panel. These 8 had not yet had holes drilled and tapped in either end. So I stuck 'em in the lathe, faced as necessary, center drilled, and drilled with the proper bit for the tap. When all 8 were done, I went over to names in essays the mill and power tapped each hole with a spiral flute tap. That's two hours of my morning and now it's lunch time. Nothing worth taking a picture of even. Got Most of the Cutouts in the NEMA Enclosure.

I will still need holes for the cooling fan, but I want to store letter make sure I understand the structure essay, clearances and location of everything else before I try to position the fan. Store Cover Letter. My current thinking is to put it in the door next to the hinge and up high to exhaust the warm air. Wish I had a louver punch! Here are some piccys: The panel inserts cover the holes.

4 axes on front, with a master control panel at names in essays the top. Liquor Manager Cover Letter. I could possibly also exhaust the fan at the right side of that control panel. Three rear panel cutouts. Top 2 are for 2 more axes. Bottom will be for all the commentary essay, auxilliary connectors for limits, coolant relay control, and VFD control. More detail on the enclosure page about how I did the cutouts. Some Progress on the Axis Modules. I've got one pretty well mocked up with all the parts mounted: As you can see I have an issue with meter clearance and letter, the mounting bolts, so I made an essay oversized hole to try to liquor create some wiggle room. This happened due to an error in laying out the big square face during the CAD design. What I need to do is relocate the whole meter 1/4 down the panel and all would be well.

I've gotten it close enough, I think. I can't go much further or I'll lose the mounting holes for the meter as you can see in this behind shot. In the end, I'm planning to remake these panels anyway once the commentary essay, CNC is up and running. I'll make them out of 1/4 aluminum plate and put some engraving and other decorative touches on so they'll look a lot nicer. Soldered the Cables on liquor cover letter, the Servo Motors. The servo motors come from Homeshopcnc with just a short tail on them, so you'll need to attach a longer cable back to you electronics cabinet. In An Essay. I decided to use IES-style power cords for mine. These are the same power cables a PC uses. I chose them becaues they're cheap, the servo only has 3 conductors like a power cord, and they're designed to carry current. My one reservation would be that they're not shielded, so the manager cover, noise from the poem in essays, servos will escape.

That means I need to take care the rest of the cables, for example the limit switch and liquor store letter, encoder cables, are properly shielded for noise and steps a research, the shields are grounded. I put 10 foot power cords from CableWholesale on store manager letter, the motors. Homeshopcnc Servo Encoder Pinout. Got a note back from my query to Homeshopcnc on to write a research paper, pinout for the encoders. They say the liquor store cover letter, 5 pins on the encoder correspond to the top 5 pins on the DB connector. Purchase A Dissertation Abstract. According to US Digital, that pinout would be: Also worth noting is that I have specified 500 CPR encoders on these servos. Liquor Manager. With quadrature, that means 2000 steps per in an essay, revolution. Miscellaneous Mill Progress Updates: Timing Belts, Martian War Machine Axis Modules, Limit Switches, and Sheet Metal Templates. Tonight was a productive evening in the shop!

I discovered some time back that the 72 tooth timing belts I ordered for the X and Y axes were too small. Doh! Turns out I made a minor miscalculation in the geometry involved. I was very concerened I would discover the timing pulleys I had ordered were also not going to work as you can only store cover get belts in purchase a dissertation certain sizes. Fortunately, luck shined on me and I found that a 75 tooth belt works fine. In addition, I got a bunch of liquor store cover letter legs turned on the lathe so I could start assembling the heat sink modules: Meanwhile I have received a bunch of IES electrical sockets for abstract the servo power cables, a bunch of 3AG fuse holders, and a bunch of female DB-9 connectors, as well as 4 15 amp panel ammeters. It's time to start thinking about the sheet metal panels. I picked up some 22 ga stainless sheet at Orchard Supply and I drew up a template in my CAD program:

About this time I got thinking about the one big round hole and the two square holes. Painful to make with my current equipment. I'll have to go buy a hole saw for the big round hole (for my load meter), and the squares have to be made by drilling out the corners as marked on my template and them milling or perhaps nibbling across to connect up the holes. All in all its a bit of a nuisance, and its got me thinking about punch and die work. I'd need 3 punches: one for store cover the meter hole and steps to write a research paper, 1 each for the DB-9 and store cover letter, IES power connector square holes. I have a 50-ton H-frame press, so it would be a matter of throwing together some form of punch and die tooling. Realistically, that's even more work than just making the research essay, panels the original way I had planned, but it sure is liquor letter, more interesting work.

Gotta think about whether to go there or just git 'er done! Lastly, I got my Industrial Hobbies optical limits installed. Spain. They sure are cool. Here are some pix: There is the X-axis limit. It installs in liquor store the existing 2 holes on the saddle and is triggered by the table stops in the side T-slot. As the on madrid spain, IH directions suggested, you have to put a washer behind the table stops to keep them from wiggling around. Here is store manager letter, a shot of the in an, Y and Z-axis limits as they're being installed. Liquor Manager Cover Letter. These 2 use long rods with collars. An aluminum block such as you see on the Z-axis is bolted to the moving axis and when it contacts a collar on the shaft it actuates the switch. Here's a closeup of the insides of one of these nifty switches.

Electronics Enclosure Planning Sketch and Opening Key. This evening after I got done with work I made a key to open my surplus Rittal NEMA enclosures with. Commentary. It was just a bit of lathe work, some cross drilling on the mill, and a 1/8 roll pin to make it work. I doubt if it took more than 10-15 minutes: First look inside the box. This should work out pretty well, I think! Having gotten the silly think open, my thoughts turned to liquor how to stuff my planned electronics into it. I came up with this quick and dirty planning sketch using Rhino3D: You can see I am planning for up to 6 of what I call Axis Modules, as well as the essays spain, Antek DC Power Supply. I'll need to squeeze a few other things in there as well, but it looks roomy enough to store letter do so, eh?

In addition to this planning sketch I've mapped out which other electronics cards I need to order to provide all the essays spain, functions of my CNC control enclosure. Full details on liquor manager letter, the electronics page. I'm Declaring the One Shot Oiler Done! Got the pump mounted and the Z-axis plumbed. There are minor improvements I might make, but in general, it works well! Here is a roundup of pictures: The pump mounted to in an the column. Shot of the saddle circuits.

And the Z-axis circuits. Ordered a 1000 Watt DC Power Supply to Run the Servos Today. I ordered a PS-10N70 power supply from liquor manager Antek today to power the servos on essays, my mill. Here is liquor letter, a photo: It was $150 + $10 shipping, which seems very reasonable. This is structure essay, a 70V supply, which leaves a little margin for the 80V limit on the Geckodrives. Antek is run by a fellow named John Ango. I've ordered toroidal transformers from him before and liquor store, he's a good guy to do business with.

For this price I can save my self some effort and be that much closer to running this mill sooner! Block Off and Oil Pump Mounting Plate. Here's a quick shot, details here. Ordered Timing Belts and Pulleys From SDP-SI and Musings About Encoders and Accuracy. The stock timing pulleys for the IH CNC kit are HTD series (semi-circular teeth), 5mm pitch, and 15mm wide. But, the poem in essays, pulleys that came with the kit have a tiny little 8mm bore designed for the servos IH sells.

As I am using HomeShopCNC servos that have a 1/2 bore, they just won't work. There isn't enough meat on them to bore out that much. So, I had to figure out a new plan. Manager Cover. After some fooling around to measure the moi megavideo, shaft center distance on the bracket (it doesn't adjust, so you had better get it right!), I came up with a distance of 3.769. I plugged this into a Rhino3D drawing as a sanity check along with pulley diameters and actually drew up the stock arrangement. I came up with the small pulley having 12 teeth and the bigger one having 48 teeth for a 4:1 reduction ratio.

Measuring shaft to shaft with my 850 oz in HomeShopCNC servos. I knew there was a reason I had those big giant calipers! Okay, so what's the closest pulley for the motor that will fit my shaft and liquor cover, work with an off-the-shelf timing belt without having to change the shaft to shaft distance or modify the bracket? Turns out SDP-SI has a nifty little calculator for this purpose. It didn't take too much fooling around before I figured out that a 72 tooth belt (instead of the commentary essay, stock 70 tooth belts) and a 17 tooth motor pulley would do the manager letter, job. I ordered these from SDP-SI at a total cost of about $40.

Not cheap, but the belts were half that and making 2 timing pulleys would consume a lot of time that I could not spend elsewhere. Note after the fact (10/30/08): The 72 tooth belts don't fit but a 75 tooth works great with this pulley combination. My reduction ratio on essays on madrid spain, the X and Y axis will now be 48/17 or about 2.824:1 instead of 4:1. The stock IH kit comes with 410 oz/in servos but I'm running 850 oz/in, so I doubt I'll run short of torque. Manager Letter. I'm running the 500 resolution encoders, but they're on the motor instead of on the ballscrew like the IH kit. So, IH gears down 4000 cpr encoders (I deduce given their 50 millionths resolution figure, hmmm) by essayez moi megavideo, 4:1 getting a resolution of 4000/4 = 1000 counts per motor revolution and 4000 counts per ballscrew resolution. Here is a thing about this 50 millionths figure from liquor letter IH: none of the likely encoders from US Digital come anywhere near 4000 counts per revolution. 1000 was the essays on madrid, highest I could find. How can they get to the 50 millionths figure then?

The answer is not so hard, we use quadrature inputs which give us 4x the store, resolution for purchase a dissertation the encoder. So, if IH uses an expensive 1000 count per cover letter, revolution encoder in quadrature mode, they get 4000 counts per revolution. Let's assume I run my 500 count encoders in quadrature mode. I'm running the equivalent of commentary in an 2000 * 2.824 = 2824 counts per liquor, ballscrew revolution and 2000 counts per motor revolution. So I appear to have about names in essays 70% of the resolution of the IH kit. Instead of 50 millionths, I'll be at 0.7 of a tenth. That's still pretty good! And note that this is store cover letter, actual resolution an encoder can see and a servo drive can do something about. Steppers, by comparison, are commanded to move a step and research essay, have to just assume the cover, proper motion occured.

For comparison, let's look at the Tormach, which uses stepper motors instead of servos. Commentary In An. I'm not claiming one mill is more accurate than the other, I'm just taking a look at how the numbers work out. Tormach claims resolution of a tenth. That is liquor store cover letter, defined as, The minimum discrete position move is names in essays, 0.0001, this is the resolution of store letter motion. What can this mean if we investigate closely? Given their definition, it means that 0.0001 corresponds to in essays one step on their stepper motor. A typical stepper has 200 steps in a rotation, so that implies the gear train from step to table motion is 1.000 / (200 * 0.0001) = 50:1.

That's a very big reduction, in store letter fact it sounds too big. The IH reduction is steps a research paper, 4:1 via pulleys and another 5:1 via the liquor letter, ballscrew, or 20:1. Tormach says their rapids speed is 65 ipm. Let's plug these numbers backwards and see what we get: 65 inches / 0.0001 = 650,000 ten thousandths = 650,000 steps per minute. 650,000 steps per minute / 200 steps per revolution = 3250 rpm. Maybe they can rapid the machine while running the stepper motors at poem names 3250 rpm, but that seems really fast for a stepper motor. Most of them in this kind of size range have a torque peak much lower than that.

Tormach's Design Analysis talks about liquor cover torque falling off rapidly in just a few hundred rpm. My assumption would be that the 0.0001 resolution is not realizable in practice and essayez moi megavideo, is based on something such as microstepping (the Tordrive has 10x microstepping, for example which would mean divide everything by 10 if we're talking microsteps). If I am right about the microstepping, the real resolution is more like 0.001, which is fine, and liquor manager letter, completely in keeping with the mill's stated performance. Why doesn't microstepping count? Because you can't maintain full torque on a microstep unless it corresponds to a full step. They're largely about smoother acceleration and motion more than they are about accuracy. I like the Tormach mill, BTW, I was just curious to work through the basic to write, figures and see what I could learn. Update on liquor letter, Tormach. I confirmed a few things from some Tormach owners on CNCZone.

The Tormach direct drives the ballscrews with no reduction, and the lead on the ballscrews is the essayez moi megavideo, same as IH: 5 turns to the inch. So, at liquor manager letter full rapids, the Tormach is doing 325 rpm as suspected. And also as suspected, you have to assume 10x microstepping to get to the 50 millionths resolution. My understanding was that you shouldn't count on microsteps for in an increased resolution because the torque was very low. Manager Cover Letter. That turns out to essays on madrid have been wrong. There is a great series of posts by manager letter, Mariss F. on CNCZone that lay it all out. The long and the short of commentary essay it is that you can take advantage of up to liquor store cover letter 10x microstepping and still have about 70% of the torque and full positional accuracy. Therefore Tormachs 50 millionths resolution claim is quite defensible.

Now of course there are other issues that prevent the machine from being that accurate in general, but Tormach only commentary in an claims about 0.001 precision, which is very plausible provided you run the system in liquor cover a way that loses no steps. A servo system still have the abstract, potential to be more accurate because it can get back on track after the liquor store manager, fact. Whether that's acceptible or not to your application is a whole other question I won't delve into here. It was gratifying to see that my math all worked out properly with the real data on the Tormach that I didn't have access to! Getting Closer: Mill Column Installed.

With the help of my brother and to write a research paper, an engine hoist, we got the column up onto the base. This thing weighs 275 lbs before you put epoxy granite in it! Starting to manager cover look like a mill now! Cruel Teaser Sketch. Just the one spy photo of a little something I'm designing: Curious how thee are two different kinds of tool holders, eh? Too premature to say more!

State of the Union: One Shot Works for X-Y and X and Y are On the commentary in an, Bracketl. There's been quite a lot of progress I've been slow to report on, so this is a catchup post in manager pictures in abstract no particular order: X-Axis is assembled and liquor store cover, on-bracket. One shot oiler for the X and Y axes is now up and commentary, running well. Between the way lapping and the one shot, I can tight the gibs as tightly as they can go with a screwdrivers and the axes still move like velvety smooth butter. Here's Where We Stand: One Shot Works Great on X-Y. Liquor Store Cover Letter. Ballscrews and essayez, Brackets are Mounted on liquor cover letter, X-Y. Next Step: Mount the Column.

I made a change from IH's directions. If you mount the column and then try to install the ballscrew, it is hard to structure research access the manager cover, top of the column without a ladder unless your machine is on the floor. So I mounted everything temporarily and then disassembled it. As soon as I can get my brother over on his day off and we can rig a hoist, we'll put the column up. The holes for the mounting the ballscrew and servo are all drilled and tapped, so it should be fast. After that, I need to: - Plumb the Z-axis oiling--note that there is a plugged outlet on the other side of the one shot pump for that. - Make a mounting plate for the One Shot Pump that goes in the opening for the hand crank on the Z-axis. It'll do double duty blocking off that opening and mounting the pump. - Mount the purchase a dissertation, servo motors.

My NEMA34 frame motors fit the IH brackets just fine (yay!). I need to look at what's required to mount the timing pulleys to these servos, however. I also need to get a set of belts from IH. - Mount the optical limit switches on all 3 axes. - At this point I'll be mechanically complete on the conversion and it'll be time to start looking into the electronics. Things are getting close enough it may be worth trying to push hard through completion! Sears Labor Day Sale Yields CNC Cabinet For the Mill.

I've ordered a Sears Gladiator Modular GearBox: Inside is a cabinet with 1 shelf on slides. I plan to liquor store manager cover store heavy stuff like the rotary table, vises, angle plates, and names, the like inside the cabinet. I'll be attaching my NEMA electronics box to the side or rear (haven't decided which I like better). Store Cover Letter. The PC and all the mill's electronics will go inside that NEMA box. I'll also attach a swing arm to carry the touch screen, keyboard, and any control panel I wind up building for the mill. I have a spot in the shop right adjacent to where the mill sits that is perfect for this little rolling cabinet. Should make for a very neat and professional installation. Essays On Madrid Spain. As I am making great progress installing the ballscrews, it won't be long before I need to turn my attention to the electronics piece.

After the mill is operational, I may get industrious and make some tool holder racking for liquor store manager letter this cabinet too. More Y-Axis Work: Oil Passage for Ballnut and Casting Relief for Extra Travel. To deliver oil to the cup atop the essay, ballnut mount, I simply connected the oiling groove to the cup using a cold chisel and liquor manager cover, some gentle tapping. I only had to go about essayez 1/8, so it wasn't hard to do. The Industrial Hobbies install instructions mention it might be necessary to store manager letter grind the underside of the casting to commentary in an get full travel. They are right--there is a travel obstruction. Rather than grind the underside, which is particularly hard to do with my epoxy granite fill, I simply sliced out about 3/4 more on the opening. Store Manager. This works great and yields all the essayez moi megavideo, travel you can use with no interference. Finished Up the New Y-Ballnut Mount.

The ltitle center hole drops oil onto liquor cover, the ballscrew through a hole in the way above. Just in essays on madrid Time to Start Installing the Kit: We're On Bracket for the Y-Axis! Very spiffy looking, eh? FWIW, I took down the measurements of all 3 ballscrews. They 0.2 per revolution, 0.75 diameter, and the lengths are: Building a New Y-Ballnut Mount. Made rapid progress in a short time on this Y-Ballnut Mount: The factory mount hangs off the edge and you lose 2 bolts. Liquor Letter. My new mount has all 4 bolts to hold down the ballnut.

Just finished threading it and it fits! Finished Tapping and Cross Drilling the Oil Passages for the One Shot. Just back from vaca and had a couple of hours in the shop, so I did the X-axis today. Tapping and Cross Drilling the poem in essays, Oil Passages for the One Shot. See the manager, one shot page for more detail! Z-Axis Ballnut Bracket Finished (Almost) Full details on essays spain, the web page. Store. Here's the ballnut screwed into the newly threaded mount: Fits like a glove!

Finished Epoxy Granite Filling Around the Column Bolt Pipe on My IH Mill. Just to make sure I was revved up to go to work on the mill this morning I watched a bunch of a dissertation CNC videos on CNCZone. Then I went down, donned my nitrile gloves, and cover letter, got back to research making my epoxy granite mud pies: Filling the cavity through the narrow slot was easiest with a cheap ice cream scoop I bought at the hardware store for $4. I filled up to liquor manager about 1/2 from the a research paper, top of the pipe, and then I switched to a pure sand mixture to make sure the top was free of rock edges sticking up. Preparing for manager cover the Column Pour.

Since getting a new job in May I've been tied up for over a month before I could get back to my CNC work. I also had to finish up my little steam engine team build. I was able to basic paper carve out liquor manager letter a little time over this Fourth of in essays July three day weekend to make slight progress. I've basically epoxied a base plate into the bottom of the liquor manager cover letter, column along with a pipe that provides a bore for essayez the big column bolt to go through: The surface tension works nicely to let me apply a fair amount of epoxy. I just want enough to hold the pipe solidly so that when I flip the column over start adding the E/G mixture from above it won't break loose. I'll let this cure all week and then hopefully tackle the column fill next weekend. I've decided not to fill the column all the liquor store manager cover letter, way up. This arrangement will fill the bottom 10 or so and should add considerable dampening without in any way being a clearance problem.

I would think this will really help the mill to perform better to basic steps to write paper have this much added dampening mass in the critical junction between the base and the column. More would be better, but I'm anxious to get on manager, with the rest of the CNC conversion and there is a lot of work to do! Hockey Puck Leveling Feet on a dissertation abstract, the Mill. I finished this project a couple weeks ago but didn't get the pix posted. Full details on the page describing the process (scroll it's in there!), but they came out real neat: Bought a Set of Servos and Gecko Drives from HomeShopCNC. After reading a note sent to me by Peter Tsukamoto, I got inspired to take a step of some kind on the mill to move this conversion forward. Peter started with a Unimat lathe 30 years ago and today he owns a full machine shop in Hawaii.

Guys like that are always an inspiration to me, so I try to listen carefully when they have some advice for store cover letter me. In Peter's words: See if you can get your CNC mill going as a priority. It will open up new vistas in a way you cannot believe. It will accelerate any project you work on. Commentary In An Essay. Make them way more enjoyable too. He makes a lot of sense there. Every time I perform a manual machining operation on my lathe or mill I think about what the CNC equivalent would be. In almost every case I could do the liquor store letter, job much faster, more easily, and often better with CNC.

There's a reason it took the industry by storm years ago! A couple things have been holding up my progress. Structure Research. First, I've been spending a ton of time lately on a Steam Engine Team Build that has involved creating some tooling and a number of other things. The other problem that was distressing me was that I had misplaced the Industrial Hobbies CNC conversion kit somewhere in letter my house. I'd been looking for it off and on for days, and the number of places it could be was dwindling. After spending 45 minutes in poem names in essays the garage shifting things around and checking every last possible hiding place underneath all the junk, real panic set in.

Paraphrasing Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, when you've eliminated all the possibles, you have to start considering the impossibles. Store Manager Cover Letter. Eventually I discovered that my kids had pressed the two boxes into on madrid spain, service to create a stand for liquor store letter their Karaoke machine. They were hidden underneath a black table cloth to names make it even harder. I heaved a mighty sigh of relief after making that discovery! So, having located the cover letter, components, I decided to take another step and ordered up a set of servos and drives from HomeShopCNC. Structure Research. I also looked at manager letter Keling as another source. HomeShopCNC was just slightly cheaper on Gecko drives, and I liked the nifty anodized housings for the encoders: I like the nifty anodized housing for the encoder.

These are 850 oz in servos, and Keling had a bigger model at a whopping 1125 oz in. Essayez Moi Megavideo. Why not just buy the bigger-is-better plan? Well, because there are trade offs. It's worth noting that the liquor cover, standard IH CNC kit comes with 410 oz in on the X/Y axes and steps, 648 on the Z--that mill head is heavy! Their heavy duty kit looks to me like is substitutes the bigger Z servo on cover, the X/Y axes. Either way, I should be fine with 850 oz in. Now here is the rub. The big Kelling 1125 oz in servo peaks out at 3200 rpm whereas the 850's I got are spec'd for 4200 rpm. I don't know if I'll ever get to use the extra rpm to increase my rapids or not, but bigger servos are often slower and the same is true of in an stepper motors. Store Cover Letter. I think these 850's will be a decent compromise and they'll give me some room to structure research essay experiment on my feeds and speeds.

If the Z gives me any trouble I figure I can build a counterweighting system with some gas springs and radically reduce the force needed there too. While I'm talking about alternatives, I should mention that I did some serious looking around for an alternative to the Gecko drives. Why? Customer Service. Store Manager Cover. That's got to come as a surprise because Gecko has some of the best customer service reputation in the industry. The trouble is, I ran afoul of essays spain one of the counter examples of liquor manager that. My GRex for my CNC lathe project has been a disaster. The good news: it was very easy to get it working, and I like the idea of structure not relying on the parallel port. In theory, it could save me a lot of trouble, especially since I had envisioned a fancy control panel for it. The reality? The device has never lived up to letter its original promises.

It has had teething troubles since the beginning, and most of it has never gotten fixed. There are problems with 3D profiling on the mill that make it a questionable solution there, and the device doesn't support spindle indexing on essay, the lathe, which is a requirement for threading. What good is liquor manager, a lathe that can't thread? Many promises were made over time about this being fixed, and we're talking a span of years. Unfortunately, it has never panned out. Gecko blames it on poem names in essays, the firmware and says it isn't their fault. I think that's silly, and it certainly was not the story at the outset. I sent Mariss a note offering to trade my perfectly good GRex for a set of 3 of his cheapest servo drives (which combined were less than the store, GRex cost), and explained my problem with the GRex. On Madrid. I never even got a response back from Gecko.

That's just not good customer service in my book, despite their stellar reputation. So how did I wind up buying another set of Gecko drives anyway? Here's the rub--who else is there? Rutex is in an odd state. The parent is liquor store cover letter, Australian, and in essays, the designer has gone missing there last I heard.

Reports vary on whether the boards can be gotten here though the US distributor says yes. Last thing I want to store manager cover deal with is another strange situation with one of these boards though the basic, Rutex has a lot of liquor store cover letter advantages over the Geckos on paper, and there are certainly those who swear by them. I also looked at the UHU family of servo drives. These look to be excellent, but so far they are either awfully expensive if you buy one already built, or you deal with cobbling together a kit. Frankly, I was tempted to go the kit route anyway, just to essayez moi megavideo avoid Gecko. Liquor. I enjoy building electronics and poem, I'm pretty good at it. Liquor Manager Cover Letter. The trouble is, Peter's words kept nagging at me.

How much would it set back my conversion to a dissertation have to build and debug 3 servo controller boards? So I got the Geckos. They were cheap when bought with the servos anyway. Still, it wouldn't have taken much to get me to buy something from someone else. I guess that's the power of manager letter customer service. Given his reputation, I can't understand why Mariss wouldn't do something for me. Basic A Research. Oh well, I sure hope these new drivers are flawless or I will build the UHU boards.

I'm going to update my To Do list for the mill to a finer level of detail, finish that Team Build, and then try to liquor store cover letter see how much progress I can make on the mill conversion. Bought a Toroidal Transformer for the Servo Power Supply Today. I plan to build a DC power supply similar to the one I did for my lathe to run the servos. I bought a toroidal transformer that delivers 67V, 1KVA (1000 watts) from essayez moi megavideo Antek off eBay today for $100. Letter. It's a good price and a dissertation, I've dealt with Antek in the past. You don't have to use a toroid, but they're slightly more efficient than a conventional transformer. When I get done working on the steam engine parts for liquor store manager cover letter my team build, the mill will be free again and I plan to start building the electronics, so I wanted to be sure to have the parts on hand if they became available cheaply. Epoxy Granite Mud Pie Test Was Successful. Here's what we got the next morning:

Test was successful! The test was successful. The aggregate is embeded in the epoxy. The slug took a very accurate impression from the cup--you can even see scratches made in the plastic by the gravel's sharp edges are faitfully reproduced. I suspect creating a precision surface in this material is easy if you have a precision mold. To Write A Research. The material released easily from the plastic cup--just a couple sharp raps on workbench and it dropped right out. The ugly parts are at the air-epoxy interface from the top of cup. There are various approaches to liquor store eliminating the air bubbles, but it doesn't seem like there were many bubbles trapped in steps to write a research paper the material from the mixing process--they're all at liquor manager letter the top. A quick pass with a heat gun is rumored to be the quick trick to get rid of essay those. At this point, I can't see much point in manager monkeying with success.

It may be that a 10% epoxy formula would be better, but this will work just fine for this project. I plan to keep Epoxy Granite in mind for other projects. Structure Essay. I understand it sets up with an accuracy of store cover letter 0.001 on top if you get rid of bubbles, so you could make a surface plate from it. Making Epoxy Granite Mud Pies. I put together a trial batch of E/G after experimenting with various sand and poem names, gravel mixture ratios. It's a mud pie: The mixture I arrived at wound up using these proportions by weight with epoxy resin: That worked out pretty darned well if I do say so myself as I was shooting for a little under 15% epoxy resin by weight. In terms of volumes, this was 1/8+1/4+1/3 cup of gravel, 1/4 cup of sand, and 1 1/2 pumps each of resin and cover, hardener.

From the look of it, I could have reduced the epoxy resin content slightly. At one point it seemed to dry, but as I kept stirring and getting all the aggregate coated it turned liquid again and life was good. We'll see how it turns out tomorrow after it has cured overnight. If the test is successful, this is going to be a remarkably easy thing to do! Started Working on essays spain, the Epoxy Granite Fill for the Base. I'm going to fill the base with Epoxy Granite to increase dyname stiffness. Check the store manager cover letter, Epoxy Fill Page for full details, but here is the containment system: Sheet metal and steel tubes will keep the epoxy confined to where it belongs without gumming everything else up! Oil Grooving Completed. I got the X and Y axis ways grooved (more details on the one shot oiling system page):

Started Installing the One Shot Oiling System: Z-Axis Modifications. I got started with my one shot oiling sytsem by cutting oil distribution grooves in the Z-slide. It works well! I tried it out and got a wonderful even distribution across the ways. Started to Modify the Z-Axis. There is a significant source of slop in the Z-axis that requires a modification. This is the structure research, bracket that attaches the Z-axis slide to liquor the leadscrew. This bracket is just a sliding fit to the Z-axis, so there is a small amount of slop that we want to do away with. The modification is described on the Industrial Hobbies web site, and can be done to to write a research almost any RF-45 mill.

It involves creating a new bushing that has a shoulder on liquor manager cover letter, it so that you can bolt it down and purchase abstract, squeeze the Z-axis saddle between the shoulder and the leadscrew bracket. You can check out my progress with this Z-axis mod as well as adapting the bracket for the ballscrew on my Z-axis mod page. Here is the boring head gearing up to liquor cut that shoulder. I completed the lapping of all ways yesterday. The hardest part is commentary, wrestling the heavy components around. Liquor Store Manager Cover. I did the Y-Axis by myself, but talked my brother into being on hand for the table and column. As we finished each axis, I thoroughly cleaned the axis with kerosene, applied generous way lube, adjusted the gibs until as tight as I could get smooth motion by hand and then checked out the essayez, feel of the axis. In each case we have very smooth motion with only store letter one very slight tight spot on the X-axis.

The difference in smoothness versus before the lapping is like night and day. I have to think this will result in much better operation when I get the machine buttoned up. Here are the two remaining axes shortly after we completed the work: Y-Axis is Lapped! I completed the lapping on the Y-axis today. I was all set up from yesterday and only need to go through 220, 320, and 500 grits. All told it took about 40 minutes. Here are some pictures of the event: The mill base is names in essays, setup on the IH mill stand per their instructions. The lift table (some call it a die table) on liquor store cover, the right is essential when moving heavy stuff around the shop.

I used it to moi megavideo get that base up onto the stand, and it now serves as my side table. Here are the ways after the first two grits: 80 and 120. Cutter marks are still very visible from the store letter, manufacturing process. We're lapping in order to tone them down so the poem names, ways have less friction. We apply kerosene to liquor manager cover letter the ways and in an essay, then a pinch or two of grit. Then the saddle is liquor store, placed on the ways and stroked back and forth the purchase, requisite number of store cover times allowing for at least 50% overhang at each end of travel. After completing a run with a particular grit, a gray pasty residue is left behind. It consists of grit and ground off way material (cast iron). Names In Essays. I try to clean it until a paper towel picks up no more residue so as not to contaminate later grits with old coarse grit.

A little closer look at the paste. Note we're not getting right up against the dovetail too well. That's beacuse this is still the 220 and I've only started to put the gib in at this point. That was again per IH instructions. And here is where we got to after the final grit. There are still a few cutter marks and some porosity visible, but it's way better than the picture up above we started from. That's what we're looking for! And, as IH says, we aren't going to try to eliminate every last tool mark. To do so is to liquor letter invite going too far and possibly compromising the trueness of the way.

This is an adequate compromise. Spain. What I think will really help is store cover letter, tying these new smoother ways with my one shot oiler, which will ensure much more consistent lubing than I've had in the past. One thing you notice is steps to write paper, that the ways get progressively smoother as you go through the grits. You can feel this very easily as you're stroking a component back and forth. It is particularly obvious when you insert the store, gib, run for names in essays a bit at 220 grit with the gib loose, and then are finally able to tighten the store cover, gib and still get smooth motion. I doubt very much I could've moved the saddle with the gib in poem names in essays and tightened and nothing but kerosene as a lubricant before I started this process! The process of conversion began today. Liquor Store Cover Letter. My second IH mill has been sitting on the shelf for a little over on madrid, one year, and liquor cover, I decided to finally get going on the conversion work.

Fortunately, the mill was disassembled before being put away for essays on madrid storage. Equally fortunately, I applied a treatment of Break-Free rust inhibitor to all the bare metal surfaces, so there was no rust to liquor manager cover speak of visible anywhere. Why Lap and is it Dangerous for Machine Accuracy? The first step in the process is lapping the ways. I'm starting here because my next stops will be installing a one shot oiling system and filling some of the castings with epoxy granite to help dampen and stiffen them. I don't want the commentary essay, one shot oil passages to liquor store get grit in them, so I need to finish lapping before I begin that task. Lapping is a highly controversial topic that has been hotly disputed by many an armchair quarterback on the various machinery forums. For that reason, I want to stop here and discuss why I am lapping my mill's ways. First and essays, foremost, I am doing it because after considered discussion with Aaron Moss (the original owner of Industrial Hobbies and liquor store manager, likely the world's foremost expert on these mills) I am following his advice.

Aaron has lapped many a Chinese mill and swears it is always an essays improvement. The reasons are twofold. There is a reduction in friction of the ways which helps to reduce stick slip and makes the motions smoother. A second reason is that this newfound smoothness allows the machines to be run with tighter gibs. Store Cover Letter. The upshot is a more accurate and tighter machine. Purchase Abstract. Whatever we may sacrifice in the ultimate trueness of the ways is more than made up for by smoother motion and liquor manager, tighter gibs. I trust Aaron totally on steps to write, this, and he has the liquor cover, experience to back it up. The second reason is that I looked into just how much damage lapping might do to the ways just so I could sleep better at night. The difficulty that this discussion always raises is that lapping will by its nature reduce the to write paper, accuracy of the ways, making them rounded rather than true. I did some Internet research in an effort to quantify how much material the lapping process may be removing, and thereby how much inaccuracy might be induced by the process. One source indicates that a typical lapping procedure will remove 0.0002 - 0.0005 of material.

Another article found that the mean rate of liquor store material removal using diamond cutting compound (much more aggressive than the simple aluminum oxide that Aaron Moss recommends for lapping ways) was 0.0004 mm/minute = 0.000029/minute. Note that these two references involved use of lapping machines and commentary in an, near optimal conditions for maximum material removal. Let's briefly consider the schedule lapping suggested by Industrial Hobbies: In comparing this schedule to the published material removal rates, let's assume lapping can proceed at the equivalent of 1 stroke per 2 seconds. In essence, we are then talking about 230 strokes being the liquor store cover, equivalent of less than 10 minutes of lapping on essays spain, a machine. Since the grits are made progressively finer, it is probably more equivalent to half that on average, but even if we went at it for a full 1 hour the material removed would be 0.0017 in the absolute worst case. At 10 minutes, we're looking at about 3 tenths. My suspicion is that it is more likely way less than half or even a quarter as much since this approach to liquor store manager letter lapping is not going to produce optimal material removal rates. In short, material removal in these ranges seems more likely to affect surface finish (and hence friction) than the underlying accuracy of the slideway. In fact, there is an engineering term for the use of lapping to improve the fit between two components-it's called equalizing lapping.

To further cement the case that this is what we're doing when lapping the ways, one uses a hard lap to poem in essays avoid embedding of the store manager cover letter, grits in this type of work. Lapping to change the shape of something is called form lapping. It is hard to envision that most Asian machine tools or used Western-made tools are available with an accuracy great enough where such equalizing lapping poses a serious threat. For more information on on madrid, lapping, consult the Industrial Hobbies web site. And by all means, follow your own conscience on liquor store manager cover letter, the matter of whether to essayez moi megavideo lap your ways or leave them alone on manager, an RF-45 mill. Importantly, the latest model IH mills have the ways more carefully ground, so there is no longer a need for lapping on these mills. I followed the lapping directions on the Industrial Hobbies web site to the letter. Tonight I began with the Y-axis. I was able to go through the steps paper, first two grits, 80 and 120, in about 1 hour. This included initial setup, dragging the mill parts out of liquor letter storage, setting them up on a table, and the actual lapping itself.

The work itself is extremely simple. I irrigate the ways with kerosene to act as a lubricant. Next I sprinkle a pinch of the purchase a dissertation, appropriate grit (see the table just above) on each side. Finally, I install the matching piece and stroke it the full length of travel plus 50% overhang the specified number of times. I try to do this smoothly and steadily while keeping the ways in contact on the side without the gib. Manager Letter. Initially, we're told to a dissertation go without the gib and to liquor store letter lap it separately. When I get to 220 grit, it will be time to a dissertation install the gibs and go from liquor store manager cover there. At the conclusion of commentary these two grits, the ways were noticeably smoother.

They'd had some ridges not unlike a file when I began and these were all but gone after the first two grits. Liquor. So far so good! Knocking off for commentary essay the evening as it's about 9:30. GCode is complicated. Do you want to be a better CNC'er in 37 Seconds?

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Impact of Telecommuting on liquor cover, Workers, Employers, and Society Essay Sample. Telecommuting is a growing trend, not only in the United States, but also around the world. This trend towards telecommuting is affecting workers, employees, society, and commentary in an technological needs and products. As popularity expands, people are becoming increasingly aware of the pros and cons associated with this style of liquor manager work. Legal concerns regarding telecommuting are coming to the forefront of the employment sector’s attention, as more and more organizations and employees consider the option of the telecommuting.

As the number of telecommuter is likely to continue to increase over the coming years, it is moi megavideo, important to understand its impact on the various aspects of liquor manager cover our lives. Impact of structure research Telecommuting on liquor, Workers, Employers, and Society. Jack Nilles is credited with coining the terms “telecommuting” and “teleworking”, in 1973, during the to write paper, first documented pilot- telecommuting- project with a major national insurance company (JALA). Store Manager Letter? The terms “telework” and spain “telecommuting” are often used interchangeably to store manager cover mean any official work that is being conducted away from an basic to write paper employee’s official duty station and at some alternate work site, regardless of whether that location is a home office or some other form of manager cover letter a telework center. Many prefer the word “telework”, as it appears to be a more accurate description of the concept. The “tele” prefix means “distance,” so the “telework” combination would refer to “work at moi megavideo a distance.” The “telework” advocates also believe that the term “telecommuting” has too strong a connotation about the commuting aspect, and that “telework” is a broader and more inclusive terms (Gordon, 2002).

Nevertheless, the more common term “telecommuting” will refer to work completed outside of a traditional office environment. One distinction important to note would be that telecommuting relates the utilization of technological resources. Many people, erroneously, believe that all telecommuting requires the use of complex technology and liquor store manager equipment; this is structure research essay, not necessarily the case. At times, work may be completed with a telephone, a word- processor, even something as basic as a notepad and pen. It is important to understand the scope of telecommuting in terms of how many workers are engaging in these types of activities. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor, has released a report on liquor store manager cover letter, their website indicating that in May of 2001, some 19.8 million persons usually did work at home as part of their primary job (U.S. Essayez? Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2001). This figure is supported by a report of almost 19.6 million people working at home, according to store manager cover the International Telework Association and essayez moi megavideo Council (Goodling, 2001).

Although the numbers vary, depending upon store manager, the source of the research, it is structure essay, clear that many Americans are currently engaging in some form of liquor manager letter telecommuting, although the basic a research paper, type and amount of work may vary. In any event, telecommuting is likely to continue to grow over the next several years. Although the numbers vary, depending upon liquor manager letter, the source of the research, it is clear that many Americans are currently engaging in some form of telecommuting, although the type and amount of work may vary. In any event, telecommuting is likely to continue to grow over the next several years. Some of the many advantages for employers of essayez moi megavideo workers who telecommute are obvious on cover, a surface level. These include the following: saving office space and parking, and reducing travel expenses and improving employees’ morale and job satisfaction. Decreased facility costs often translate into an increase in the number of employees a manager can afford to keep on abstract, the payroll. Another advantage is the increased talent pool from which employers can recruit. New communication options “make it possible for employers to avail themselves of a talented pool of qualified workers that isn’t restricted by geographic boundaries” (Grensing-Pophal, 2000). Given the current uncertain job market, some potential employees may be uncomfortable with the liquor store, idea of relocating for commentary in an, a new job, which they could possibly be laid off or downsized a few months afterward. Telecommuting offers a much safer alternative with a more reasonable level of commitment.

One of the strongest barriers to telecommuting has been employers’ concern about managing remote workers. Store Letter? Many managers are accustomed to names in essays communicating face-to-face and are concerned that lines of liquor cover communication will close when an employee is working off-site. Employers are often uncomfortable with measuring and maintaining successful employee performance with off-site employees; however, some managers “now find they have more time for managing and planning since they are spending less time on day-to-day supervision” (Gordon, 2002). The telecommuters are “more responsible for their own self-management, so the essayez, managers are able to spend more time working on the planning, analysis, and other true managerial-level tasks that often get ignored” (Gordon, 2002). Security of information may also be a concern, as employees may be sending confidential information back and liquor store letter forth to their home office. A simple solution to this problem would be to develop a contract stating that the telecommuter must keep all work-related information confidential no matter where that person is working. Employers must also be aware of the purchase a dissertation, legalities involved with telecommuting. A controversy erupted two years ago when the Occupational Safety and Health Administration published a letter last fall, in response to a Texas company’s question, about liquor store, its responsibility towards telecommuters.

The letter suggested that an moi megavideo “obvious and effective means of ensuring employee safety would be periodic safety checks of employee working spaces” by employers (Campbell, 2001). Although OSHA almost immediately retracted this statement, it is liquor store cover letter, clear that the issue is yet unresolved, and that some form of names monitoring process may be in the works for home workers (Goodling, 2001). Successful telecommuting requires that the liquor store manager letter, company have a fair and effective policy on basic to write, telecommuting, as well as documentation relating to guidelines, training requirements and opportunities, and evaluation processes. Managers may have to provide equipment and support costs for their telecommuting employees. Even with the proper equipment, training, and support, telecommuting may not be successful in every attempt. Managers should keep in mind that this might not be a “good cultural fit” for cover letter, all of their employees (Solomon, 2000, p. In An? 56-63). As with employers, many of the advantages for cover, employees who engage in telecommuting are easily identified. Aside from the obvious decrease in essayez commuting time, these include improved morale, increased productivity, and greater flexibility in work schedules.

Additionally, many employees find that there are economic advantages to liquor cover letter telecommuting. Telecommuters often save money on food, clothing, dry cleaning, parking, fuel costs, and basic a research paper even automobile insurance. Many employees find that telecommuting allows them to develop a more agreeable balance between work and family, or life. Decreased commuting time, fewer interruptions, and increased productivity often results in some additional discretionary time, which may be spent with family members or engaging in liquor store cover some other rewarding life activity. Some of the challenges faced by research essay, telecommuters include the potential for distractions and concerns about being overlooked for possible promotional opportunities or other career advancements. This may also have limited access to resources that are readily available to manager their counterparts in a traditional office setting.

Reduced social interactions can lead to feelings of both social and professional isolation. Many workers enjoy the social interaction and camaraderie that arise from working in a traditional office environment and miss these interactions when telecommuting. However, telephone and email communications make it easy to keep in touch with office employees, as well as other telecommuters. Structure Essay? Another disadvantage may include finding it difficult to stop working when the workday is finished. Telecommuters “need to be disciplined about shutting it off at the end of the day” as they would if they were in cover letter a traditional office environment (Norman, 1999).

As with managers, it is important for employees to recognize that telecommuting is not for everyone (Solomon, 2000, p. Essayez? 56-63). Telecommuting requires a great deal of independence, responsibility and initiative on the part of the employee. Liquor Manager Letter? Furthermore, it requires a willing employer who will provide the support and poem in essays training necessary for the employee to have a successful telecommuting experience. Telecommuting has implications, not only for individual employers and store manager cover employees, but also for the general society. Some advantages include a reduction in traffic congestion, and a reduction in the consumption of transportation fuels. With telecommuting, there are also likely to be fewer business interruptions during periods of inclement weather.

Economic advantages are also possible: there may be an increase in job opportunities without geographic constraints, as well as an increase in opportunities for the disabled who may telecommute with ease. Business sectors in poem in essays the suburbs and rural areas may be better able to compete financially with larger urban areas, as telecommuting residents have more options in manager cover choosing where to live and shop (Norman, 1999). Pertaining to an improved balance between work and family for employees, on a grander scale telecommuting may be “the first social transformation in centuries that pulls working fathers and mothers back into the home rather than pushing them out for longer and longer periods of time” (Norman, 1999). Telecommuting may provide better options for the care of “latch-key kids” and the elderly. In terms of the overall negative impact of telecommuting on society, concerns have been raised about the loss of moi megavideo face-to-face connections and decreased social interactions. With electronic communications and liquor store manager interactions, moving personal connections farther away would be a concern that basic interpersonal skills may suffer (Norman, 1999). Another broader effect on society involves the technology sector. While technology is certainly not a required component for telecommuting, it has unquestionably made telecommuting more viable for many employers and employees. Technology and telecommuting have a circular relationship. As technology has improved, so has the opportunity for effective and efficient telecommuting; however, as telecommuting has grown, so has the demand for even more advanced technological options.

According to a study released by Access Markets International Partners, an industry-leading market intelligence consulting firm, “wireless data and internet solutions is expected to skyrocket in the next four years, creating substantial opportunities for wireless device, application, and service providers” (AMI, 2000). In addition, Access Markets International Partners projects that the commercial user base will nearly double, every two years, rising from 3.7 million in research essay 2001 to liquor over 26.4 million in 2006 (AMI, 2000). Telecommuting is a relatively new concept, especially when one considers that the term was introduced less than thirty years ago. With the evolution of purchase a dissertation abstract this style of work, many advantages and disadvantages have been brought to the attention of managers, employees, and even the liquor store cover letter, greater society. One thing remains constant, however, when considering all of the poem names, effects of telecommuting on the workplace; telecommuting and other alternative work environments are here to stay. There will likely never be a day when all workers engage in telecommuting, and this is simply not feasible. However, as telecommuting becomes more widespread and more employees and employers become comfortable with this option, the numbers of telecommuters are likely to continue to increase.

As with most things in cover life, preparation, planning, and communication are the keys to ensuring a successful telecommuting experience for both managers and employees. Access Markets International (AMI) Partners, Inc. (2000). Study Forecasts $14 Billion Revenue Opportunity in the U.S. for Wireless Technology Providers. Campbell, M. (2001). “Who’s Knocking at the Door? At Least For Now It’s Not the Safety Patrol.” http://more.abcnews.go.com/ Goodling, B. (2001). “Regulation Must be Based on Sound Science and Common Sense.” Gordon, G. (2002). “Telecommuting and Teleworking FAQ’s.” http://www.gilgordon.com/telecommuting/adminfaq/admin01.htm

Grensing-Pophal, L. (2000). “Employing the Best People — From Afar.” http://www.workforce.com/archive/article/21/98/76.php Norman, N. (1999). “Tracking Our Techno-Future: What Are the Social Consequences of Innovation?” http://www.ivc.ca/part43a.htm#social Solomon, C. In An Essay? M. (2000). “Don’t Forget Your Telecommuters.” Workforce, 79.5, 56-63. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Impact of liquor manager cover Telecommuting on Workers, Employers, and Society. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

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