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Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary and Analysis of Nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson first published Nature in 1836. Genetics? The essay served as one of the founding documents of the Transcendental Club, whose members would come to include future Transcendentalist luminaries like Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott. The Club convened its first meeting a week after the publication of to expect when a thesis Nature , led by Emerson. The critical reception of his seminal work has shifted over time. Genetics Research? Nature was once dismissed as a gospel of to expect defending selfishness, naive optimism, and narrow parochialism. However, scholars, with the benefit of hindsight, now understand his work as not only the harbinger of Transcendentalism, but also a modern rethinking of Stoicism, Plato, and Kant.
In this essay, Emerson outlines his initial ideas about the papers, fundamental relationship of humanity with nature, which he would develop further in later essays. His conception of this relationship was revolutionary for its time when many thought of humanity as separate from and above the on travel is like in yourself, rest of the natural world, and of nature as the mere reflection of human will/manipulation, a means for human ends. Introduction and Nature. Our age is genetics retrospective, Emerson begins. Book Christian In Notre? It builds on the sepulchers of the fathers.
It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. While earlier generations beheld God and nature face to face, the present merely sees the world through the eyes of the genetics research papers, past. Troubled by this trend, Emerson asks, Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by on travel is like an investment, revelation to us, and not the history of genetics papers theirs? After all, the sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts.
Let us demand our own works and book dame doctrine great in notre laws and genetics worship. In this way, Emerson opens his essay with a sweeping dismissal of thesis format those tools of genetics papers insight based on the past, and or masters thesis a demand to understand the world - that is, God and nature (two sides of the same coin for him) - instead through our own personal, direct relationship to and revelations about the research papers, world. The rest of the introduction is master or masters thesis spent outlining what such an understanding would entail and genetics research require - its methods, aims, and definitions. As the title of his essay suggests, he grounds his approach to understanding the world in Nature, which along with the Soul, composes the universe. By Nature, Emerson includes everything that is not me (i.e., separate from the Soul), both nature [as conventionally understood, i.e., those essences unchanged by humans, like a tree or a river] and art [those essences mixed with the will of or masters thesis humans, like a house or a canal], all other men and genetics research papers my own body. Like the Stoics, Emerson believed that in to expect when a thesis, nature could be found the source of moral principles and well being. However, in research, the present age, he argues, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the master or masters thesis, sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. For seeing/understanding nature entails not only asking what nature is papers or how it operates, but also to what end is nature? To pursue such an understanding of nature - an inquiry he believes allied to science, all of which aims to find a theory of nature - he does not appeal to other authorities on the subject, past or present, but rather his own experience to craft a theory he believes self-evident and self-validating.
While this may not seem scientific in terms of objectivity, he argues, Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is on travel is like an investment that it will explain all phenomena. His success in crafting such a theory arguably derives from his ability to papers, immerse his readers in his own experiences, as with the to expect when a thesis, passage, Crossing a bare common, in genetics research papers, snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. Another famous passage describes his experience as a transparent eyeball, a conduit for God as he stands in nature: Here [in the woods] I feel that nothing can befall me in life, - no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair. Standing on defending a thesis the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of God. In the papers, next sections, Emerson outlines in what when a thesis, detail and in ascending order of importance the components of the relationship of humanity and nature: the common uses/aspects of nature (see Commodity, Beauty, and Language), our lived experience vis-a-vis nature (see Discipline), and the manifestation of the universal/divine (what he calls, Reason) in genetics research, nature (i.e., Transcendentalism; see Idealism, Spirit, and Prospects). The most obvious and tangible aspect of the relationship between humanity and an investment nature is the practical usefulness of nature as a source of raw material and energy.
Emerson observes that all parts of nature - as material, process, and result - work toward the benefit of papers humanity: “The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the on travel is like an investment in yourself, vapor to genetics research papers, the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man.” He further illustrates this process in thesis based essay, his admiration of a tide-mill, which, on the seashore, makes the tides drive the research papers, wheels and grind corn, and on travel is like an investment which thus engages the assistance of the moon like a hired hand, to grind, and wind, and pump, and saw, and split stone, and roll iron. However, Emerson argues the use of genetics research nature as commodity is the correct heading for scholarship, lowest of benefits, and quickly moves on to less material gifts and aspects. In this section, Emerson describes the ways in which nature provides humanity with its ideas and genetics standards of beauty. “The standard beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms the totality of heading nature.” Emerson asserts this is because such is the constitution of things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the genetics research, mountain, the to expect when defending a thesis, tree, the genetics research, animal, give us a delight in and for themselves,” as evidenced by the creations of artists (e.g., poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects). In other words, it is a given based on the relationship of humanity with the natural world: The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of essay on travel an investment in yourself beauty.” Ultimately, no reason can be asked or give why the soul seeks beauty, which includes 1) physical beauty, 2) moral beauty (or virtue), and 3) intellectual beauty (or truth). As beauty is grounded in nature, so is language.
Emerson asserts, Nature is the vehicle of thought, and offers three main components to this observation. First, words are signs of natural facts. Based on genetics research papers etymology, Emerson illustrates how not only i need someone to do my term words like apple are rooted in genetics research papers, nature (i.e., the visible, concrete, and tangible aspects of the external world), but also most abstractions. Defending A Thesis? For example, supercilious is from the Latin super cilia , which means raising the eyebrow. Another example, not mentioned by Emerson, is consider, which comes from the Latin con siderare , meaning to study the stars. Next, Emerson says, “Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts,” which emphasizes the use of nature to express our ideas.
Every appearance in research papers, nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. Book Dame Development Doctrine Essay Great Series? As enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is innocence; a snake is papers subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Emerson asserts that if you go back in history, language becomes more image-based, and in the earliest stages it is all poetry based on natural symbols. In modern times, Emerson argues, our language has become corrupted by secondary desires - the desires for i need someone money, pleasure, power, and praise - rather than the simple and research papers fundamental desire to communicate our thoughts without loss (i.e., with the images and symbols of nature). As such, our language has ceased to doctrine in notre, create new images based on visible nature, the old words have become perverted and abstracted, and the obviousness of his point is difficult to see. As he will later say in The Poet, language is genetics research now fossil poetry, filled with dead metaphors and words cut away from their roots.
Finally, Emerson argues, Nature is the symbol of spirit, an assertion grounded in Platonist idealism. Basically, the reason why people, especially writers, can successfully use nature in their language (e.g., as image, trope, noun, verb) is not simply because of the meaning they confer upon nature, but rather because nature itself is a language. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Thesis Based Format? Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the papers, human mind. That is, nature is an or masters, expression of the laws and ideas (i.e., the metaphysics) that underpin the visible world. By tapping into the language of nature, humans are able to in turn express the laws and ideas of the research papers, world. Emerson suggests this is what to expect when defending a thesis why popular proverbs of different nations usually consist of a natural fact, like a rolling stone gathers no moss, a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, and the last ounce broke the camel's back. In this section, Emerson describes how our lived experience vis-a-vis nature is a discipline, or rather, a multifaceted education for understanding intellectual truths (Understanding) and moral truths (Reason).
In regard to intellectual truths, Emerson observes that every aspect of our everyday engagement with the genetics papers, world (e.g., space, time, food, climate, animals) and matter (e.g., its solidity, inertia, form, divisibility) teaches us lessons that form our common sense about the world (e.g., about difference, likeness, order, particularity, generality). Furthermore, each encounter teaches us about power, about the based essay format, ability for humans to shape nature according to their will. Nature is genetics research papers thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the is like in yourself, Savior rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material that he may mold into what is useful. In regard to moral truths, our engagements with nature teaches us about the premonitions of Reason - by which Emerson means the genetics papers, universal soul, his Transcendentalist conception of God - and thus shape our conscience. Therefore is my term nature glorious with form, color, and motion; that every globe in the remotest heaven, every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of research papers life, every change of thesis format vegetation from the first principle of genetics research papers growth in the eye of a leaf, to correct heading, the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine, every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of papers right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. This entails that despite the infinite variety of natural processes and forms, they all embody a version of the moral law of the universe, which illustrates the unity of Nature - its unity in variety. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the what defending, light that traverses it with more subtle currents; the light resembles the research papers, heat that rides with it through Space. Creatures are only a modification of master one another; the papers, likeness between them is more than the difference, and thesis essay their radical law is genetics research papers one and the same.
A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of Nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. Finally, Emerson asserts the my term paper, amount of moral influence each encounter has on an individual depends on genetics research the amount of truth it illustrates to the individual, which cannot be easily quantified. Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? How much tranquility has been reflected to man from the what to expect when, azure sky, over research whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? In the preceding sections, Emerson focuses on the uses and benefits of nature.
In Idealism and Spirit, he shifts to questions of what nature is. Such questions are based on his Idealism, and thus do not mean what is i need my term paper nature composed of, but rather, is there a higher reality or law behind nature, and does visible nature really exist? In part, his new line of questions is one of epistemology - how do we know what we know? He first offers the claim of the radical Idealist, who believes reality is papers fundamentally constructed by the mind: In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the or masters thesis, report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in research papers, heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the for scholarship essay, soul. However, he also denies the extreme conclusion that reality, and thus nature, does not exist independent of the genetics, mind: Any distrust of the permanence of laws [e.g., gravity] would paralyze the faculties of man. He settles the issue by showing how various aspects of culture - including 1) motion (which affirms the internal reality of the observer due to the feeling of the sublime that arises from the difference felt between the observer/human and the spectacle/nature, as when seeing the shore from a moving ship), 2) poetry (which affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which poets conform nature to their thoughts and makes them the words of the Reason or the soul), 3) philosophy (which like poetry, affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which philosophers animate nature with their thoughts and makes them the words of Reason, except in this case for Truth rather than Beauty), 4) intellectual science (which generates insight based on abstract ideas and thus the spirit), and 5) religion and ethics (which degrades nature and suggests its dependence on the spirit) - convince us of the reality of the external world, of nature and spirit, and thus tend to imbue us with a moderate form of idealism:
It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, and azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and effect. As a qualification to the discussion of Idealism in the previous section, Emerson asserts that Idealism is ultimately an correct heading essay, introductory hypothesis (like carpentry and chemistry) about nature. If it only denies the existence of matter, or external reality, as with extreme Idealism, then it of no use to him, for it does not satisfy the research papers, demands of the spirit. In other words, Idealism is useful to think with insofar as it informs us of the distinction between the soul and the world/nature. By recognizing this distinction, and christian doctrine essay series the existence of each, we can then understand their relation to one another - that is, how spirit (the Supreme Being, the Universal Soul) acts through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old, and thus is not subject to the human will, as with the research papers, rest of the world/nature. In this last section, Emerson argues it is better approach the to expect when defending, world as a naturalist than as a student of empirical science. Compared to the precision and experiments of the scientist, the naturalist employs self-discovery and humility, and thus continues to learn about his relation to the world, and remains open to the secrets of nature.
The naturalist will pay attention to the truth and to the real problems to be solved: It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in papers, his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. Emerson uses this comparison as a metaphor for a more general criticism of the present approach humanity takes toward nature based on master or masters thesis pure understanding (that is, of the intellect) without Reason (that is, with spiritual insight). However, there are occasional examples of how humanity might act with both: Such examples are, the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and research political revolutions, and in the abolition of the slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and i need someone yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. Until humanity begins to act with both understanding/intellect and reason/spirituality towards nature, to repair its relationship with nature and the world, humanity remains disunited with itself and the world lacks unity. Genetics Papers? To correct this trend, Emerson argues people need to based format, acquire a new, educated way of seeing the world, by research, which he means the Transcendentalist approach he has laid out in the previous sections. So we shall come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the when defending a thesis, endless inquiry of the intellect (“What is truth?), as well as that of the affections (“What is good?”), by yielding itself passive to research, the educated Will. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Self Reliance and Other Essays Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Self-Reliance Nature The Over-Soul Circles The Poet Experience The Divinity School Address The Dial Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself!
Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Ralph Emerson Biography. Self Reliance and Other Essays Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Self Reliance and Other Essays is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. This speaks to a few themes. I think that generally it speaks to man finding his own individuality and identity.
The passage indicates that life is about being satisfied with one's plot of land and making the best of it rather than coveting other. What do you mean by dwlf? Study Guide for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for Self Reliance and Other Essays.
Self Reliance and Other Essays essays are academic essays for citation. Someone To Do My Term Paper? These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Self Reliance and Other Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson. E-Text of Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays E-Text contains the full text of Self Reliance and Other Essays.
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Adolescent Egocentrism Essays and Research Papers. World literature essay By Reo Zukoshi Topic: The effect of genetics research papers, egocentrism in “A Doll’s House” and “Antegone” and its effect on their . relationships and the characters themselves. The two word literatures: “A Doll’s house” by Henrik Ibsen and for scholarship, “Antegone” by Sophocleus, have both portrayed how the character’s egocentrism contributes to the tragic ending. The types or the role of each character are different, but they both have the same egocentrism : Helmer from “A doll’s house” and King Creon from”Antegone”. Anger , Cousin , Egocentric bias 1990 Words | 5 Pages. Psychology 312-Spring 2009 Mr. Wilemski Angela Faul February 26, 2009 Interview of an adolescent : Name: Star Thomas, 15 Years . old 1. How do you feel about school? -Feels that it is genetics research, useful, especially for later in what to expect when, life. How much time do you spend doing homework? - About an hour a day. What do you plan to do when you graduate? - She plans on going to college for her PHD, and would like to concentrate on cardiology. 2. Research. Do you. Adolescence , Childhood , Full-time 1510 Words | 5 Pages.
James Vaughn HLTH-4390 Midterm Article Body image in Adolescents In this paper, the focus is on someone to do my term, female’s body image, specifically . adolescents , and the factors that affect body image negatively. Studies in both The United States and Japan point to different factors that affect body image. The journal article “Relationship between body image and lifestyle factors in Japanese adolescent girls,” is used to compare and contrast with girls body image in The United States. So what is body image. Adolescence , Body image , Body shape 719 Words | 3 Pages.
Effects of Divorce on Children and Adolescents. Effects of Divorce on Children and Adolescents Emme Pasuit Education 6010 Dr. Hubbard Fall 2008 Divorce negatively . affects children and genetics research papers, adolescents emotionally, socially and cognitively, as a result there is a profound academic impact. This impact is felt not only by the children but also the educators. It doesn't necessarily mean that children of divorced parents have different academic needs but it suggests educators need to be sensitive to the experiences of these children. Essay In Yourself. Black-and-white films , Child , Childhood 1939 Words | 6 Pages. Adolescent Love Versus Adult Love. ? Adolescent Love vs. Adult Love Is love the same for adolescents and it is for adults? At fifteen, is an . adolescent able to feel and express love the same way as a thirty-year-old?
Arguably, love is the hardest emotion for humans to control; it is involuntary and impermanent (Fisher, 2006, p. 74). Research. Perhaps that is why as an adult, we are better to to expect a thesis cope with all that love entails – the emotions, the physical exploration, the papers self-inquiries and self-identification. Not only as an heading for scholarship essay, adult are we. Attachment in adults , Attachment theory , Developmental psychology 1237 Words | 4 Pages. Stereotyping the Smoker: Adolescents' Appraisals of Smokers in Film. effect the perception of smoking as a social norm in young people today.
Stereotyping the Smoker: Adolescents ' Appraisals of Smokers in Film . McCool, J. P., Cameron, L., Petrie, K. (2004). Stereotyping the smoker: Adolescents ' appraisals of smokers in papers, film. Tobacco Control, 13(3), 308-314. This is a research article on how to asses demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and thesis, the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility. They based this study. Adolescence , Film , Mass media 1222 Words | 4 Pages. Risk Factors That Increase Stress in Modern Day Adolescents. Genetics Research Papers. Risk Factors that Increase Stress in Modern Day Adolescents Adolescence is a time of growth and development.
It is a transitional stage . between the christian development doctrine essay great in notre dependency of childhood and independency of adulthood. Thus, it is not surprising that adolescence is noted to be a juncture of high distress. Risk factors and causes of stress in adolescence must be determined first and foremost, so that appropriate coping strategies can be developed to deal with this issue. Stress is defined as conditions or events. Adolescence , Bullying , Family 843 Words | 3 Pages.
Americans Philosophy Of Child And Adolescent Development. clique. This was also an unstructured activity because there wasn’t any adult supervision and i got to pick who my friends were and we chose what we wanted . to genetics papers do each day so we had complete freedom, once again. Americans’ philosophy of child and adolescent development: when americans believe that children need to book christian dame development be children and just play and have fun and basically just have unstructured time to themselves in order to genetics papers find their inner self. No parents should be around because youth should have freedom. Adolescence , Emotion , Leisure 1181 Words | 3 Pages. are numerous things that are taking place within our children’s Development, i will specifically be discussing the changes in peer relationships of middle . childhood and adolescence. As the child grows into their teenage years they will become egocentrism and i will be going into detail about what that means further in someone to do, the paper. Genetics Research. As children go through their stages and go through school to master or masters can be a rather tough times for them and genetics, they will face numerous pressures. Some of these pressures can be good.
Adolescence , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1099 Words | 4 Pages. Adolescent Drug Use: Parental Involvement and Peer Influence. to master or masters feel comfortable in social settings, and to genetics papers feel good about whom they are. Adolescents are no different. They too use drugs to gain these . temporary feelings and sensations. “Drug abuse among young people is one of the christian dame development in notre series greatest challenges of research, our time” (Shedler and Black, 1990). The prevalence of drug use among adolescents is a disturbing phenomenon that has been investigated for decades. When adolescents abuse drugs, their lives can be adversely affected (Jenkins Zunguze, 1998; Wynn. My Term. Adolescence , Drug , Drug addiction 1915 Words | 6 Pages. be as objective as I could, during more than one occasion, I was tempted to intervene and genetics research papers, control a situation but I was able to correct heading for scholarship essay just observe and remain . Research Papers. objective during the whole time.
I believe Santo is in the Preoperational Stage with an Egocentrism limitation. Piaget defined his second stage by what it lacks: operations for i need someone my term Piaget, the term operations have a very particular meaning. Operations are mental actions that follow systematic, logical rules. Research. When children are preoperational, they. Child development , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1790 Words | 5 Pages. have him watch a variety of shows on being a prince. I could also do the same for essay on travel in yourself my daughter by genetics research papers, explaining to her that not all mommies are the same. By . showing and telling her the different duties of a mom can expand her own thoughts.
Egocentrism and centration are two limitations experienced by a child in the preoperational stage which are immature and correct for scholarship, affect a child’s cognitive development. Research. For example, the egocentric child assumes that other people hear, feel and see exactly the master same. Child development , Developmental psychology , Egocentrism 990 Words | 3 Pages. everyone else in life is research, equally as frustrated as you are, and what to expect when a thesis, that some of these people probably have harder, more tedious and painful lives than you. Don’t . consider this a lesson in morality but simply a different way of thinking, a withdrawal of egocentrism . That’s why if you are aware enough to give yourself a choice you can either look at the world in the normal “demonic” egocentric way, or consider enlightenment, a “god-like” free mind standpoint. In a sense it’s really a battle against selfishness. Death , Egocentrism , Human 1295 Words | 5 Pages. The Code of the Street and African-American Adolescent Violence. Papers. In the article “The Code of the Street and African-American Adolescent Violence,” Erik A. Stewart opposes the research that Elijah Anderson has . Book Christian Dame Development Doctrine Essay In Notre Series. done. Anderson explains high rates of research, violence among African-American adolescents . Observing life in a Philadelphia African-American neighborhood, Anderson saw that economic disadvantage; Stewart begins by book dame doctrine series, using the example of research, Anderson’s research on urban communities.
The discussion on how Elijah Anderson conducted research on the living in correct essay, poor and violent. Adolescence , African American , Race 973 Words | 3 Pages. Raymond outside a Amtrak train. Genetics Research. Charlie tells Raymond that he will miss him and he will be out to Ohio to visit him in heading for scholarship essay, 2 weeks. That is how the research papers movie ends. . There are three principals psychological concepts used in this movie. They are autism, egocentrism and idiot savant.
Charlie is self centered and egocentric. He thinks and regards himself as the center or object of heading for scholarship essay, all experiences around himself. He feels he is being cheated out of the money. He doesn#8217;t think how much Raymon needs it. Academy Award for Best Actor , Autism , Dustin Hoffman 1773 Words | 4 Pages. Delinquency, Victimization, and Substance Use Among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents. Research Papers. headed by same sex couples. With such changes come the questions about the heading essay effects on human development in persons raised in same sex parent homes. Research Papers. . Specifically there is based essay format, question about whether adolescents encounter difficulties with adjustments more in same sex parent families versus those adolescents in a different sex parent family. For the purposes of this research critique, I will start by discussing my reasons for choosing the specific article I chose, my expectations of the article and the.
Adolescence , Bias , Family 928 Words | 3 Pages. preoperational thought from genetics papers, Piaget’s point of view are described by correct heading essay, him as what they can’t understand (Berk, 2010). The term preoperational suggests that . he compared them to older, more competent children (Berk, 2010). One of these limitations is egocentrism . Piaget assumes that the egocentric child assumes that other people see, feel, and genetics research papers, hear exactly the same way that they do (Berk, 2010). This is christian dame development doctrine essay series, responsible for animistic thinking that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities (Berk, 2010). . Developmental psychology , Egocentrism , Intelligence 840 Words | 3 Pages. Teens in Therapy: Making It on Their Own: Engaging Adolescents in Successful Therapy for Responsible Lives. Maryam Ali Book Report Teens in Therapy: Making It on their own: Engaging Adolescents in Successful Therapy for papers Responsible Lives A . Brief History on the Author Richard Bromfield, PH.D, is christian dame development in notre series, a psychologist, he is also a faculty member at the Harvard Medical School, and he specializes in therapy with children and adolescents . He is a writer and wrote several best sellers about children, adolescents and psychotherapy. This book is one of Bromfield’s many award winning writings. Introduction . Adolescence , Classification of genetics papers, Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals , Harvard, Massachusetts 1974 Words | 5 Pages.
Gender Differences in the Personality Development of Adolescents Belonging to Different Parenting Styles. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENTS BELONGING TO DIFFERENT PARENTING STYLES S.Sravanthi And Dr.M.Sarada Devi . The present study was designed to heading for scholarship essay investigate the genetics research gender differences in the personality development of adolescents belonging to different parenting styles. The sample comprised of 180 adolescents (60 democratic, 60 permissive and 60 authoritarian parents and their children who comprised of equal number of boys and girls). MAP Series (Teenage Form). Adolescence , Childhood , Gender 2292 Words | 7 Pages. is evident that this six year old girl has not yet understood the concept of someone to do paper, reversing occurrences, however since she is 6, she is close to papers understanding. . What. The next experiment covers the concept of centration. Centration is also referred to as egocentrism . Genetics Papers. This concept is literally being egocentric. A child at this stage only thesis format understands their own perception and point of view of things. “Centration is the tendency to focus on one aspect of the situation to the exclusion of others.” (Berger, 2009. Child development , Childhood , Developmental psychology 786 Words | 3 Pages. The Healthy Transition from Adolescent to Adulthood. Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?
Many adolescents struggle with the transition from teen-age years to adulthood. Questions are raised on careers, friends, school and family. . How do I know I made the right decision? What career do I wish to pursue? Why is this change so difficult? Some, at genetics research papers, times, even wish that they had an influence or guide to help them. For many, this is where the parents step in. Parents are meant to support and help an to expect, adolescent when needed, especially during this difficult transition. However, this is. Adolescence , Developmental psychology , Father 1833 Words | 5 Pages. to blame for Lily’s mental breakdown at the end of the book. These people are mistaken; Mabel Palmer’s actions are not to blame for what happens to Lily. . Fault lies in the differing cultures between Lily and Palmer, and in Lily’s stubbornness, egocentrism , and her inability to research papers follow simple instructions. It is easy to infer that there are inevitable differences in culture between a European woman in her seventies and master thesis, a fifteen-year-old African girl living in apartheid-ruled South Africa.
In the. Egocentrism , Jean Piaget , Lily Tomlin 2079 Words | 6 Pages. We can begin with two separate issues raised by papers, Vygotsky’s book: the question of . egocentrism in thesis format, general and the more specific question of egocentric speech. If I have understood him well, Vygotsky’s own position And action, I said – egocentrism and genetics research, pointed out that the essay in notre unconscious egocentrism of genetics research papers, thought to which I referred was quite unrelated to the common meaning of the essay term, hypertrophy of the consciousness of self. Cognitive egocentrism , as I have tried to make clear, stems from a lack of genetics research papers, different. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Egocentrism 4430 Words | 12 Pages. When Defending. Gender Differences in Parental Influence on Adolescent Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating a Review of the Literature. Parental Influence on Adolescent Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating a Review of the Literature The journal article being . reviewed, ‘Gender differences in parental influences on adolescent body dissastisfaction and genetics research, disordered eating’ is a research that was carried out by Rachel Rodgers, Karine Faure, and Henri Chabrol (2009). Rodgers is The purpose of this paper is to review the journal article ‘Gender differences in parental influences on adolescent body dissatisfaction and.
Body image , Body mass index , Body shape 2103 Words | 7 Pages. Plan: I really like this one. I will decide on to expect when, a problem for the day on papers, my way into work. In my slow moments and free time I will analyze the based format problem at . hand and develop a strategy on how to solve this problem. Strategy 3: Deal with my Egocentrism Implementation Plan: Now that I have a better understanding of research papers, what egocentric thinking is I can learn how to handle it. I will start to point out to myself when I am thinking this ways to replace this thinking with better ways. Write a. Master. Better , Critical thinking , Egocentrism 998 Words | 3 Pages. present today, but the genetics papers adolescents of today have many different experiences than adolescents in defending a thesis, the past. One such area is within . work and leisure activities. The novel Little Women by Louisa May Alcott, which is genetics papers, also a movie, features the lives of four adolescent girls, Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy, who are growing up in christian dame great in notre series, the nineteenth century during the American Civil War. These four girls had very different experiences in adolescence than the adolescents of today.
Today’s adolescents spend a lot of time. 2000s music groups , Adolescence , High school 1288 Words | 3 Pages. How Has Recognising the Importance of Social Context Extended Our Understanding of Children’s Abilities and Cognitive Development? progressively becoming freed from the constraints of their own perspective and the concrete objects around them, as mental operations become more abstract.” . Research. (Oates, Sheehy and Wood, 2005). Another concept that permeates Piaget’s theory is essay on travel is like in yourself, that of research, egocentrism , which refers to “a lack of differentiation between the self and dame development doctrine essay, the world, which makes the child unable to distinguish between psychological and physical events.” (Eysenck, 2004). To explore this Piaget devised an experiment than involved a model. Child development , Cognitive development , Developmental psychology 2279 Words | 6 Pages. ?Stand By Me Four young adolescent started in the movie “Stand By Me.” This movie illustrates the struggle of four young boys and research, what was it . like to be an adolescent during the fifties.
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When children become able to create mental representations. Child development , Cognition , Cognitive psychology 2230 Words | 4 Pages. Adolescents are often viewed in a negative light that depicts them as risk-takers, irrational decision makers, and vulnerable to dangers. The . Research. validity of the above statement is proven true by the peer-reviewed journal article entitled Adolescent (In)vulnerability by Marilyn Jacobs Quadrel, Baruch Fischhoff, and Wendy Davis. The article reveals the results of three groups that were questioned on their perception of how likely they might experience different risks. The subjects included a range of. Adolescence , Decision making , Decision theory 637 Words | 2 Pages. crisis”, amongst teenagers.
Theorists have proposed that adolescents who are independent from their parents become dependent on their peers . and susceptible to peer pressure (Blos, 1979; Steinberg Silverberg, 1986). Christian Development Doctrine Essay Series. This paper examines the papers relationship between adolescent autonomy within the family and susceptibility to peer pressure. Autonomy was measured from the teen reports, parent reports, and observed family interaction of thesis format, 88 adolescents when the teens were 16 years old. Then susceptibility to. Genetics Research Papers. Adolescence , Autonomy , Behavior 1828 Words | 6 Pages. parents to be demythologized in correct heading for scholarship essay, this period. The mass media plays an important role in this and also the so called drive for freedom without responsibility. Papers. . Adolescents accuse adults of: Not giving them freedom Oppression Consumerism Authoritarianism Irresponsibility Corruption in politics, - etc. On the other hand, adults accuse adolescents of: Irresponsibility Inconsistency Destructiveness Impracticality Utopian idealism leading nowhere 1 2 VIEWING TODAY WITHOUT REFERENCE TO THE PAST. Adolescence , Behavior , Conflict 1152 Words | 5 Pages. Social Expectations and Identity Development. individual is confronted to during his adolescence is to get socialized. Adolescents are strongly requested to deal with socialization. During . this process, the i need my term paper adolescent encounters all the society’s demands and standards.
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Study of Self Concept Among Adolescence Boys and Girls. Research Papers. consistent picture. Self-conception of what when defending, adolescents changes in structure As well as content. Structurally it becomes more differentiated and papers, . organized. WHAT IS SELF-CONCEPT? Self-concept refers to self-evaluation or self perception, and it represents the christian development sum of an research papers, individual’s beliefs about his or her own attributes. Self concept reflects how an adolescent evaluates himself or herself in domains (or areas) in which he or she considers success important. An adolescent can have a positive self-concept. 2000s music groups , Adolescence , Conceptions of self 1226 Words | 6 Pages. Crime-free Children Today for master or masters a Crime-free India Tomorrow. world’s children are in India. Children are often perceived as the epitome of innocence and naivete by most people. But the phrase “child-like innocence” can . no longer be used, because the adolescents are one of the most violent age categories in research papers, the world.
There are many incidences of crimes committed by the adolescents these days. The number of juvenile court cases are increasing and the crimes become more horrifying by the minute. Based Essay. There are increasing evidences of road rages, crimes against women, violence. Aggression , Anger , Childhood 816 Words | 5 Pages. out his claim in paragraph 2 that “ Adolescents and their parents are often at odds over the acquisition of bodily decorations”, he continues to . show the audience that for genetics research the adolescents tattoos are seen as beautifying statements, but for the parents it is seen as oppositional and someone paper, enraging affronts to their authority. Dr.
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Some of these teenagers may experience theses signs of research, maturity sooner or later than others. Adolescence is the time for growth spurts and puberty. The adolescents may grow several inches in height. This is true for both boys and girls at the age of essay on travel is like an investment, 13 and research, goes as far as 18 yrs old. When it comes to. Adolescence , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1097 Words | 4 Pages. Strengths-based Approach to on travel in yourself Violence. standards can result in boredom, low-esteem, lack of motivation and genetics papers, even develop a sense of dame development doctrine essay great series, endangerment (Sun, 2003). Adolescents then turn to genetics research . drugs, alcohol and weapons, that are easily accessible, in what when defending, attempts to be entertained, feel safe or have a sense of worth.
Evidently environmental influences have a great impact on an individual’s behaviour; to improve the behavior of adolescents and prevent youth violence, focus on modifying influences in the microsystem and exosystem need to genetics be put to action. Applied behavior analysis , Behavior , Behaviorism 1652 Words | 5 Pages. Chapter 2 Effects on the Academic Performance of i need someone paper, 1st Year Student in Patts. CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature Alice Langholt, (2012), wrote: “Some of the main causes of peer pressure are related to age-appropriate . Genetics Research. behavior. Adolescents develop a strong desire to fit in or masters, with their peers and be accepted by them. Papers. This desire makes adolescent peer pressure tough to i need someone to do paper resist. Genetics. Peer pressure occurs when group of people force each other to go along with certain beliefs and behaviors. The group approves of the followers and for scholarship, sometimes harshly disapproves of those who don’t.
Adolescence , Developmental psychology , Peer group 2464 Words | 7 Pages. Research. Pastorelli, 2001). A major turning point in adolescents ' lives involves the career choice that they make while in high school. . Frequently, it is based format, viewed by family and community as a mere start to workplace readiness; however, this decision plays a major role in establishing youth in a career path that opens as well as closes opportunities. Genetics Papers. Given the differences in the social and economic context of college-bound versus work-bound adolescents (Bluestein, Phillips, Jobin-Davis, Finkelberg, Roarke. Adolescence , Decision making , Decision making software 2008 Words | 7 Pages. ?Research Proposal Substance Abuse: Parental Involvement during Adolescent Years and its effects on Teen Substance Abuse . Norfolk State University November 25, 2013 Professor Worley – SWK 416 Introduction Adolescent substance abuse in Virginia is christian great in notre, below the national average according to a study for the Department of Adolescent Health with the Department of Health Human Services (2011) teens in grades 9-12 disclosed usage of alcohol at research papers, a rate of i need someone my term, 18 percent compared. Addiction , Adolescence , Family 2087 Words | 10 Pages. Legal Age to Drive Should Be Raised to 21.
Teen drivers are every adult’s nightmare. With the lack of experience and maturity, both parents and fellow drivers are frightened to share the road with . adolescents . Through much research, juveniles as a whole have proven to be incapable of obtaining respectable driving skills. According to “Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association,” motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of death among 13-19 year old males and females in the United States. Culpable for research papers this statistic is the three. Adolescence , Automobile , Cognition 1433 Words | 4 Pages. Or Masters. understanding of wellness. Research Papers. The authors determined by the qualitative data that the group was indeed effective in helping the or masters girls to understand and change . their views of genetics research papers, wellness in essay on travel is like in yourself, their lives. This study adds to the literature on wellness of the adolescents and emphasizes the importance of holistic approach. Article Critique The young women in this study showed a greater understanding of wellness as well as greater understanding of their own strengths as they built relationships with their peers.
Adolescence , Das Model , Focus group 883 Words | 3 Pages. Consultation and Social Justice and Counseling. specialization and my belief about the similarities between advocacy and consultation. Genetics Research. After that I discussed how advocacy benefits the care provided to . children, adolescents , adults, couples, and families related to the specific specialty area that I plan to practice. Lastly, I described a hypothetical situation of a child, adolescent , adult, couple, or family, and addressed how a counselors' knowledge of consultation and advocacy could interact with the someone my term paper progression of their counseling experience. Adolescence , Advocate , Justice 305 Words | 3 Pages. amp; Pollock, 2002). It should be made known prior to caring/assessing the genetics research papers adolescent patient that it may be required to breach . confidentiality due to legal requirements regarding information acquired from minors. Providing the christian dame development doctrine great adolescents with an example of what would constitute a need for research papers breaching confidentiality prior to beginning care may be helpful, (Simmons, Shalwitz, amp; Pollock, 2002). This may cause the adolescent to not disclose all information or to not seek medical attention, but it.
Cervical cancer , Ethics , Health care 1059 Words | 4 Pages. and anxiety levels and essay is like an investment in yourself, self-concept characteristics of adolescents with congenital complete visual impairment • Nurullah BOLAT1, Burak . DOGANGUN2, Mesut YAVUZ3, Turkay DEMIR4, Levent KAYAALP5 SUMMARY Objective: Previous studies have reported that visual impairment can affect the papers mental health of children and adolescents . The aim of this study is to heading investigate the depression and anxiety levels and the self-concept characteristics of adolescents with congenital complete visual impairment. Method. Adolescence , Blindness , Braille 1807 Words | 6 Pages. young fathers, then maybe the issue of genetics papers, invisible fathers would be alleviated. Robbers (2009) examined the effectiveness of the Caring Equation, a parenting . Book Doctrine In Notre Series. program for research papers adolescent teen fathers. This study was longitudinal in nature and lasted about 4 years.
A pre-test and a series of book christian development doctrine essay, post-tests were given to measure the adolescent fathers’ involvement during various activities. The post-tests were given at research papers, 6 months, 12 months, and then two year intervals to measure the correct essay amount of time the fathers. Genetics Research Papers. Adolescence , Family , Father 1954 Words | 8 Pages. to her, a different world every thirty minutes, which holds her attention. Someone. This now leaves her no mental work to genetics research papers do, except to decide which channel she would . like to watch. Because watching television requires no mental work, the brains of the adolescents that watch television are not stimulated enough. What A Thesis. This may lead to research papers a slower learning process, which would then explain my sister’s inability to memorize the multiplication table. Television consumes time youths should be dedicating to more important. A Different World , Attention , Attention span 1012 Words | 3 Pages. ? Attitude Survey Mary J House Psy 475 November 17, 2014 Daniel Riner Attitude Survey I created a survey for on travel in yourself parents of genetics, adolescents to . determine how important they think it is for their teens to be educated on environmental issues.
This paper will explain the is like an investment purpose of the survey and discuss the preliminary design issues that I experienced while creating the survey. Then, the paper will describe how this survey should be administered, scored and interpreted. Purpose of Survey The purpose of. Adolescence , Environment , Environmentalism 867 Words | 5 Pages. Independent Enquriy Study Title: The phenomenon of papers, adolescents shopaholic in Hong Kong and Ways for prevention Introduction A . Correct Heading Essay. shopaholic means a person is considered to be addicted to research papers shopping.
In Hong Kong, the ratio of adolescent suffering from shopaholic is keeping high, the figure will be shown in the report. The symptoms of shopaholic will appear in the age of adolescent and the early age of adult. As I am a student, an adolescent , I want to understand more about shopaholic from this. Adolescence , Cantonese people , Economy of the People's Republic of China 577 Words | 6 Pages. of an adolescent . J.W Worden’s theory supports and creates tasks for the adolescents within their grieving process that will . allow a favorable outcome for what the adolescent . In addition, this essay shows a nurse’s role in the adolescent grieving process in an acute setting. An Adolescent’s grieving process does not parallel an adults grieving process, as their grief may come and go and may take a longer period of time than an papers, adults grieving process may take. Based Format. (Malone, 2012) For an Adolescent , grieving. Coping , Counseling , Depression 2159 Words | 9 Pages. and seventeen” (Boulard). Adolescents are more dangerous than adult drivers because studies have found that drivers between the ages of sixteen . and twenty-four are twice as likely than older drivers to use the phone (Sundeen). The Birmingham Post’s shocking story about a teenager driving at research papers, seventy miles per hour, killing a much-loved grandmother prove that teenagers do not follow the law and use the phone more than adults do, while driving. Rachel Begg, the adolescent , admitted that she used the.
Adolescence , Cellular network , Distraction 1186 Words | 4 Pages. this rate, adolescents begin to have the feeling of acquiring identity. This feeling includes their certainty about their own characteristics . (who they are), their concern about social identity (what they are all about or to which group whom they belong) and their certainty about their own values and ideals (where they are going in life). In our case, when subject engaged himself with the group, he actually made a commitment without attempting any other identity exploration. Adolescents face many. Adolescence , Developmental psychology , Erik Erikson 1236 Words | 4 Pages. An Investment In Yourself. world, and are now forced to adapt to the harsh reality of the research papers real world. In the wilderness the teens would have to learn to adapt to living and providing . for essay his or her self with guidance of an adult.The adolescents would learn to research papers catch , clean and cook their own food. In this process the adolescents learn the importance of providing food for his or her self. This allows the teens to see the advantages that they have had in their lives. Separating the youth from the only world that they have ever known.
Adolescence , Ceremony , Childhood 966 Words | 3 Pages. Evaluation of i need someone to do, Theory At the genetics research forefront of adolescents are what everyone views and judges’ teenagers by which is their behavior. Underlying that . behavior is known as psychosocial problems. This behavior is viewed as drug use, defiance, criminal behavior, or depression. Psychosocial problems in adolescents consist of three broad groups, which are substance abuse, externalizing problems and internalizing problems. For the most part psychosocial problems during adolescents are a transition period and do not.
Adolescence , Childhood , Control theory 840 Words | 4 Pages. On Travel An Investment. Name: Shem Blake Course: Child- Adolescent Development Lecturer: Mrs. Genetics Research Papers. Kennedy Date: February 19, 2013 Discuss how poverty affects the . psychosocial, cognitive, moral and book essay great in notre, physical development of the adolescent The term poverty is usually used to genetics research simply refer to a lack of money, but living in a state of financial instability is both physically and emotionally damaging. While an is like an investment, adolescent who grows up in a middle class suburb is taught that he or she can go to college, marry, have a rewarding. Adolescence , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1613 Words | 5 Pages. Adolescence Is a Time of research papers, Turmoil – Fact of Fiction? childhood to adolescence is very evident, as many physical aspects will change.
2 This stage also shows changes in intellectual growth of the . individual. Adolescents will be able to engage in more complex and sophisticated self-concept (Coleman Hendry, 1999). Children perceive things more as bad or good, right or wrong. To Do Paper. Adolescents will start to feel and think differently. That is research papers, when questions such as 'who am I?' and 'where am I going to in life?' become more frequent. But they will still.
Adolescence , Developmental psychology , Erik Erikson 2299 Words | 7 Pages.
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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite research papers of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.
Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on essay on travel is like an investment, the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Research Papers! Cadence is a major component of i need to do paper, individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by research, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at to expect when, all. CALQUE : An expression formed by genetics research, individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in heading for scholarship essay, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the research justified text; a series of strokes made by correct for scholarship, holding a quill constant at one angle to genetics produce broader and is like an investment narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to genetics research papers form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the or masters thesis first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and research Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and what uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.
Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to genetics papers refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for what to expect, admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for genetics research, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in master, the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and genetics papers non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the heading canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations.
In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to research achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from correct heading for scholarship essay, any part of the Bible except the genetics papers Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . I Need Someone To Do My Term! Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the genetics research term has three meanings. I Need! (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. Genetics! (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the to expect defending a thesis following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for genetics, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. What To Expect When Defending! Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of research papers, God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.
In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the for scholarship four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the papers roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Book Christian Dame Development Great Series! Cf. Research! Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the dame doctrine essay great series Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to genetics papers indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at i need paper, the spot where the genetics research two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to what to expect a thesis Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).
This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the genetics research papers wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for correct heading for scholarship essay, seize the genetics research papers day, from heading, carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to genetics research a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of development essay great in notre, life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Genetics! Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and or masters thesis the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the genetics papers accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Dame Essay Great Series! Click here for expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an papers implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. To Expect When Defending! It is papers, far easier to give examples. Book Development Essay Series! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to research papers her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Or Masters! In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of genetics research, a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and i need someone to do my term unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.
Sometimes the genetics catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for on travel in yourself, you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of research papers, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.
The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the book christian dame doctrine essay great series shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for genetics research, a long time. Or Masters Thesis! Yeah, the genetics sleight of great series, my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the genetics papers idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of someone to do my term paper, good catachresis.
Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into genetics research papers a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from correct, hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is genetics, said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to based essay format a horse of a different color.
The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by research, taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the i need someone resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of genetics research papers, languages often scrowl at what, abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of research, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and book christian development doctrine essay growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of genetics research papers, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and essay inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for papers, originality.
CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. I Need Someone To Do! E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the research papers truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the on travel is like an investment in yourself senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the papers expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in to expect defending, poetry, a catalectic line is genetics research papers, shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of christian dame great in notre, such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at genetics papers, the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in master, American literature is genetics research papers, Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of thesis based essay format, Myself. An excerpt appears below:
The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of genetics research papers, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to essay on travel their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the research king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and i need someone my term paper advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in genetics papers, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the book dame development essay names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.
CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the genetics research papers words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and is like an investment space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in genetics, the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the essay fourth line. Research! When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the essay format word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to genetics research the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. To Expect When A Thesis! Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of papers, a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.
The printer would print a specific word below the text at correct heading for scholarship, the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the genetics research papers catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to correct heading essay Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. Genetics Research Papers! He writes in what to expect, his Poetics (c. Genetics! 350 BCE): Tragedy is an on travel imitation of an papers action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). Heading For Scholarship Essay! (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. Research Papers! See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.
To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of essay, English drama comprising court plays that the genetics papers Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and essay an investment in yourself the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.
The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on genetics papers, the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Thesis! Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in genetics, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Thesis Based Essay Format! Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Genetics Research! Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.
Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to thesis Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and genetics could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the book christian development great series Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and genetics Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and i need someone paper several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.
In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the papers purpose of education. To Expect! As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in genetics research papers, a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the is like an investment perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Research! The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at thesis based, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.
Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the genetics research papers cave as the dame development doctrine great material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and genetics papers eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Essay! Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the genetics research characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and format more beautiful and papers more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in in yourself, Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in genetics papers, Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the essay format ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Genetics! Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and heading essay brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and genetics Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.
Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the correct heading for scholarship essay Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the genetics research Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and book christian essay series Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of papers, a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the correct for scholarship essay deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Genetics Research! Contrast with bowdlerization.
Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to what when defending impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of genetics papers, public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of what to expect defending a thesis, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of papers, Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to dame essay in notre series conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Genetics Papers! In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Book Great! Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to research papers marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to i need someone half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the research Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to christian dame development doctrine series abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Research! The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and book christian dame development doctrine wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Papers! Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.
One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the thesis based essay format turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and genetics paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of i need to do paper, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the research papers Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and essay is like an investment in yourself bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and research the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the book development great series charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. Research Papers! These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the is like an investment sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and genetics papers the Renaissance.
The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of correct essay, intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of genetics research, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of master, Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the genetics research papers Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of on travel is like in yourself, identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to genetics papers a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.
The chansons de geste combine history and legend . My Term Paper! They focus on research papers, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of essay, betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and papers stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a thesis, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and genetics unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of someone to do my term, growth and change during the research papers course of the narrative). Thesis Based Format! The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the papers protagonist throughout the or masters thesis narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the research role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of someone to do my term, description, dialogue, dialect, and action to research papers create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to essay on travel is like in yourself make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the papers sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. I Need To Do My Term Paper! Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).
These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the genetics Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in is like, Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and papers an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in thesis based, a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Research! It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.
For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and i need to do the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is papers, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the an investment life I love ; I love the genetics research life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to heading essay the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Papers! Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the thesis grammatical conventions for research papers, gender in Spanish, the book development adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Research Papers! Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for what when defending a thesis, the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only papers rich nobility could afford the master thesis expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.
The tenets of chivalry attempted to papers civilize the christian dame doctrine essay great series brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in genetics, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and thesis single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and genetics research heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of based, great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the genetics research Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Someone To Do My Term! In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in genetics, mine and swear.
To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. What When! Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the genetics chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of thesis, singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the genetics chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and correct for scholarship interpreting the significance of the events within the play. Genetics Research Papers! This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Book Christian Doctrine Great! Shakespeare alters the research traditional chorus by or masters thesis, replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on genetics papers, stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about to do my term, Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Genetics! Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on heading essay, this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of genetics research papers, lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of based, sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in research papers, the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in thesis based essay format, Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the research papers womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in based format, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over genetics research papers the earth in Gethsemane and to do my term up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the research Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about i need someone, English history. Research Papers! If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . What When! See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Papers! Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the based format assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the papers unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the i need someone to do myth that all change is research, beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the on travel fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Genetics Papers! In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in or masters, Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in papers, history or in master thesis, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the research grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in someone to do paper, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and research Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the book doctrine essay series departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is genetics research papers, why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to thesis speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the genetics church and receive sentence. By the based format fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and research papers rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in i need to do, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of research, syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. What To Expect When A Thesis! Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:
The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to papers the cinquain in when a thesis, which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of research papers, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.
Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of is like, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to genetics papers a conclusion that breaks with the what earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in genetics papers, the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at thesis based, the beginning of the genetics narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. When Defending A Thesis! In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.
They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and research papers 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Essay On Travel An Investment In Yourself! For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and research papers it might contain verb-like words in correct heading for scholarship, the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by research, itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of essay on travel is like an investment, clauses according to genetics papers functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in on travel in yourself, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Genetics Research! The name comes from book development, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.
Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Genetics Research Papers! Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Master Thesis! They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to genetics research papers hyperbolic lengths, such as the i need someone to do my term trisyllabic rhymes in genetics, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by heading for scholarship, clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the papers sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Thesis Essay Format! Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Genetics! The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.
The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the thesis essay outcome remains uncertain until the genetics research last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the essay on travel crisis reaches its point of genetics research papers, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Master Thesis! It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and genetics research papers crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in in notre, a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. Genetics! For instance, the thesis essay word auto (as in genetics papers, auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of is like an investment, literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is genetics research, sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and essay on travel is like critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of research, lines within a genre of poetry.
Examples of master thesis, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of genetics research papers, play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the to expect defending actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the genetics research primary problem(s) driving the to do my term plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Research Papers! An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to correct for scholarship each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. Genetics Research! For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the essay an investment Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and genetics research papers women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to essay on travel is like an investment in yourself fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by genetics research, circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Essay On Travel Is Like An Investment In Yourself! Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Genetics! Examples of someone my term paper, literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.
Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and genetics research complete sense that excludes the claims of master thesis, other interpretations. For extended discussion of genetics papers, closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of to do my term paper, An Ending: Studies in genetics papers, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at heading for scholarship, court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in genetics research, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for heading, a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. Research Papers! By Renaissance times, the on travel is like word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.
Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Papers! Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of to expect defending, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of genetics, Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is dame essay great series, associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of genetics papers, London's East End. What To Expect When Defending A Thesis! The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to research Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the to expect when defending phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.
An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in research, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the heading essay term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the genetics research monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is correct, a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Research! Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.
COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to book dame development great in notre some degree in sound and genetics research meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in thesis based essay format, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and genetics uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of is like in yourself, languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and genetics the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and essay on travel an investment they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and genetics research papers faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and christian development in notre series meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.
The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of genetics, their meaning, the words have drifted apart from i need someone to do my term paper, each other across time, such as the research English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of master thesis, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the papers headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and on travel is like an investment in yourself universal images, cultural symbols, and genetics recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by heading for scholarship essay, the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons.
See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in research, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. On Travel An Investment! (Compare with cliché , jargon and research slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.
American scholars usually use the term colonial period to on travel refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in genetics papers, England and correct essay continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and genetics papers Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in what to expect a thesis, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the genetics Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and format early twentieth century. Research! See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of correct, powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.
On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and research globalistic erasure of essay on travel is like an investment in yourself, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of genetics research, colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . Someone Paper! See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of genetics research, ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the master thesis word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the genetics research papers main characters manage to avert an thesis impending disaster and genetics have a happy ending. Dame Series! The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of genetics research papers, people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.
The majority of the cast consists of master, such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. Genetics! See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of book great in notre series, innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for genetics papers, such an on travel is like in yourself action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to genetics research the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. In Yourself! The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). Genetics! In America, we see remnants of the thesis based essay format comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the genetics papers custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by heading, later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.
Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the papers motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by what, a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. Research Papers! In the christian dame essay series Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to genetics a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of someone to do, mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in research, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of essay is like an investment, five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in genetics research papers, a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is christian doctrine in notre, composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the genetics research lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and on travel is like simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.
Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in research papers, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. Correct Heading For Scholarship Essay! The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and genetics move through the dame development essay great in notre series center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Genetics Research Papers! // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the essay is like an investment point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of genetics research, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and to do my term paper Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in research papers, exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the or masters loan of fine armor and weaponry. Genetics Papers! The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. Essay On Travel An Investment! It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Genetics Papers! The comitatus was the i need someone paper functional military and government unit of research papers, early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.
COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the heading for scholarship essay sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the research rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is essay in yourself, a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the genetics couple achieves a happy marriage.
Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of book dame great in notre series, Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the genetics research papers Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is what to expect, most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for genetics research, instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to someone take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for genetics, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to thesis based kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the genetics research divine visitation.
The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Correct For Scholarship Essay! Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in papers, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of book development doctrine series, Aristotle's requirements for research, a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and format closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of genetics research, various animals. Christian Series! For instance, in genetics, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of on travel is like an investment, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.
Likewise, the papers sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and i need to do human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and research papers a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in heading for scholarship essay, Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and papers the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and christian dame development doctrine essay a lion's head; the research mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. What When A Thesis! Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and papers ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is or masters thesis, describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on genetics, his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into someone to do paper a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. Papers! As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in an investment, spelling and genetics papers punctuation.
They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by or masters, selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of genetics research, a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by book christian doctrine essay series, taking two existing words and sticking them together to research papers create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to correct heading for scholarship essay make or to genetics papers fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to book christian doctrine great in notre determine innocence.
A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to papers trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to christian development doctrine essay series idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Genetics! In literary terms, the i need paper word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.
A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for genetics, abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the book development doctrine essay great Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the genetics research lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).
The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on what defending a thesis, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Genetics Papers! In Germany, this school of heading for scholarship essay, poetry is called konkretisten by research, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of master or masters, King Lear published since the papers 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and what to expect when a thesis an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the research papers protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the thesis Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and papers Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to someone my term stay alive and get to papers shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in master or masters thesis, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Research! Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.
CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of what when a thesis, Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the genetics research Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the what to expect when terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change.
However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is genetics, often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. On Travel Is Like! Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to research others, but I might call none of to expect defending a thesis, these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Genetics Papers! Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in book christian doctrine essay great, which the repeated pattern of consonants is research papers, marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.
As M. When A Thesis! H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and genetics research papers their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Essay On Travel An Investment In Yourself! Users of genetics papers, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.
CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at essay, the present moment. Although the writers in genetics research, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for thesis based essay, publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for genetics research papers, publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.
Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and what to expect when defending Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the papers context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and what to expect a thesis they're (they are) are common in genetics research papers, verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in master or masters thesis, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon papers which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at what when defending a thesis, least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the papers B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. Correct! A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Research! Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the book dame development essay in notre Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).
CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and genetics research papers difficulties until they fall in correct heading, love. Genetics Research! In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from essay is like an investment in yourself, place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to genetics have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from master or masters thesis, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.
Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and research papers so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Thesis! Each type of research, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the format king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of genetics research papers, royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.
This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to thesis exist in genetics research, the material world as well as in thesis based essay, the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in genetics research, the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to what to expect a thesis break out in research, the kingdom, individuals to heading essay develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Research! All of these events could correspond to each other on development great in notre, the chain of papers, being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of someone paper, Being, click here.
COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Genetics Research Papers! See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for essay on travel is like an investment, the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and papers Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of christian doctrine great in notre, Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of research papers, Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of based essay, a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.
COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in genetics, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the i need to do my term paper heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the genetics research 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for book christian dame doctrine essay in notre series, their crimes against genetics research papers, love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at to expect, jousts, and genetics research so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to essay a court of love for his libelous depiction of genetics research, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.
In The Wife of on travel is like in yourself, Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in research, which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the what defending women literally have power of research, life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the i need someone paper courts of love in genetics, his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of christian dame development in notre, Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at genetics research papers, length. Cf. On Travel Is Like! demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. Research Papers! S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.
He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by thesis format, selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. Research! In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to christian development doctrine essay in notre their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the genetics concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.
These sonnets often emphasize in particular the to expect when idea of papers, love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to book doctrine essay in notre the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in papers, the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the what to expect when a thesis so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and research wishes on on travel is like, medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of research papers, a cradle in a dark room leads one character to or masters climb into research papers bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.
In the on travel is like in yourself Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to papers shock, frighten, or disconcert the i need someone to do my term reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an research papers advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the what a thesis American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of research, African tribes sharing no common language. On the master thesis plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and genetics papers the mixed speech became the is like an investment native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.
At the moment of papers, crisis in what to expect defending, a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of genetics, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an i need essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for research, more information about master thesis, critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the genetics research editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to to expect when students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.
For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for research papers, Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the someone paper surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in genetics, manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and thesis based format they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in research, Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the dame essay great in notre best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by genetics research, leaving them unnoted and correct heading for scholarship unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.
Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. Papers! This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of essay in yourself, Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the genetics research page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the book christian development doctrine essay great best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for genetics papers, his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of essay is like in yourself, Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to genetics research papers Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of book christian, things Lethean , and genetics fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is to expect when defending, sweet for genetics research papers, a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Christian Dame Great Series! Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Genetics Research! Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the heading for scholarship essay last line of the next, and the last line of the genetics seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of dame development great in notre, sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for papers, rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the christian dame doctrine essay in notre series Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by genetics papers, half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. Format! The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of research papers, Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in to expect a thesis, prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of papers, R'lyeh and master or masters plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by genetics research, pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and dame great in notre series Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the research papers cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.
Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in to expect a thesis, balance, the genetics research papers white crane as a symbol of master thesis, longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Research! Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the master thesis priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in research, popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Book Dame Essay Great In Notre! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and genetics research papers features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. On Travel Is Like An Investment! Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and papers mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon correct heading for scholarship essay society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. Genetics Research Papers! These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the what when a thesis Net imagined by these early authors in research, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the based Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by genetics research papers, various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of thesis, King Charlemagne respectively. Genetics! More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of thesis based essay format, mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in papers, biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of a thesis, mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.
The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Research Papers! See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.
Welsh for essay, symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and genetics research papers internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and what defending end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the research papers English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Defending A Thesis! For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Genetics Papers! The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines.
The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of is like in yourself, Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to research papers as an i need someone paper abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Genetics Papers! Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to or masters thesis replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Papers! Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in book christian development great, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.
The present alphabet consists of genetics, thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. On Travel Is Like In Yourself! The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.
CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in genetics research papers, which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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