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Barack Obama#8217;s Columbia University Thesis. Claim: Barack Obama#8217;s thesis for Columbia University, entitled #8220;Aristocracy Reborn,#8221; noted that America#8217;s founding fathers #8220;did not allow for economic freedom.#8221; Example: [Collected via e-mail, October 2009] I saw someone online claim that the following is essay, a quote from Barack Obama#8217;s thesis at education, Columbia contains the following segment: #8220;#8230; the essay children Constitution allows for many things, but what it does not allow is the most revealing. The so-called Founders did not allow for economic freedom. While political freedom is supposedly a cornerstone of the document, the distribution of wealth is not even mentioned. While many believed that the new Constitution gave them liberty, it instead fitted them with the shackles of hypocrisy.#8221; Origins: In academia, a thesis is a typical requirement for a graduate degree (although some schools require a thesis for report sample a bachelor#8217;s degree as well), an original research project submitted by a student on a topic related to his major. Many universities keep their students#8217; theses on file and make them available to the public as library resources. In recent years, theses written by U.S. presidential candidates and essay children their spouses have become subjects of great interest, particularly for the possibility that they might provide some insight into the thinking and mindsets of and continuity their authors, including the essay children disclosure of once-held viewpoints that might be now be considered controversial and disadvantageous to their current political careers (or those of their spouses). Thesis? Accordingly, major political figures have become more circumspect about poverty, allowing public access to thesis their theses: Former First Lady Hillary Clinton#8216;s 1969 Wellesley College thesis on community organizer Saul D. Poverty? Alinsky, for example, was not available for examination by the public during the eight years of her husband#8217;s presidency, and ba degree current First Lady Michelle Obama#8216;s 1985 Princeton University thesis on #8220;Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community#8221; was the subject of controversy when access to it was initially blocked during her husband#8217;s campaign for the presidency. (The Obama campaign made a copy of Michelle#8217;s thesis publicly available in February 2008, and Princeton#8217;s restriction on children access to make essay it was likewise lifted.) Throughout the 2008 presidential campaign (and afterwards), one of the items that was frequently cited as a #8220;missing document#8221; connected with Barack Obama was his own thesis for Columbia University, a school from which he graduated in 1983 with a bachelor#8217;s degree in essay, political science (with a specialization in international relations).

Politico noted in report sample, October 2008 that: There#8217;s not a whole lot of children information available about Obama#8217;s time at Columbia University in thesis persuasive essay, New York, which he attended for three years after attending Occidental College in Los Angeles for one year and from which he graduated in 1983. His campaign would not release his transcripts, and essay it says it does not have a copy of his thesis, which dealt with Soviet nuclear disarmament and which has drawn intense interest. As far as has been determined, Barack Obama did not produce a formal thesis for his degree at Columbia University; the closest match is a paper he wrote during his senior year for an honors seminar in American Foreign Policy. Make Statement Persuasive Essay? However, Columbia University has said it did not retain a copy of that paper, Obama spokesman Ben LaBolt has said that Barack himself does not have a copy, and essay the professor to whom the paper was submitted has said that he no longer has a copy in his possession either: In 1983, as a senior at Columbia in New York, Barack Obama enrolled in an intense, eight-student honors seminar called American Foreign Policy. His former professor, Michael Baron, recalled in on progressism, an interview with NBC News that Obama easily aced the year-long class. Essay Poverty Children? But Baron says he never had any inkling that the gangly senior would scale such heights. [Baron] had saved Obama#8217;s senior paper for years, and essay on progressism education even hunted for essay it again [in July 2008] in some boxes.

But he said his search was fruitless, and custom uk dissertation he now thinks he tossed it out [in 2000] during a move. described [Obama#8217;s] paper as a #8220;thesis#8221; or #8220;senior thesis#8221; in several interviews, and said that Obama spent a year working on it. Baron recalls that the topic was nuclear negotiations with the Soviet Union. #8220;My recollection is that the paper was an analysis of the evolution of the essay arms reduction negotiations between the in creative writing Soviet Union and the United States,#8221; Baron said in an e-mail. #8220;At that time, a hot topic in foreign policy circles was finding a way in poverty, which each country could safely reduce the large arsenal of for black belt test nuclear weapons pointed at the other #8230; For U.S. policy makers in both political parties, the aim was not disarmament, but achieving deep reductions in the Soviet nuclear arsenal and keeping a substantial and permanent American advantage. As I remember it, the paper was about those negotiations, their tactics and chances for success. Barack got an A.#8221; Baron said that, even if he could find a copy of the paper, it would likely disappoint Obama#8217;s critics. #8220;The course was not a polemical course, it was a course in decision making and how decisions got made,#8221; he said. Poverty? #8220;None of the papers in the class were controversial.#8221; So would it provide any political ammunition today? #8220;I don#8217;t think it would at all,#8221; Baron said. Online In Creative? #8220;It wasn#8217;t a position paper; it was an analysis of decision-making.#8221; In October 2009, a purported excerpt from Barack Obama#8217;s #8220;missing#8221; Columbia thesis began circulating widely on the Internet, one which claimed the paper stated that the Constitution drafted by American#8217;s founding fathers #8220;did not allow for essay economic freedom#8221; and custom uk dissertation failed to mention #8220;the distribution of wealth#8221; (a play on children the common campaign charge that a redistribution of wealth was one of Barack Obama#8217;s political goals). Had someone finally turned up Barack Obama#8217;s elusive senior paper? The Pajamas Media web site reported on essay 21 October 2009 that writer/reporter Joe Klein had been permitted to children read the first ten pages of make thesis persuasive it and children had revealed that the essay on progressism education paper (supposedly entitled #8220;Aristocracy Reborn#8221;) included the excerpt reproduced above. However, that claim seemed dubious, as a paper on #8220;Aristocracy Reborn,#8221; with musings about the Founding Fathers#8217; supposed lack of interest in children, #8220;economic freedom#8221; and #8220;the distribution of wealth,#8221; would have been rather unusual content to find in statement essay, a senior paper on the topic of Soviet nuclear disarmament, written for a seminar on American foreign policy. Children? In fact, the putative excerpt was fictitious, something lifted from a bit of satire published on the Jumping in Pools blog back on 25 August 2009: Obama was required to report sample write a #8216;senior seminar#8217; paper in order to graduate from Columbia.

The subject of this paper, which totaled 44 pages, was American government. Entitled Aristocracy Reborn , this paper chronicled the long struggle of the working class against, as Obama put it, #8220;plutocratic thugs with one hand on the money and the other on the government.#8221; In the paper, in which only the first ten pages were given to the general media, Obama decries the plight of the essay poverty poor: #8220;I see poverty in change and continuity, every place I walk. Children? In Los Angeles and make thesis statement essay New York, the poor reach to me with bleary eyes and essay children all I can do is sigh.#8221; In part, the for black belt future President blames this on the current economic system: #8220;There are many who will defend the #8216;free market.#8217; But who will defend the single mother of four working three jobs. When a system is allowed to be free at the expense of essay poverty children its citizens, then it is make persuasive, tyranny.#8221; However, the President also singled out the American Constitution: #8220;#8230; the Constitution allows for many things, but what it does not allow is the most revealing. The so-called Founders did not allow for economic freedom. While political freedom is supposedly a cornerstone of the document, the distribution of wealth is not even mentioned. Essay Children? While many believed that the new Constitution gave them liberty, it instead fitted them with the shackles of hypocrisy.#8221; Pajamas Media issued a notice a few days after its original report acknowledging that the information about Barack Obama#8217;s Columbia thesis was a hoax. Make? Joe Klein also affirmed that he had never seen the paper in question. Last updated: 25 October 2009. Dedman, Bill. #8220;Reading Hillary Rodham#8217;s Hidden Thesis.#8221; MSNBC.com.

9 May 2007. Popkin, Jim. #8220;Obama and the Case of the Missing #8216;Thesis.'#8221; MSNBC.com. 24 July 2008. Saul, Michael. #8220;Limbaugh Falls for poverty Obama Thesis Hoax.#8221; [New York] Daily News.

25 October 2009. Scott, Janny. #8220;Obama#8217;s Account of statement persuasive New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say.#8221; The New York Times. Essay Children? 30 October 2007. Vogel, Kenneth P. For Black Belt? #8220;What Are the Candidates Hiding?#8221; Politico.com. 23 October 2008. Got a tip or a rumor?

Contact us here. Published: Sep 28th, 2012. Essay Children? Did Jared Kushner Register to Vote in New York as a Woman? Sep 28th, 2017 The New York City Board of Elections has said that their computer system is to blame for a mix-up over Jared Kushner’s gender in New York’s voter rolls. Essay For Black Belt Test? Snopes Facebook Group.

Are NFL Players Required to Stand on the Field During the essay children National Anthem? Sep 24th, 2017 Confusing claims about whether the NFL's rulebook or game operations manual specifically requires players to stand on online ba degree in creative the sideline during the pre-game playing of the U.S. Poverty Children? national anthem. Did Donald Trump Bankrupt a Golf Course, Leaving Puerto Rico with $33 Million in make, Debt? Sep 27th, 2017 A viral string of essay children tweets gets some facts right about a failed business venture involving a Trump company, but it also leaves out belt some important context. #8216;Nothing, Nothing.#8217; Aid Lags in Hurricane-Torn Puerto Rico. Sep 27th, 2017 Many of the more than 3.4 million U.S. Essay Children? citizens in Puerto Rico were still without adequate food, water and fuel five days after Hurricane Maria hit. Are Facebook Users Secretly Following You?

Updated Instructions for blocking Facebook users who are supposedly furtively following you are spurious. Ba Degree? Hugh Hefner, #8216;Playboy#8217; Creator and Pop Culture Icon, Dies. Sep 27th, 2017 Hefner, who was 91, died at his home of natural causes. Updated What appears to be a $100 (or $50) coupon giveaway by Lowe's is poverty, actually a scam. Was a Protester Throwing Explosives Into a Berkeley Crowd Before She Was Punched? Apr 20th, 2017 There's no evidence Louise Rosealma was using a glass bottle she appeared to be holding as an incendiary device. Did a 1950s TV Episode Feature a Character Named Trump Who Offered to writing Build a Protective Wall? Jan 9th, 2017 An episode of the 1950s western TV series 'Trackdown' featured a character named Walter Trump who claimed he would build a wall in order to essay protect a town from the end of the world. Did Jeff Sessions Say He#8217;s Amazed a Judge #8216;On an Island in the Pacific#8217; Can Block Executive Orders? Apr 20th, 2017 The Trump administration's Attorney General expressed his amazement on a radio talk show.

Updated Rumor holds that conservative rocker Ted Nugent evaded the Vietnam-era draft by taking drugs and acting crazy during his pre-induction physical.

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Conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants Une analyse en termes de gouvernance cognitive. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Poverty? Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Le capital investissement (CI) s’est considerablement developpe en France depuis une vingtaine d’annees, repondant aux besoins en fonds propres et quasi-fonds propres des PME.

Les capital investisseurs accompagnent ainsi l’entreprise, en qualite d’actionnaires, pendant une duree limitee (sept ans en moyenne). Change And Continuity? Pour pallier l’asymetrie elevee entre dirigeants de PME non cotees et CI et reduire les risques, les investisseurs adoptent des mecanismes d’evaluation et de suivi specifiques, tout en apportant une assistance au dirigeant de maniere a favoriser la creation de valeur. Essay Poverty Children? De leur implication active depend en effet la rentabilite de leur investissement in resume sample, fine qui elle-meme depend uniquement de la valeur gagnee par l’entreprise entre l’entree dans le capital et la sortie. Poverty? Apres avoir ete longtemps plus passifs que leurs homologues anglo-saxons, en raison de specificites culturelles et historiques (Lachmann, 1999; Stephany, 2001), les comportements des investisseurs francais ont change. And Continuity Thesis? Ils sont devenus plus vigilants et plus actifs, en raison notamment des crises qui ont marque le capital risque dans les annees 1990 et au debut des annees 2000 et qui ont affecte l’ensemble de la profession, obligeant a une remise en question des pratiques. Essay Poverty? En outre, depuis une vingtaine d’annees, le paysage du CI a change : les acteurs de la premiere heure ont disparu, un CI regional s’est developpe et surtout le nombre d’investisseurs independants n’a cesse d’augmenter ces dernieres annees (AFIC, 2003). Education? Les attentes en termes de retour sur investissement de ces acteurs, plus importantes qu’auparavant, les incitent a des comportements plus « hands-on » voire « hands-in » selon le jargon de la profession. Cette relation interorganisationnelle de controle et d’assistance etroite n’est pas exempte de contraintes pour le dirigeant. Essay? La problematique des dirigeants d’entreprise qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement est celle de la dependance strategique des ressources mise en evidence par Pfeffer et Salancik (1978). Change Thesis? La these du controle externe de ces auteurs met l’accent sur le role fondamental de l’environnement en tant qu’ensemble multiple au sein duquel l’entreprise peut aller puiser les ressources dont elle a besoin.

Sa survie depend alors de sa capacite a satisfaire les autres organisations avec lesquelles elle est en relation, notamment pour parvenir a se procurer les ressources necessaires. Essay Children? Pour les dirigeants qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement, la question strategique est donc de savoir quels sont les apports mais aussi les contraintes que represente la relation avec le(s) investisseur(s). Essay For Black Test? Cette problematique renvoie a la thematique generale de la gouvernance d’entreprise, definie par Charreaux (1997, p. Poverty? 1) comme « l’ensemble des mecanismes organisationnels qui ont pour effet de delimiter les pouvoirs et d’influencer les decisions des dirigeants, autrement dit qui « gouvernent » leur conduite et definissent leur espace discretionnaire ». Report Sample? Il existe plusieurs approches de la gouvernance. Poverty Children? Celle qui a connu les developpements les plus importants privilegie la dimension disciplinaire du role des actionnaires et se focalise sur l’etude de la repartition des richesses creees. Make Statement Essay? La litterature sur les relations entre CI et dirigeants est dominee par cette approche, ce qui se justifie en partie par l’asymetrie d’information particulierement elevee. Essay Children? Or cette approche juridico-financiere presente un certain nombre de limites. Ba Degree In Creative Writing? D’une part, le comportement du dirigeant, face au controle de l’actionnaire, est largement occulte. Poverty? D’autre part, elle ignore le role de l’actionnaire en termes de creation de valeur.

L’approche cognitive de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2003) considere le systeme de gouvernance comme vecteur des echanges et de la construction de connaissances. Online Writing? Celui-ci doit faciliter la coordination et permettre de reduire les couts des conflits cognitifs, distincts des conflits d’interets tels que les etudie l’approche actionnariale classique. La premiere partie de ce papier est consacree a une revue de la litterature emergente sur la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant qui considere quasi exclusivement les apports des CI et leurs contributions a la creation de valeur mais qui ignore largement les limites de cette collaboration et la notion de conflits cognitifs [1] [1] Les travaux de Korsgaard et al. Essay Poverty Children? (1995), Sapienza et. Belt? . Essay? Ce constat nous conduit a proposer une etude plus globale de la gouvernance cognitive qui integre l’analyse de ces conflits cognitifs – au-dela des conflits d’interets stricto sensu tels que les envisage l’approche classique de la gouvernance –, de leurs consequences en termes de cooperation et des mecanismes de gouvernance qui permettent leur resolution. Sample? Pour ce faire, une demarche qualitative est apparue adaptee et originale dans la mesure ou la majorite des etudes sur la question sont de nature quantitative. Essay Poverty Children? Les resultats de l’etude des entretiens passes avec quatre CI et onze dirigeants d’entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations sont presentes dans une derniere partie. I. Ba Degree Writing? – LAGOUVERNANCE COGNITIVE DES ENTREPRISES FINANCEES PAR CI : UNE LITTERATURE EMERGENTE. Les theories cognitives de la gouvernance considerent que l’enjeu de la gouvernance depasse la dimension disciplinaire et qu’il se trouve dans la creation meme de valeur.

Ainsi les recents travaux developpent le role cognitif de l’actionnaire comme apporteur de ressources cognitives (Charreaux, 2002a, 2002b, 2003) et porteur d’une vision strategique (Martinet, 2002). Poverty? En particulier, la relation etroite et personnelle entre le capital investisseur et le dirigeant semble favorable a un echange et une participation conjointe a l’elaboration de la strategie, ce qui est peut-etre plus difficile dans la situation de firmes manageriales dans lesquelles les actionnaires sont nombreux et lointains. Sample? Apres avoir considere de maniere generale cette logique de cooperation entre actionnaire et dirigeant, une revue de la litterature emergente presentera succinctement les dimensions de l’apport du CI en ressources cognitives et sa contribution a la creation de valeur. Essay Children? En se focalisant ainsi sur les dimensions de l’apport des investisseurs en ressources cognitives et leur contribution a la creation de valeur, la litterature sur la gouvernance cognitive des entreprises financees par CI presente le biais d’ecarter de l’analyse les limites de la collaboration productive et, en particulier, l’existence de conflits cognitifs pourtant bien presents dans les theories cognitives de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2002b). Make Thesis Statement? Le dernier point precise cette notion de conflit sociocognitif. 1. Essay Poverty? La collaboration productive entre l’actionnaire et le dirigeant. Dans une perspective cognitive, le gouvernement d’entreprise est « l’ensemble des mecanismes permettant d’avoir le meilleur potentiel de creation de valeur par l’apprentissage et l’innovation » (Charreaux, 2003, p. Thesis Persuasive Essay? 638).

Tandis que les theories juridicofinancieres conferent a la firme un role essentiellement disciplinaire, l’approche cognitive considere la firme comme un processeur et un repertoire de connaissances. Poverty Children? Elle s’inscrit dans une logique procedurale et non plus substantive, c’est-a-dire qu’elle s’interesse aux processus qui menent a la creation de valeur, non plus exclusivement a la repartition de la valeur creee (Williamson, 1999). Change Thesis? Dans les interactions entre l’actionnaire et le dirigeant se forment les decisions et se jouent la construction des connaissances ainsi que l’evolution des schemas mentaux. Essay Poverty Children? L’enjeu de la gouvernance cognitive est alors l’echange et la creation de ressources cognitives, ensemble d’informations, de connaissances, de capacites theoriques et pratiques, susceptibles de procurer au decideur et a l’entreprise un avantage concurrentiel durable et par consequent de creer de la valeur(a partir de Hoarau et Teller, 2001). Essay? Il s’agit non seulement de cognitions creees au sein du groupe decisionnel considere et utilisees en interne, pour formuler la strategie et gerer l’entreprise, mais aussi de cognitions, informations, signaux, adresses par l’entreprise et son dirigeant a leur environnement, c’est-a-dire aux partenaires financiers, economiques, ainsi qu’aux salaries de l’entreprise. Children? Desbrieres (2005) considere en particulier dans le cas de la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant que l’enjeu est la creation de connaissances a la base de l’innovation et de l’ensemble des opportunites d’investissement. For Black Belt Test? L’investisseur developpe la capacite du dirigeant et de l’entreprise a detecter, voire imaginer et construire de nouvelles capacites d’investissement. Poverty? Il doit par ailleurs proteger et meme valoriser la base de ressources cognitives de l’entreprise et du dirigeant (connaissances, competences, reputation, etc.). A la difference de l’approche contractuelle, c’est la connaissance, et non plus l’information, qui est l’enjeu de la relation CIdirigeant.

La connaissance se trouve en amont de l’information qui constitue un ensemble de donnees qui ont un sens qui depend lui-meme des modeles cognitifs, des schemas d’interpretation individuels (Reix, 2004). Custom? A son tour, l’information peut modifier la connaissance et amener les schemas cognitifs de l’individu a evoluer et a s’adapter au travers d’un processus d’apprentissage. Children? Ceci conduit les tenants de l’approche cognitive a considerer que le veritable role de la gouvernance est « la coordination qualitative, l’alignement des schemas cognitifs et des modeles d’anticipation » (Charreaux, 2003, p. Change And Continuity? 633). 2. Poverty Children? Un apport du CI en ressources cognitives et une contribution a la creation de valeur. A la suite des travaux precurseurs de Mac-Millan et al . Custom Uk Dissertation? (1988) et Sapienza et al . Essay? (1996), plusieurs etudes ont detaille les dimensions de l’intervention des CI, audela de l’aspect disciplinaire. Custom Uk Dissertation? Plus encore que sur le contenu, l’intervention productive des investisseurs correspond a une influence sur la maniere dont sont prises les decisions, sur la reflexion strategique, plus formalisee, systematique et reguliere (Sapienza et al ., 1994,1996; Stephany, 1994,1998). Poverty? A cote d’une influence sur la formation de la strategie, les CI peuvent intervenir dans l’organisation, selon une dimension plus operationnelle (Sapienza et al. Thesis Statement Essay? , 1994), par l’embauche de cadres experimentes (Rosenstein et al ., 1993), l’appel a des conseils exterieurs ou encore par la mise en place d’un systeme d’information comptable et financier systematique (Stephany, 1998; Robbie, et al. Essay Poverty Children? , 1997; Falconer et al. Custom? , 1995; Falconer et al. Poverty? , 1997; Mitchell et al. Change And Continuity Thesis? , 1995). Essay Poverty Children? On observe aussi une influence des CI sur le contenu meme des choix strategiques de l’entreprise. Thesis Persuasive Essay? Trehan (2000) ou encore Desbrieres et Schatt (2002) montrent que les CI encouragent la mise en place d’une strategie de croissance externe. Essay Poverty? Les investisseurs ont aussi une incidence sur la politique d’investissement de l’entreprise par leur implication dans l’evaluation et la decision (Desbrieres, 2001a, 2001b). Les competences des capital investisseurs peuvent s’averer plus limitees en ce qui concerne certaines questions strategiques necessitant une connaissance precise de l’environnement et du marche ou concernant des domaines de gestion autres que financiers (GRH, marketing, droit, etc.). Make Thesis Statement Persuasive Essay? Pour ces questions, l’apport du capital investisseur peut etre indirect et passer par l’intermediaire de societes de conseil.

Le CI introduit dans l’entreprise des conseils exterieurs non seulement durant la phase de negociation mais aussi apres l’octroi du financement, tout au long de la relation avec l’entreprise, pour apporter precisement une aide ponctuelle au dirigeant. Essay Poverty Children? Les travaux de Stephany (1994,1998) montrent que l’appel a des entreprises de conseil fait partie des changements apportes par l’arrivee du CI dans les entreprises. A cela s’ajoutent des apports en termes de reputation et d’image sur lesquels insistent Fried et Hisrich (1995). Essay For Black? L’entreprise peut esperer beneficier d’une meilleure visibilite grace a la presence des capital investisseurs. Essay? La presence d’un investisseur dans le capital de l’entreprise est une garantie concernant la viabilite du projet et le potentiel de l’entreprise, qui peut tirer indirectement les benefices de ce capital reputation. Uk Dissertation? Il s’agit en effet d’un signal pour les differents stakeholders (clients, fournisseurs, banques, etc.) qui, plus confiants, peuvent se montrer moins severes et assouplir les contraintes financieres qu’ils font peser sur l’entreprise. Essay Poverty? Ceci vaut en particulier pour les banques. Resume Sample? Plusieurs etudes ont ainsi montre que la presence d’un CI permettait a l’entreprise de lever de nouvelles ressources auxquelles elle n’avait pas acces auparavant (Gorman et Sahlman, 1989; Barry et al. Essay Children? , 1990; Sapienza et al. Statement Essay? , 1996; Fernandez et Martinez, 1999; Belze et Gauthier, 2000). Les resultats concernant les aspects et l’importance de l’intervention des capital investisseurs ne sont toutefois pas unanimes.

Ceci s’explique notamment par l’importance de nombreux facteurs de contingence (Sapienza, 1992; Sapienza et al. Poverty Children? , 1994, 1996; Elango et al. Custom Uk Dissertation? , 1995; Desbrieres, 2005, etc.). Children? L’apport en ressources cognitives serait d’autant plus important que l’entreprise se trouve a un stade de developpement peu avance, que les contacts entre dirigeant et investisseur sont frequents et informels et que l’entreprise est performante. Belt Test? Il depend aussi du fait que le CI est majoritaire ou non au capital ou encore des caracteristiques de l’entrepreneur. Par ces apports strategiques et organisationnels, au-dela de l’apport financier lui-meme, les investisseurs contribueraient a la creation de valeur (Sapienza, 1992). Poverty? Les investisseurs agissent en effet sur plusieurs leviers de creation de valeur que sont le developpement d’avantages concurrentiels et de ressources specifiques durables, les strategies de creation de valeur financiere et l’amelioration de la valeur percue (Stevenot, 2005). Change Thesis? Les enquetes d’opinions realisees par l’Association des investisseurs en capital(AFIC, 2004) proposent une hierarchisation de ce que les dirigeants estiment etre des facteurs de creation de valeur induits par l’operation de financement par CI. Essay? L’exigence et les conseils financiers des investisseurs ainsi que les conseils en termes de strategie apparaissent comme les deux principaux apports favorisant la creation de valeur. Online Writing? Les dirigeants considerent egalement l’encouragement au developpement externe et l’apport de contacts commerciaux et de marches comme des facteurs importants.

L’etude francaise indique aussi une amelioration de la valeur percue de la societe induite par le financement par CI. Children? Dans une perspective resolument cognitive, Wirtz (2003) propose une relecture du rachat de OM Scott par un CI en utilisant des arguments cognitifs pour expliquer l’accroissement des performances apres le LBO qui serait du d’une part, a la plus grande liberte d’action laissee au management notamment dans les choix d’investissement, et d’autre part, a l’impulsion par le CI d’une dynamique de recherche et d’apprentissage pour developper les competences manageriales. Il existe toutefois peu d’etudes qui mesurent de maniere precise et complete la valeur ajoutee par les capital investisseurs. On Progressism? En outre, la litterature indique des resultats contrastes a ce niveau, les indicateurs de mesure de la creation de valeur etant divers. Children? Plusieurs travaux mettent en evidence un lien entre presence d’un investisseur au capital et bonnes performances economiques et sociales de l’entreprise par rapport a la moyenne nationale (plus fortes croissances du chiffre d’affaires et des effectifs notamment). Essay For Black Belt Test? En France, plusieurs etudes commanditees par l’AFIC et realisees par des cabinets d’audit (1998,2004) vont en ce sens et en concluent une influence positive des CI sur la creation de valeur. Children? Il faut neanmoins etre prudent quant a l’interpretation de ces resultats. Essay Belt? En effet, si l’on ne peut contester au vu de ces derniers l’existence d’une correlation entre la presence d’un capital investisseur et une bonne performance de l’entreprise, on poverty peut se demander dans quelle mesure la premiere est cause ou consequence de la deuxieme : est-ce le CI qui a une influence sur la performance de l’entreprise ou le fort potentiel de croissance de l’entreprise au depart qui a amene les CI a retenir le dossier et a entrer dans son capital ? Les performances meilleures des entreprises financees par CI ne seraient alors qu’une preuve de la capacite des CI a bien evaluer les projets et a selectionner les bons dossiers. 3. Online Ba Degree In Creative Writing? La notion de conflit sociocognitif appliquee a la relation CI-dirigeant.

Meme si cet aspect est encore peu etudie en particulier concernant les relation CIdirigeant, les theories cognitives de la gouvernance accordent une attention particuliere aux conflits cognitifs et axiologiques (lies aux valeurs) (Charreaux, 2002b; Wirtz, 2002). Children? Les conflits d’interets, tels que les reperent les theories actionnariales de la gouvernance, se retrouvent bien dans l’approche cognitive mais, dans cette perspective, ils relevent plus fondamentalement, en amont, d’une difference d’orientation cognitive ou axiologique. Uk Dissertation? En outre, l’approche cognitive s’interesse aux enjeux de ces conflits davantage en termes de collaboration productive et de creation de valeur qu’en termes de repartition de la valeur. Les conflits cognitifs apparaissent dans les interactions sociales au sein du groupe decisionnel ici compose essentiellement du dirigeant et du(des) capital investisseur(s). Poverty? Ces conflits sociocognitifs ont ete largement etudies en psychologie des interactions sociales (Moscovici et Doise, 1992; Sorsana, 1999). On Progressism? D’apres ces travaux, le conflit sociocognitif nait quand plusieurs options ou idees incompatibles sont proposees au sein d’un groupe, en particulier en situations de decisions dediees a la formulation de choix.

Il depend par consequent de « la complexite sociocognitive » du groupe qui est elle-meme fonction de la differenciation des representations et des interpretations presentes dans le groupe, du nombre d’elements partages (Ginsberg, 1990). Rares sont les etudes qui s’interessent aux conflits durant la relation de financement par CI, au-dela des seuls conflits d’interets au moment de la sortie du CI (Stephany, 2003). Poverty Children? Les travaux de Jog et al . Change Thesis? (1991) se distinguent a ce niveau. Essay Poverty Children? En effet, parmi les principales sources de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants, les auteurs identifient d’une part, la strategie, le calendrier de la croissance (conflits sur les objectifs), d’autre part, les pratiques de management et la politique de financement (conflits sur les moyens). Essay For Black Belt Test? Cette etude montre par ailleurs que les conflits sur les objectifs strategiques et de croissance interviennent tout autant sinon plus dans les entreprises a des stades de developpement avances que dans les plus jeunes entreprises. Essay Poverty Children? Au-dela des oppositions sur les objectifs et les moyens, la litterature sur les logiques d’acteurs et les jeux de pouvoir entre acteurs organisationnels ou interorganisationnels suggere une autre source possible de conflit, liee a la contestation de l’acquis et des territoires de pouvoir entre investisseur et dirigeant tout au long de la relation (French et Raven, 1959; Crozier, 1964; Raven et Kruglanski, 1970; Crozier et Friedberg, 1977 ; Mintzberg, 1986; Livian, 1987). Change And Continuity? Comme le laisse entendre le titre de l’ouvrage de Delecourt (1993), Ouvrir son capital et garder le pouvoir , le pouvoir, objectif ou moyen de realiser ses buts, est une preoccupation importante des dirigeants qui s’engagent dans une operation de financement par CI.

D’une maniere generale, l’importance primordiale qu’attachent les dirigeants de PME a leur autonomie a deja ete mis en avant par de nombreuses etudes (en France, Ducheneaut, 1995,1996), en particulier pour les dirigeants createurs ou repreneurs d’entreprise (AFPLANE, 1991). De maniere a favoriser la collaboration productive, le systeme de gouvernement a pour mission de reduire les conflits cognitifs et de valeurs. Essay Children? Toutefois, il est a noter que les conflits sociocognitifs ne sont pas necessairement nefastes, dans la mesure ou l’existence de differents schemas cognitifs sont sources d’innovation et que la construction d’idees nouvelles peut precisement emerger de ces differences de vue. Essay On Progressism Education? Une these initiee par Doise et Mugny (1981) en psychologie sociale soutient en effet que la confrontation de differents points de vue favorise le declenchement du progres cognitif chez les participants a l’interaction. Poverty? Par consequent, il ne s’agit pas tant de chercher a supprimer les conflits cognitifs que de faciliter la coordination et l’echange entre les differents schemas cognitifs. Resume Sample? (Charreaux, 2002b). La vision positive et consensuelle de la cooperation entre CI et dirigeant qui domine la litterature, apprehendee essentiellement a partir d’etudes quantitatives, doit etre nuancee et completee par l’etude des limites de la collaboration et des conflits. Children? La demarche qualitative d’etudes de cas proposee ici permet cela. II. For Black Belt? – OBJECTIFS ET MODALITES DE LADEMARCHE EMPIRIQUE. Poverty Children? LE CHOIX D’UNE ETUDE DE CAS. La demarche empirique de ce travail consiste en une etude de cas. Ba Degree In Creative? Cette methode presente trois specificites qui conviennent a l’objectif de notre recherche (Yin, 1990) : 1) la visee de l’etude de cas est comprehensive et contextualisee; 2) l’analyse des processus sous-tend cette demarche de recherche; 3) enfin, la description approfondie de la situation, qui repose sur la multiplicite des donnees observees, le decryptage de dimensions ou de variables pertinentes, peut amener le chercheur a reconnaitre des regularites dans le processus et identifier des sequences ou des phases qui le caracterisent.

En particulier, nous avons retenu une etude de cas multisite pour laquelle le choix de l’echantillon requiert une attention particuliere (Huberman, Miles, 1996; Stake, 1995). Children? Une methode de recueil des donnees systematique a ete suivie. 1. Ba Degree In Creative? Le choix des cas et des acteurs interroges. L’etude de cas multisite implique la constitution d’un echantillon theorique. Poverty? Les cas sont choisis pour des motifs non pas statistiques mais theoriques, en fonction de plusieurs criteres d’echantillonnage (Hlady et Rispal, 2002). Thesis? Le choix des societes de CI et des entreprises etudiees, qui a necessite une premiere phase exploratoire, s’est efforce de respecter ces criteres (tableau 1). Essay Poverty? En particulier, pour respecter les criteres de variete et d’equilibre, nous avons veille a choisir des organismes de capital investissement de types differents afin d’avoir une representation des « differentes familles » de capital investisseurs (Hugot, 2000). Resume? Parmi les investisseurs rencontres, deux sont des « regionaux » intervenant en minoritaires sur des operations moindres dans des entreprises en creation ou en phase de developpement; les deux autres sont des CI « nationaux » qui prennent des participations majoritaires dans des entreprises a des stades de developpement avances le plus souvent dans le cadre d’operations de LBO. Essay? Ces derniers sont des investisseurs independants dont les actionnaires sont essentiellement des fonds anglosaxons. Thesis Statement Persuasive Essay? Elles sont nommees par la suite SCI3 et SCI4.

Une des societes de CI regionales est filiale d’une banque (SCI2); l’autre, largement financee par le conseil regional, est un organisme semi-public dont la mission est de favoriser le developpement economique local (SCI1). Un premier contact avec les directeurs de ces societes de CI a permis l’acces a des entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations. Essay Poverty? Les onze entreprises interrogees appartiennent au secteur industriel (ou services a l’industrie) et se trouvent a des stades de developpement plus ou moins avances (produit(s) commercialise(s), entreprise en croissance) afin de respecter une certaine homogeneite des cas. Essay On Progressism? Mais ces entreprises different par leur situation economique et financiere, la repartition du capital entre CI et dirigeant ainsi que par les profils et les experiences anterieures des dirigeants. Children? Elles ont toutes connu plusieurs experiences de capital investissement aux stades de developpement anterieurs ou d’autres actionnaires dans le capital (industriels par exemple).

Ceci permet au dirigeant une analyse plus generale et des comparaisons selon les investisseurs et les situations. Essay? Les caracteristiques des entreprises sont presentees de maniere synthetique dans le tableau 2. 2. Essay Poverty? Le recueil et le traitement des donnees. L’objectif de l’etude empirique etait de comprendre les logiques cognitives a l’?uvre dans la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant et d’identifier le cas echeant les limites de cette collaboration, les conflits et les modes de resolution trouves par les acteurs. Resume? Plusieurs questions ont structure notre approche du terrain et ont permis l’etablissement d’une grille d’entretiens semi-directifs.

Une premiere serie de questions portait sur les dimensions de la creation et l’echange en ressources cognitives des interactions entre CI et dirigeant selon les acteurs. Essay Poverty? A partir de la, une deuxieme serie de questions s’interessait plus specifiquement aux limites de cette collaboration : Q1. Essay On Progressism? Quels sont les elements perturbateurs de la cooperation et declencheurs des conflits ? Q2. Essay Children? Quelles sont les sources de conflits ? Q3. Statement Persuasive Essay? Quelles sont les consequences sur les attitudes et les comportements des acteurs ? Q4. Poverty Children? Quelles sont les consequences sur la creation et l’echange de ressources cognitives ? Q5. Change And Continuity? Quels sont les mecanismes de resolution des conflits utilises par les acteurs ? Q6. Essay Poverty Children? Dans quelle mesure sont-ils efficaces en termes de gouvernance cognitive ? Deux entretiens ont ete repetes au bout d’un an report resume, et demi aupres des quatre directeurs de participations des societes de capital investissement citees precedemment et des onze dirigeants des entreprises appartenant a leurs portefeuilles de participations.

Les entretiens ont ete integralement retranscrits et ont fait l’objet, a l’aide d’une grille d’analyse thematique, d’une analyse thematique de contenu cas par cas puis transversale (Huberman et Miles, 1991; Thietart, 1999). Essay? Une telle presentation thematique et transversale des resultats repond a l’objectif de l’etude de cas multisite qui est de decouvrir les aspects recurrents et de distinguer les elements de contingence entre les cas. Change? Les verbatim retenus dans l’analyse qui suit illustrent les principaux resultats obtenus, lesquels sont developpes et justifies de maniere systematique dans la these de Stevenot (2005). III. Poverty Children? – LES ENSEIGNEMENTS DE L’ETUDE DE CAS : LES LIMITES DE LA COLLABORATION PRODUCTIVE ET LES CONFLITS SOCIOCOGNITIFS ENTRE CI ET DIRIGEANT. Les entretiens rejoignent dans une certaine mesure les travaux existants en confirmant la participation des investisseurs a la reflexion strategique. Make Thesis Statement Persuasive Essay? La principale influence des CI relevee consiste a impulser une dynamique a la reflexion strategique dans le sens d’une valorisation a court et moyen terme. Essay? Les investisseurs apportent les occasions, les sujets et les rythmes non seulement a la reflexion mais aussi a l’action strategique, dans le sens d’une valorisation a court ou moyen terme. Report Sample? Concernant la gestion de l’entreprise, l’assistance des investisseurs se limite largement, selon les acteurs, aux questions financieres.

La participation des CI au recrutement des principaux cadres et aux decisions concernant leur remuneration est souvent souhaitee par les investisseurs mais cette participation est surtout le fait des CI majoritaires. Children? En cas de difficultes, les investisseurs, nationaux surtout, peuvent faire pression a la reduction des effectifs (cas de Cable et Four). Les limites de l’intervention des CI s’expliquent d’une part, en raison d’un manque de competences specifiques, de disponibilite des investisseurs generalistes et de leur peur d’engager leur responsabilite, et d’autre part, par l’existence de reticences de la part des dirigeants et de conflits sociocognitifs qui entrainent des blocages dans l’echange. 1. Custom? Les elements perturbateurs et les sources des conflits cognitifs. L’analyse des entretiens revelent dans tous les cas etudies l’existence de tensions latentes qui se declarent en conflits, des lors que les resultats de l’entreprise se degradent et que la direction de l’entreprise ne satisfait plus l’investisseur. Essay Children? Le directeur de SCI2 explique ce changement dans les relations lie a la degradation des resultats : « La mauvaise surprise, c’est le dossier qui evolue mal en termes de situation financiere et on essay for black belt test a tendance a considerer que c’est peut-et re lie a la gestion ou au fait que les rapports ne sont parfois pas tres bons, [et alors] les choses s’enveniment, cela fait boule de neige » (SCI2-E1) [2] [2] L’identifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux. Essay Children? . Change And Continuity? Comme pour les dirigeants de Four et de Puce, le dirigeant de Cable temoigne de cette experience. Essay? Tant que les resultats de l’entreprise etaient tres bons, les relations avec l’investisseur etaient excellentes. Sample? L’element perturbateur a ete la degradation des performances de l’entreprise en 2003 : « Mais la depuis un an essay poverty children, […] on online ba degree writing est en difficulte parce qu’on est a 10 % en dessous du CAde l’annee derniere, – 20 % par rapport a notre propre budget. Poverty Children? Donc la les choses se gatent et nous avons des rapports tendus parce que la on on progressism me donne des conseils et la je n’attends pas apres les conseils. Essay Poverty? » (DCable-E1) [3] [3] L’identifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose. Uk Dissertation? . Essay Children? L’investisseur devient plus present et exerce une certaine pression sur le dirigeant, mal vecue par celui-ci. Ba Degree In Creative? Il se produit alors un changement de gouvernance dans le sens d’un controle et d’une pression accrue qui correspond plus a la logique actionnariale qu’a la logique cognitive de la gouvernance : « Leur interet, c’est que dans leurs lignes de portefeuille, il n’y ait pas un clignotant rouge qui s’allume […].

La gouvernance d’entreprise la devient un peu differente. Children? Il y a une pression qui s’exerce de tous les bords pour revenir dans les resultats. Essay? » (DPapier-E1). Essay? Les dirigeants de Puce, de Four et de Controle temoignent egalement d’un changement de gouvernance, qui s’est materialise, dans leurs cas, par le passage d’un systeme de conseil d’administration a un systeme de directoire et conseil de surveillance. Uk Dissertation? Ceci permet aux actionnaires d’exercer un controle, parfois meme plus formel, tout en evitant d’engager leur responsabilite directe dans la decision strategique. Essay Poverty Children? Pour le dirigeant de Puce, l’interet pour les investisseurs, qui ont impose ce systeme au dirigeant en 2000, est la : « Surveiller et avoir une vision claire de la gestion sans avoir de responsabilite. Online Ba Degree Writing? » (DPuce-E1). L’analyse des representations des acteurs met en evidence des oppositions souvent fondamentales dans les logiques de conduite de l’entreprise. Children? Pour tous les dirigeants rencontres, la logique industrielle a moyen ou long terme est opposee a la logique financiere a court terme. Make Thesis Statement Essay? L’investisseur SCI1 temoigne d’une experience tres conflictuelle avec un dirigeant a ce propos : « j’ai dit au dirigeant qui voulait faire de la croissance externe de ne pas la faire.

Je lui ai dit : “non, tu aurais interet a habiller la m ariee” – vous voyez ce que je veux dire – a degager du resultat, a diminuer l’endettement et a presenter des ratios qui soient se xy, qui soient attirants, pour un acheteur. Poverty Children? Mais le dirigeant m’a dit : “Non. Make Statement Persuasive? Moi, je suis un industriel. Essay? Toi, t’es un financier mais moi je suis un industriel”. Custom? » (SCI1-E1) ; « C’est un conflit qui peut etre avec des mots durs. Poverty? Je m’en souviens bien. Custom Uk Dissertation? » (SCI1-E2). Essay Children? L’opposition entre logique de developpement industriel et logique financiere est plus forte avec les CI nationaux independants que les regionaux : « Il y a deux types d’investisseurs. Uk Dissertation? Il y a les investisseurs de la region, qui eux sont plus interesses a developper l’entreprise […]. Essay Poverty? Et puis vous avez au niveau national des capitaux risqueurs nationaux-internationaux, qui eux ne raisonnent pas comme ca, qui raisonnent uniquement argent. Custom Uk Dissertation? » (DPuce-E2) ; « Je me sens plus proche de ceux qui ont une vision de developpement de l’entreprise ou ceux qui ont un passe d’entrepreneurs par rapport aux purs financiers ou la je dirais effectivement qu’on n’a pas du tout la meme “education” entre guillemets et on essay a du mal a se comprendre.

Une incomprehension favorise la mefiance. Resume? » (DPuce-E1). Essay Children? Cette opposition est de principe et de valeur. And Continuity? Le dirigeant de Controle la qualifie « d’ethique » (DControle-E1). Poverty? Elle est exacerbee au moment de la sortie : « Nos cycles de participations ne sont pas cales sur des cycles de production, de vie de l’entreprise » (CASCI2-E2) ; « [La sortie] n’est pas forcement en adequation avec le projet. Essay On Progressism? La c’est un point faible de notre metier. Essay Poverty Children? Il faut qu’on trouve une solution. Writing? » (DSCI2-E2). Essay Children? Les freins aux investissements a l’approche de la sortie et les pressions pour reduire les couts, renforcees en cas de degradation des resultats, sont juges excessifs par les dirigeants et penalisants pour le developpement de l’entreprise a long terme, ce qui parait paradoxal avec les discours ou les etudes qui concluent a une performance globale superieure des entreprises financees par CI. Change And Continuity Thesis? Ceci a d’ailleurs pose de reels problemes aux dirigeants de Location et Plastique lors de leurs premiers LBO : « Les gens attendent un retour tres rapide et on essay poverty children ne peut pas developper une entr eprise et donner un retour rapide aux action naires. Sample? » (DLocation-E1) ; « Une fois que vous etes arrive en troisieme ou quatrieme annee de LBO, le financier ne pense qu’a sa valorisation en permanence […]. Essay Poverty? Cet actionnaire refusait tout investissement de developpement. Thesis? » (DLocation-E2).

Prolongeant cette reflexion, le dirigeant de Four remarque : « Des entreprises ayant connu un developpement formidable avec des CI, on essay poverty children n’en voit pas beaucoup. Report Sample? » (DFour-E1). Dans ce contexte plus ou moins tendu, la question : « qui peut imposer ses representations et ses volontes ? » a une importance majeure. Poverty Children? Le pouvoir est en effet veritablement objet de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants. Thesis Persuasive Essay? Le cas de Puce illustre le conflit de pouvoir pousse a l’extreme (encadre ci-apres). Essay? Dans ce cas, le conflit a conduit l’entreprise a la faillite. Le cas de Puce illustre les risques pour la collaboration productive que representent ces conflits de pouvoir qui se revelent au contraire destructifs dans la mesure ou ils menacent la base de ressources cognitives de l’entreprise (reseaux existants, connaissances, competences, culture d’entreprise, etc.) (Desbrieres, 2005). Change And Continuity Thesis? En particulier, l’eviction du dirigeant peut engendrer un cout superieur a celui de son maintien compte tenu de son role particulierement important dans l’entreprise et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs. Le dirigeant de Puce denonce le comportement de certains investisseurs nationaux dont la strategie, au fur et a mesure des tours de tables, est de diluer les autres actionnaires, dirigeants et investisseurs regionaux, pour prendre le controle de l’entreprise : « Leur job, c’est de diluer a chaque tour de table les autres partenaires. Essay Poverty Children? […] Au debut, il n’y a rien : il n’y a que du papier et une idee. Change Thesis? [Les fonds regionaux d’amorcage] donnent une bonne valeur pour laisser au patron la propriete de sa boite. Poverty Children? En face, les CI nationaux qui, eux, ont des gros moyens […] diluent au fur et a mesure les autres investisseurs.

Et eux prennent de moins en moins de risques. For Black Test? Quand ils sont arrives chez nous, il y avait deja des prototypes, des contrats RATP. Essay Poverty Children? Mais ils entrent avec une valeur moins grande. Ba Degree In Creative Writing? Ca c’est un effet tres pervers du systeme. Poverty Children? » (DPuce-E2). Belt? Les CI regionaux presents au capital de Puce, SCI2 et SCI1, confirment ce discours. Children? Pour le dirigeant, les principes de justice distributive et procedurale n’etaient pas respectes par les investisseurs nationaux.

Ce systeme de repartition evolutive du capital et la maniere dont elle se fait etaient, a ses yeux, injustes. Parce qu’il s’opposait a cette prise de controle et que l’entreprise ne degageait pas suffisamment rapidement de resultats, les investisseurs nationaux, contre l’avis des CI regionaux, ont procede a une restriction progressive de l’espace discretionnaire du dirigeant jusqu’a reclamer son limogeage : « Il etait tenu a l’ecart des decisions, il a eu une limitation de ses fonctions alors qu’il etait l’interlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients po tentiels. On Progressism? […] Ils ont ete tres vite nerveux, ils ont peut-etre voulu trop rapidement mettre une pression sur le dirigeant en considerant que ca ne marchait pas et ils ont tres vite voulu le remplacer… Ca a cree le conflit sur la perennite de l’entreprise, ce qui a precipite sa perte. Poverty? » (CASCI2-E2). Report Sample? Pour la chargee d’affaires de SCI2, les investisseurs nationaux ont commis une erreur strategique majeure en sous-estimant l’importance du dirigeant de PME par rapport aux partenaires de l’entreprise et en ignorant ses competences specifiques : « […] il etait l’interlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients potentiels. Essay Poverty Children? Plus personne ne comprenait rien. Thesis Persuasive Essay? » ; « Ils ont eu peur, ils se sont mefies. Essay Poverty Children? Ils ont differe quelque s commandes alors qu’on commencait a avoir besoin de nouvelles liquidites pour franchir l’etape supplementaire. Essay? » ; « a defaut de solution alternative il fallait le maintenir la pu isqu’il etait l’interlocuteur des clients. Essay Children? » (CASCI2-E2). Make Persuasive Essay? La destabilisation s’est ressentie aussi en interne : certains salaries eux ont quitte l’entreprise.

Sans faire une generalite du cas de Puce, il semblerait qu’il ne soit pas unique. Essay Poverty? Le dirigeant de Puce aurait eu par la suite connaissance d’une autre entreprise ayant eu le meme parcours et le meme destin avec le meme investisseur national. Custom Uk Dissertation? Le directeur de SCI1 fait le rapprochement avec le cas bien connu de OTOR, grande entreprise de fabrication de cartons d’emballage, cotee au second marche, qui est en conflit juridique avec le fonds d’investissement international Carlyle qui a voulu prendre le controle de l’entreprise, presentant des difficultes financieres. 2. Poverty Children? La reactance psychologique du dirigeant et le cercle vicieux du conflit. Contrairement a ce que suggerent les theories initiales de l’agence, les dirigeants ne sont pas passifs face aux pressions excessives et aux menaces de limogeage que les actionnaires peuvent faire peser sur eux. Make Thesis Statement? On observe un phenomene de reactance psychologique chez les dirigeants qui amene les acteurs a entrer dans le cercle vicieux du conflit. Children? L’identification et l’etude de ce phenomene a ete initiee par Brehm (1966) et developpee par plusieurs chercheurs en psychologie sociale (Doise et al. For Black Belt Test? , 1991). Essay? Il s’agit d’un mouvement de reaction lie au sentiment negatif de perte d’independance et qui se traduit par une resistance a l’influence, a l’autorite et qui vise le recouvrement de sa liberte. And Continuity? Cet etat de reactance transparait dans les propos des dirigeants, notamment minoritaires : « [le CI] peut me dire ce qu’il veut, je fais ce que je veux » (DCable-E1), « ils me servent a ce que je veux qu’ils servent » (DPlastique-E1). Essay Children? Cette volonte d’affirmation de leur pouvoir se traduit dans les comportements des dirigeants. Report? On peut notamment citer le cas du dirigeant de Cable qui reconnait avoir refuse categoriquement de suivre les conseils du CI qui lui suggerait un plan de licenciement puis l’avoir finalement fait « parce qu’il le fallait bien » mais sans le dire aux investisseurs, par fierte (DCable-E1).

Le dirigeant de Location a quant a lui force l’accord de ses CI, au depart opposes au rachat d’une entreprise, « pour le principe », puis, une fois cet accord obtenu, n’avoir pas mene l’operation (DLocation-E1). Essay Poverty? Les dirigeants ressentent le besoin de cerner clairement leurs domaines reserves de decision et d’action. Essay For Black Belt? Ainsi l’intervention des investisseurs dans la gestion des ressources humaines est une question particulierement sensible et est tres peu appreciee des dirigeants. Essay Children? A la question « les investisseurs interviennent-ils dans la GRH, dans le recrutement… ? », le dirigeant de Pharmacie repond violemment : « Il ne manquerait plus que ca encore ! Si un jour ils veulent ca, si ca doit etre comme ca, moi je ne resterai pas actionnaire. Online Ba Degree In Creative Writing? Tant que je suis actionnaire, je controle. Children? Autrement ils controlent mais je ne suis plus actionnaire.

Je ne veux pas avoir 80 ou 90 % de mon patrimoine dans cette societe et laisser un “crane d’?uf” de Paris prendre les decisions a ma place. Custom? » (DPharmacie-E1). Essay Children? Le dirigeant de Controle : « Moi je suis intransigeant la-dessus. Essay Belt? Il y a le role des actionnaires et le role du management et ce n’est pas la meme chose. Essay? » (DControle-E1). Thesis Persuasive? Le dirigeant de Puce se plaint quant a lui de l’intervention des investisseurs dans le recrutement : « L’embauche devrait rester uniquement mon choix. Poverty Children? Quand on change and continuity thesis leur presente des candidats, ca fait perdre un peu la credibilite du president du directoire devant le membre qu’on va recruter. Poverty Children? La on change and continuity est en tr ain de recruter des cadres de haute volee qui se demandent un peu qui est le patron. Et ca c’est tres genant. Essay Poverty Children? » (DPuce-E1). Confirmant la theorie de Brehm, la reactance psychologique est d’autant plus vive que les dirigeants s’estiment competents : « Ajuster un business plan, ca veut dire quoi ? Il y a un probleme de positionnement strategique ? Qu’est-ce qu’on va investir ? Ca, ca ne se negocie pas.

Je ne veux pas negocier ca. Resume Sample? […] Mais je ne vais pas deleguer a qui que ce soit le droit de penser a ma place ce que je peux escompter vendre dans deux ans, trois ans. Essay? Je suis raisonnable, j’ai prouve depuis quelques annees que ce que je faisais avait tendance a se realiser. On Progressism Education? » (DPharmacie-E1) . La reactance des dirigeants est egalement d’autant plus forte qu’ils appartiennent a des groupes differents de ceux des investisseurs. Essay? Les dirigeants de PME regionales considerent que les investisseurs nationaux, souvent issus des grandes ecoles de commerce, appartiennent a un groupe tres eloigne du leur et les estiment plus meprisants que les investisseurs regionaux, juges plus accessibles. Essay For Black Belt? Le dirigeant de Papier decrit tres precisement ce sentiment a l’egard des investisseurs nationaux : « Plus d’une fois, j’ai retrouve devant moi des gens issus de grandes ecoles […] qui paradent parce qu’il a fait une ecole de commerce, [ils font] partie de l’elite de la nation francaise. Essay Poverty Children? […] La maniere dont je vous parle, ce n’est pas forcement la maniere dont vous parle un HEC, un ESSEC que vous voyez a Paris […]. Change And Continuity Thesis? Je me rappelle d’une fois ou j’avais vu deux jeunes c… en face de moi de 25-26 ans qui commencaient a me mettre des mots anglais dans la conversation : « vous comprenez, la votre return on children investment ne respecte pas du tout les criteres, votre core business n’est pas du tout dans la target. On Progressism Education? », je ne le supporterais pas. Poverty? […] Je leur dis : “Vous savez, moi, je suis quelqu’un de PME, je ne comprends pas bien « la target” »… Donc si j’ai ca en face de moi, ca se passera forcement mal. Report Sample? […] Je n’accepterais pas qu’ils remettent en cause ce que je fait. Essay Poverty Children? » (DPapier-E1). Custom Uk Dissertation? Dans la meme logique, l’appartenance a des groupes culturels differents, entre dirigeants francais et investisseurs anglo-saxons, favorisent une reactance chez les dirigeants, particulierement marquee chez celui de Controle. Children? Il ressort de ces resultats que la dimension identitaire de la confiance (Harrisson, 1999) entre investisseur et dirigeant joue un role majeur pour le bon fonctionnement de la cooperation. And Continuity? Le langage est tres important a ce niveau dans la mesure ou il est un signe de l’appartenance a un groupe socioeconomique. Essay Children? En refusant ces codes de langage, les dirigeants affirment leur appartenance a un autre groupe et s’opposent a la diffusion de ses normes par le groupe des investisseurs. Make Thesis Statement Essay? Ainsi, SCI3 constate une resistance de la part des dirigeants lorsqu’il cherche a imposer une terminologie comptable et financiere specifique, de type anglo-saxonne : « Il y a des boites ou ca m’a pris trois ans avant qu’on arrive a parler d’EBITDA. Essay? […] A la fin c’etait devenu un jeu un peu idiot parce que c’etait une facon de me dire : « on essay ne parle pas d’EBITDA parce que, nous, on essay children est en France »… Ce n’est pas normal, pas normal. Sample? » (SCI3-E2) . SCI1 et SCI2 estiment que ces comportements de reactance des dirigeants sont plus marques en France pour des raisons culturelles.

On retrouve ici la logique de l’honneur mise en evidence par D’Iribarne (1989) et les specificites francaises dans les relations au travail marquees par les conflits de classes (Sainsaulieu, 1997). 3. Essay? Des mecanismes intentionnels [4] [4] Le terme « intentionnel » pour qualifier un mecanisme. Online Ba Degree In Creative? de gouvernance peu efficaces. Ces situations de conflit suspendent la collaboration productive. Poverty? A l’extreme, elles vont jusqu’a remettre en cause la relation. Change And Continuity Thesis? Cela se traduit, lorsque le CI est majoritaire, par le remplacement du dirigeant, comme dans le cas de Four ou de Puce, et lorsqu’il est minoritaire, par la vente de ses parts de l’entreprise comme dans le cas d’Interimaire. Poverty Children? Le directeur de SCI3, alors minoritaire, se souvient d’une situation conflictuelle avec un dirigeant de librairies : « Si on change thesis avait eu les moyens, on poverty children serait rentre en conflit avec le management, on custom aurait dit a ce type-la : “vous partez et on essay poverty children met untel a votre place”… On ne pouvait pas donc on online in creative a vendu a un autre fonds. Poverty? » (SCI3-E1). Belt? Cette solution en dernier recours est relativement frequemment utilisee mais elle constitue un echec en termes de gouvernance cognitive, c’est-a-dire de coordination et d’alignements des schemas cognitifs. Poverty Children? Toutefois, avant cette issue ultime, les acteurs disposent de plusieurs strategies de negociation et de mediation. Ba Degree? La negociation est definie comme « une confrontation entre des personnes ou des groupes qui partagent plus ou moins fortement un projet commun : etablir entre eux un accord. Essay? » (Bellenger, 1998, p. Writing? 33). Poverty Children? La mediation est « une negociation entre parties adverses en presence d’une tierce partie, neutre, dont le role est de faciliter la recherche d’une solution au conflit » (Touzard, 1977, p. Report Resume? 87).

La coercition et le chantage constituent des modalites de negociation qui exploitent le rapport de forces pour depasser le conflit. Essay Poverty? Pour l’investisseur, il s’agit d’exercer une menace directe sur le dirigeant ou d’operer un chantage a la reputation, explique SCI1. Education? Pour le dirigeant, il s’agit d’utiliser les leviers d’enracinement largement etudies par les theories du meme nom que sont la maitrise d’actifs specifiques (informations, competences…) et l’existence de contrats explicites et surtout implicites (Schleifer, Vishny, 1989 ; Castanias, Helfat, 1992). Poverty Children? A titre d’illustration, le dirigeant de Cable, qui refuse la sortie industrielle souhaitee par l’investisseur, affirme pouvoir faire pression dans la mesure ou il est impossible de faire l’operation sans l’aval du management dont il s’est assure le soutien en cas de sortie industrielle forcee : « Toute la direction est partie prenante dans l’operation. Thesis Essay? Mais si c’est un industriel, j’ai deja l’assentiment de toute l’equipe de direction. Poverty Children? Tout le monde va se tirer. Thesis? […] Si c’est un industriel, il mettra bien quelqu’un a la place et moi je partirai. Poverty Children? Si c’est un financier, je resterai quelques annees de plus et la je tacherai d’organiser une succession. Make Thesis Statement Essay? […] ca rassurerait le financier. Children? » (DCable-E2) . Ba Degree In Creative? Cette strategie peut retablir en certain equilibre dans le rapport de force mais destabilise la confiance et l’engagement de la partie contrainte dans la cooperation. Children? Elle est contre-productive en termes de gouvernance cognitive. L’intervention d’un tiers neutre (conseil exterieur, management interimaire ou encore mandataire ad hoc ) est une solution souvent retenue par les acteurs rencontres pour trancher les positions ou permettre au dialogue de se renouer. In Creative? Mais, a l’avis unanime des dirigeants et des investisseurs, cette solution est souvent inefficace voire la aussi contre-productive. Children? Elle aggrave le conflit, nuit a la reputation des acteurs et precipite la fin de la cooperation.

Le directeur de SCI4 reconnait ce role au consultant : « c’est le role classique du consultant. Ba Degree? Un directeur general qui veut faire passer une decision a une entreprise, une equipe, il fait appel a un consultant. Essay? » (SCI4-E1). Report Resume? Souvent, la decision, le jugement de l’investisseur, sont deja faits; il s’agit alors d’avoir une validation et la caution d’un tiers. Essay Poverty Children? Mais SCI4 et SCI3 soulignent le risque que cela comporte : « Un patron aupres de qui je fais intervenir un conseil est forcement fragilise […]. Make Thesis Statement? Donc ce n’est pas bien vecu. Essay Poverty Children? » (SCI4-E2) ; « Quand vous avez 100 % dans une boite et vous avez tellement confiance dans le management que vous organisez une visite pour faire le point,… […] L’affectio societatis, la relation de confiance n’existe plus. Change And Continuity Thesis? » (SCI3-E2) . Essay Children? Dans le cas de Puce, le dirigeant a fait appel a un mandataire ad hoc . Essay Belt Test? Ceci a au contraire precipite l’eviction du dirigeant : « […] il s’agissait de nommer un mandataire ad hoc dont le role est d’essayer de rapprocher les parties. Essay Poverty Children? C’est tres simple : le mandataire a ete nomme. Essay For Black Test? Quinze jours apres, j’etais vire. Essay Poverty? […] La reponse ne s’est pas fait attendre. And Continuity? » (DPuce-E2) . En realite, peu de mecanismes intentionnels sont veritablement efficaces pour resoudre les conflits cognitifs. Essay Poverty Children? Seule, la confiance, en particulier le respect de la justice procedurale et interactionnelle, par la transparence, la fidelite aux discours initiaux et le respect du pacte d’autonomie, permettent de renouer avec les fondements de la cooperation et de reduire la complexite sociocognitive du groupe. On Progressism? Dans le cas de Four, ce qui a permis aux acteurs de conserver une certaine confiance malgre les difficultes et les erreurs commises de part et d’autre tient precisement a l’experience des comportements qu’a eue chacune des parties de l’autre : « J’ai vu leurs comportements a eux dans les periodes de crise, ils ont vu mon comportement dans les periodes de crise.

C’est la que se batit la confiance. Essay Children? […] [Leur comportement] a ete parfait. Resume Sample? Il a ete excellent. Essay Poverty? […] d’un point de vue ethique, parfait. Make Statement Essay? Comme je pense que de mon cote, d’un point de vue ethique, j’ai ete bien aussi. Essay Poverty? On s’est retrouve sur ce terrain-la. Report Resume Sample? » (DFour-E1). Essay Poverty? Ainsi, les relations directes, frequentes et informelles non seulement permettent a l’investisseur un meilleur controle mais aussi favorisent la collaboration productive et la regulation des conflits cognitifs. Uk Dissertation? Le dirigeant de Papier accorde beaucoup d’importance aux rencontres frequentes avec les investisseurs qui permettent les echanges : « La situation est telle que tous les deux mois, je leur rends compte donc il y a echange. Children? » (DPapier-E1). In Creative? Dans le cas de Four, pour eviter de repeter les erreurs passees, les rencontres entre SCI3 et le dirigeant de Four, limoge puis finalement rappele par l’investisseur, sont devenues beaucoup plus frequentes : « Maintenant on essay poverty children se voit tous les mois. Essay For Black Belt? Ce n’etait pas le cas il y a six mois. Essay Children? C’est beaucoup.

Ce qui permet de se dire beaucoup plus de choses. Change? Parce que tous les six mois, vous ne pouvez pas rentrer dans le detail des choses. Essay Poverty Children? Donc il faut se voir plus souvent. Report Resume Sample? Une fois que vous laissez les choses passer, c’est impossible de rattraper. Essay Children? » (DFour-E1). Les travaux pionniers qui etudient la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant sous l’angle cognitif, suggerent une collaboration productive relativement forte entre ces acteurs tout au long de l’operation de financement meme si elle apparait contingente. Online In Creative Writing? L’etude empirique menee ici invite a nuancer l’importance de l’echange et de la creation de ressources cognitives dans les interactions entre dirigeants et investisseurs. Essay Poverty Children? Ceci est du non seulement a un manque de competences specifiques des CI pour les questions autres que celles relevant de l’analyse financiere et a une peur de leur part d’engager leur responsabilite mais aussi et surtout a l’existence de conflits sociocognitifs latents, qui se declarent pour peu que les resultats ou les comportements du dirigeants ne satisfont pas l’investisseur. And Continuity? La logique disciplinaire liee au changement de gouvernance qui se produit alors vient en contradiction avec la logique cognitive dans la mesure ou elle s’accompagne d’un renforcement des relations d’autorite, de controle, d’une activation des clauses contractuelles et ainsi d’une remise en cause du pacte d’autonomie si cher aux dirigeants quels que soient leur profil et leurs experiences anterieures. Poverty? Les conflits portent sur les objectifs et les moyens pour y parvenir, la logique industrielle etant, selon les dirigeants, inevitablement opposee a la logique financiere a horizon de sortie de l’investisseur. Online In Creative? Le pouvoir devient alors souvent enjeu de conflit soit directement en tant que but du conflit, soit en tant que moyen pour imposer ses volontes. Essay? On observe de la part de certains investisseurs independants majoritaires des tentatives de prise de controle agressives qui remettent en cause la cooperation avec le dirigeant et parfois destabilisent l’entreprise en interne et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs a tel point qu’elle n’est plus viable.

Ces conflits cognitifs ont des incidences sur les attitudes et les comportements des dirigeants. Report Resume? Les dirigeants temoignent d’une reactance psychologique aigue vis-a-vis des CI qui oriente leurs comportements vers le recouvrement de leur liberte lorsqu’ils estiment celle-ci menacee. Poverty? Ceci limite les capacites des CI a intervenir dans la strategie et certains domaines de la gestion de l’entreprise, tels que la GRH. Resume Sample? Peu de mecanismes intentionnels de gouvernance permettent de reguler ces conflits. Essay Children? Le chantage et la coercition pas plus que la mediation ne sont des solutions efficaces. Report Resume? En revanche, les dimensions sociales et psychologiques qui fondent la confiance entre CI et dirigeant limitent le risque de conflit et favorisent leur depassement le cas echeant.

En particulier, la logique identitaire de la confiance ainsi que le respect de la justice procedurale par la transparence, des relations frequentes et informelles et l’autonomie laissee au dirigeant jouent des roles majeurs a ce niveau. Certes, aucune generalisation des resultats n’est possible en raison du petit nombre de cas consideres. Poverty Children? De plus, certains resultats peuvent dependre du caractere relativement avance des entreprises etudiees. Report Sample? On peut penser notamment que l’intervention directe et l’influence des CI sur la GRH est plus importante dans des entreprises plus jeunes, en creation. Children? Plusieurs travaux ont deja mis en evidence que l’implication globale des investisseurs depend du stade de developpement de l’entreprise ainsi que de l’experience de ses dirigeants (Sapienza, Gupta, 1994; Gorman, Sahlman, 1989). Writing? En revanche, l’etat de reactance psychologique du dirigeant y est probablement plus faible.

Un interet de ce travail a ete de mettre en evidence l’existence de conflits d’ordre cognitifs, psychologiques et axiologiques qui affectent la collaboration productive, phenomene peu etudie jusqu’a present. En termes d’implications operationnelles, ces resultats invitent les acteurs en jeu a une plus grande vigilance aux dimensions sociales et psychologiques de la relation de financement par CI. Poverty? En outre, cette etude souligne l’importance de l’encastrement social de la relation CI-dirigeant pour reprendre le terme de Granovetter (2000). Custom Uk Dissertation? Les theories neo-institutionnelles sociologiques pourraient ainsi offrir un eclairage pertinent a l’analyse de cette relation. Essay Poverty? De plus, cette etude suggere une opposition dans les logiques disciplinaires et cognitives de la gouvernance, ces dernieres s’interessant a la creation de valeur plutot qu’a la repartition de la valeur entre actionnaires et dirigeant. Online In Creative? Il conviendra d’analyser plus avant, dans des travaux ulterieurs, les liens entre ces logiques en vue d’une analyse synthetique de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement. Essay Poverty? L’hypothese selon laquelle les conflits cognitifs, lorsqu’ils sont depasses et resolus, peuvent etre constructifs et s’accompagner de la creation de ressources cognitives qui n’a pas ete observee au travers de l’etude de cas meriterait, elle aussi, de nouvelles recherches.

Les travaux de Korsgaard et al . Report Resume? (1995), Sapienza et Korsgaard (1996), Busenitz et al . Essay Poverty? (1997) ainsi que Buzenitz et al . Persuasive Essay? (2004) sont les premiers a s’interesser aux aspects cognitifs et psychologiques qui peuvent influencer la qualite de la relation en s’interessant au sentiment de justice procedurale dans la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant. L’identifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux elements : le nom de la societe de capital investissement a laquelle appartient le representant interroge (ici SCI2) et le numero de l’entretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Essay Poverty? Dans le cas de SCI2, une distinction est faite lors du second entretien entre le directeur (DSCI2-E2) et la chargee d’affaire (CASCI2-E2). L’identifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose de deux elements : le nom du dirigeant de l’entreprise (ici DCable) et le numero de l’entretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Le terme « intentionnel » pour qualifier un mecanisme de gouvernance est inspire de la typologie de Charreaux (1997, p.427). Resume? Il renvoie ici aux mecanismes decides par les individus. La plupart des travaux qui etudient la dimension cognitive de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement (CI), essentiellement de nature quantitative, se focalisent sur l’aide a la strategie et a la gestion des investisseurs mais ignorent les limites de la collaboration productive, liees notamment a la possibilite de conflits cognitifs.

Au travers d’une demarche empirique originale d’etude qualitative de onze cas, cet article s’interroge sur ces limites, analyse les sources et les manifestations des conflits cognitifs ainsi que leurs consequences sur la collaboration productive. Essay? Il etudie egalement les mecanismes de resolution de ces conflits. Conflicts between venture capitalists and make thesis persuasive essay, CEOs. Essay Children? The cognitive governance view Most of the essay on progressism education, studies about the poverty, cognitive governance of report firms financed by children Venture Capital are quantitative and essay, focussed on poverty children the influence of thesis statement essay VCs on essay poverty children firms’strategy and in creative writing, management. Poverty? But few studies deal with the on progressism education, limits of essay poverty children productive collaboration and and continuity, cognitive conflicts between Venture Capitalist and children, CEO. Thesis? On the essay poverty children, basis of change original empirical qualitative case studies, this research underlines those limits. Essay Poverty Children? It analyses the resume, reasons why conflicts occur and essay poverty children, shows their consequences on report sample productive collaboration. Essay Poverty Children? This paper studies also the for black, mechanisms which help to children regulate conflicts.

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5th September is the birthday of a great teacher Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, who was a staunch believer of education, and was the well-known diplomat, scholar, president of India and above all a teacher. Statement Essay? The day commemorates the birthday of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakhrishnan, a philosopher and a teacher par excellence, and. Education , India , Rajendra Prasad 713 Words | 3 Pages. BOXING DAY 1. When is poverty Boxing Day ? - In Britain, Boxing Day is usually celebrated on the following . day after Christmas Day , which is report resume 26 December. - Like Christmas Day , Boxing Day is a public holiday. Essay Poverty Children? This means everybody doesn’t have to go to school or work on change and continuity that day . If Boxing Day falls on Saturday or Sunday, the following Monday is the Boxing Day . 2. History of Boxing Day . Why is it called Boxing Day ? a) To protect ships: - During the Age of Exploration, when the ships started to poverty discover. Bank holiday , Boxing , Christmas 910 Words | 3 Pages. Father's Day is make essay a widely known celebration honoring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and essay poverty, the influence of fathers in . society. It is celebrated on the third Sunday of June in many countries and on other days elsewhere. It complements Mother's Day , the celebration honoring mothers. Uk Dissertation? Contents[hide] * 1 History * 1.1 Commercialization * 2 Spelling * 3 Dates around the world * 4 International history and traditions * 4.1 Argentina * 4.2 Australia * 4.3.

Father , Father's Day , Fatherhood 1263 Words | 4 Pages. Poverty Children? Origins The earliest May Day celebrations appeared in pre-Christian times, with the festival of Flora, the Roman goddess of change flowers, and . the essay poverty children Walpurgis Night celebrations of the Germanic countries. Change And Continuity Thesis? It is also associated with the Gaelic Beltane. Many pagan celebrations were abandoned or Christianized during the process of conversion in Europe. A more secular version of May Day continues to be observed in Europe and America. In this form, May Day may be best known for its tradition of dancing the maypole. Beltane , Blessed Virgin Mary , Labour Day 786 Words | 3 Pages. ?“Half a Day ” By Naguib Mahfouz Questions and activities from Glencoe collection. Complete work on this form and save into our class folder . on the Group Drive.

Type answers using a different font color. Write complete sentences. Click the following link to read the short story. “Half a Day ” Answer the following questions. 1. Children? How does the narrator feel about going to school as he walks with his father? 2. What positive experiences does the narrator have at school? What negative experiences. Cairo , Egypt , Fiction 555 Words | 3 Pages. Earth Day Our earth is and continuity a pleasant place, where everything is found, everything that we love, and everything that we please, including our . own understanding. Essay? Earth day is thesis statement persuasive not only poverty children, about us, as human beings occupying the world around us. It is about our planet, our universe, and our mother earth.

Earth day was first celebrated in 1970, 43 years ago, it is celebrated in 192 countries around the world. Online Ba Degree? Earth day was celebrated at our school on the 22nd of April 2013. This year was quite different. Poverty Children? Earth , Planet , Recycling 802 Words | 3 Pages. ?WE DAY 2013! I think that my attendance at WE Day 2013 will have a positive impact on our school this year because I . believe that if I go, I will be able to take information and bring it back to test the school and try to make a change, locally and essay poverty, even globally.

I believe that this is essay education a huge opportunity. I love going to events like these because when I come back from them, I implement what I have learnt so that it’s beneficial for our school. I haven’t been involved with ME to WE but I. Demi Lovato , Education , English-language films 1021 Words | 3 Pages. RELG 314 – Term Paper The Day of the Lord April 8, 2011 Kristopher Susilo 36951101 What would it be like during the second coming of . Jesus Christ? Many Christian believers have been waiting for this time to poverty children come. It is not known when the make thesis persuasive essay Lord decides to visit the earth again.

The second coming of Jesus Christ, also known as The Day of the Lord, is a special term in poverty children, the Bible used to make thesis persuasive refer to a period of time when God directly intervene with human life. For Christian believers that have remained. Bible , Earth , End time 798 Words | 3 Pages. Father’s Day is children a day out of the year when kids give their fathers gifts and presents and and continuity thesis, the one great thing, which is love. . Father’s day is only one day , but what about the children other 364 days of the year? Do you just sit around and not love your dad? Father’s Day should be every day because fathers give and do a lot to and continuity help their kids. Father’s Day means a lot to me because I can spend a whole 24 hours with my dad! My dad and I might go to the movies, we might play sports, we go to eat, and we might. Calvin Coolidge , Family , Father 763 Words | 3 Pages. ?26th of January 1950 was the day when India got its own constitution and became biggest democratic nation of the world. Since then this . day has been celebrated as national festival and called as Republic day of India. In this essay we have provided, not only the glimpse of Republic day celebration but also interesting images for attraction of kids.

Republic Day of India India is the world's biggest democratic nation. Poverty? Though India got freedom against British rule on 15th of August 1947. Constitution of essay on progressism education India , Delhi , Democracy 663 Words | 3 Pages. Teachers' Day In some countries, Teachers' Days are intended to be special days for the appreciation of teachers. . World Teacher’s Day is celebrated across the world on October 5th[1], with great verve and enthusiasm. Ever since the importance of teachers has been recognized by UNESCO, by essay poverty adopting the thesis “Recommendation concerning the status of teachers”, World Teacher’s Day has been celebrated annually. This includes celebrations to poverty children honor the teachers for custom, their special contribution in a particular. Education , History of education , John Amos Comenius 2321 Words | 7 Pages. of Labor Day For other Labor Day information, visit our Labor Day 2011 page.

Labor Day : How it . Came About; What it Means Labor Day , the first Monday in September, is a creation of the labor movement and essay children, is dedicated to the social and economic achievements of report resume American workers. It constitutes a yearly national tribute to the contributions workers have made to essay children the strength, prosperity, and essay, well-being of our country. Founder of Labor Day More than 100 years after the first Labor Day observance. Essay? American Federation of resume Labor , Labor Day , Labour Day 1017 Words | 3 Pages. Republic Day (India) From Wikipedia, the essay children free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Republic Day Soldiers of the persuasive essay Madras . Regiment during the essay annual Republic Day Parade in 2004 Observed by India Type National Date 26 January Celebrations Parades, distribution of sweets in schools and cultural dances In India, Republic Day honors the change and continuity thesis date on which the essay children Constitution of India came into force replacing the Government of India Act 1935 as the governing document of India on 26 January 1950.

British Raj , Constitution of India , Government of India 1999 Words | 5 Pages. ?Patriot Day Patriot Day is the most important holiday of the uk dissertation year because on this day , not only do we remember the . people that were killed in the worst terrorist attack on poverty American soil, we also honor those who serve and have given their lives in the fight against terrorism. Essay Belt? On September 11, 2001, four planes were hijacked; two of the planes hit the twin towers of the essay poverty World Trade Center, one hit the Pentagon, and the other crashed in a field in Pennsylvania (https://www.daysoftheyear.com/ days /patriot-day/). Attack , Attack! , Islam 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Children Day 14th November In India, Children's day is celebrated on the 14th November every year. As a tribute Children's . Day is change and continuity thesis celebrated on the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru's birthday. Lovingly called 'Chacha Nehru' which means Uncle Nehru by the kids, Jawaharlal Nehru gave emphasis to the significance of poverty giving love and affection to children, who are the bright future of make thesis statement India.

The main purpose of this day is to encourage the welfare of children all over the country. . Gulzarilal Nanda , India , Indian National Congress 933 Words | 2 Pages. Earth Day Some people who talk about the environment talk about essay poverty, it as though it involved only a question of clean air and clean water. The . environment involves the whole broad spectrum of man's relationship to all other living creatures, including other human beings. It involves the environment in its broadest and deepest sense. It involves the environment of the ghetto which is the custom uk dissertation worst environment, where the children worst pollution, the worst noise, the thesis persuasive essay worst housing, the worst situation in this country. Poverty? Earth , Earth Day , Environment 929 Words | 3 Pages. Report? Melissa Rivera English 1102 Mrs. Goodwin Half a Day Symbolism is defined as a specific word, idea, or objects that stand for ideas, . values, persons or ways of essay children life.

On the story “Half a Day ”, symbolism is ba degree in creative writing used to help understand what is really happening in the story. The school day representing life itself, the teacher representing how life can be hard and easy, and the title “Half a Day ”, representing how life itself passes quickly are a few symbols that help us understand what that. Boy , Death , Egypt 881 Words | 3 Pages. That Fateful Day I remember that day , long ago from essay, my childhood. It was warm the night before, nearly 80 degrees, so I had . left my window open. The morning winds where rushing through my school work on make persuasive the desk. Black and white squiggles on children seven pieces of paper, every one of sample them part of an accumulation of the last two weeks of essay poverty homework. I needed them to get any kind of decent grade in my first weeks of the fourth grade. “It’s Tuesday today dad.” I said tentatively to my father. He just stood. Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Homework 1351 Words | 4 Pages. D- Day Silas Hanegraaf The commendable victory of the D- day invasion was due to an important location; this location . neutralized the resume Nazi army because the essay poverty children Allied powers had many supplies stored in custom, Great Britain to prepare for the attack.

D- day proved to be one of the most powerful invasions in history since it was a monolithic turning point of essay children World War II. D- day proved to be important because of the outstanding overtaking of Omaha Beach and the massive death toll that occurred on that monumental. For Black? Adolf Hitler , Allies , Allies of World War II 1835 Words | 5 Pages. day chocolate company essay Introduction This paper is dealing with the Day Chocolate Company, which has been first established . in essay poverty, 1993 by a co-operative set of make essay Ghanaian farmers. Thanks to liberalization of the cocoa market in Ghana (1990s) the first step of export was made. Because of the fact that farmer's benefits were not thought of by poverty children the governmental cocoa agent, the need for a cocoa agent became obvious.

This is why the ba degree in creative writing Kuapa Koko was established in children, 1993 to appeal to for black belt the benefits for the. Brand , Brand management , Chocolate 2543 Words | 7 Pages. Poverty? When I was first asked to give a talk on mothers, since it would be mother’s day . I started wondering how Mother’s Day came to . Online Writing? be. I was surprised to essay discover that Mother’s Day has a history longer than Christianity! Ancients celebrated Isis (Mother of the Pharaohs), Rhea (Greek Mother of the change and continuity thesis Gods), and Cybele (The Great Mother). The worship of these ancient goddesses is similar to the reverence we show to Mary, Jesus’ mother as these Mother Goddesses are often depicted with a baby in arms. . Cybele , Father's Day , Great Mother 1882 Words | 5 Pages. MARTYRS DAY The Nation pays homage to the martyrs who suffered and died for the freedom, welfare, and essay poverty children, progress of the uk dissertation country, on essay poverty children January 30 . every year. It was on January 30, 1948 that Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated a little before the for black belt sunset when he was going to attend his evening prayers. Gandhiji was the greatest among the lakhs and lakhs of martyrs and children, freedom fighters who sacrificed everything for the country’s Independence, welfare andprogress. Since Gandhiji’s martyrdom. Bhagavad Gita , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 1195 Words | 5 Pages. ?Clara’s Day This short story by Penelope Lively called “Clara’s Day ” discusses how a fifteen-year-old girl tries to find . herself while she tries to live up to her mother’s expectation.

This assignment will discuss the characterization of Clara, the relationship between Clara and her mother, the report sample theme identity in both the story and a picture by Niels Strobek called “A double life of the artist’s wife” and why Penelope Lively has chosen to call the short story “Clara’s Day ”. “Clara’s Day ” takes. Essay? Do the Right Thing , Fiction , Penelope Lively 1328 Words | 3 Pages. Earth Day Founded in 1970 as a day of education about report resume sample, environmental issues, Earth Day is now a globally . celebrated holiday that is sometimes extended into Earth Week, a full seven days of events focused on green awareness. The brainchild of Senator Gaylord Nelson and inspired by the antiwar protests of the late 1960s, Earth Day was originally aimed at creating a mass environmental movement. It began as a national teach-in on the environment and was held on April 22 to maximize the number of. Earth , Earth Day , Environmentalism 1388 Words | 5 Pages. ?History Essay ‘Thirteen Days ’ Words: 825 Thirteen Days , a semi-bibliography of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the steps the . American Government took to avoid a nuclear war. In 1962 Fidel Castro agreed to the placing of poverty children nuclear missiles belonging to the Soviets in Cuba. All placing of these missiles was done in secrecy, however on October 14th an American U2 plane took photographs of the missile site and the American Government was immediately informed. Thirteen Days follows the perspective of. Cold War , Cuba , Cuban Missile Crisis 834 Words | 3 Pages. On Progressism? they cry when it is their first day at school away from essay poverty, their parents, they giggle when they mingle with their buddies, and they signify . nothing but the pure and faithful love.

They truly symbolise god. 14th November is celebrated as children's day in all over India. 14th November is also the birthday of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India. Childhood memories are sweetest of all. Ba Degree In Creative? They can be savored for a lifetime. Children's day celebration is fun for children, the little. Gulzarilal Nanda , India , Indian National Congress 720 Words | 3 Pages. 1 EARTH DAY SKIT: “How Earth Day Began” This skit can be performed at uk dissertation an Earth Day assembly for an entire school . or a single class Scene 1: At Home________________________________________________ A student returns home from school. While eating dinner, she discusses her day with her parents. The end of April is approaching and her school [insert your school name] is preparing for its Earth Week festivities. Teachers and students have been talking about the week’s event and she can’t wait –. Air pollution , All rights reserved , Copyright 1400 Words | 4 Pages.

Cathey The Day of essay children Yahweh The Day of Yahweh is the day that most people associate with a period of time or a . certain day that will occur when God’s will and purpose for His world and for mankind will be fulfilled. Custom? Some people believe that the day of the Lord will be a longer period of time than a single day - a period of time when Christ will reign throughout the world before He cleanses heaven and earth in essay poverty children, preparation for the eternal promise of all mankind. Other scholars believe the day of the Lord. Bible , Christian terms , God 1146 Words | 3 Pages. Valentine’s Day Valentines Day is a day to express your love, and to celebrate the spirit of love. Every . year, the fourteenth day of the month of February has millions across the change thesis world presenting their loved ones with candy, flowers, chocolates and other lovely gifts. In many countries, restaurants and essay poverty, eateries are seen to be filled with couples who are eager to celebrate their relationship and the joy of their togetherness through delicious cuisines. There hardly seems to be a young man. Online Ba Degree Writing? Chocolate , Cupid , Greeting card 1638 Words | 5 Pages. Children? Pg.1 The First Day The story is for black test narrated by essay an adult female who tells the story of essay belt test her first day of school, when she was . still very young and unfortunately, throughout the years, has become ashamed of her mother.

The question is: does her first day occur “long before” she “learned to poverty children be ashamed” of her mother? Or is she learning to be ashamed before the custom story ends? In order to give an answer we must first understand what is the narrator ashamed of. The set-up for the beginning of the story. Education , Learning , Narrator 1068 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Children? Dear brothers and sisters, India celebrates our 63nd Republic Day which is one of three national days in India.

Commonly 63rd . Republic Day is a public holiday in online ba degree writing, most of the countries to essay children honor the day on which the country first became republics. In such some are Commonwealth countries, the uk dissertation British sovereign was ruling the state until the change of status. Children? Even though India obtained freedom on August 15, 1947, Indian Constitution implemented and came into effect only on custom January 26, 1950. Essay Poverty? King. Constitution of India , Delhi , India 1028 Words | 2 Pages. ?A Memorable Day September 11, 2001 was a day in history that no one will ever forget. This day marked the . terrorist attacks on New York City, when multiple airplanes crashed into two very remarkable landmarks, the Twin Towers and the Pentagon. As the uk dissertation buildings slowly fell to the ground burning, people watched as many others life’s flashed before their eyes.

This was just after the essay millennium had taken place, and people were busy enjoying life in the city, when out of nowhere, a terrorist attack. Aircraft hijacking , Encyclop?dia Britannica , Flight attendant 997 Words | 3 Pages. 50003886204500452120Mujahida Sarfaraz 14050910 2014 Spring Day -Essay 3500050000Mujahida Sarfaraz 14050910 2014 Spring . Day -Essay center550005532120[Type the statement persuasive abstract of the document here. The abstract is essay typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Resume Sample? Type the abstract of the document here. Essay Children? The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] Mujahida Sarfaraz14050910 Spring Day Essay 2014 9000040000[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract. American films , Idea , Independent films 1074 Words | 2 Pages. BOOK REPORT: -ONE DAY In this report I will write about the report resume important aspects of the book, along with aspects I will also do a little . Essay Poverty? analysis on some of the important characters.

In the end, I will also conclude this report with mentioning the reason of choosing this book. We read and hear a lot of essay on progressism education stories, some are interesting, and poverty children, some are long or short. Every story is unique in its own way, but would you believe me If I told that this story I am writing report on spanned for twenty years. Character , Emma , Fiction 1325 Words | 4 Pages. ENVIRONMENT DAY YOU ARE YOUR ENVIRONMENT! Good day colleagues. The World Environment Day is a reminder of how . grateful we need to be to Mother Nature, which sustains all forms of life.

This is the thesis day to poverty children focus our thoughts and online in creative writing, our energies to make collective efforts towards protecting the environment. World Environment Day was commemorated last Sunday on 5 June. It is a day that stimulates awareness of the poverty environment and enhances political attention and public action. It was the day that United. Ecology , Environment , Environmentalism 942 Words | 3 Pages. gray rain wall dropped out of the sky. Lightning. Then thunder. We, the already-tired crew on the feature film Yellow Day , were stuck. We . quickly covered the large cameras in heavy plastic and donned rain gear while Bob, our Dutch production manager, called it for the day . Not good. Forty employees sitting idle is not cheap.

And I’m the on progressism executive producer/writer of Yellow Day . I’m looking at every rain drop and thinking each one costs us a dollar. I look out onto the set, which is anything but. Film , James Bond , Rainbow 1055 Words | 3 Pages. ?Narrative/Personal Experience The Day Off It was a nice, hot, and sunny day in essay poverty, Studio City. At the time I was living in LA . with my girlfriend, Ally. Report? It was about 9 in the morning, when I awoke to the smell of bacon and essay poverty children, eggs. She and I rarely were able to coordinate the change thesis same days off of work; it just happened that we were both off that day . Happily waking up that morning, I got strait in the shower not realizing I was still half asleep and forgot a towel. Not wanting to disrupt my girlfriend’s. Essay Children? Agoraphobia , Hotel , Panic 1021 Words | 3 Pages.

Water is the only substance that can get dirt and bacteria off of our bodies We are 90% water We are 90% water The World Water day The . World Water day 22th of March 2013 22th of March 2013 How water should be use How water should be use * Check faucets and pipes for leaks. A small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day . Larger leaks can waste hundreds of gallons. * Every time you flush a cigarette butt, facial tissue or other small bit of trash. Dishwasher , Drip irrigation , Flush toilet 442 Words | 3 Pages. A Day at the Mall Happy people walking, stepping, running, grabbing, chewing and talking wherever you turn. Upstairs downstairs, front and change, back . people are constantly grabbing and letting loose of essay poverty children items. Twenty percent, fifty percent red signs all over custom, the place. Poverty Children? The mall is definitely the custom uk dissertation place to be after a stressful day at school. It makes no difference what mood one is in when approaching the mall because once the entrance door closes behind you-nothing matters. The mall consists of essay many wonderful. Assumption of Mary , Automobile , Clothing 810 Words | 3 Pages. used for brand building and testing the local retail channels in a focused manner. 2. Positioning - “SABSE KAM DAAM HAR DIN”.

That’s our positioning . statement and we support that with lots of online ba degree in creative different discount offers, sales and schemes. The easy day brand is built around the mission of saving money for our customers by offering quality products at the lowest prices in essay poverty children, the market. Ba Degree Writing? At easyday, we aim to provide significant savings to our customers by being low prices everyday, which means that our. Customer service , Online shopping , Product 753 Words | 3 Pages. What is ANZAC Day ? ANZAC Day – 25 April – is probably Australia's most important national occasion. It marks the anniversary of essay . the first major military action fought by report resume sample Australian and New Zealand forces during the First World War. What does ANZAC stand for?

ANZAC stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. The soldiers in those forces quickly became known as ANZACs, and the pride they took in that name endures to this day . Poverty Children? Why is this day special to Australians? (Milestones) . Change And Continuity Thesis? Anzac Day , Australia , Australian and New Zealand Army Corps 1256 Words | 4 Pages. de los Muertos” the day the deceased have divine permission to visit friend and relatives on earth and to share the pleasure of the living . (Sayer, Chloe? 8). Essay Poverty? The day of the dead is custom uk dissertation celebrated on November 1 2 of every year known to be as All Souls Day . Essay Children? Introduced in the Mexican population by their Aztec indigenous ancestry known not to be afraid of death but to embrace it. Meso-American Indians have strong belief of the afterlife and the underworld that came after death. The day of the dead is report resume sample celebrated. Aztec , Calavera , Day of the essay poverty Dead 960 Words | 3 Pages. Republic Day (India) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia |Republic Day . | |[pic] | |Soldiers of the essay belt Madras Regiment during the annual Republic Day Parade in 2004 | |Observed by |India | |Type |National | |Date |26 January.

Constitution of India , Delhi , India 1889 Words | 5 Pages. I would spend my last day with my family and friends. I would buy a whole bunch of essay poverty children things I have always wanted and use them. Thesis Statement Essay? I would go . driving, even though I don’t have a license. I would be scared and children, unhappy that I was probably going to die, but I would still try to act happy and thesis, have a good last day alive. I would say everything I have always wanted to poverty everyone. I would make sure that I have made friends with everyone I’ve always wanted too.

I would own up to thesis everything I have done to everyone. 2005 albums , American films , Atomic bombings of poverty children Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1839 Words | 4 Pages. unrecognized or forgotten soldiers of African nations. They perservered through racism and inequaility to defeat the same opponent as everyone else around . the world, the thesis statement Germans. • Important turning points in the film: The first major turning point in Days of poverty children Glory is thesis persuasive when the African soldiers, fighting for the French, were successful in overtaking the hilltop from the poverty children Germans. The mission seemed like a suicide mission because some of the leading commanders refered to the mission as a “light infantry. Africa , African people , Algeria 872 Words | 3 Pages. ties, I still consider her family.

She has been a treasured part of my life for essay, quite some time, and continues to be to this very day . I . would start my last day with her by catching a redeye flight to San Diego where she lives. I would greet her with a big smile and a strong hug, and inform her of my intentions of poverty children preparing her a breakfast quite befitting of a last day . I would make her Crepes Suzette filled with a freshly prepared creme fraiche and a mixed berry compote while she relaxed in a comfy. Balboa Park , Crepe , Crepe Suzette 996 Words | 3 Pages. The Longest Day was a mammoth project dramatizing D- day , the Allied invasion of France. It was nearly three hours in length and . with an sample, enormous ensemble cast, all playing supporting roles.

The production was very conscientious about realism, the actors were always of the same nationality as their characters, and spoke in their native languages, leading to a lot of subtitles translating French and German dialogue. Although the movie was historically correct, it was also meant to be a blockbuster. Allies , Allies of poverty children World War II , Co-belligerence 1224 Words | 4 Pages. The Remains of the Day - How to Deal with Regret and Loss The novel The Remains of the online in creative Day by Kazuo Ishiguro is . a first-person narration of an English butler named Stevens. He recalls the past thirty-four years he has worked as a butler at Darlington Hall in England on his road trip. He is going to visit Miss Kenton, who used to essay children be the housekeeper at Darlington Hall, before she gets married, because he receives a letter from her and he believes that the letter implies she wants.

First-person narrative , Gentleman , Gentry 1330 Words | 3 Pages. ?Loghan Pickett Gail Bennett-Edelman ENG W377: Writing for Social Change January 29, 2014 The Pro-Life Day of Silent Solidarity began . in 2004 when a student asked Bryan Kemper, founder of Pro-Life Day of Silent Solidarity, what he could do to help end abortion. A thought then occurred to essay education Bryan and slowly it has evolved into a day of protest that people choose to poverty remain silent for on progressism education, those who never had a voice. The poster advocating for the movement is not very effective at poverty children persuading its audience. Abortion , Emotion , Human rights 934 Words | 3 Pages.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. Poverty? It is custom found in all societies, past and present. All the children, preliterate societies known to us have religion.

Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is uk dissertation a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and essay poverty therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the custom uk dissertation, social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. Children? It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the essay for black test, earliest times has been incurably religious.

Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the essay, world. Religion is essay education concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Essay Poverty? Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio.

This is derived from two root words. The first root is online ba degree Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out essay poverty children those activities which link human beings with the on progressism, supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of essay children, all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. For Black Belt Test? Religion in essay, this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is thesis statement essay distinguished from poverty children, other beings.

It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in in creative writing, “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of poverty, nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in custom uk dissertation, supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in essay, overt activities designed to deal with those powers.

Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in essay, history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of essay poverty, rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about essay on progressism, man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of poverty children, life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in essay on progressism education, a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of children, life.

According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and change (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the essay poverty, feet. The psychological part consists of essay for black belt, supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the essay, belief that there are supernatural powers.

These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion.

There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of custom, a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. Essay Poverty Children? They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion.

It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of for black belt test, behavior (such as the children, wearing of special clothing and the immersion in and continuity, certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. Essay? It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon ba degree in creative writing him the disfavour of the supernatural powers.

If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is poverty considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of online writing, religion. Children? Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of on progressism, life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of essay, Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. Online Ba Degree Writing? The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities.

Religion is interwoven with all aspects of essay poverty, human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and report resume sample moral values of life. Children? It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow.

1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Online Ba Degree? Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in poverty children, this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Online In Creative? Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways.

Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and essay norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to custom distinguish himself more from essay, members of in creative, other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the essay poverty children, Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to statement Hindu society.

Religion performs its function of children, integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against online writing them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the poverty, ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and essay through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion.

It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. Essay Poverty Children? They have emphasized sacrifice and essay belt test forbearance. 4. Essay? Religions Acts as an Agent of online ba degree, Social Control: It is one of the poverty children, means of informal means of social control.

Religion not only report defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of essay poverty children, social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is for black punishable not only by poverty God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in change and continuity, India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poverty children poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and on progressism assistance to the helpless and essay needy persons.

In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the on progressism education, foundations of medicine. Poverty? Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of essay on progressism, charity among the children, people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor.

7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in and continuity thesis, the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of essay poverty children, his suffering and disappointment. Report Sample? In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for poverty children, which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence.

On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in essay belt test, God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. Essay Poverty Children? In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. For Black? Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled.

Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of poverty, France were supposed to rule by divine right.

Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and make persuasive essay with political institutions. Religion is the essay children, central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the resume sample, provision of essay poverty, work, the spread of education, the accumulation of thesis, capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Essay? Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and custom uk dissertation Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of essay children, religion.

The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Custom Uk Dissertation? Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Essay? Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from essay on progressism education, religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion.

This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of poverty children, money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of report resume sample, birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. Essay? But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to report take the children, advises of priests and custom uk dissertation religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc.

As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in essay poverty, this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to report resume sample the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of essay, religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the education, sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the essay children, opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts.

Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in custom, the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. Poverty Children? It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and ba degree in creative writing fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past.

Religion preserves traditions. Essay? It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Thesis? Religion is not readily amenable to social change and essay children progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of thesis, Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in essay poverty children, life is due to some divine power and online in creative writing hence due to children fate. Uk Dissertation? As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined.

Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Essay Children? Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. Essay? But man is essay poverty no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society.

This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. Thesis Statement? It is the fantastic realization of the children, human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx.

But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of custom uk dissertation, law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. Poverty? He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation.

This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of essay on progressism education, religion is static. In some cases the poverty, change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and and continuity thesis major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal.

Hence, there is also an essay children element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in online, religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and essay children (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in and continuity, that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of essay children, religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism.

Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and education Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on poverty man and on progressism his life changes. In the earlier phases of essay poverty, religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of online in creative writing, life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and essay various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to essay belt test civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.

This movement is children sometimes referred to report sample as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and essay poverty more on social values.

It has tried to make thesis statement reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. Poverty? As Barnes has pointed out ba degree in creative writing religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and poverty guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols.

The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in sample, India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in essay poverty, religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America.

Second, the vitality of essay belt, Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in essay, modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by make statement persuasive essay it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by children natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from essay belt test, ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization.

Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from children, a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and custom symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of essay poverty children, life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept.

Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. Make Essay? The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in children, finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in for black, history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State.

The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in essay children, the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of uk dissertation, worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to essay children leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe.

What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in thesis, ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Essay Poverty Children? Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies.

New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of custom uk dissertation, those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is poverty standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in custom, a democratic structure and essay poverty it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to change and continuity any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’.

In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of essay children, secularisation.

Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. Custom Uk Dissertation? It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in poverty children, general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs.

In this manner, the process of report sample, secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is essay poverty children not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion.

It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of essay on progressism, factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. Poverty? A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of resume sample, religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for children, the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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