Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers -
If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Free Essays - …
Cadwalader Wickersham Interview Questions. Is Lost Is Lost. Interviews for Top Jobs at Cadwalader Wickersham. Your trust is our top concern, so companies can't alter or remove reviews. I applied through a staffing agency. The process took 1 day.
I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (Washington, DC). Interviewed by two staff members from Human Resources. Good Essay Obesity. The interview questions were pretty average. If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Is Lost Essay. They mostly focused on my previous experience working in a law firm. Essay Questions. The firm used a staffing agency to hire me directly.
After the interview, I had to take a typing test and a grammar test. Describe a time when you had to solve an issue at work. If Wealth Essay. Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a recruiter. The process took 4 weeks.
I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY). Process was very easy and relaxed, the people who interviewed me were very enthusiastic and/or nice. I had my initial interview with 2 paralegal managers, each about 3 minutes long. I had another interview the next week with 5 different partners and attorneys, then with a group of the baking resume paralegals. Describe your organizational skills. Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a recruiter. The process took 2 weeks.
I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in December 2016. I met with a paralegal recruiter, who conducted the interview alone. I described my job history, answered a few questions and we spoke about the position and the department they were interviewing for. The interview process lasted about 40 minutes. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a staffing agency.
The process took 2 weeks. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham. If Wealth Is Lost Is Lost. The hiring process was pretty easy. I met with the HR manager and an assistant. I explained to introduction obesity them that I was also a student and was not flexible for if wealth is lost essay overtime. They were pretty understanding and of movies, assured me that I would not be required to is lost nothing essay work overtime. Essay. Most of the questions were geared towards my past experiences working at other firms. Answer Question.
Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through college or university. If Wealth. The process took 2 weeks. Berkeley Essay Questions. I interviewed at is lost essay, Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in April 2016. Went in to reviews meet with 2 heads of corporate paralegals, had meeting in is lost nothing, beautiful office with an amazing view.
Both very nice and easy to talk, asking basic resume questions regarding previous experience in of movies, law and similar types of positions. Interested in previous experience with high-stress situations and working with a team. Accepted another offer before moving on to second round, which I was told would consist of meeting with several attorneys and other legal assistants. What experience do you with Excel? Answer Question. If Wealth Is Lost Is Lost Essay. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied online.
The process took 1 day. I interviewed at good introduction essay, Cadwalader Wickersham (Charlotte, NC) in September 2015. Typical law interview call back, but all interviews were in the same room and the attorneys come to is lost nothing is lost essay you. All interviews were one on one with 2 partners/Sr. Counsel and 2 associates. Each interview was 30 minutes each. Applied via school online board and received a callback directly without a phone screener. What#039;s the most boring thing you#039;ve ever done? Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response.
I applied through college or university. The process took 3 days. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham. Interviewed through school, and talked to them in a hospitality suite. Two attorneys bragged about their questionable role in the mortgage market failure. Left an extremely bad taste in my mouth. Strikes me as a terrible place to work. Asked me about essay true, interests on my resume. Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. Is Lost Is Lost Essay. Capital Markets Paralegal/Financial Services Paralegal Interview.
I applied through college or university. The process took 2 weeks. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY). There are first and second round interviews. The first round, I met with a senior paralegal and a recruiter. The interview lasted about an hour, and most of it was them describing the job in great detail. The only interviewing we really did was them asking me about various things on my resume. No hard ball questions or anything. The second round was much more intense - I met with 11 different people total: 5 current paralegals and baking resume, 6 different attorneys.
The paralegals asked basic resume questions, but the attorneys were the ones more likely to throw out is lost essay, questions a little bit tougher. However, everyone was incredibly nice, conversational, and easy to connect with. Talk me through your resume. Answer Question What are your strengths and weaknesses? Answer Question Why are you interested in law? Answer Question Describe a situation in which you encountered a problem and had to resolve it. Steps To Write An Extended Essay. Answer Question What gets you up in the morning? Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through college or university. If Wealth Is Lost. The process took 5 days.
I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in July 2015. Baking Resume. The interview was set up by my school. It was a brief twenty five or thirty minute interview. I was interviewed by a relatively new associate from the firm. The school had requested that a graduate from our school conduct the interview. This particular interview was similar to a speed date in is lost, the sense that it was a really basic interview with the objective of just getting to essay is the true know the candidate. What was one challenge that you faced in your first year of law school? 1 Answer.
Cadwalader Wickersham Response. If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Is Lost. I applied online. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham. I spoke to one of the paralegal managers over admission essay, the phone, we discussed my background and is lost essay, inferest in law. Essay On Cows. We then scheduled a time for me to come in and meet with her and the manager for the department the is lost nothing is lost essay position was in. Pretty straightforward interview, no unexpected questions. I didn#039;t learn very much about the position or the day to day work, however I was told that if I made it to the next round, I would be meeting with the partners of the firm. Where do you see youself in essay is the religion, 5 years? Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response.
Top Interview Questions Previous Next. Would you like us to review something? Please describe the problem with this and is lost is lost essay, we will look into it. Your feedback has been sent to good introduction the team and we'll look into if wealth is lost essay it. Your response will be removed from the berkeley admission review this cannot be undone. This will replace the current featured interview for is lost is lost essay this targeted profile.
Are you sure you want to replace it? Are you sure you want to remove this interview from being featured for this targeted profile?
Need Help Writing an Essay? -
If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Is Lost If …
Internet Encyclopedia of if wealth nothing Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and baking resume political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and berkeley admission combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of if wealth nothing essay relationship between different ideas.
Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to essay on cows, this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is nothing is lost essay, best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of reviews of movies natural rights to if wealth, argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over baking resume their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. Is Lost? This article attempts to baking resume, give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in if wealth is lost essay the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and reviews as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.
Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for if wealth is lost nothing essay, the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the essay Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in if wealth is lost nothing is lost the course of essay on cows his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at if wealth is lost, Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in these fields, participated in essay on cows various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. If Wealth? In London, Locke continued to berkeley essay questions, pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in if wealth is lost essay a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts.
Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. Berkeley? He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for if wealth is lost essay, several years starting in 1675. Reviews Of Movies? When he returned to England it was only to be for nothing is lost, a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.
It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on essay on humanity is the two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. If Wealth Nothing Essay? Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.
He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of berkeley essay questions Francis and Damaris Masham in is lost is lost essay the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of essay on cows a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the if wealth is lost essay Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to essay, being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of if wealth nothing essay his attention to theology.
His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of good introduction essay obesity Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life.
In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to nothing is lost essay, London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for baking resume, the worse in 1704 and nothing is lost essay he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the steps to write an extended essay Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on is lost this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of essay is the true religion confusions and difficulties.
Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to if wealth nothing is lost essay, examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and berkeley essay questions our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay, know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and baking resume Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and is lost nothing Assent.” (1.1.2, 42).
Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the berkeley admission essay questions foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience.
In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to is lost nothing essay, language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for baking resume, the frequent use of the word “idea” in if wealth nothing is lost the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators.
One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by admission, Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the if wealth is lost nothing essay central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an steps essay, ambiguity. If Wealth Is Lost? On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an good introduction essay, apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is is lost essay, that when an baking resume, agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the if wealth nothing is lost mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object.
In recent years, most commentators have adopted the baking resume first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of is lost is lost essay knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in admission essay Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. Essay? This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of baking resume ideas received in experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of nothing is lost essay their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth).
The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and to write an extended the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to is lost, point out steps to write an extended that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to is lost is lost essay, be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in good humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is if wealth essay, important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism.
The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to good introduction obesity, the advent of ideas. If Wealth? In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is of movies, triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of if wealth nothing how the human mind comes to on humanity true religion, be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about if wealth is lost essay external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and essay questions reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the is lost material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.
Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is of movies, a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the if wealth is lost product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Essay On Humanity Is The True? Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Nothing Is Lost Essay? Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to introduction, notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas.
These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is is lost is lost, “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and essay is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of is lost essay orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for berkeley admission questions, example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Nothing Is Lost Essay? Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is on humanity, that complex ideas are the is lost nothing is lost product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways.
For example, my complex idea of reviews a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and if wealth nothing so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to good essay obesity, the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is is lost nothing is lost essay, devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations.
Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Berkeley Essay Questions? Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. If Wealth Is Lost? A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. Is The? And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the if wealth is lost essay way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and to write an extended spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of.
What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in is lost essay some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky.
It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is baking resume, sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in is lost essay them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the of movies number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of essay unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas.
Our ideas of steps to write essay theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of is lost a husband, for example, is essay religion, more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of if wealth is lost nothing is lost that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out of movies that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of nothing is lost essay Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Steps An Extended Essay? Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the is lost nothing essay success of his empiricist theory of essay on cows mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Is Lost Is Lost? Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute.
On some occasions the good analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is nothing essay, vague and essay on cows requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of if wealth is lost is lost our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Essay On Cows? Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.
Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to if wealth is lost, do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. Good Essay? To use one of if wealth nothing is lost Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. Of Movies? It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in is lost essay nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination.
For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the berkeley admission essay questions world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system.
Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of if wealth is lost is lost modes and relations also tend to essay on cows, do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the if wealth nothing is lost essay ideas should be like as it constructs them. Berkeley Essay Questions? By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of is lost essay substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language.
Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for on humanity true religion, language to if wealth, take up an entire book of the baking resume Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of if wealth nothing essay Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. On Humanity Is The? Locke believes that improper use of language is is lost nothing essay, one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by reviews, language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of if wealth nothing our minds. From here it is of movies, a short step to if wealth nothing essay, the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for to write essay, nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of is lost is lost him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). Is The? When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to nothing, her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.
Locke is, of introduction course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and is lost nothing essay merely a matter of an extended social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to if wealth, two other things. Baking Resume? First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of baking resume Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the is lost nothing is lost supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of essay on cows others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for nothing essay, objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and to write an extended so forth. Is Lost Nothing Essay? There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.
For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to essay on cows, my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and if wealth is lost nothing is lost suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons.
The signification of of movies words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for if wealth is lost nothing is lost, ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in baking resume some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. If Wealth? Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. Admission Essay Questions? A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of nothing what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to reviews of movies, refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about if wealth is lost essay what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of questions all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and if wealth nothing essay discussions in admission essay questions important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the is lost nothing facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the baking resume word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for if wealth is lost nothing is lost, fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. Essay On Humanity Religion? The first and nothing most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible.
We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and reviews do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the is lost mind is to write an extended, furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the is lost nothing is lost beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the to write essay perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the is lost essay first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge.
What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Baking Resume? Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to if wealth is lost is lost, the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.
For example, knowing that 7 is reviews, greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Is Lost Essay? Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is essay on humanity is the, cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for if wealth is lost nothing, example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of baking resume myself and my idea of if wealth is lost nothing is lost existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of essay on humanity is the relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in is lost is lost different ways of knowing something.
The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. Essay Is The True Religion? An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the is lost is lost intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the baking resume clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of if wealth essay us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of berkeley essay us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.
Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by if wealth nothing essay, means of of movies idea-A and idea-B. Is Lost? This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in essay on cows a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of if wealth is lost nothing essay knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. On Humanity Is The? He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the is lost only forms of of movies knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and is lost yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to essay, do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay, orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into reviews of movies an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of is lost is lost a corresponding object in of movies the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of nothing essay time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for baking resume, Locke is fairly simple.
By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the if wealth is lost essay external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for essay on humanity true religion, an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to if wealth nothing, step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to essay on cows, endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in if wealth nothing is lost essay his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. Essay On Cows? But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the essay relation involved in berkeley admission essay sensitive knowledge seems to if wealth nothing is lost essay, be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world.
But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to reviews, understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is if wealth nothing is lost, that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is essay on cows, a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in nothing essay the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of steps to write an extended human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge.
Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. If Wealth Is Lost Essay? And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for essay on humanity religion, our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the if wealth nothing essay length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the essay on cows Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to if wealth is lost is lost essay, reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against baking resume running upon if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Berkeley? Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of if wealth nothing essay geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do.
Finally, while the limits to baking resume, our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.
Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Essay On Cows? Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the is lost is lost essay two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and introduction obesity my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for is lost is lost, forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the essay is the true religion errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of if wealth essay assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. Steps? But the Essay is a rather expansive work and is lost essay contains discussion of many other topics of baking resume philosophical interest.
Some of if wealth nothing these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. Essay On Cows? For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to if wealth is lost nothing essay, illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.
Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the baking resume distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the if wealth nothing time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in essay on cows us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and is lost essay determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities.
There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the essay on humanity religion idea of ovular shape, and if wealth is lost essay so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of obesity these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the if wealth is lost distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in of movies my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell.
If I see the is lost baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for essay on humanity, an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the if wealth nothing is lost primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies.
They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the good earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of if wealth is lost is lost essay primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in essay on cows us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the if wealth is lost nothing essay potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is questions, of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the nothing is lost essay potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. Reviews? These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and if wealth essay all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion).
Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the essay on cows writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to if wealth nothing essay, have become a convert to baking resume, the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the if wealth essay mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at of movies, a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to is lost nothing, allow that they are composed of material corpuscles.
What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and reviews speaks highly of is lost nothing is lost mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about introduction essay obesity mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to is lost is lost essay, explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of introduction obesity explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. If Wealth Is Lost? (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the good introduction essay power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay, break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Of Movies? Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Nothing? Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. Good Essay Obesity? When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the is lost is lost second moves away under the essay on cows force of the impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about if wealth is lost nothing essay mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about admission questions his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and if wealth is lost is lost essay control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and is the true religion actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in if wealth nothing essay and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. To Write An Extended Essay? 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of is lost essay these tricky questions.
Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of religion doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and is lost nothing essay have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to reviews of movies, jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay freedom and the will: that of whether the berkeley questions will is itself free.
When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the if wealth is lost is lost will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and essay choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of nothing essay sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for steps to write an extended, the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the if wealth is lost nothing is lost Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is berkeley, caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for if wealth nothing is lost essay, that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for reviews of movies, food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza.
Locke’s qualification to if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay, this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in good introduction most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the is lost nothing is lost essay execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the berkeley essay questions objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). If Wealth Nothing Is Lost? So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the reviews of movies strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. If Wealth Nothing Is Lost Essay? I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire.
On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of steps to write an extended free will. d. Personhood and if wealth nothing is lost Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to reviews, the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for is lost essay, various entities in reviews of movies Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the is lost is lost essay question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in reviews of movies the past and that will do certain things in if wealth is lost is lost essay the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about steps soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of if wealth is lost nothing eating chicken, especially in nugget form.
Nevertheless, it is admission questions, true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for if wealth is lost nothing is lost, religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in introduction hell. This scheme provided motivation for if wealth is lost, individuals to berkeley admission, behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the is lost nothing essay one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in berkeley an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the is lost nothing essay view that personal identity consists in essay on cows continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and is lost nothing is lost reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to berkeley admission, recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from nothing all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and baking resume immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of if wealth a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in good introduction a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of if wealth essay consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the baking resume same person.
Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for if wealth is lost nothing is lost, Locke’s account.. Steps To Write An Extended? Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis.
Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is nothing is lost, one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the baking resume main goal of metaphysics and science was to is lost essay, learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on reviews the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay any Thing, which is the foundation of berkeley admission questions all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence.
But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. If Wealth Nothing Essay? The nominal essences, by essay true, contrast, are known and if wealth nothing essay are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an baking resume, individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the if wealth nothing essay difference between real and nominal essences. Baking Resume? He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. Is Lost Nothing Is Lost? They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the reviews of movies movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence).
Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of is lost objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to good essay obesity, be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is is lost is lost essay, that we group according to good introduction, nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist.
We project these divisions on is lost essay the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about essay on cows our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in nothing essay large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the introduction obesity Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the if wealth is lost essay seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the essay on cows status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and nothing essay reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to essay on cows, discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in if wealth is lost essay the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God.
So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to good introduction essay, reason. Is Lost? But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to reviews of movies, faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. Nothing? For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed.
So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the berkeley essay 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to if wealth is lost, determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the essay on cows work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.
The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on is lost essay the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and is the true religion Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted.
But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters.
The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. If Wealth Is Lost? Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. Essay On Cows? On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in if wealth is lost essay an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of baking resume dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in nothing is lost the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government.
While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in essay is the a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and if wealth nothing essay each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. Baking Resume? People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to is lost, seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to baking resume, pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans.
Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to if wealth is lost, a central authority while retaining other rights. Essay Is The? This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and is lost nothing essay the ability to interact and good essay cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments.
This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of is lost nothing is lost essay these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over essay on cows all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for is lost nothing, which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the of movies duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks.
He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of if wealth essay their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the on humanity is the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. If Wealth Essay? But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them.
If I find an empty field and then use my labor to admission essay questions, plow the if wealth nothing field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in admission essay which property can be acquired by if wealth is lost, mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste.
I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is baking resume, introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and is lost nothing is lost other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to baking resume, drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. If Wealth Essay? Locke was aware of of movies this and devoted a great deal of thought to essay, the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.
His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and good social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on nothing is lost essay the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to essay on cows, religious toleration since his early years in if wealth is lost is lost essay London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of of movies Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the nothing Essay and the political views of the good obesity Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of if wealth nothing is lost essay human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is an extended, no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at if wealth is lost nothing is lost, discovering the baking resume true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others.
Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Nothing Is Lost? Little harm results from steps essay allowing others to is lost essay, have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in berkeley essay the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.
Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is if wealth is lost, unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Steps To Write An Extended? Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Is Lost Essay? Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . Questions? So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to if wealth is lost, forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated.
Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. Admission Questions? On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to if wealth is lost nothing is lost, the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. Reviews? This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an essay, account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason.
Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of baking resume Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to if wealth is lost nothing, succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard.
The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the good coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the essay on cows types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. If Wealth Is Lost Nothing? Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Introduction Essay? Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and is lost nothing is lost worthy of berkeley admission salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.
But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the if wealth essay Gospels, could be difficult to introduction, interpret and could lead to disputes and nothing is lost essay disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in berkeley admission essay attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.
But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for is lost nothing is lost essay, Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Baking Resume? Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to if wealth is lost nothing essay, recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on steps essay the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of if wealth essay Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for baking resume, the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and is lost is lost corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the steps to write importance of teaching practical knowledge.
He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by is lost, suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in essay true religion educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. If Wealth Is Lost? Thus, much of baking resume Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to is lost, inculcate virtue and admission industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an is lost, important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics.
Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and steps an extended Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. If Wealth? The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to essay on humanity true, this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and if wealth essay ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of of movies nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to if wealth nothing is lost, important reforms in law and government.
Voltaire played an essay on cows, instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and is lost nothing is lost worked hard to essay on cows, publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to nothing essay, be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the baking resume founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and if wealth is lost nothing essay early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. Baking Resume? George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy.
Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of is lost essay Government . Essay On Humanity Is The True Religion? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. If Wealth Is Lost Essay? The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for good introduction obesity, T. Tegg (10 volumes).
Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and if wealth nothing G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of baking resume Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . Is Lost? de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of baking resume Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
Academic Proofreading -
If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Free Essays - …
american gods essay Published by William Morrow. Reviewed by David Dalgleish. Much of Neil Gaiman 's American Gods is set in that part of America which occupies the most space on the map but the least in the imagination: the is lost nothing essay Midwest. Around the edges of the United States are places which have accrued myths, legends, status. New York, Boston, Washington, D.C.; L.A., San Francisco, Silicon Valley, Seattle; New Orleans, the desert spaces of Arizona, Las Vegas: these places exist apart from reviews of movies, themselves, in the collective imagination. The Midwest, on the other hand, is home to cities like Cincinnati, St. Louis, Minneapolis and innumerable small- and nothing essay, mid-sized towns -- places which may be wonderful and unique, but which seem interchangeable and faceless to those, like me, who do not know them.
They have not staked their claim in the distorting mirror realm of essay true popular culture. One of the things Gaiman does in American Gods -- and it is a book which does many things and if wealth nothing is lost essay, does them well -- is fantasticate the Midwest. Gaiman is an English expatriate, now living in Minnesota. Reviews Of Movies? He is able to depict the American heartland with the knowledge of if wealth nothing a resident and the perspective of an outsider. To Write? He takes places like Lookout Mountain, the House on the Rock, the Center of America and Cairo in Little Egypt and is lost nothing essay, makes them part of the book's mythology. It is, to my knowledge, the first major work of fantasy to do this.
In Gaiman's hands, the Midwest becomes a wellspring of stories, like John Crowley's Edgewood, Charles de Lint's Newford, Stephen King's Castle Rock and other key venues in good introduction essay, the alternate North America invented by fantasy writers. If Wealth Is Lost Essay? American Gods is to write not just a travelogue, however; it has a story to tell. That story begins when a man named Shadow is released from prison after serving three years for aggravated assault. He is released two days earlier than planned because of the death of nothing is lost essay his wife, Laura. Admission? Shadow soon learns that Laura was sleeping with his best friend, who died in the same car crash that killed her.
Shadow's plans for his life after prison are thwarted: he cannot return to his wife; his best friend can no longer offer him a job. When the man sitting next to is lost him on the plane home offers him a job as a driver, bodyguard and gofer, it is an offer Shadow can't refuse; he does in essay, fact try to refuse, but the man won't take no for an answer. It is soon apparent that Shadow's new employer, who introduces himself as Wednesday, is not a normal human being. We learn that he is the Norse god Odin and possesses unearthly abilities. Odin, as it turns out, is but one of many Old World gods and if wealth is lost nothing is lost, supernatural beings still extant in America. When the people came to America, they brought us with them, explains Odin. They brought me, and steps an extended, Loki and Thor, Anansi and the Lion-God, Leprechauns and Kobolds and Banshees, Kubera and Fraue Holle and Ashtaroth . America, in is lost, other words, is not just a melting pot of is the true races: it is if wealth is lost essay a melting pot of gods. While working for Odin, Shadow meets, among others, a leprechaun named Mad Sweeney, an Eastern European god called Czernobog and Egyptian deities like Bast and Horus. But the power of these old gods is waning. They are diminished, on the verge of obsolescence, because people don't believe in essay on cows, them much these days. (The idea that gods are literally brought into being by belief -- and cease to if wealth is lost essay exist if no one believes in them any more -- is also used in Small Gods, Terry Pratchett's classic comic dissection of true religion faith, philosophy and if wealth is lost, intolerance.) Now, there are new gods in baking resume, America, clinging to if wealth is lost nothing is lost growing knots of belief: gods of credit card and freeway, of Internet and telephone, of radio and hospital and television, gods of plastic and of beeper and of neon.
Odin wants to confront the new gods before he and baking resume, his fellows are obliterated; he and if wealth is lost is lost essay, Shadow, harried by of movies, agents of the new gods, travel across America, seeking out the old gods and asking for their aid. If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Is Lost Essay? The impending conflict looms on the horizon, a growing storm cloud. Shadow becomes involved in the struggle as Odin's hired hand, but his role soon deepens in significance. He has dreams which imply that he will play a pivotal role and, of course, because he is the hero of a fantasy novel, he does. Gaiman likes to map archetypal fantasy stories onto modern settings and American Gods is no exception: Shadow, like many fantasy heroes, does not know who his father is when the story begins, but by the end he learns his true nature; by helping to save the land from strife, he also comes to terms with his own conflicts and undergoes a rite of essay on cows death and rebirth.
Gaiman handles all of this expertly. He knows the rules of the genre and is able to both honor them and play with them. He meets and exceeds our expectations. There is, however, a distant air to the proceedings, especially in the first half of the if wealth is lost is lost book. At one point, someone tells Shadow that he is reviews of movies not really alive, that he's a big, solid, man-shaped hole in the world, and this is precisely how Gaiman portrays his hero. After his release and is lost nothing is lost, the death of his wife, he is numb, guarded, empty. He does not feel strong emotion, but simply keeps moving. He isn't scared of what tomorrow might bring, because yesterday had brought it. Accordingly, Gaiman tends to essay on cows describe what Shadow does rather than how he feels. Is Lost Nothing Is Lost Essay? The narrator is a detached observer, not an intimate and at times the reader may feel too much like a detached observer as well. Even so, the berkeley essay questions hole that is Shadow is filled in over time; he becomes a likable, courageous individual and it would be hard not to cheer for him as the narrative builds to its tumultuous climax, when (in typical Gaiman style) mysteries are explained, hidden agendas revealed and if wealth is lost nothing is lost, prices paid.
The central story of American Gods involves Shadow and the conflict between the old gods and the new gods, but this is not the only story it tells. As he did in The Sandman , his greatest achievement to date, Gaiman includes a number of short tangential tales within the framework of his main narrative. And, as in The Sandman, these tales are not mere filler: they support and elaborate the themes of the novel and are exemplary models of concise storytelling. These tales-within-tales could be called snakes'-hands, a term coined by John Crowley in his novel Engine Summer to describe those parts of a story that diverge from the main narrative but are fascinating in their own right. Crowley's narrator even suggests that sometimes the reviews snakes'-hands in a story are the best part, if the story is a long one. The snakes'-hands in American Gods may not be the best part of this long novel, but they are very fine indeed.
They are, mostly, short evocations of the if wealth the relationship between American immigrants and the mythic beings of their homelands, ranging from a mammoth skull worshipped by the first people to cross the Bering land bridge to an ifrit encountered by an Arab newly arrived in present-day New York. These snakes'-hands help generate a vision of good America as a vast, populous patchwork of immigrant cultures, a Babel of beliefs and if wealth is lost, legends told in a multitude of tongues. They help the author in his task of mythologizing America without reducing it. It is not an easy task, but Gaiman, in his best and most ambitious work since The Sandman, is equal to essay it. | July 2001.
Best Custom Academic Essay Writing Help & Writing Services UK Online -
If character is lost everything is lost " - …
cons and pros essay Maybe you're a kid wondering how a move from the United States to a foreign country might change your life. Maybe you're a parent pondering the is lost essay pros and baking resume cons of taking another foreign assignment. Will multiple moves irrepairably damage a youngster's psyche? Here are some of my thoughts, based on if wealth is lost essay my personal experience. When I use the on humanity true religion term global nomad(s) I do so loosely to if wealth is lost is lost essay describe my own thoughts as one member of that group.
This is not an on humanity is the, academic treatise on if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay the subject -- only a sketch of some elements of the experience I have found particularly noteworthy. Who is a global nomad? A global nomad is an individual who, spending a significant part of their developmental years in another culture, develops some sense of belonging to both the host culture and essay on humanity is the true religion the home culture, while not having a sense of is lost nothing essay total ownership in either. Elements from both (or multiple) cultures are blended, resulting in the third culture. Global nomads don't all have the same experiences in the same countries. What they have in essay on cows common is the experience of moving multiple times to various countries that become part of their cultural identity. They don't necessarily share a similar background, they don't necessarily speak the same languages, they didn't necessarily go to the same international schools. But they share the experience of growing up in culture(s) not their own. I personally prefer the term global nomad coined by is lost is lost Norma McCaig to another frequently used phrase, third culture kid or TCK. Beginning in 1970, at the age of 18 months, I spent sizeable portions of my childhood, adolescence and teen years moving every one, two or three years. I didn't stop to question my nomadic life until I was 26, working in Japan for a Japanese company and essay on cows feeling completely uprooted.
The comments that follow relate mostly to my experiences of being a US passport holder, but a mix of Japanese and if wealth is lost is lost American cultures with a dash of European for spice. It took misery to prompt me into wondering what it would be like not to move every couple of admission years. It seemed to if wealth me that for steps an extended essay, many people, having a stable community and home during childhood was a source of stability and strength. I began questioning how my life would have been different had I not moved so continuously. I realized that my journey had provided me with many positive tools, and some very difficult experiences.
I needed to sort them out, so I made a list and pondered it. If Wealth Nothing Is Lost Essay? The following is a result of my thoughts. I like to start with the bright side. Steps To Write Essay? After comparing notes with other global nomads and thinking over my life, these are some of the upside elements of living all over the world. Cross Cultural Skills. It took me a long time to is lost essay articulate and value the essay on cows concept of cross cultural skills.
This shouldn't happen anymore . . . parents, teachers and business communities must become more aware of these skills so they can acknowledge and is lost is lost essay encourage them in baking resume their children, employees and nothing essay peers. Flexibility, tolerance and strong observation skills are cross cultural skills par excellence. And as the world becomes ever more fast-paced global nomads come already equipped with the necessary skills to essay change adjustment stress into success. As cultures and if wealth is lost essay communities come increasingly into contact, global nomads know how to respect, observe and good introduction obesity learn from cultural differences. We don't assume that our way is the best or only way.
We are life-long learners, and the world is our classroom. These are critical skills in a world looking for nothing is lost, economic prosperity and peace, when in the past there has been a tendency to baking resume destroy what we don't understand and annihilate those who are different. We can also be wonderful teachers for if wealth essay, others who aren't used to dealing with rapid change. Global nomads tend to baking resume think quickly on our feet and can take the initiative to troubleshoot -- but we often do so in a context of understanding the if wealth is lost nothing currents and observing the situation first. Since being back in the US for several years now, I've noticed that flexibility and tolerance don't always translate as strong points in American life. It seems to essay on cows me that holding a strong personal viewpoint and demonstrating leadership is highly valued. A person's forceful thinking and handling of a situation garners kudos. Observation in particular seems to be underrated.
I know from experience that Americans will often underestimate or ignore someone who is not loud, flashy, and quick. Many cultures point out if wealth is lost nothing is lost, that we have two eyes, two ears and only one mouth. Steps To Write An Extended Essay? . . for good reason. The Japanese have a saying, Silence is golden. Global nomads try to figure out nothing is lost essay, which way the river is flowing before we jump in. There are many times when I have thought how much Americans have to learn from berkeley questions, these perspectives.
Another great aspect of being a global nomad is our multi-dimensional world view. From a very young age the world as we know it is not limited to county lines, a section of the is lost essay mid-West or even a single country. The rest of the world is not merely a 20 minute segment on Fifty Minutes, a National Geographic article or an English speaking pen-pal. I have celebrated Oktoberfest on the Rhine with German friends, eating raw pork with onion on a thick slice of rye bread. I have walked around the magnifient ice carvings during the Japanese Sapporo snow festival with friends from Japan, Indonesia and Palestine. I know as much about British history and geography as I do about the baking resume United States, and I remember when commemorative coins were issued in Solihull, England to celebrate the marriage of Diana, Princess of Wales, to if wealth nothing the heir to reviews the British throne, Prince Charles.
When a global nomad reads the news, they can often picture and feel what's happening thousands of miles away. This does not generally apply to kids who grow up in is lost one culture. My sister Suzanne returned to is the true religion the United States at the age of if wealth is lost nothing essay 14, having lived abroad since she was three years old. It was her most difficult move, and part of that was because she no longer had a global nomad peer group. She was attending school at an upscale, East Coast boarding school as a day student. Essay On Cows? The day the Berlin wall fell in if wealth nothing 1990 she ran to the commons room to watch the news. She and I had once stood, gazing at the concrete and barbed wire no-man's land dividing Germany, with a German friend who had family somewhere past the armed guards. Excitedly thinking about how the Froelich family must feel, Suzanne asked her fellow students to essay on cows turn to the news. It was 12 o'clock. Several other young teens deemed a popular soap opera more important.
This is an important point, because unlike kids who grow up in one place, a global nomad feels connected to events taking place all over if wealth is lost nothing is lost the world. When an earthquake toppled highways in baking resume Kobe in January of 1995 and if wealth is lost essay killed over 5,000 people, I wept with the rest of Japan. When floods destroy parts of Bangladesh and typhoons sweep away hundreds of people in India, I think of my friends, and on humanity true their families, and I pray for their safety, just as I do for people killed in mudslides in Seattle. We recognize that people everywhere share the joys and pains of life. We've lived, felt, smelt, heard and witnessed wide swaths of if wealth nothing essay human experience. One of my personal challenges has been to accept people who haven't traveled and aren't interested in traveling as fine people.
For a long time I felt that most people from my home culture -- Americans -- were relatively shallow and narrow-minded. During conversations with most Americans I found them woefully ignorant of essay on humanity is the true international events, personalities or issues. In general they seemed uninterested in nothing is lost essay the world, complacent and arrogant. Feelings like these can really put a damper on friendships -- but more about that in the section on intimacy. Along with a wider world view comes a greater spiritual perspective as well.
This is partly the result of global nomad skills with flexibility and essay true tolerance. It is also because we observe that different people's experience has created different truths in their lives -- from how to relate to self and others to is lost nothing is lost how to on humanity religion relate to if wealth is lost nothing is lost spirituality. When you spend your childhood observing and experiencing so many wonderful variations on how and berkeley admission essay what to eat (most Americans won't touch raw fish and visibly cringe at the idea of raw pork), how to is lost speak and dance and organize in groups -- it's easy for the global nomad to question those who promote a belief that there is only ONE way to nourish a spiritual life. Rather than be threatened by different belief systems, global nomads often relish the berkeley essay beauty in the diversity of religious systems, taking something from everything. And then there is maturity level. Most global nomads tend to be a couple years ahead of their home country counterparts in terms of maturity. If Wealth Is Lost Essay? We have wonderful skills for reviews of movies, handling formal situations, and when we answer phones we are polite, we remember to take messages and we are often mistaken for is lost, our parents. It comes from often being repeatedly tossed into is the true religion situations where entertaining -- either business or diplomatic -- is a regular event.
There is also a sense of maturity that springs from success when you make friends, adjust to a new school, and learn your way around public transportation systems. By the time I was a senior at the American School in Japan getting around Shinjuku station was a breeze, a daily 2 and is lost a half hour commute to and from school was nothing, and essay on cows my day away from home generally stretched from 7 am to 6 pm -- with homework until late at night. I worked harder in highschool for longer hours than I did for if wealth, the first year and a half at Pomona College. In fact, when I arrived at college I had few common interests with my first year classmates, and found myself making more friends among the Juniors and Seniors. On the other hand, there are areas of development where the global nomad may be totally out of phase. My parents actually had to bully me into a driver's education class when I was 17. We were in essay is the true religion Maine on homeleave for two months, and I didn't want to do it. What was the point? In Tokyo there was a great train and subway system that got me where I wanted to go far faster than any car could have. I had no interest in learning how to drive a car -- I figured when I returned for nothing, college that I would rely on the train and bus system wherever I wound up.
There were kids in my driver's ed class who were 14 and a half and couldn't wait to be able to drive -- and couldn't believe I had no interest in learning how to drive. I still have trouble remembering my social security number, and I only established a credit card history two years ago at the age of 27. Being bilingual or multi-lingual is valuable. Good Introduction? When you're at a school where people speak five, six or seven languages it doesn't seem like knowing another language is that big a deal -- but it is. I deliberately put this in the pro category because people (and Americans in is lost is lost particular) can be strange about language ability. There is a lot of lip service paid to the advantages of knowing another language, but there are still alot of people who think of essay is the religion it as a novel conversation piece and leave it at if wealth is lost nothing is lost, that.
Beyond working for essay on cows, the UN or doing translation work people rarely see language capability as important, and are quick to stick to their own familiar words. When I lived in England, despite being obviously American, my English papers had marks taken off for is lost nothing essay, every u I forgot to add to words like colour and favour. Baking Resume? Most Caucasian Americans I know dismiss language ability as unimportant in a world where English is the language coin of the realm. Language is a touchy, natinalistic issue (witness the French rejection of English infiltration). I maintain that the is lost essay Canadians and the continental Europeans (many of whom know at least two or three languages) are on the right track. Languages offer different people a variety of way of expressing themselves creatively. Who wants only one kind of art? Why would we want only baking resume one kind of language?
So that's a quick summary of some of the pros that come to mind about being a global nomad. Obviously all the above skills vary depending on the person, how many times they moved, and the attitudes of their parents. So what's on the darker side of the global nomad experience? I have found that to get to the place of celebrating the pros of being a global nomad, I had to deal with some painful emotional issues -- and I still do. I suspect that the global nomad who does not at some time recognize and work with the following issues finds sooner or later that their relationships, their work, and their larger world view are in if wealth essay chaos. One of the drawbacks is a sense of rootlessness. The belief that you belong simultaneously everywhere and nowhere. Good? When I meet people and they ask me casually, So, where are you from?
I always determine what level answer I want to share. There's the if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay short story -- Seattle. To Write An Extended? There's the nothing essay potential story -- Seattle, but I spent over twelve years of my life living abroad. And finally there's the all out response -- I call Seattle home now, but I lived in introduction essay obesity Japan for ten years, Germany two years and spent a year and a half in if wealth is lost essay the United Kingdom. I consider myself to introduction be different parts of all these places and people. The struggle in answering the question Where are you from? is a common experience, and you don't want to is lost is lost waste time and breath on someone who doesn't really care. To transcend rootlessness is to obesity feel at home wherever you are, regardless of environment. Nothing Is Lost Essay? Home is reframed to berkeley include the if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay world.
For me, this journey started when I made the decision to start with my self. I believe that as long as you feel at home in of movies your own skin, you'll always find a way to if wealth is lost is lost essay create home around you. Restlessness is berkeley admission essay questions, a kindred spirit to rootlessness. I once read that 75 percent of global nomads change colleges at least three times. Neither I nor my sister changed colleges once. . . so someone out there is doing a lot of moving around! On the nothing is lost essay other hand, once I graduated from college I moved four times in as many years.
My sister Suzanne just graduated from college and has moved three times in baking resume nine months. For most global nomads, it's simply a question of when, not if, they're going to is lost essay keep on roaming. Yet sooner or later most global nomads face a crisis (or repeated crises) that bring them face to face with the of movies question of how often and where do they really want to if wealth nothing is lost move. How restless are they? Why do they feel that way? Is it serving them or is it an an extended essay, archaic bit of life left over from their childhood experiences? It took me until my late twenties to acknowledge the deep sense of if wealth nothing is lost essay rootlessness and of movies insecurity that my exotic overseas life masked.
I'm still in the process of trying to figure it all out. Right now what seems to work is living in a place I call home while knowing that I could travel if I wanted to. Pretty soon I will have been in Seattle for three years. . If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Is Lost? . the longest I've lived anywhere since I was nine. . . and I'm curious to see how that will feel. Trouble with intimacy. Global nomads know how to be mobile. Traveling for business or fun poses little problem.
But that same footloose attitude doesn't always bode well for relationships. The idea of commitment, daunting enough for most people, can stir tremendous insecurity and fear in for true, those raised around the world. It's ironic. On one hand global nomads step into situations with other global nomads and rapidly form strong relationships with them -- usually because they are talking about their experiences, their shared culture. But on the other hand global nomads know how to keep emotional distance. Until recently I always kept a margin of if wealth is lost is lost emotional detachment in all my relationships. My emotional antennae, finely tuned for any vibration of the word goodbye, worked overtime. I felt like I had to be vigilant and prepared at any moment to draw into the protective sheath of my goodbye armor.
Global nomads say goodbye multitudes of times -- not only to people, but to schools, to homes, to cultural identities, to aspects of a country they have come to love. Trusting a relationship to stay the course through the joy and of movies the pain of life flies in the face of accumulated global nomad experience. We all handle the separation from friends and places differently. Some global nomads attempt to maintain friendships long distance. With each move, as the if wealth essay list of correspondants grows and good introduction obesity the pain increases, this can be a formidable task. The Internet, with it's gift of e-mail, is a godsend for global nomads. Nothing Essay? Instead of expensive phone calls and/or time-consuming and outdated letter correspondence, you can type off an admission, update and send it to dozens of people all over the world and they'll be reading it sometime within the next 24 hours. Although some global nomads work at relationship despite time and distance, some do not. If Wealth Is Lost? Some can end relationships on the turn of essay on cows a dime.
When they learn a friend is leaving in a couple months, they turn and walk away, thinking that if they start letting go now that when the moment of true goodbye arrives it will not sting and ache quite as much. This is not just some neurotic problem -- it is a response that builds up over several experiences of being told by a parent that We're leaving Singapore for if wealth essay, France when the school year ends. On Humanity True Religion? Isn't that a surprise? It builds when global nomads discover that friends are leaving a year earlier than expected, and will be gone within the month. For a long time my thinking ran something like this: the best line of defense against pain is a good offense, therefore guard against vulnerability and be prepared to drop a relationship at a moment's notice. Some of my deepest on-going struggles are the ones I have with trusting and creating geniune relationships. Because I am asked again and again to be vulnerable.
To reveal my true feelings. To allow myself to care deeply about the presence and love of other human beings. To be willing to share pain and if wealth tears and witness them in another without running away. In this journey there is no room for berkeley questions, unilateral decision-making, or unilateral leave-taking. This will be part of my life-time work. Loneliness and isolation can become unwelcome bosom buddies as a single move turns into two, into is lost nothing is lost three, into four. Obesity? It is a lifelong challenge for anyone to handle the balance of past and is lost nothing is lost present in baking resume a way that leads to a fully lived present. Global nomads tend to if wealth is lost nothing either be more susceptible to living more in the past (especially if they're unhappy with a new school, location or living circumstance) or denying they ever had a past at all.
Opening to past sadness or other people requires a level of vulnerability that can at first feel devastating. It is tempting to insist that I can take care of myself, I don't need anyone else. Baking Resume? Self-reliance and is lost nothing is lost independence are valuable resources, but not at the expense of pushing away help when you need it. When I was about 13 years old I adopted the steps an extended Simon and Garfunkel I am a rock philosophy of life -- and I spent years feeling isolated and is lost nothing is lost lonely . On top of that, I learned to expect airport delays, long waits for the packers to finish packing or unpacking our home and an even longer time spent finding friends. I filled those hours/days/months with books and thoughts. If I am being aware, I can slip into times when being sociable is too much of a burden. . . it's easier, more pleasant, and more fun to essay on cows be by myself.
When you haven't had a sense of having a large social support group, it can be difficult to develop and if wealth nothing is lost maintain a social support group later. Most people take this for granted -- they have friends, family, church folks and a sense of community to essay is the true religion lean on. They know that they are isolated only if they choose to be. But for those of us who have moved around a lot, stable community is a new concept, and it takes time to really understand or trust it. The rootlessness and struggle with intimacy will create all kinds of learning opportunities in any close relationship a global nomad has. Those who have grown up in one place will probably have a tough time understanding their friend or partner's restlessness, the desire to move, the if wealth need for change. Introduction Essay? And if you're with another global nomad. . . who gets to choose where to live next?! Of course there are those who, having moved all over the world as a child have no intention of if wealth is lost is lost essay moving again, ever! They can become very permanently settled, but this is less common, particularly during the college transition.
Unresolved grief is probably the heaviest burden in the backpack of the global nomad. Reviews Of Movies? When you say goodbye as many times as a global nomad does you can start building up some pretty intense grief. Essay? I've been told the average number of essay on cows goodbyes for global nomads is eight times by the time they're 18 years old, although for me it was five times. But that's just the times when I was the one leaving, it doesn't include the goodbyes I said to if wealth nothing is lost others who were going while I stayed behind. How you handle partings becomes a critical component of the rest of your life. An Extended Essay? It's taken me years to figure out is lost is lost, how to essay on cows respond when even small goodbyes trigger mudslides of denial and emotion.
For example, 24 hours before my fiancee leaves for if wealth is lost essay, a three day business trip I start withdrawing. A sense of loneliness way out of proportion with the time he will be gone wells up in is the true me. And as I'm driving away from dropping him at the airport, I always cry. Over the last year I've gone from tears streaming down my face to a tear drop or two, and now I don't have a crushing sense that I'll NEVER see him again. Because now I know it's less about him leaving than it is about my emotional goodbye button getting a firm push. The goodbye at the airport scenario takes on gothic, mythic overtones for the global nomad. Grief happens and if wealth is lost it can't be reasoned with. The truth is there's only way out of it -- and that is by going through it.
If nobody gives you time to of movies say what you're feeling out loud, to listen to you in your sadness, or to acknowledge that it hurts to be away from if wealth nothing is lost, people and places you love, you tend to stuff it all inside. And when this happens over several moves, you've got some pretty potent grief gnawing at essay on cows, your heart. Everyone experiences grief -- it's not that global nomads have a corner on the grief market. But we experience loss on a more regular and intense basis, and often with a greater sense of being alone than those who experience loss while living continuously in their home town. Parents and educators need to realize that it is critical for the global nomad (and themselves) to have time to grieve. Parents need to is lost essay witness to that grief. Without guilt, without defensiveness -- but to really hear the sadness. Otherwise, that grief and loneliness will help create relationship chaos for that global nomad throughout his or her life.
Technology -- and a culture that values stoicism -- doesn't allow much time for dealing for grief anymore. Essay On Cows? Planes take off from the US and land half a world away in a matter of 13 hours. Air journies don't lend themselves to grieving. You're dehydrated (no way to is lost is lost essay cry), cramped (no room to of movies draw a breath) and in a public area (the person next door is not going to if wealth is lost is lost be thrilled about witnessing your emotional squall). There used to be time to process grief associated with travel. Reviews Of Movies? My ancestors who left Scandinavia in 1891 and 1902 took steamship rides that lasted five or six weeks -- they had ample time to process their leave-taking. There is another closely related con here too, which is unresolved anger.
I'm not going to write about it yet though, because I haven't figured this one out. I can say that it's there, but I can't offer any perspective or suggestions for how to recognize or cope with it yet. . . but give me time. What I realized writing this is that every pro carries seeds of cons and every con carries seeds of pros. Because global nomads have ached at the loss of locations and if wealth is lost essay friends we love, we tend to be highly compassionate and empathic folks. We understand isolation, we understand discomfort around being new, we understand the feeling of steps to write not belonging.
It is a rare global nomad who will not reach out to the person who is new, or try to comfort someone suffering from a deep loss. To this day certain memories are a source of joy and is lost nothing essay wonder to essay on humanity true religion me. I am continually reminded of how blessed I have been to have two parents who were brave and strong enough to venture into unknown lands. They wanted to get to know people in various countries on nothing essay a deep personal level, rather than isolating themselves comfortably in ex-pat communities. Essay On Cows? When I get married this coming August there will be people present who will have traveled from all over the US, Germany, Japan, Australia and Singapore to is lost is lost join the celebration. Is The True Religion? These are people who have been part of my family's international community of friends for if wealth is lost essay, decades. It is an honor to know that I am woven into the weave of so many different worlds. I can truthfully say that looking back from where I am today, I wouldn't have choosen a different childhood.
1997, Debra Carlson, WorldWeave Publications.
Write my essay for me with Professional Academic Writers -
If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Free Essays - …
How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on is lost is lost essay their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in baking resume, a 12-point font, double-spaced, and nothing essay with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word.
On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. Introduction Essay Obesity. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of nothing is lost published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on steps an extended essay subsequent pages; just the is lost essay, actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the good introduction essay obesity, header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number.
Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold)
The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. If Wealth. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out baking resume broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for if wealth is lost nothing essay, constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the baking resume, time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. If Wealth Is Lost Is Lost. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not?
See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the good introduction essay, only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the is lost nothing, intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Good. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Is Lost. Try to organize it in terms of the introduction essay, ideas rather than who did what when.
In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Essay. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in essay on cows, your paper. Is Lost Nothing Is Lost Essay. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and reviews of movies think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for is lost essay, your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into baking resume your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of if wealth nothing is lost relevant studies when necessary.
Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by baking resume putting the information in nothing is lost, your own words. Be careful about questions, citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is if wealth is lost a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in of movies, your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of if wealth is lost is lost psychology, but you need to baking resume provide them with the complete information necessary for if wealth nothing, them to understand the research you are presenting.
(labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the to write an extended, most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to if wealth is lost describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and essay Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is is lost is lost essay brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the.
Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. Baking Resume. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for essay, their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in to write essay, a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold)
Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the is lost nothing is lost essay, paper and essay pencil used to record the responses, the if wealth is lost is lost essay, data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the good obesity, response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for nothing is lost, your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.
If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for?
Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the baking resume, instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about is lost essay, informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and good introduction essay obesity what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
Refer to if wealth is lost nothing essay your Statistics textbook for berkeley essay, the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay, example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the steps to write essay, number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of is lost freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. Good Introduction Obesity. For correlations, be sure to report the if wealth essay, r 2 value as an baking resume, assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of if wealth is lost is lost essay variability is good introduction essay shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Is Lost. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). On Humanity True. However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of if wealth is lost essay your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”).
This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to is the religion represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to is lost these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to essay on cows also report these in the text. If Wealth Is Lost Essay. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and reviews standard deviations in is lost, the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the essay on cows, figure. Nothing Essay. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold)
The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is good introduction obesity like the reverse of the if wealth nothing essay, introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Steps An Extended. Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?
What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the is lost nothing, literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in good introduction essay, (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the if wealth nothing essay, assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in baking resume, the literature. What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of if wealth is lost other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and steps an extended pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below.
What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in is lost essay, the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?
Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. Essay On Humanity. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an if wealth is lost nothing, alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of reviews of movies first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of if wealth is lost nothing is lost each reference should be indented (this is essay on cows called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). Nothing Is Lost Essay. See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to essay on cows journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. If Wealth Is Lost. 202.
Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation.
Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. Reviews. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the if wealth is lost is lost essay, chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Berkeley. Intergroup relations.
In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of nothing essay social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. Baking Resume. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). If Wealth Nothing Is Lost Essay. Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual.
Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. To Write Essay. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of is lost nothing is lost job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Essay On Cows. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and is lost essay below the mean. (see pp.
174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the good introduction essay, authors’ names and publication date. If Wealth Is Lost Nothing. You should use the reviews of movies, following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in nothing essay, parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by religion semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the if wealth is lost essay, page number.
For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the essay on cows, source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the is lost nothing essay, first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is is the true religion cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of nothing is lost essay Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your.
papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. To Write An Extended. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in is lost essay, the following way: Snow (as cited in baking resume, Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .