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Understanding Customer …
Business Intelligence: Building Your First Cube. I like to introduce people to Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services by creating a simple cube that contains a sampling of their own data. I have to be careful when I do this, though, because I have been pushed out of my chair on more than one occasion when new users got excited about what they were seeing and wanted to dive right in to explore the schwab case study, data in ways they never before thought possible. Whether you have data of your own you want to explore more easily or a data-hungry user community to support, you'll find SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) provides the tools. This article is the third installment of good writing a series; the first two articles appeared in the August 2009 issue and are available at technet.microsoft.com/magazine/ee263919.aspx. This series will help you develop a better understanding of business intelligence (BI) by using the components available in Microsoft SQL Server 2008 as you build a simple BI solution. Because I'll be referring to concepts and terminology introduced in the previous two articles, I recommend you take the understanding customer profitability at charles schwab study, time to fragment presented review those articles first if you haven't read them already. In Planning Your First BI Solution, I explained the advantages of building a data mart compared with retrieving data directly from a corporate database.
I also provided instructions for downloading the sample databases you'll need in order to understanding schwab study follow the steps described in these articles. Then Derek Comingore, in Building a Data Foundation for harvard dissertation database, a BI Solution, explained how to use Integration Services to understanding customer at charles case populate a data mart with data from your corporate database. In this article, I'll show you how to build a cube based on good writing a similar data mart design. My first article summarized the reasons to consider moving data out of your corporate database and into a structure called a data mart. While querying a data mart certainly has its benefits, and is probably sufficient for some scenarios, there are additional benefits to be realized by repackaging that data one more time into a structure called a cube. In fact, the data mart exists as an intermediate stop as the data makes its way to its ultimate destination in the cube, so it's still important in the overall solution. Customer Profitability? An added benefit of building a cube to house your data is that you can centralize the business rules for calculations that you can't easily store in a relational data mart. Furthermore, the narrative essays, structure of the cube makes it much easier to write queries to understanding profitability at charles case compare data year over year, or to create cumulative values such as year-to-date sales. Essay Middleton Presented Unfinished? Moreover, you gain the customer at charles schwab study, ability to essay on hermia transparently manage aggregated data in the cube. To improve query performance in understanding at charles, a relational data mart that contains a lot of data, database administrators often create summary tables to prepare data for queries that don't require transaction-level detail. SSAS creates the essay on hermia, logical equivalent of summary tables (called aggregations) and keeps them up-to-date.
In this article, I'll continue the scenarios introduced in profitability case study, the first article. Architecture Fragment Middleton Unfinished? These scenarios define the basic analysis objectives for the BI solution you're building throughout this series. The solution must be able to show which sales channel is customer study more profitable for Adventure Works, Internet Sales or Reseller Sales, and whether sales trends indicate that demand is essay on hermia growing or declining for customer profitability, certain products. Your source data for the BI solutions is the AdventureWorksDW2008 database, which applies the dimensional modeling and ETL principles described in Derek's article. You can download the sample databases used to build the solution for Adventure Works from CodePlex at msftdbprodsamples.codeplex.com/Release/ProjectReleases.aspx?ReleaseId=18407. Strategies Essay? With a data mart available as a source, you're ready to build an Analysis Services 2008 database. Preparing Your Analysis Services Database.
Your first step is to create a project in Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS). Launch BIDS from the Microsoft SQL Server 2008 program group, click File | New | Project. In the New Project dialog box, select Analysis Services Project. In the Name text box, type ssas_TECHNET_AW2008 and, if you like, change the profitability at charles study, location for your project. Very Narrative? Click OK to create the project. Schwab Case? Now add a data source to good narrative define the connection string for understanding customer at charles schwab case, your data mart. In Solution Explorer, right-click the Data Sources folder and click New Data Source. Harvard Dissertation? In the Data Source Wizard, click Next on understanding profitability at charles schwab study the Welcome page if it hasn't been disabled. Essay On Hermia? On the Select How to Define the profitability at charles study, Connection page, click New to set up a new connection. In the Connection Manager, the default is the SQL Server Native Client, which is correct for this project, though you could also use an architecture fragment middleton robin unfinished, OLE DB or .NET provider to access other types of data. To define the connection, type the name of your server in the Server Name text box or select it from the drop-down list, then select AdventureWorksDW2008 in the database drop-down list and schwab, click OK.
When you're back in strategies, the Data Source Wizard, click Next. Schwab Study? On the Impersonation Information page, select Use the service account option. The service account is used to read data from the source when loading data into your SSAS database and must have read permissions to do so. Click Next and then Finish to complete the wizard. Next, you create a data source view (DSV) as an abstraction of the tables (or views) from the management essay, data source you want to use to understanding case study define dimensions and cubes.
You can make changes to the DSV without modifying the margins in a resume, underlying data source, which is handy if you have only read permissions to the data mart and can't make changes at the source. In Solution Explorer, right-click the understanding customer at charles study, Data Source Views folder and then click New Data Source View. Click Next on the Welcome page if necessary. On the Select a data source page, select the data source you just added to the project and click Next. Add objects to the DSV by double-clicking each table or view you need. To create a DSV that helps you answer the BI questions posed at the beginning of this article, add the following tables to middleton unfinished the DSV: DimDate, DimProduct, DimProductCategory, DimProductSubcategory, FactInternetSales and FactResellerSales. While you're learning how to work with SSAS, it's a good idea to start with a simple DSV like this one. You can always add more tables later if you need to support other questions with your BI solution. Click Next in the Data Source View Wizard when you've finished adding tables and then click Finish. I recommend you simplify the names of your tables by selecting each one in the Tables pane of the DSV designer and removing the understanding customer profitability at charles schwab case study, Dim and Fact prefixes from the FriendlyName property of good each table. The wizards you use to create dimensions and cubes will then use the understanding schwab case, value in the FriendlyName property to good books assign names to objects.
The complete DSV is shown in Figure 1 . In addition to changing a table's properties in the DSV, you can define logical primary keys or logical relationships between tables if the physical source does not have them defined already. SSAS won't be able to display data correctly without these definitions in understanding customer profitability at charles, place physically in the data layer or logically in the DSV. You can also add a named calculation, which is like adding a derived column to a view, or replace the table object with a named query, which is similar to creating a view. In preparation for building the date dimension in SSAS, you need to add two named calculations to the Date table -- Quarter and Month -- to concatenate the year column with the good, quarter and month columns. Otherwise, data will not roll up correctly by month, quarter and understanding at charles, year when you want to view summarized data. To add the named calculation for Quarter, right-click on the Date table in either the essay on hermia, designer or the Tables pane and click New Named Calculation. Customer At Charles Schwab Case Study? In the Column Name text box, type Quarter. Very? In the Expression text box, type the following expression: 'Qtr ' + convert(char(1), CalendarQuarter) + ' ' + convert(char(4), CalendarYear)
Click OK and now repeat these steps to add the named calculation for Month, using the following expression: left(EnglishMonthName, 3) + ' ' + convert(char(4), CalendarYear) Notice that the Date table in the designer (shown in profitability schwab, Figure 2 ) displays your named calculations with a calculator icon to differentiate them from columns physically in the table. You can review the good essays, effect of adding the named calculations by right-clicking the table and clicking Explore Data. A new window opens in at charles schwab, BIDS to display the data from the harvard, source table. When you scroll all the way to the right, you can see the values for the named calculations. You should always use the Explore Data command to confirm that the named calculations display the way you intend before you proceed to building your dimensions. Defining Dimensions in Analysis Services. After adding dimension tables to the DSV, you're ready to customer at charles schwab study create dimensions in the SSAS database. Dissertation? As a reminder, you use a dimension to store information about profitability at charles schwab case business entities, such as people, places and things.
To be able to answer the BI questions posed at the beginning of this article, you need to create dimensions for Date and Product. To add a dimension to the project, launch the Dimension Wizard by right-clicking the Dimensions folder in Solution Explorer and selecting New Dimension. On the Select Creation Method page, keep the default selection to use an existing table because your DSV includes the essay on hermia, DimDate table. For those situations when you might build a simple database based on a small transactional table that includes dates, you might not build out a data mart and understanding case, can instead use one of the other options on this page to generate a time table in margins resume, the data source or on the server. Figure 2 Date Table with Named Calculations. In either case, you supply a beginning date and an end date for the data in the transactional table.
SSAS can create and profitability at charles, populate a physical table in the data source it will use to resume populate the dimension maintained in the SSAS database, or it can simply maintain the dimension exclusively in the SSAS database. You might choose to customer schwab case generate the physical table when you need to be able to support relational queries to the data source. Click Next to continue. On the Specify Source Information page, select Date in the Main Table dropdown list. Note the Key Column is DateKey. The key column must uniquely identify each record in the table so that SSAS can correctly aggregate or group data when returning query results. Margins Resume? Then, in the Name Column dropdown list, select FullDateAlternateKey. SSAS uses the name column as a label to display to the user instead of displaying the key column. On the profitability, Select Dimension Attributes page, you choose attributes to include in the dimension, which you use to define hierarchies or additional grouping labels.
Whether you include all attributes from the dimension table depends on the types of questions you want to support in your BI solution. Add only as many as you need to harvard dissertation ensure SSAS performs optimally, to avoid consuming storage space unnecessarily and to avoid confusing users with too many options. Understanding Profitability At Charles Schwab Study? For this dimension, select Calendar Year, Quarter and Month. Click Next and then click Finish. To ensure that each attribute can be uniquely identified, update the architecture presented robin unfinished, KeyColumn property. By setting this property to the key columns, you ensure that Month sorts correctly in numerical sequence rather than alphabetically by month name, which is the default sort order.
To update the KeyColumn property, select Month in the Attributes pane on the left. Understanding Profitability? In the Properties window, click the KeyColumns property and then the ellipsis button. In the Key Columns dialog box, click the left arrow to clear the current assignment and then double-click CalendarYear and narrative, MonthNumberOfYear. Now assign a label to this attribute by clicking the ellipsis button in the NameColumns property box. Select EnglishMonthName, and click OK. Understanding At Charles Case Study? Repeat these steps to set the KeyColumns property of the fragment middleton robin, Quarter attribute to CalendarYear and CalendarQuarter and to set the NameColumns property to understanding profitability case Quarter. The dimension now appears in Solution Explorer as Date.dim and the dimension designer (shown in very good narrative essays, Figure 3 ) displays in the main workspace area in BIDS. Figure 3 Date Dimension Shown in the Designer. You can see the profitability schwab study, dimension with its associated attributes, including the key attribute, in the Attributes pane on the left.
If you decide later to add more attributes, you can drag them one by one from the Data Source View pane to the Attributes pane. Harvard? You use the Dimension Wizard only when starting a new dimension, but can make any necessary changes later in understanding customer study, the dimension designer. Now use the Dimension Wizard to create the Product dimension, using Product as the main table and essay on hermia, EnglishProductName as the name column. Because the Product dimension is a snowflake schema, the understanding at charles schwab, wizard includes an additional page to confirm that you want to include the related tables, ProductSubcategory and ProductCategory. Next, add the Color and Size attributes to the dimension. Notice that the wizard automatically selects the key columns for the snowflake tables, Product Subcategory Key and Product Category Key. You need to good add in the corresponding name columns for these attributes, but must first finish the wizard so you can modify the attribute properties.
When the dimension designer displays, select Product Category Key in the Attributes pane. In the Properties, locate the Name property and change the name to Category. Scroll down in the Properties window to locate the NameColumn property. Click in the property text box to display the ellipsis button, click the button, select EnglishProductCategoryName, and click OK. Now repeat these steps to rename Product Subcategory Key to Subcategory and to specify EnglishProductSubcategoryName as its name column. Last, rename the Product Key attribute as Product. Notice the blue wavy line that appears under the dimension name, Product, in the Attributes pane. When you hover your cursor over this line, a warning message appears, Create hierarchies in non-parent child dimensions. This message is an understanding customer profitability at charles study, example of the best practices warnings built into SSAS 2008 to time management strategies essay help you build an customer schwab case, SSAS database correctly.
Return to the Date dimension designer, either by clicking the good narrative, applicable tab in understanding customer profitability, the document workspace or by double-clicking Date.dim in Solution Explorer, and harvard dissertation, you'll see the same warning there. Adding a hierarchy to a dimension is understanding customer profitability schwab considered a best practice for several reasons, in essay on hermia, particular for schwab case study, user-friendliness and optimization purposes. More specifically, a hierarchy provides a navigation path for users to follow from summarized to detailed data. Moreover, it can improve query performance by in a resume, enabling SSAS to schwab case study compute and store aggregations in advance of architecture fragment robin unfinished user queries. For example, if the user wants to see reseller sales by year and a hierarchy in the Date dimension defines the rollup path from the key attribute (Date Key) to the Calendar Year attribute, SSAS can calculate the sales data by year during processing and then put the results into permanent storage.
This storage of aggregations avoids the need to compute each year's sales at query time and is the profitability schwab study, key difference between retrieving data from harvard dissertation a relational data mart or from a multidimensional database like SSAS. To add a hierarchy to the Date dimension, drag the understanding customer at charles case, Calendar Year attribute from the Attributes pane to the Hierarchy pane in the dimension designer. After you add the first attribute, a hierarchy object appears with a new empty level below the attribute you just added. Add the essay on hermia, Quarter and understanding customer profitability at charles schwab case, Month attributes to the hierarchy by dropping each one into writing the space for understanding customer at charles schwab study, the empty level. Next, rename the hierarchy by architecture middleton presented unfinished, right-clicking Hierarchy, then clicking Rename and typing Year. Although you've added a hierarchy, a warning still appears for the Date dimension. Hover your cursor over the line to see a new warning, Avoid visible attribute hierarchies for attributes used as levels in user-defined hierarchies. Customer At Charles Schwab? This message suggests you prevent users from viewing an attribute by essays, itself when that attribute has been included in a hierarchy. Customer Profitability At Charles? In other words, a user should only be able view the database, attribute when navigating within the hierarchy. In my experience, this decision is really one you should make in conjunction with users. If you decide to heed this warning, select Quarter in profitability, the Attributes pane and then, in the Properties window, change the AttributeHierarchyVisible value to False.
Another warning appears on the hierarchy itself. In this case, the message cautions that a performance problem might arise because attribute relationships are missing between one or more levels of the hierarchy. Attribute relationships are used by SSAS to optimize query performance and aggregation design, to reduce the margins in a resume, amount of storage required for customer at charles schwab case, a dimension, and to architecture essay middleton robin unfinished speed up database processing time. Click the Attribute Relationships tab in the dimension designer. Profitability Case Study? (Note that this tab is fragment presented unfinished available only if you're using Analysis Services 2008.) By default, all attributes relate directly to the key attribute, Date Key. To optimize the design by reassigning relationships, drag the Month object to understanding profitability at charles schwab study the Quarter object, and then drag the Quarter object to the Year object. The relationship in the designer now correctly represents the many-to-one relationship between each level from left to right, as shown in Figure 4 . Figure 4 Attribute Relationships. Next, add a hierarchy to the Product dimension called Categories that contains Category, Subcategory and Product from top to bottom.
After you create the hierarchy, you'll find you don't need to fix the attribute relationships between levels because the foreign key relationships between the tables are already defined in the DSV. However, you can set the AttributeHierarchyVisible property value to False if you like. Now your project contains two dimensions that have hierarchies and attribute relationships correctly defined. As you learn more about dimension design, you'll find there are several properties available for tuning performance and narrative, controlling specific behavior in the user interface. Understanding Profitability At Charles Study? Also, you'll likely have several more dimensions in more complex BI solutions. However, at this point, you have mastered the essay on hermia, basics of dimensions and have what you need to continue building a usable solution by creating a cube.
Just as you use the Dimension Wizard to start the process of at charles schwab defining your dimensions, you use the Cube Wizard to begin creating your cube. In Solution Explorer, right-click the Cubes folder, click New Cube and then Next on database the Welcome page if applicable. Profitability Schwab Study? On the Select Creation Method page, keep the default option. Margins Resume? (You'd use the other two options when you have a design you want to understanding at charles case study create manually or with a template, then have SSAS generate tables in the data source based on that design, which you'd need to populate with data using Integration Services before you could browse your cube.) Click Next. Dissertation? On the Select Measure Group Tables page, choose Internet Sales and Reseller Sales and click Next. (Measure group tables are synonymous with fact tables.) The wizard then displays all the numeric columns found in customer profitability at charles case, the selected measure group tables. In keeping with the simple approach you've taken thus far, clear all the management, measures by clearing the Measure check box at the top of the page, and then select the following measures from each group (Internet Sales and understanding customer schwab case study, Reseller Sales): Order Quantity, Total Product Cost and Sales Amount.
You can also rename measures on this page. Just right-click on the measure name and type the new name, but make sure each measure name is essay on hermia unique. The measure name should be short, but not so short that it's cryptic. Rename the measures in the Internet Sales group as follows: Internet Order Quantity, Internet Cost and Internet Sales. Likewise, rename the Reseller Sales measures as Reseller Order Quantity, Reseller Cost and Reseller Sales. Click Next. On the Select Existing Dimensions page, the wizard displays the understanding customer profitability study, dimensions you've already created. Click Next.
If there are any tables in the DSV that are not yet referenced as a measure group table or by an existing dimension, the harvard dissertation, Select New Dimensions page will display to allow you to quickly add any other dimension you might need. In this case, clear Internet Sales and Reseller Sales as you don't need these tables created as dimensions. (Although technically these are measure group tables, the presence of understanding profitability schwab sales order numbers in the tables would allow you to create dimensions to good books support reporting or analysis of sales by sales order number.) Click Next, rename the cube as Sales, and click Finish. Congratulations! You've successfully built a simple cube! The cube designer displays the measure groups and the dimensions added to profitability at charles schwab case the cube in the panes on the left, and the source DSV on the right, as shown in margins resume, Figure 5 . Figure 5 Cube Designer Showing Measure Groups and Dimensions. The first step to take after building a cube is setting the FormatString property of each measure to make it easier to view values in the cube browser. The quickest way to do this is to view the measures in a grid. In the toolbar of the cube designer, click the fifth button from the left to toggle from Tree View to Grid View. Customer Profitability At Charles Case Study? In Grid View, you can use the essay on hermia, Ctrl key to select several measures at once. Understanding Profitability Case? First, select Internet Order Quantity and Reseller Order Quantity. In the Properties window, in the FormatString dropdown list, select Standard.
Then select all remaining measures to set the FormatString property to time Currency. A powerful feature of SSAS is the ability to add calculations using the Multidimensional Expression language (MDX). If you can write formulas in customer profitability at charles study, Excel, you can create calculations in your cube using simple MDX expressions. For more complex expressions, you'll need to spend some time learning about MDX through study and lots of practice. Remember that one of the design goals of writing this solution is to measure profitability by at charles schwab case, sales channel. The cube now includes the in a resume, measures you need to calculate profitability: Internet Cost, Internet Sales, Reseller Cost and Reseller Sales. The difference between sales and cost is the profitability case, gross margin, but that calculation provides absolute dollars, which isn't useful for comparison between channels. In addition to gross margin, you need to calculate the fragment middleton presented robin, gross margin percentage by dividing gross margin by the sales amount. In the cube designer, click the Calculations tab, the third tab from the left.
Then click the New Calculated Member button on profitability at charles case study the toolbar, the fifth button from the left. Good Writing? In the Name text box, type [Internet Gross Margin]. The brackets are required when the name includes spaces. In the Expression text box, type [Internet Sales] - [Internet Cost], and then, in the Format String drop-down list, select Currency. Now repeat these steps to add the calculations shown in Figure 6 . Figure 6 Adding Calculations to the Cube. Deploying an Analysis Services Database from BIDS. Thus far, although you have built the objects necessary to create an SSAS database on the server, the database itself doesn't yet exist.
The design tasks you perform in BIDS produce XML files that must get deployed to the server. Once those files are deployed, you can process the database, which executes the understanding profitability at charles case, commands necessary to build the storage structures defined by the XML files and to essay populate those structures by executing queries to the specified data source. Within BIDS, you start all of these activities by right-clicking the project in Solution Explorer and then clicking Deploy. The Deployment Progress window opens to show you each step it performs and whether that step succeeds or fails. After you have deployed a project, you can still make changes in the designers. Just deploy the understanding customer schwab study, project again as previously described to move your changes to the server and launch processing.
If prompted that your database will be overwritten, click Yes if you're certain you're the only person making changes to the database. Sometimes the change you make won't trigger the command to writing books process the database after deployment. In this case, just right click the dimension or cube you changed, then click Process, and Run. Customer Profitability Study? If you process a dimension using the Process Full option (which is required if you make a significant structural change to the dimension), you might also need to process the cube. At each stage of essay middleton presented unfinished development, as long as you have successfully deployed and processed the solution, you can review your progress from the user's point of view. In the understanding customer profitability case, cube designer, click the Browser tab. The pane on the left displays the good essays, objects in customer profitability at charles schwab, the SSAS database in a metadata tree (shown in Figure 7 ). The top node of the tree is the cube. Expand the essay on hermia, Measures node and schwab case, the folders it contains to view all of the measures available, and then expand the Order Date and Product nodes to view the attributes in these dimensions.
Figure 7 Sales Cube Metadata Tree. You might be wondering why the cube contains Due Date, Order Date and Ship Date when you created only one Date dimension. These cube dimensions are called role-playing dimensions because they represent different logical versions of the same dimension. They appear automatically in the cube when you include the Date dimension because the fact table contains three different foreign key columns that all relate back to the single table on which the Date dimension is based to track the order, shipping and due events separately. (If these role-playing dates aren't useful for analysis, you can delete any you don't need on the Cube Structure page of the designer.) To view cube data, you drag objects from the middleton presented unfinished, metadata tree to the grid in the center of the designer. Start by dragging Internet Sales to the area labeled Drop Totals or Detail Fields Here. Then repeat this process to add Internet Gross Margin Pct, Reseller Sales and understanding customer at charles study, Reseller Gross Margin Pct to the grid. With the results of this simple query now visible in the cube browser (as shown in middleton presented, Figure 8 ), you can see that Internet Sales are significantly more profitable than Reseller Sales. Figure 8 Query Results in the Cube Browser. You can continue exploring these results by dragging attributes to the sections of the grid for rows, columns or filters, which collectively are called axes, or by dragging attributes and measures off the grid.
The process of adding objects to the axes to refine the query is called slice and dice by BI users and is a very fast way to understanding customer profitability at charles schwab case query data without writing any code. For example, to slice by year, drag Order Date.Year to the section labeled Drop Row Fields Here. Because Order Date.Year is a hierarchy (as indicated by the pyramid-shaped icon), you can drill down to slice by quarter by expanding one or more of the years. Similarly, you can dice by category by dragging Categories to the columns axis above the measures. After you place objects on rows or columns, you can filter the list of items by clicking the arrow in the caption. Management Strategies Essay? To remove Components from the grid, click the arrow in the Category caption, clear the Components check box and click OK. Next, to simplify the view, drag Internet Sales and Reseller Sales off the understanding customer schwab study, grid. You can now easily compare the profitability of the Internet and Reseller channels by year and essay, quarter and by product category, as shown in Figure 9 . Figure 9 Profitability of Sales Channels by Year and Quarter and by Category. By default, the cube is accessible only by the server administrator. However, once your cube is understanding schwab case deployed to resume the Analysis Server, you can set permissions to grant users access to it, enabling them to use their favorite tool to browse the cube. Profitability Case? Microsoft Excel 2007 is a popular choice for good narrative essays, interactive browsing, but you can also use Reporting Services to distribute reports based on cube data, as I'll explain in a future article.
Now that you've built a small database using the sample AdventureWorks data, you should apply what you've learned to your own data by building a simple cube. If you have a simple design and a relatively small data set (containing less than a few million rows, for example), you can build a database without going to the effort of building and maintaining a data mart. Just set up a data source view to query the source using named queries that structure the data as closely as possible to understanding profitability at charles a star schema. When your data source has new data, you can simply do a full process of your SSAS database to time management keep it current with your data source. If you have more data to put into a cube, you should read more about SSAS in Books Online and other resources as this article explains only the very basic points you need to know to build a simple cube. For example, at the beginning of this article, I mentioned that one benefit of SSAS is aggregation management, but to explain more about that subject is beyond the scope of understanding customer profitability schwab case this article.
You can learn more about aggregations and other advanced topics by harvard database, reading Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services Step by Step (Microsoft Press, 2009), recently published by understanding customer at charles schwab case study, a good friend of mine, Scott Cameron, who started his business intelligence career with me many years ago. Now that you've built your first cube, keep enhancing your skills so that you can develop more advanced cubes and take full advantage of the Microsoft BI platform.
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Understanding Customer …
penn 2009 essay Reward and Punishment versus Freedom. Science makes astounding leaps from time to time, turning cherished intuitions upside down. One such leap was Galileo's claim that all objects fall at the same speed. Galileo imagined a world our ancestors had never seen; a world beyond the intuitions we inherited from our ancestors; a world in which friction does not contaminate the profitability at charles schwab study true laws of physics.
Objects do fall at the same speed in resume a friction-free world. And once placed in customer at charles schwab case study motion, objects remain in margins in a motion. Galileo's sixth century insight prepared the way for Newton, Einstein and all that followed – the schwab case imagined world that led to nuclear energy… electronics… the computer. In a science as immature as psychology, one cannot hope to approximate the counter-intuitive leaps of physics. Middleton Presented Robin? No science can yet approach physics in disclosing worlds that reach beyond our imagination. On occasion, however, even the most backward science can provide micro-examples of what we have come to take for granted in physics. One of these micro examples can be found in the idea of reward and punishment. A re-thinking of the idea has led to the discovery of a simple rule that turns commonsense, if not upside down, then at understanding at charles case, least sideways! When an event increases the frequency of a response that it follows, the event is called a reward; if the event reduces the frequency of the harvard database response that it follows, the event is called a punishment. Customer At Charles Schwab Study? These traditional definitions, like all definitions, are neutral, but they suggest that reward is a pleasant or “good” event, punishment an unpleasant or “bad” event, and that the two are opposite.
Reward and punishment however are not opposites. Essay On Hermia? They are, except for sign, equivalent! And they both contrast with freedom. This is a new point of view, a micro-blockbuster. Understanding Profitability At Charles? It says that reward and punishment are produced by two simple rules. For reward, this rule: in any pair of responses, the very essays more probable will reward the less probable. Understanding Profitability Case Study? For punishment, this rule: in any pair of responses, the less probable will punish the more probable. We test this new view of reward by first giving the individual free access to water, food, a mate, music etc., items to which the person or animal is in a resume likely to respond - and we record the length of time (the duration) the individual spends with each item. Behavior can be counted in many different ways – as bar presses, pellets eaten, wheel turns, licks, etc.-- but we cannot compare these different units, bar presses with pellets eaten, pellets eaten with wheel turns, etc. Yet, in order to test the rule, we must compare entirely different behaviors.
The amount of time (the duration) which an individual spends with each item turns out to be the ideal measure for making comparisons of this kind. Duration is not an arbitrary measure like bar presses and wheel turns, etc. It is a universal measure and is applicable to all behaviors. Here is a simple example of the test. A white rat is offered two objects: freely available food and a freely available running wheel.
The rat is hungry. Understanding Profitability At Charles Case Study? It spends more time eating than it does running. According to the first rule then: Eating should reward running. To test the essay on hermia rule, we remove the food. Profitability At Charles Case Study? The rat remains in the running wheel. We arrange a “contingency” between running and time management strategies eating: in order to eat, the rat MUST run. When the rat runs for a predetermined duration, it is given a small amount of food. Understanding Customer At Charles Schwab Case? In order to continue to receive food, the rat must repeat the cycle, run in order to time essay, eat. If the rule is understanding customer profitability at charles correct, the rat should increase its running. Robin? Exactly by how much will depend on the requirements of the contingency.
For example: if, after running for a short duration the rat is given a substantial meal, the rat will show a small increase in running. Profitability Schwab? The increase will be smaller than if it had been either: (a) required to run for time management essay a very long duration before eating, and/or (b) was given a very small meal each time it ran. One can bring about a dramatic change in the duration of the rat's running by changing the understanding customer schwab case contingency in small steps. By gradually requiring the rat to run for ever longer durations, and at the same time reducing the duration for which it can eat, the rat can be led to run almost endlessly! This hints at the power of reward - at its ability to both control and shape an individual's behavior.
When held in the grip of a contingency, every individual faces a competition between two responses, one response more probable than the other. Strategies Essay? In the above example, the understanding customer case study rat is being asked: How much MORE ARE YOU WILLING TO RUN in order to maintain your normal amount of strategies, eating? Alternatively, how much LESS ARE YOU WILLING TO EAT in order to maintain your normal amount of customer at charles, running? The rat has two choices: either to increase the time less probable response (running); or reduce the understanding customer profitability at charles case study more probable one (eating). Reward invariably produces the same choice: the individual increases the less probable response. Trapped by a contingency, an individual will do “whatever it takes” to preserve the more probable response. The less probable response is expendable. In other words, one can expect the rat not to “yield” its disposition to fragment middleton presented, eat; and expect it to do “whatever it costs to eat its normal amount of food. The almost unlimited elasticity of a less probable response - running in this example – and the fact that it yields to understanding customer profitability, the more probable response – eating - makes “reward” possible. At the end of the experiment, we disrupt the contingency and essay on hermia return the understanding case study rat to its original state where running in the treadmill is not followed by the opportunity to eat.
The duration of running now declines, and the rat returns to running and eating at its original level. A great surprise? Allowing a hungry rat to eat when it turns the essay on hermia activity wheel increases the amount it runs? Not giving the rat food for turning the wheel decreases the amount it runs? Do we need a new rule in order to explain so commonplace an outcome? Ordinarily, how is the effectiveness of food as a reward explained? It is described as having unique physiological consequences. We are reminded that food is essential for the survival of the understanding customer profitability at charles schwab case study individual and for the continuation of the architecture middleton species.
We appeal to hedonics, to eating as a positive experience in which the taste, smell, and even the sight of food contribute. Or we emphasize the power of eating to relieve the customer schwab study pangs and discomforts of hunger. According to the new rule, eating is not unique. The rule has nothing to say about the special or unique properties of responses. Eating receives no special definition. The rule places no emphasis either on the biological, the physiological or the hedonic aspects of eating. The rule says this: eating is effective as a reward for precisely the dissertation same reason that any other response is an effective reward! When eating is customer profitability more probable than the instrumental response with which it is paired, eating will produce an increase in the frequency of the instrumental response.
In general, the impressive ability of architecture essay middleton presented unfinished, eating to serve as a reward comes from a simple fact: eating often has a higher probability than any other responses. Understanding Profitability At Charles? In some conditions as high a probability as any response could have; for when food is returned to an individual who has been starved, there will be nothing he is more likely to do than eat. The increase in eating that is produced by deprivation for food suggests a novel way in which to time management essay, test the new rule. We need to find a situation in which the individual is not hungry, a situation when eating has a low probability - a condition in which the probability of eating is not merely low, but lower than that of some other response. We need not look far. Middle-class children provide the ideal group. These children have abundant food, are seldom hungry, and find many objects far more attractive than food. In 1958, when the experiment that follows was carried out, one of the attractive objects happened to be the pinball machine - one of the most exciting games children could be offered to play. They were as drawn to it as they are to today's computer games. In the test, a pinball machine and a chocolate dispenser are placed side by side. The pinball machine is understanding profitability schwab study rewired for continuous operation (allowing the robin unfinished child to play the understanding customer profitability at charles study game over margins resume, and over profitability at charles study, again), and a dish for the chocolate is essay on hermia automatically refilled with a single MM candy each time the child takes the piece provided in the dish.
The child is free to eat the candy and play the game in any amount and in any order that he chooses. For a few children, the two freely available, desirable alternatives presented a problem. Some got stuck on one or the understanding customer profitability case study other alternative as though an invisible barrier had arisen between the candy and the pinball machine. They could not alternate from one activity to the other. The majority of the children however were not blocked, and architecture essay middleton robin moved easily from eating to playing, or vice versa.
Most of the children were “players”: 61% of the first graders spent more time playing the pinball machine than eating (even though MMs were a great favorite). Only 39% spent more time eating than playing, the customer at charles schwab case study “eaters”. These facts established, the children were divided into players and eaters, and each of these groups was further divided into two subgroups. There were then four groups, each of which was given one or other of two contingencies. The children were required to play the pinball machine in order to eat the MM's; or to time strategies, eat the MM's in order to understanding customer profitability study, play the pinball machine.
When the child was required to play in order to eat, the pinball machine was freely available but the good books candy was not; the child had to understanding schwab, operate the game in order to have the very good essays candy. Customer Profitability Schwab Study? When the child was required to eat in order to play, the candy was freely available, but the game was not; the child had to eat the candy in order to play the pinball machine. These two contingencies had remarkably different effects on both players and eaters. For “players”, the opportunity to play the pinball machine strongly rewarded the eating of MM's. Management Strategies Essay? Children in this group had had an average base level of understanding study, eating just five pieces of candy: but, when eating the candy led to a chance to good narrative essays, play, they ate an average of 26 candies! By contrast, when playing the pinball machine led to understanding customer at charles case, a chance to eat candy, players ate no more than their base level of candy. The results for the players confirm both sides of the very good narrative essays rule.
Playing, the customer at charles schwab case more probable response, should reward eating, and it did. Eating, the less probable response, should not reward playing, and it did not. “Eaters” too confirmed the rule. For the “eaters”, the opportunity to eat MM's did reward playing the pinball machine. It increased the frequency of playing the game from about X times in the base period to Y times during the contingency. The opposite contingency has no effect. When given the strategies essay opportunity to operate the understanding at charles study pinball machine after eating the candy, eaters played no more than their original amount of the game. The results of the pinball/candy experiments confirmed the good books rule. These results add somewhat of a twist to the literature on reward. At Charles Case? In all prior laboratory studies, eating has been the rewarding event- there is probably no other study in which eating has itself been rewarded.
That is writing not a mystery. In the typical laboratory, animals are first deprived of food, assuring a hungry animal, an understanding profitability at charles schwab study, animal in which eating is more probable than any other response. RUNNING TO DRINK. These results are not confined to middle class children. They can be duplicated in rats. We can reinstate the conditions used with children, except that, in working with the rat, we substitute an activity wheel for the pinball machine, and water for essay on hermia the MM's. Drinking is customer profitability at charles substituted for eating because drinking can be measured automatically in the rat. A drinking device can be connected to the side of the activity wheel.
When the writing books rat's tongue contacts the water, a clock starts, automatically recording the customer profitability at charles schwab duration of the drink. Drinking is equally automatic in the rat. Good Books? Immediately after they are weaned they drink at the rate of seven times a second. The rats were well-provided with both food and water - virtually middle-class, neither thirsty nor hungry. Their probability of drinking was low, probably as low as that of the children who ate the MM's. Customer Profitability Schwab Case? During the base measurement period, the rats spent more time running than drinking. The relation between the rat's probabilities of drinking and running was similar to that of the children's between eating and pinball playing. Except for this fact: rats did not naturally “divide” into essay on hermia two groups, runners and drinkers.
In that sense, they were unlike the children. All the understanding at charles schwab rats spent more time running than drinking! Since running is more probable than drinking, running should reward drinking. Does it? To test the rule, we arrange a contingency between drinking and running. Water is very good essays freely available, but the running wheel is locked. The rat must first lick the drinking device for a certain period of schwab case study, time in order to unlock the wheel, and run. Good Narrative Essays? To continue running, the rat must repeat the cycle. Whenever the rat's tongue contacts the water, it produces a “tick” at seven times a second. A “click” registers each time the rat turns the activity wheel, once every second. Both sounds occur at constant rates because the recurrent (species-specific) behaviors found in the rat, such as grooming, copulating, eating, running, etc. all occur at constant rates.
When the rat drinks in order to run, it drinks three or four times more compared to the base period. When we disrupt the contingency so that drinking no longer makes the running wheel available, drinking returns to its base level. Customer Schwab Case Study? Running rewards drinking in architecture fragment middleton robin unfinished the rat under the same conditions as playing rewards eating in the child. Both results can be explained by the same rule. Notice this. The rule does not offer an explanation of the “independent” or baseline probability of any individual behavior.
It does not predict that running can be made more probable than drinking; or that children are more likely to play a pinball machine than to eat chocolate. The rule is concerned exclusively with dependent probabilities, with the relationship between behaviors, the effect of one response probability on another. The rule has nothing to say about independent probabilities. Could eating be made “exceptionally” probable by starving the individual? One might think the answer to so simple a question must be “yes”; but, actually, rather than that, the answer depends on the species. Different species eat foods of varying caloric value, in different amounts, and at different intervals.
Vegetarians consume low caloric food, foraging and eating small amounts almost continually. Carnivores consume high caloric food, hunt infrequently, gorge themselves and dine only understanding customer at charles case, after long intervals. One could, therefore, “starve” a carnivore for a long period of time without producing a high probability of eating. Behavior, being complex, varies in unexpected ways. The present rule implies that the cause of an independent probability is of no consequence. Whether a response probability is caused by food deprivation, sweetness or sugar content, ambient temperature, amount of books, work performed, etc., has no effect on the reward value of the probability.
Responses of equal probabilities have the at charles study same reward value, irrespective of their initial conditions. A powerful claim indeed. REVERSABILITY OF REWARD. In the traditional view, eating and drinking, activities which typically serve as rewards, cannot themselves be rewarded. However, the pinball experiment shows that eating can be rewarded.
In the rat study we did not reverse the traditional reward relation in order to show that drinking can reward running. It was not necessary. This is the conventional arrangement, and writing the outcome is known. From the point of view of the new rule, we reward running with drinking by simply reversing the probabilities of drinking and running. Introduce a little thirst, a little water deprivation, and the rat's probability of drinking will exceed that of running. To reverse the contingency, we remove the drinking device, and make running freely available. In order to customer at charles schwab study, drink, the rat must run, which it does, because drinking is more probable than running. The rat runs more than its normal baseline in order to drink; just as the rat drank more than its baseline in order to run when running was more probable than drinking. Clearly, reward is a reversible relation.
RELATIVE NOT ABSOLUTE. To say that reward has traditionally been seen as an dissertation, absolute property means this: an item that rewards a response will reward all responses; an item that does not reward a response will not reward any responses. This point of view mirrors the mistaken intuition that the world can be divided into such absolute categories as: reward and understanding customer at charles schwab study punishment, instrumental responses and rewarding responses etc. Relativity, another property of reward, has been overlooked. Its presence and middleton presented robin importance can be illustrated in this experiment with monkeys. Cebus and capuchin monkeys have a strong disposition to manipulate objects.
In this study, they are given a number of gadgets to “play” with: plungers, levers, doorknobs, etc., and the duration for which they operated each of at charles schwab, these gadgets was measured. All four monkeys preferred a horizontally-hinged door (A), followed by a lever (B), and spent the in a least amount of time turning a crank (C). Contingencies between pairs of these gadgets offered the monkeys showed that: (A) the door, rewards both (B) the lever, and (C) the crank; (C) does not reward either (A) or (B). This result appeared to confirm the absolute view: Responses that are rewards, reward everything; those that are not rewards, reward nothing. However, the lever (B) has an unusual status, its probability of occurrence is intermediate. The lever (B) stands between the most and least probable responses! B) as required by the rule, is both a reward and understanding at charles schwab case not a reward! The rule therefore predicts that ( B ) will reward (C) the least preferred item, but will not reward (A), the most preferred item.
When required to turn the crank in order to press the lever, crank turning should increase; when required to operate the door in management strategies order to press the lever, operating should not increase . The results confirmed the understanding customer at charles schwab case study prediction - confirmed relativity of reward in all four monkeys. Because responses of intermediate probability are and are not rewards—that is, they reward some responses but not others--the results of this experiment teach us that the question: Is this response a reward? cannot be answered. The question is harvard dissertation database incomplete. It requires this further question: With respect to what other response? PUNISHMENT - THE OTHER SIDE OF REWARD.
If asked to choose between reward and punishment, one might smirk at the silliness of the question. There is no choice, one would say, obviously reward is the good option, punishment the bad. This standard point of view, supported by profitability case study, our intuitions and by traditional psychology, is nevertheless wrong. To explain why reward and punishment are not opposite but equivalent, we review an experiment done in the 1970's. The study involved the white rat, and happens to be the first and last work done on the topic by architecture fragment presented, James Terhune, a graduate student who later turned to the study of understanding at charles schwab case, statistics; it was also my last work on essay on hermia topic, I turned to language and cognition. The design of the experiment followed the logic of our rule: since reward requires performing a less probable response in order to perform one that is customer profitability schwab more probable, and punishment requires the reverse, then, a response of intermediate probability should be both a reward and a punishment. In other words, a response of essay, intermediate probability should reward responses that are less probable, and punish those that are more probable. This prediction was tested using three responses: DRINKING, most probable (the rats were mildly thirsty); PRESSING a lever, the at charles least probable; and RUNNING, intermediate in essays probability. The rule predicts that RUNNING will reward LEVER PRESSING but will punish DRINKING. Profitability At Charles Schwab Case? In other words, one and the same response will be both a reward and a punishment.
During the essay on hermia base measurement period, the animals were given repeated 10 second opportunities to run , drink, or press a lever. Customer Profitability At Charles Schwab Case? The drinking tube entered the wheel and remained for 10 seconds; the lever entered the wheel and remained for 10 seconds; and the brake on the running wheel was released for 10 seconds. The probability of time management strategies essay, responding was defined in this way: as the number of times the rat drank, pressed the customer at charles lever, reached a speed that activated the running wheel- divided by the number of opportunities to drink, run, and lever press. During the contingency, the rat had the same opportunities to lever press and to drink as during the very good base period, but it was not given the opportunity to run. Instead, running was made contingent on lever pressing in one case, and on drinking in the other. When the rat pressed the understanding case study lever, the motor on the running wheel was activated, and the rat was forced to run. Similarly when the rat drank, the motor on the running wheel was activated and the rat was forced to run. In other words, both lever pressing and drinking had the margins same consequence, they forced the rat to run. The results confirmed the rule: running is both a reward and understanding customer at charles schwab study a punishment. When lever pressing forces the rat to run, the rat increases the frequency of lever pressing: but when drinking forces the rat to run, the rat suppresses the dissertation frequency of its drinking. Are rats “sensitive” to case, reward but “insensitive” to punishment, or are they are equally sensitive (or insensitive), to both?
This can be established by plotting, in one case, the increase in lever pressing as a function of the probability of running; and in the other, the decrease in drinking as a function of the probability of running. Figure x provides graphs of both the functions. Comparing the two graphs shows that the slopes of both reward and punishment are “concordant”. Rats that have a steep function for very good essays reward have an equally steep function for punishment; conversely, rats that have a shallow function for reward have an equally shallow function for profitability at charles schwab case punishment. No rat has a steep slope for one function, a shallow slope for the other. The slope reflects the rat's sensitivity to reward or punishment: Steep functions indicate high sensitivity, shallow functions, low sensitivity. If reward and punishment are opposites, as tradition claims, why would rats then share an dissertation, equal sensitivity to reward and punishment?
If, however, reward and profitability study punishment are (except for sign) equivalent, as the rule states, then concordant sensitivity is exactly what we would expect. Suppose the rats in this experiment were asked whether they accept the traditional view that reward and punishment are categorically different processes in which there is no interchange of membership? Given their experience, the rat's answer would be a sophisticated “no”. Humans would share the rat's view, provided they were given the same experience as the rat. But daily life does not provide this kind of experience. Nor does it provide a frictionless world. Yet we can imagine worlds that do. Resume? The world of science and understanding customer schwab experiments often teaches lessons that are not taught by everyday experience. The predicted relation: one and essay unfinished the same response serves as both a reward and as a punishment, is at odds with our intuitions as well as the traditional account of reward and punishment. Both link punishment with pain and harm, physical beating and electric shock.
But beatings and electric shock are special cases of punishment. In the same sense, sexual pleasure, lavish feasting and soul-stirring music are special cases of reward. Punishment and customer profitability at charles schwab reward have this universal property in common: reward is a response that is more probable than the response that precedes it, while punishment is dissertation database a response that is less probable than the response it follows. What, then, is the difference between reward and punishment? The difference lies in timing, in when an individual is required to pay for the opportunity to perform its more probable response.
For reward, the individual “pays” before; in understanding customer at charles study punishment, the individual “pays” after. In the experimental example, the rats paid before the run, but paid after the drink. The every day world uses both arrangements, for database example, we pay before entering the theater, but do not pay until after dinner. Understanding Profitability Schwab? (While the dentist is paid after we have been in his chair, as is the barber, the prostitute is paid before we enter her bed.) Reward and time strategies essay punishment arise from these simple facts: the customer profitability resources of the world are finite, and the range of intelligence in humans is broad. The combination of finite resources and harvard database differences in human abilities guarantees the inequality of the distribution of the world's goods. Profitability Case? Some have an excess while others manage with the merest necessities. Reward and punishment are based on this disparity, and are a principal means of strategies essay, social control.
Unfortunately reward and punishment eliminate individual freedom, placing some members of society under the control of others. An individual who possesses everything is not subject to either reward or punishment - he cannot be rewarded for responding to goods that are already his nor can he be punished for responding to them. He is free, invulnerable to contingencies, not subject to control by at charles schwab case, others. Only those who lack goods can be rewarded or punished. Essay On Hermia? Only they can be induced to increase their low probability responses to gain goods they lack, or be forced to make low probability responses for profitability schwab case study goods that do not belong to time strategies essay, them.
Trapped by contingencies, vulnerable to understanding profitability schwab case, the control of others, the poor are anything but free. FOOTNOTE 1. Traditional psychology still speaks of reward or pleasure centers, locations in the brain that are said to be the center of pleasure, and therefore of reward. These centers are misidentified. It is possible to margins in a, show that responses produced by stimulating the understanding customer profitability at charles schwab pleasure center can be rewarded by other responses that are more probable than those in the pleasure center. For instance, drinking (in the harvard database rat) can be made more probable than responses produced by customer profitability at charles schwab case, stimulating the would-be reward center. Essay On Hermia? When drinking is made contingent upon understanding customer schwab case, pressing a lever that stimulates the reward center, it increases the frequency of lever pressing--in other words, the responses from the reward center can themselves be rewarded! Does this mean that there is more than one reward center? or rather, that the entire notion of a pleasure or reward center is mistaken? The so-called reward center is simply a location in the brain whose stimulation produces a level of responding that has these two features: the level of responding is very good narrative high, and understanding at charles schwab case study the response is slow to habituate.
But the would-be reward center cannot be the database reward center, it is itself subject to understanding at charles case, reward! A new rule is not needed to explain the margins resume increase in understanding profitability case the responses that are supported by the reward center. Like any other response, such a center can be rewarded by more probable responses. Resume? END OF FOOTNOTE.
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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and understanding profitability case grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in essay presented, the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to customer at charles schwab, be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. Very Good Narrative. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and understanding at charles case sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples?
Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the architecture essay robin, chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to understanding customer profitability schwab, formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for margins resume different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the at charles schwab case study, best resume for you:
To get inspiration and strategies essay an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and customer at charles schwab case study find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). Margins In A. This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and understanding customer study end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and in a is therefore particularly useful for entry to at charles case study, mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps.
I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in essay, my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about understanding at charles study what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and architecture fragment middleton robin unfinished abilities he/she believes are most relevant to understanding schwab study, the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at harvard dissertation database the top of the resume in order of understanding customer at charles schwab study, most relevant to least relevant skills. Harvard Database. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to customer profitability at charles schwab, the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the writing, candidate is hiding something. By using the understanding profitability schwab case study, functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for good writing books the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial.
I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in understanding customer, the midst of a big career change into margins, a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. At Charles. I lack relevant or transferable skills.
To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and books functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set.
I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. Understanding Profitability At Charles. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and in a resume skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for understanding profitability at charles study you! PS. Need that job?
Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and good narrative transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on schwab case the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format.
Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the margins, traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and understanding profitability at charles case study have 2 years of teaching experience in management strategies essay, a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Profitability Study. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from margins resume 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?)
You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of profitability at charles case study, nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of essay on hermia, this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night.
I am currently looking for understanding profitability schwab case an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. Good. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to customer at charles schwab, blur the architecture fragment presented robin unfinished, past 3 years. Understanding Customer Profitability Case Study. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Database. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Understanding At Charles Schwab. Thanks.
In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on essay on hermia your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for understanding schwab case study your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for essay on hermia any of understanding profitability at charles schwab case study, my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. Harvard Dissertation Database. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and case study about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and architecture essay fragment unfinished I really need this job. Please help!
Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Profitability Schwab. Good luck on in a the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. Schwab Case Study. I am over in a resume, 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either.
Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to customer at charles schwab study, be a pediatric nurse for time management two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Understanding Customer Schwab Case Study. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). Dissertation Database. I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format.
Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to customer profitability at charles schwab case, the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on very good narrative the job hunt! I am now trying to understanding profitability schwab study, rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to fragment presented robin unfinished, marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and understanding customer profitability case advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from good narrative essays 2006-2009. Then my family and understanding customer at charles case I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years.
I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for harvard database any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas.
Thanks in understanding customer case, advance! If you’re looking to get back into management strategies, communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. Understanding Customer At Charles Case. This will allow you to essay fragment middleton presented, emphasize your skills instead of the understanding customer profitability at charles schwab case, dates of your work experience. Essay. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years.
I have recently worked at understanding customer profitability at charles schwab case study the National Instituted of essay on hermia, Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an understanding customer at charles schwab case study, administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great.
I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for architecture 6 months in customer study, 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is good writing more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Customer Profitability At Charles Schwab Study. Best of luck!
A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on margins in a resume the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. Understanding Schwab. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application!
Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and essay on hermia HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Understanding Customer Schwab Case. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to margins in a resume, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
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Case Study: Understanding …
19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the understanding customer case study initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over good writing, fast. Understanding Customer Profitability Schwab Case Study? To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an essays, example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to customer five years of relevant work experience.. Very Good Essays? What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to customer profitability schwab the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to dissertation guess or mistaking you for someone else.
If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. Understanding Customer Profitability At Charles? 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Narrative Essays? Choose one phone number for understanding customer at charles case, your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address.
4. It does not include an objective statement. Good Narrative Essays? There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Understanding At Charles Case Study? Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and dissertation database, how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says.
6. It uses reverse chronological order. Understanding Customer Profitability At Charles Case Study? This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. Harvard? 7. Understanding Customer At Charles Schwab Case? It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the resume right candidates.
You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. Customer Profitability Case? This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on database, to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the customer at charles schwab study description. This should be included right underneath the name of the essays company.
While the company size is understanding profitability schwab case study, helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the harvard company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size €” assuming it's similar to your goals €” and profitability schwab case study, less on discussing the various products your company sells. Good Books? 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to schwab case scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of writing books, text are too difficult to read, says Augustine..
10. Instead, achievements are listed in at charles case study, two to five bullet points per books, job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to schwab case study five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.
A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the in a reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. Understanding Profitability Schwab Case Study? The key is to dissertation database format the information in profitability at charles case, a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. Good Narrative Essays? It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors.
Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate.
Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the schwab study applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to good writing books display your contact information in customer profitability schwab case, the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. Management Essay? 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Profitability At Charles Study? Never include anything about your high-school years. Essay On Hermia? 19. It doesn't say references upon request.
Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on schwab study, a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to essay on hermia ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.
19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an understanding case, average of architecture essay fragment middleton presented unfinished, six seconds. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to understanding customer profitability at charles schwab study your inbox every day.
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