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Basic Descriptive essay about a lucky t-shirt Essay Sample. As we move from being a youngster to an adolescent to an adult, we have possessions that come and go. Those items that we are able to keep for the entire trip becomes a personal treasure; mementos of our life. How To Write! After years of aging, through these items, we are able to piece together our childhood existence. For me, one of those items was my #8220;lucky#8221; t-shirt. The back-story to how I received this shirt is rather simple. As I recall, or more like from what I can remember, it was a frigid mid- January morning, but all I could think about afsa high contest 2013, was baseball. Unit! I was eight years old, but while most kids my age were thinking about building snow forts and nyu stern essay analysis 2013 starting snowball fights, I was more in how to write unit the mindset of a little leaguer on a muggy Saturday afternoon in August. I can remember counting down the essay days until the baseball hitting clinic was to how to, take place; I even crossed off the days on our annual Norman Rockwell calendar on our kitchen refrigerator. As I arrived at the then brand new Anderson Center, I can recall walking into hume essay, the lobby, and being simply astonished at the shear giganticness of the gymnasium, compared to how small I was. I was your not-so-typical eight-year old.
Standing at about four feet tall, all of the other players towered over me like a squirrel standing next to a Redwood tree. I was so small that the t-shirt I received, which fit every other kid like a glove, fit me more like a bed sheet. My group decided that we were all going to wear our shirts while participating in the clinic; that was easier said than done, for me at least. As you could imagine, trying to how to write, swing a baseball bat while wearing a t-shirt the length of essay about, a wedding dress was not an easy task to accomplish. After my first few swings, I quickly realized that that was a job not able to be completed.
I handed the t-shirt to my dad in disgust, feeling like I had somehow failed. If it weren#8217;t for the pictures and written records the original color of my lucky t-shirt may never be known. From what I have been told, the t-shirt consisted of a run-of-the-mill, plain white shirt with 2 bright blue College Misericordia Cougar logos on the back and front; the unit one on the front advertising the college#8217;s baseball team. That was then, and this is requirements in thesis, now. How To Write Unit! To look at a picture of the shirt then, and to look at it in person now, you would never know that the two were once the same shirt. The pristine t-shirt now has battle scars in the forms of rips, tears, and stains: the research paper styles hole in the bottom corner of the front and how to write the stretched neck from an ice hockey fight; the burn mark on the center of the research styles chest from diving on the floor during the championship playoff game in volleyball; and the red, green, blue, and orange stains from how to, dribbling Gatorade during years of age-league and high school soccer games. This simple t-shirt shows a virtual timeline of my entire sports history. It shows proof of who I am. Paper! After years upon years of constant use and abuse, this once great article of clothing is write, now in shambles, and it was not easy to keep it in paper that good of a condition.
The two hardest parts of maintaining my shirt were: actually keeping the shirt in a wearable condition and not losing the damn thing. Soccer and volleyball seasons were the hardest times to keep the shirt looking presentable, due to write, the fact that I had games on two or three days out of the week. Even though it was my lucky shirt, I never took it to the level of not washing it during a winning streak or anything like that; that#8217;s just nasty. Naturally, after washing it two to three times a week the school essay contest 2013 shirt became very fragile, but that was not the only problem plaguing the shirt. As expected, from using the shirt for every sports season, especially hockey when it is kept locked under all of my gear, the sweat got secured in the underarm area especially. What was once a snow white underarm area now shows stains of the color yellow, almost like that of a dull mustard color. From what I can bring to mind, my mom actually refused to come in contact with the how to write shirt after 1999, due to its grossness. Keeping track of the starting for essays darn thing was challenging too.
I can hark back to a volleyball game during my junior year of high school; a very important game against our arch rivals, the write Lake Lehman Black Knights. For Essays! I had packed everything the write unit night beforehand, but somehow forgot to pack my lucky shirt. In Thesis! It turns out that I had misplaced the write unit shirt and no one in my family knew where it was. To make a long story short, my mom surprised me right before the afsa high essay contest start of pre-game warm-ups by showing up at the school with the treasured shirt. I had never been so worried before in my life.
Without that shirt underneath my jersey I would not feel right stepping on to that field, rink, or court. It is at this point I had decided to finally retire my #8220;lucky#8221; shirt. It had served its purpose, and as I transitioned into write unit, college I felt that its final day was at hand. Perhaps, one day it shall surface for hardware in thesis a long awaited high school reunion or better yet, a hand me down for how to generations of nyu stern essay analysis 2013, athletes to come. Is this the write unit perfect essay for research paper you? Save time and how to write unit order Basic Descriptive essay about a lucky t-shirt. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Basic Descriptive essay about starting, a lucky t-shirt. It’s a mild September afternoon and here I am with my hair pulled up, wearing a white tank top, black shorts and my favorite hiking shoes, enjoying nature at its#8230; Executive Shirt Company.
The Executive Shirt Company (ESC) had built a solid reputation in the apparel industry by supplying several well-known labels with high-quality, competitively-priced men#8217;s dress shirts. Prompted by a recent dip#8230; Beaver Stadium: a field in which I have conjured countless memories, and which has become a symbol of unification and pride. Arriving at Beaver Stadium on how to write, game day is one#8230; George Lassiter is a project engineer for a major defense contractor and also an entrepreneur who manufactures and designs special events T-shirts. He has owned this lucrative T-shirt business for#8230; Descriptive essay: #8220;How I Learn#8221; I hear the comforting sound of analysis, my coach#8217;s whistle against how to write unit, the noise of shuffling feet and falling bodies.
Finally, three seconds of rest in between three hours of wrestling practice#8230;. He stood about an nalysis of david, five foot seven, however with his broad shoulders and huskiness, he looked shorter than average. How To Write! His reddish-brown hair was newly cut and freshly brushed it looked like#8230;
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Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the how to write unit, examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in science and technology india, the bunch. In most cases, the names and unit dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). Requirements In Thesis. I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to how to write God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in styles, a Christian context.
Had the how to write, student omitted the for essays, above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the how to write unit, person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Starting For Essays. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to how to unit the topic. And Technology Of Ancient. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for how to write sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to afsa 2013 mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith.
Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of unit these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in research paper styles, his life that made him the man that he was. This is the write, introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the hardware requirements in thesis, fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of write both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is hardware requirements grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of how to unit school with the intent to an nalysis hume make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality.
The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to how to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and hume paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. Write. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the an nalysis, two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish.
This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the how to write unit, plague in 1667. Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the essay analysis 2013, document that contained the elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and how to write unit making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection. To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of starting criticism.
Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. Write Unit. There are far too many ideas in of ancient india, it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of unit differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the afsa high school essay 2013, corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the how to write, return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand. Afsa High School Essay 2013. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to how to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph.
Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the school essay contest 2013, plague in 1667? Is the unit, student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and nyu stern essay analysis Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to write unit understand.
I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Here is hardware requirements in thesis how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of how to differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of afsa contest his theories on the subject. Unit. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and high school essay contest fortune, he also feared rejection. Write Unit. This dichotomy resulted in in thesis, his failure to write publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to be given the essay about india, title of how to write unit Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to afsa school essay contest 2013 be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here.
It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for how to write unit scientific work. An Nalysis Of David. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the how to write unit, student mean that one of starting for essays Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the how to unit, main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and an nalysis of david is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts.
This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is write unit no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences:
There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the hardware requirements in thesis, manuscript from unit, which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to high contest provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of how to saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to starting understand, and write simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself.
If the problems were too complex to nyu stern approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and how to write unit Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for styles several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed.
This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of unit land, the manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to afsa high contest 2013 the antecedent Smith Senior. How To Write Unit. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the 2013, essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization.
It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. How To Write. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness.
The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and hardware requirements in thesis the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the unit, verb were should be singular as well, and changed to essay about and technology of ancient was.
It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at how to write, the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at styles, the age of six.
The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. How To Write Unit. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the starting for essays, importance of how to write scientific advancement.
Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to an nalysis of david hume essay realize the importance of scientific advancement for unit an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the requirements in thesis, moment the how to, reader is reading the nyu stern essay analysis 2013, sentence. The student meant to say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in how to write, a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect.
This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out school essay, loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to write different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the of david, proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to how to write check if the word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the analysis 2013, word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze.
So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is how to unit aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read:
In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of in thesis widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and how to write his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and in thesis the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of how to write unit that is always questioned. Who is questioning the value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of for essays points is equal to how to write unit the degree of the for essays, curve.
Using the # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and write certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the high school 2013, subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the write unit, case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better.
A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. Starting For Essays. At the unit, end of the day John challenged the afsa high contest, boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the how to unit, top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for in thesis the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student.
Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the how to unit, clock out an nalysis essay, of an write, old box. This is choppy. Essay Analysis 2013. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the how to unit, student had read the analysis, essay out how to unit, loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed.
Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the research styles, essay aloud or given it to a friend to write read. Hardware. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the how to write, entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the nyu stern, instructor has to reread the sentence to try to how to write understand its meaning, the of david hume essay, flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in write unit, the essay, it gives an about science and technology india, overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research.
More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of write Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the about science and technology, infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of how to unit widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the school essay contest 2013, ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of write them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of high essay contest monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and write science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about afsa school essay contest quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research?
In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is write a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and essay possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. How To Write Unit. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others?
The use of Thus implies causality. How does the hardware, proof that Jones is write unit incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of requirements in thesis what the student meant by the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in how to unit, an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. Research. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about unit their final product, and while the for essays, error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. How To Write Unit. That's inexcusable at the university level.
It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Requirements. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to unit obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the in thesis, Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is write unit probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything.
It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is nyu stern 2013 not dead and the student went so far as to how to write unit interview the secretary personally. Afsa High School 2013. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in how to write, a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to high bother paraphrasing a bunch of how to write direct quotations into research paper, a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only unit, been one? The student means another, not other.
Sloppy. The first page of the research paper styles, essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to how to unit for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in and technology india, proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to how to write begin by figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is essay a bit colloquial.
A busy man would do. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out how to write unit, loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on starting how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live.
Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is how to write unit a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the in thesis, natural philosophical world around him.
Has is the wrong word here because the essay is about a person who is write now dead. Essay About And Technology Of Ancient India. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. How To. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in hardware in thesis, a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted.
Between denotes at how to, least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. Essay About And Technology India. This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the how to write, student mean the an nalysis, natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world?
This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is how to a run-on sentence.
It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted.
Predominant is essay science and technology of ancient not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that. If they mean it was the write, most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. About. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct.
Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on write physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in starting, the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of how to unit whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in analysis 2013, mathematics.
This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is write awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of starting greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and how to possibly pandering.
It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of nyu stern analysis science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely?
World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of write unit science and one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of styles hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of how to unit hyperbole, but this is afsa high school essay 2013 not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. How To Unit. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. This is about of ancient one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed.
One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is write unit also bad because of the subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so.
You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only hardware requirements, one could be given the write, credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the an nalysis hume, widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to how to write say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose. But because the student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by hardware requirements in thesis means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to write unit come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the essay science of ancient, argument took so long, Smith lost.
But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to how to write unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. Starting. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is how to write unit redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. In Thesis. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the how to, comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the essay about and technology of ancient, Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom.
The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. It has to be the write unit, underlying something of and technology of ancient india widgetry, whether that something is how to write unit basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Essay 2013. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. How To. I checked the bibliography to essay confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and how to be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics.
Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. although that is still an styles, awkward phrase. How To Write Unit. Concepts should not be plural. Analysis. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the how to write unit, student had bothered to read over his essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason.
The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in hardware requirements in thesis, parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and how to unit refused to use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and analysis mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is how to write unit nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the high school 2013, subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until.
That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at write, all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for requirements this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the how to write unit, student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the research paper styles, advent of calculus. Unit. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on hardware in thesis more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)
Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to write unit use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is an nalysis of david hume essay truly essential. A number of how to write unit suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of for essays his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. Write. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the styles, sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of how to Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to paper styles important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only how to write, described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an requirements, explanation of fnordleish widgetry.
It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in how to, the dictionary, not in requirements, the mathematical world. How To. The student meant against the mathematical world.
It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for for essays centuries upon unit, centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in and technology india, their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in write unit, a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Research Styles. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Write Unit. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to analysis 2013 make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an how to unit, opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing.
The student means Jones' first objective. This is a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the school essay contest, French government, but while waiting for unit an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one.
Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole.
Even if it is true, the in thesis, paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the how to write, geniuses that have ever lived. Paper Styles. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the how to, paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and of ancient india following through to his death.
That is how to unit still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and starting for essays this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for write unit seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Really is afsa high contest colloquial, and should be omitted.
While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and how to write do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and an nalysis of david essay it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy.
Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the how to write unit, student is trying to analysis make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of how to write unit doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay about science of ancient, essay geared to children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward.
A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in write unit, the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. Hardware Requirements In Thesis. One delves further into something, not in it.
The Royal Society always had someone coming in unit, each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in hardware requirements in thesis, is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of this is write a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph:
Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of our lives . He is hardware in thesis recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. This is an important part of history which will and write should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. Nyu Stern 2013. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. How To Write Unit. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to research styles one person may not for another. Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean.
Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. How To Unit. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. Nyu Stern Essay 2013. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the how to write, student cannot effectively predict the future in this way.
Some of nyu stern analysis 2013 these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. How To Unit. But an essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the content. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved. This original work is available for distribution, provided the hardware, following: it is only distributed in unit, this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and nyu stern essay analysis it is not used to generate income for anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is distributing this in printed form.
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2012 Higher Art Design Discussion Watch. Unit! span Follow 24 followers 2 badges. Afsa High School Contest! I don't really compare them, which seems strange but I got 50/60 for how to unit, the prelim haha ! What is like the starting for essays structure of your essay? Or introduce both artists then discuss both works together? span Follow 24 followers 2 badges. How To Write! I have no idea what im doing! What is hardware requirements like the how to write structure of about science india, your essay? Or introduce both artists then discuss both works together? 'Vincent Van Gogh and Henri Matisse are both contrasting artists from how to unit, a different period' then everyyyyything on Van Gogh. Starting For Essays! then everything on how to write Matisse. Of David! span Follow 24 followers 2 badges. Write Unit! Here is my expressive and afsa high design folio: I dont have a photo of the final design but the final looks like the bottom left scamp on unit page 2 of hume, design.
I'm doing portraiture too aha, but yeah mine is how to nowhere near as good as yours ahah.. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Woooooowww they're really really good - well done!! I'm doing portraiture too aha, but yeah mine is nowhere near as good as yours ahah.. span Follow 24 followers 2 badges. Thanks!! :P I would be overjoyed with a B but people tell me I could get an A. There are so many great folios in starting for essays my class this year that look like traditional A standard, I dont know if mine is the how to write same. I guess its up to the markers now! span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Paper Styles! Honestly, I do think you could get an A, especially since your expressive is how to so strong! Yeah true, it's weird thinking they only spend like 7 minutes on afsa high essay 2013 a year of work for us! span Follow 24 followers 2 badges. Aw, thank you!
I know! What was your design brief/outcome? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. I was doing jewellery, and it was a native american theme - which I suppose is done a lot - em, yeah I did a necklace but I tried to unit make it more unique! span Follow 24 followers 2 badges. Thats awesome, no one in our class did jewellery it was posters, music festival designs, book covers. I would never be able to paper do jewellery not good with creating stuff. Write! span Follow 6 followers 0 badges. 1st artist painting. 2nd artist painting. 3rd artist painting. Paper Styles! 4th artist painting. and within in all those I compare and contrast and at the end I do a rounding up kinda thing. for my 3rd artist I have two paintings though. I structure it differently than a lot of how to unit, my class, who tend to for essays have 2 artists with 2 paintings for each.
I just liked quite a few artists that link together so I just picked a lot! span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Unit! Most of the research paper people who do Higher Art at unit our school do either a dress or an architecture piece! 1st artist painting. 2013! 2nd artist painting. Write Unit! 3rd artist painting.
4th artist painting. and afsa high essay 2013 within in all those I compare and how to write contrast and at the end I do a rounding up kinda thing. for for essays, my 3rd artist I have two paintings though. I structure it differently than a lot of my class, who tend to how to have 2 artists with 2 paintings for each. I just liked quite a few artists that link together so I just picked a lot! I think I will do: Intro to Bellany. Compare both paintings about darker years. Compare both paintings about historical events. Nyu Stern Analysis! span Follow 0 followers 3 badges. Short biography on how to unit Lucian Freud. Just the key facts and of david include stuff on how to write unit movements. Essay And Technology Of Ancient! Short Biography on unit Pablo Picasso.
Then cross compare the starting for essays two works using visual elements, pose, composition etc. Then in conclusion write a few sentences to write answer the question fully- such as why they are regarded as important artists or whatever. span Follow 6 followers 0 badges. Wow! What scares me is that we have 30 minutes for the 20 marker ;-; I think I will do: Intro to Bellany. Compare both paintings about of david hume darker years. Compare both paintings about write historical events. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. I am in science and technology of ancient forth year and I got moved to do higher at how to write unit the last minute. Afsa High School! I haven't written all of my design essay yet but I have finished my expressive one.
I just need to write memorise it. Nobody in my school did a prelim for art. Nyu Stern 2013! so better not fail! My structure is: Short biography on Lucian Freud. Just the key facts and include stuff on how to write unit movements. Short Biography on nyu stern essay 2013 Pablo Picasso. Then cross compare the two works using visual elements, pose, composition etc. Then in write unit conclusion write a few sentences to answer the an nalysis hume essay question fully- such as why they are regarded as important artists or whatever. span Follow 0 followers 3 badges.
I am kind of dreading the write exam a little. Afsa High Essay 2013! I will be sitting with the 5th years and I don't really know any of them- it is how to quite imtimidating actually . An Nalysis! span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Haha thank you and of course. How To Unit! good luck to you too! Your folio pieces look strong btw . I am kind of dreading the science and technology of ancient exam a little. How To Write! I will be sitting with the 5th years and I don't really know any of research paper styles, them- it is how to write quite imtimidating actually . Essay Of Ancient India! Are you doing advanced in write 5th year? span Follow 6 followers 0 badges. Paper! Haha thank you and of course. How To! good luck to nyu stern essay you too! Your folio pieces look strong btw . How To Unit! I am kind of about science of ancient india, dreading the write exam a little. I will be sitting with the hardware requirements in thesis 5th years and how to unit I don't really know any of essay science and technology of ancient india, them- it is quite imtimidating actually . span Follow 6 followers 0 badges. We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and write unit useful place to hang out.
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dave ross essays Investigations into The Antiquity of The Cross in Cygnus. Copyright 2000 by the author. (NOTE: The full text of this essay, complete with footnotes and illustrations, was published in Culture and Cosmos http://www.cultureandcosmos.org, v. 4, no.2 (Autumn/Winter 2000). My thanks to the editor, Mr. Nicholas Campion, for his kind permission to reproduce the text of the article here. -dr) The Age of Exploration did indeed give rise to a great deal of how to write innovation and experimentation in celestial cartography. New constellations had to be devised to analysis 2013, make sense out of the relative chaos explorers encountered on such distant waters.
This was also that age of religious fervor stirred by how to write, the Reformation and hardware, Counter-Reformation in how to, Europe. It should not be surprising then that a brief “biblicizing” movement arose among cartographers of the early 17th century and it ‘s among these that we readily find explicit depictions of the research, Cross in Cygnus.* For Julius Schiller, whose Coelum Stellarum Christianum of 1628 offered a thoroughly Christianized portrait of the heavens, the stars of the Swan became “St. Helena with The Cross”, referring to the Emperor Constantine’s mother and her legendary discovery of the wood of the “True Cross”. The figure of the Cross in Schiller’s maps is just where we would expect to find it. And, as I have already indicated, the era he invokes by write, associating it with Helena may prove to be an essay about of ancient important clue for our investigation.
Another interesting example from this period is Wilhelm Schickard’s Astroscopium of 1623. Write. This Lutheran pastor turned Hebrew scholar, mathematician, cartographer, printer, engineer and astronomer is essay science india best remembered in the annals of computing for the calculating engine he invented for his more famous friend, Johannes Kepler, to aid in the laborious task of computing ephemerides. His Astroscopium featured an innovative conic projection and was among the first modern style star maps to plot the constellations as they naturally appear in how to write unit, the sky. Reversed depictions were a convention passed down by early globe makers that was slavishly retained by cartographers of his day, including Schiller. Schickard was content to portray the otherwise pagan but familiar classical constellations. However, he assigned each an essay of ancient imaginative biblical reference corresponding in some way or other to write unit, its figure. Cygnus the Swan is in thesis overlaid with his Crux Christi, making explicit the dual recognition these stars have come to inspire.*
The works of both of these biblicizers were influenced by the great Johannes Bayer’s Uranometria of 1603. In the notes accompanying his map of the constellation Cygnus he comments how the recognition of a Cross there had long been known among the how to unit, common folk.* Even so, my admittedly limited survey to date has searched back nearly a full millennium before encountering any similar reference to it. Such references must exist somewhere in the literatures of these earlier eras. That they seem to be so difficult to nyu stern 2013, uncover may not be an entirely unexpected result, however. The Renaissance was marked by an obvious appreciation for the classical traditions of Greece and Rome. In astronomy this grew out of the recovery of those traditions that took place during the later part of the Middle Ages as a result of European contact with the Arabic world.* From the “House of Wisdom” founded by Caliph al-Ma’mun in the 9th century came translations of how to unit Greek philosophy and science that would eventually revive the hardware requirements in thesis, intellectual life of the West. For the purposes of write astronomy, not to mention astrology, the science and technology of ancient india, most influential texts of all proved to how to write, be Ptolemy’s Syntaxis , better known by its Arabic title, the Almagest . So, whatever constellations or asterisms may have been part of the common knowledge of the day, those described and discussed, in the literature most accessible to us today, were those of the classical tradition. However, as we press further back in afsa high school essay 2013, time we do encounter clues to distinctly Christian ways of envisioning the heaven of how to unit stars above. Searching through the pages of R. H. Allen’s aging but still useful collection of starlore, a Cross reference is found under the constellation Delphinus, of all places.* The comment comes from the great Muslim historian and scientist of the 11th century, Abu Raihan Al-Biruni.
In his book The Chronology of Ancient Nations the section on the calendar of the an nalysis of david essay, Syrians contains a listing for Ayyar (May) 7th and a Feast of the Apparition of the Cross in Heaven. Although Al-Biruni opens his comments with a discussion of the Cross vision of Constantine the Great, and then summarizes the legend of Helena’s discovery of the relic of the True Cross, the how to, vision commemorated on that day among Orthodox Christians is that of St. Starting. Cyril of Jerusalem, an event dated some several decades after the time of Constantine.* According to Cyril’s account the cross was seen “above holy Golgotha stretching out how to write, as far as the holy Mount of Olives.” Al-Biruni states, “Other Christians, who are not learned people, speak of the an nalysis, cross in the constellation of the Dolphin, which the Arabs call Ka`ud (riding camel). How To Write. They say that at that time this cross in the Dolphin appeared opposite that place where Messiah had been crucified.”* In any case, the for essays, tantalizing reference leaves us wondering what these 11th century Syrian Christians may have made of how to write nearby Cygnus, having found a cross in little Delphinus. A contemporary student of medieval European astronomy, Stephen McCluskey offers what appears to be the earliest clear reference to the Cross we have been pursuing.
In the pages of his Astronomies and afsa high essay contest 2013, Cultures in Early Medieval Europe he gives a summary of his earlier work in the journal ISIS regarding the late 6th century monastic writings of Gregory of Tours.* Gregory inherited rules for ordering monastery life which included the admonition found in John Cassian’s De institutis coenobiorum , written sometime after 420 AD, which urged that the how to, night offices of prayer should be kept by carefully observing the stars rather than being left up to the sleepy whim of whomever had been assigned the task of waking his brothers.* Just how the stars were to be used in keeping time wasn’t described there, but Gregory’s work De cursu stellarum ( On The Course of The Stars ), written shortly after his consecration as bishop in research styles, 573, gives thorough instructions for how this should be done; by careful observations of the rise and progress through the sky of select stars and constellations. De cursu stellarum was an exercise in practical astronomy that McCluskey has studied as an important means by which vestiges of the classical astronomy of the Greeks and Romans was preserved during the Dark Ages. Gregory exemplifies a Christian culture that had rejected the pagan mythologies that lay behind the traditional constellations and dismissed the superstitions of the unit, astrologers. His constellations are mostly Christianized depictions. A handful of surviving manuscripts of De cursu feature illustrations intended to help the monks learn to recognize the essay 2013, patterns discussed in the text. It is here that we find the earliest clear reference to “The Greater Cross” among the stars of Cygnus flanked by unit, an “Alfa” or “Lesser Cross” in Delphinus and an “Omega” in Lyra.* A Cross flanked by the Alpha and Omega was a familiar theme in the Christian art of the Middle Ages, as McCluskey reminds us. Such familiarity would well serve the kind of instruction undertaken in Gregory’s manual.
Thus, the enigmatic reference of Al-Biruni concerning a cross in an nalysis essay, Delphinus finds a kind of corroboration among Gregory’s constellations. Certain Christians as early as the unit, 6th century did indeed see a cross there and also recognized a “greater” one nearby. The Great and Lesser Crosses described in Gregory of Tours’ De cursu stellarum . Time: 11 pm local time on 10/27/592 from afsa high school contest, central France. How To Write. (All charts were prepared using Voyager II, Carina Software, 1992-1993.) The impulse to research styles, redraw the heavens as witnessed with the biblicizers of the 17th century is frequently described as originating with the writings of write unit Bede the Venerable in school, the 9th century,* but the example of Gregory’s manual is an obviously older antecedent. In fact, an essay by Jean Danielou, “The Twelve Apostles and the Zodiac,”* reveals how Jews, Christians and Gnostics all had been busy claiming and transforming celestial imagery for a very long time indeed, at least since the second century in the case of Christians. Schiller may have been the first to actually draw a zodiac made up of twelve disciples or apostles but the idea may go back as far as Genesis ch. 49 which, some interpreters allow, reveals zodiacal imagery in its descriptions of the twelve tribes.* Hugo Rahner’s Greek Myth and Christian Mystery outlines the many ways early Christians sought to transform and appropriate cosmic symbols such as the write, Sun and moon in support of the Gospel.* In the third century Hippolytus felt called to refute the evident excesses of the sect he calls the Astrotheosophists and their weakly Christian mythic allegories.* Yet, by the late fourth century Bishop Zeno of Verona would risk preaching a “divine horoscope” for the benefit of the newly baptized “children” under his care, for fear that their astrological curiosities might otherwise lead them astray.* However, the closest we come to paper styles, something like the how to write, recognition we have been seeking, prior to the 6th century, seems to be reflections on Plato’s discussion in the Timaeus of the world-soul made manifest by the intersection of the an nalysis of david, two great circles of the astronomers, the “heavenly chi” formed where the ecliptic and celestial equator invisibly meet. Rahner states that these otherwise invisible lines “become for the Christian eye a heavenly cross,” and that through Justin and Irenaus’ seminal doctrine of recapitulation a long meditation on write unit the cosmic symbolism of the paper styles, cross entered Christian tradition. By the fourth century the converted astrologer Firmicus Maternus declares, “The sign of how to write unit a wooden cross holds the machine of the firmament together, strengthens the research paper styles, foundations of the earth, and leads those that cling to it towards life.”*
The invisible ‘Heavenly Chi’, traced by the intersection of the celestial equator and write, the ecliptic, expressed for nyu stern essay analysis some early Christian writers part of the cosmic symbolism of the Cross. How To. Precession had carried ‘the first point of Aries’, the Sun’s location at the vernal equinox, well into Pisces by the time of Constantine. An Nalysis Of David Hume Essay. Time: the ‘Chi’ would be near the meridian for observers at Rome around 9:30 pm local time on unit 10/27/312. Still, not until the 6th century do we encounter the essay about and technology india, earliest clear reference to the recognition. How To Unit. While this ought to nyu stern essay 2013, satisfy our search, we have already encountered reasons to suspect that the recognition is actually older still. Gregory’s work surely represents elements of write a received tradition. Cassian’s rule about using the stars to keep the hours for prayer reflects the practice of the monasteries of Lower Egypt which he had visited late in the 4th century. His writings reveal no details about this but it seems reasonable to think that there may well be something like the material found in Gregory’s De cursu buried in some as yet untranslated, undiscovered, or perhaps lost Coptic manuscript, as McCluskey suggests. It seems easier to imagine, for example, that an earlier tradition diffused westward to Gregory and eastward to Al-Biruni’s Syrians than that Gregory’s Latin manual could exercise an influence so far east into Byzantium.* However, Eusebius goes on to relate how this daytime vision was repeated in a dream or visitation at night.
Likewise, the writer known as the Christian Cicero, Lactantius, tells of hardware Constantine’s dream on the night before the battle, an how to account written just six years after the event.. He was advised “to mark the celestial sign of God on the shields of his soldiers.”* Does the an nalysis of david hume essay, night time setting for these dreams offer anything toward interpreting the vision? Some historians find here nothing more than a stereotypical late imperial setting for epiphanies of this sort. But, there have been those who have sought a more night inspired explanation. F. Heiland, on the staff of the Zeiss planetarium at Jena back in the late 40’s and 50’s, wrote a piece for that institution’s journal entitled “Die astronomische Deutung der Vision Kaiser Konstantins” (The Astronomical Interpretation of the how to write, Vision of The Emperor Constantine).* In it he observes that the Fall of the year 312 AD was indeed attended by a noteworthy spectacle: the syzygy or close alignment of three bright planets in the evening sky above the southwest horizon. Mars, Saturn and Jupiter were positioned along a line within about 20 degrees of each other on the border of Capricornus and Sagittarius. Such an event would surely have drawn the attention of the astrologers and diviners attached to for essays, all Roman armies who would have worried at what may well have been taken as an ill omen.
The contemporary histories, including some of pagan origin, hint at some such dark sign prior to the battle, one which Constantine defied in pressing his attack. Heiland’s solution was to suggest that Constantine overcame the psychological impact on his army of the how to unit, pagan astrological omen by appropriating it to fashion a Christian token of victory. Left to right: The 'staurogram' combining the Greek letters Tau and Rho, the Chi-Rho monogram formed by the first two letters in Christ, and the Iota-Chi monogram composed of the initials for Jesus Christ. Afsa 2013. Both Lactantius and Eusebius describe that token as something more than a simple Latin cross; as a “staurogram” in the case of the former or the Chi-Rho “monogram” in that of the latter. Following Lactantius’ description, Heiland pictured a new and obviously temporary asterism formed by combining the alignment of planets with surrounding stars. Prof. Michael DiMaio has more recently offered a modified version of Heiland’s proposal, noting that Venus also eventually joined the write, alignment on the ecliptic in October of high school contest 312. The cross member is write thus lengthened and the upright with the “Rho” becomes a rather enormous loop reaching all the way to bright Vega.* (See note #13 at: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm) The alignment asterism of an nalysis of david hume essay Heiland (heavier lines) and DiMaio, made by unit, combining the alignment of planets with stars borrowed from for essays, several classical constellations.
Venus, in DiMaio’s arrangement, would have been very near to how to, setting at the end of afsa high school 2013 twilight on his proposed date of October 27th in 312 AD An eleven-day-old moon would be shining in the SE on the at date. Time: 6:30 pm at Rome. Personally, I judge that these proposals somewhat tax the imagination. Can a precedent be cited for combining planets and unit, stars to an nalysis, form such an ephemeral asterism? Would borrowing stars from such a variety of already existing and familiar star patterns be very convincing for Constantine’s “astrologically challenged” generals?
Although I think DiMaio is correct to how to write, include Venus in the alignment, since the about, presence of the queen of heaven always adds drama to any evening sky, I note how very low to the horizon it is as twilight begins. By the write unit, time it had grown dark enough for stars in Ophiuchus to be discernible Venus would have all but set. And then there’s the presence of an 11 day old moon to deal with on the 27th. So, although I don’t find the “alignment asterism” very convincing I do think pointing out the alignment itself adds to our understanding of the high essay 2013, atmosphere of portent found in the histories, something largely neglected by modern scholarship. Could the Cross in Cygnus offer a simpler interpretation? Without entertaining any illusions about being able to prove such a thing, let me briefly offer a way of crafting such an interpretation that seems to me to write, be at least as interesting and as plausible as the “alignment asterism”. Describing the wide interest of for essays early Christian writers in unit, the symbolism of the Cross, Hugo Rahner put the matter this way. “The cross is of david everywhere- it is in how to, the shape of the human form when we stretch out our hands in prayer, it is in the flight of birds, in essay about science of ancient, the instruments of husbandry, it is in how to write, the form of the ship’s mast when it is crossed by a spar.”* Examples abound from the works of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Minutius Felix and Methodius. The latter, writing in hardware requirements, the early 3rd century, offers this observation, “For every creature, so to speak, has, for the sake of liberty, been marked with this sign; for birds which fly aloft, form the figure of the cross by the expansion of their wings. ”* Among those familiar with Aratus’ Phenomena Cygnus was known simply as the Bird, ‘o ornis. Given that Christian imagination had recognized the figure of the cross so widely and write unit, early on, if it really had failed to fin one in Cygnus before the 6th century we should wonder why not! Augury, divination based on hardware in thesis bird signs, was regularly practiced on behalf of the Roman military, the idea being that winged creatures could convey messages from the lofty realm of the gods to how to write unit, mortals keen to read them on the earth below. Starting. The army carried the how to write, necessary complement of chickens wherever they marched.
Chief among birds was, of course, the bird of Zeus -the eagle, the aquila well known from so much Roman symbolism. By imperial times the aquila had long since become the principle standard carried by the legions and the worship of these standards was a regular part of of david essay army life. Write. Setting up a shrine to the aquila in the Temple was among the sacrileges inflicted upon the Jews of Jerusalem by the Roman army as the city fell in 70 AD, according to the historian Josephus.* The cross used by Constantine on the shields of essay his soldiers, the new standard under which they marched, called the “labarum” by Eusebius, in how to, effect replaced the eagle of Imperial Rome. So notes the nineteenth century historian Philip Schaff.* It suggests to me an india interpretation of Constantine’s vision which imagines it as a sort of celestial augury.
R. How To. H. Allen’s Star Names offers this note under the section on Aquila, “Thompson thinks that the research paper, fable, in Greek ornithology, of the eagle attacking the swan, but defeated by it, is symbolical of “Aquila, which rises in the East, immediately after Cygnus, but, setting in the West, goes down a little while before that more northern constellation.””* Lord D’Arcy Thompson, the English naturalist, collected all manner of classical information for write his book, A Glossary of Greek Birds , often with an eye toward aspects related to “the picture-book of the sky”, as he called it.* In my celestial augury the afsa high school 2013, Eagle v. Swan combat suggests something like Aquila/Rome/Maxentius in unit, conflict with Cygnus/Cross/Constantine. Perhaps this Cygnoid Cross, backed by the story of the emperor’s celestial epiphany, was employed to offer an effective promise of victory over against the astrologers’ unnerving portent. The ‘celestial augury’ suggested by starting for essays, the way the Imperial Aquila is said to have been replaced by the heavenly sign of write unit God on the shields of Constantine’s army and by the myth of an Eagle/Swan combat. Although little commends it as more than an imaginative speculation, the legend of Constantine’s Vision may have contributed to about science and technology of ancient india, the eventual recognition of write a cross in the stars of Cygnus. Time: 10:30 local time on 10/27/312 from Rome. What of the staurogram figure? To make Lactantius’ cross “with the top of its head bent round,”* add a loop to the traditional cross starting at Deneb, passing through omicron Cygni 1 and for essays, 2 and closing at gamma Cygni. Write Unit. No, these are not terribly bright stars and yes, there are competing stars sprinkled nearby. As star gazers know so well, all that’s necessary is to recognize the pattern once to lock it into the imagination. At least it has the research paper styles, advantage of simplicity. For those who may have access to any of today’s computerized planetarium programs, just advance the time in half hour steps to watch the conflict unfold until Cygnus rests unassailed and the victorious Cross stands upright on the northwest horizon after around 10:30 pm in the late October skies of 312 AD.
The sources that survive from 4th century Rome, lamented by historians as a poorly documented era in how to write unit, any case, simply don’t allow for very much resembling the possibility of definitive proof for any of the various interpretations proposed for Constantine’s vision. It has been interpreted as an outright miracle of faith, a political and essay about and technology of ancient india, religious fiction, a purely psychological experience, something to do with solar halos, something to do with stars, or combinations thereof. How To Write Unit. Each has had proponents over the years. Although my fond speculation about this “celestial augury” remains improbable, more certain by far is the 2013, fact that Constantine’s legend seems to have contributed, or else attracted, elements of astral imagery. How To Write. In interpreting the hume, vision I tend to allow, with historians like Robin Fox, for a certain interplay of internal experience and external observation. Elusive as it is, imagination is key. As Fox puts it, “A man only how to unit sees in the sky what he is predisposed to notice or recall. ”* What might Constantine have been predisposed to notice or recall? We cannot know fully, but perhaps there are clues. Christian advisors had at some point gained access to the emperor’s thoughts or else his conversion, whatever we make of of david it, would be completely unintelligible.
Yet, the world in which he lived, grew up, and aspired to the purple was still mainly a pagan world. Serving under the Tetrarchy at the close of the 3rd century makes it hard to imagine that the cults had not contributed something to his imagination, whether negative or positive. Mithraism, for example, and the cult of Sol Invictus were very much a part of the religious milieu of the army and the imperium. How To Write Unit. Modern researchers, notably David Ulansey and about of ancient india, Roger Beck, have shown how thoroughly astral symbolism played a part in the Mithraic mysteries, although significant details are still being debated.* E. C. Krupp’s recent book, Skywatchers, Shamans and Kings: The Astronomy and Archaeology of Power , rehearses the cosmic imagery behind Rome’s empire; from Julius Ceasar’s apotheosis upon how to write the appearance a comet, to Augustus’ use of Capricorn, his birth sign, on his coins and banners, to the erection of the Solarium Augustii.* That Constantine may have had similar interests in employing celestial imagery is suggested several ways. An Nalysis Essay. From 315, three years after defeating Maxentius, rare silver medallions minted at Ticinum show Constantine’s portrait and his helmet with its high crest or crown of “feathers”.* Although I am not aware of any specific study of the iconography of these decorations, to my eye their round shape and how to write, rayed appearance give the nyu stern 2013, impression of nothing so much as stars.
Set among them is one fashioned in the figure of the write, “Chi-Rho” of the labarum, one of its earliest known representations.* Do we have here something of hardware requirements in thesis a hint as to what he might have been predisposed to notice or recall? Or, was it mere rhetoric that inspired the emperor to lend these words, toward the end of his life, to the inscription on the monument to St. Peter in write unit, Rome, “Because of your leadership the glorious universe has reached to the furthest stars. ”?* Finally, and perhaps most tellingly, what of the styles, way Constantine’s memory is celebrated in the Eastern Church? Orthodox Christian monasteries celebrate the feast day of Saints Constantine and how to unit, Helena, May 21st, with hymns that include the following lines for Matins, “Having stretched forth thy senses toward heaven and acquired the beauty of the stars, thou wast taught by them the school essay 2013, mysteries of the Lord of all; and write unit, the weapon of the Cross shone forth in their midst. ”* The connection of essay of ancient india astral imagery with Constantine’s vision of the Cross is so clear in the hymn that we are left wondering what its source might be, since it seems to owe nothing to the histories usually relied upon for information about the how to write, emperor’s life and reign. The Slavonic text for the Orthodox Menaion goes back only as far as the 17th century, but it is obviously based on more ancient Byzantine tradition. Starting. There is a considerable body of hagiographic literature inspired by Constantine and, especially, the legend of unit Helena’s discovery of the Cross.* So far my search for such astral imagery there has been in vain. A possible but problematic source lies in the brief account of Constantine’s conversion attributed to the Arian historian Philostorgius.
His lost 5th century Ecclesiastical History , judged by historians to research styles, be rather unreliable as an how to write unit account of the origin and spread of starting for essays Arianism, comes to unit, us as a 9th century epitome by hardware requirements, Photius. It tells how “the sign of the cross was seen in the East, vast in how to write, extent and analysis 2013, lit up with glorious light, and surrounded on each side by stars like a rainbow, symbolizing the form of letters.”* The letters spell out the well known heaven sent message to Constantine, In hoc signo vinces , “By this sign you will conquer,” apparently in Latin instead of Greek. But starry letters “on each side” of the Cross bears a striking similarity to what we find in Gregory’s De cursu stellarum . That such a theologically tainted source would have contributed directly to the Orthodox liturgy is hard to imagine. But, Philostorgius’ account may still betray the ultimate source of all this starry imagery. With the few lines quoted above regarding Constantine’s vision in mind, here is the account of Ignatius of Antioch concerning another celestial portent of interest to Christians. “How then were these mysteries revealed to the ages? A star shone in the sky, brighter than all other stars; its light was indescribable and its strangeness provoked wonder, and all the rest of the how to write unit, stars with the Sun and moon made a choir around that star which outshone them all. ”* The celestial sign Ignatius describes here is, of high school essay 2013 course, the Star of Bethlehem recorded in the Gospel of Matthew.
Philostorgius’ sign of the cross shining with a wonderful light and surrounded by a rainbow of how to write unit stars, a choir that silently spells out its message not so much of praise but of assurance, bears a certain resemblance to Ignatius’ commentary on the familiar nativity scene. Research. Both may in write unit, fact have in mind the dreams of Joseph in Genesis ch. School Essay 2013. 37. Does the detail that the cross shines “in the how to unit, East” suggest that Philostorgius had in mind the tradition of the Christmas Star? If the similarities between these passages are not simply coincidental, I would argue that they fit well with the recent interpretation offered by Richard Trexler regarding the role of the Magi and the star in Christian art from the nyu stern essay, Constantinian era.* Proposals tracing the write, evolution of the paper styles, Chi-Rho of the labarum from a pagan star have been largely dismissed by historians. However, if Trexler and those his account relies upon are correct perhaps an evolution from a Christian star should be considered. He notes, “In the few scenes of the Magi viewing the star that may predate Constantine, the form of the Magi’s star is twofold. How To Write. Far the analysis 2013, most common is a six-pointed star; in rare cases one encounters the superimposed Greek letters iota and chi (See Figure 3), the first letters in the Greek word for “Jesus” and how to write unit, “Christ.” After 312, however, both the star and the “iota-chi” encounter competition from a superimposition of the letters chi and rho, the first two Greek letters of the word “Christ.”” * An example that entails both monogram and staurogram as apparent stand-ins for hardware the Bethlehem star can be found on the 5th century tomb of Flavius Julius Catervius in Tolentino, Italy.*
Mediated by this symbolic play of letters (recall both Gregory of Tours and Philostorgius) Star and Cross, or at least Star and Labarum, came to be associated in Christian art and imagination. Both had been celestial signs. The first brings the Magi, since the time of Tertullian increasingly imagined as kings, to how to write unit, worship the analysis, Christ child. How To. The second likewise brings Constantine to faith in Christ and to the throne of Rome. Unless some explicit source in Constantinian hagiography remains to be identified, perhaps we need search no further for the origin of the astral language of the feast day hymns than the role the Magi and their star played in early and later Christian imagination as presented in Trexler’s account. The things Constantine, and those after him, would have noticed and recalled were perhaps richly stellar after all. If we approach the question more generally in terms of origins we are forced to wonder about still earlier monastic traditions, now lost to the mists of time, and the ways Christian imagination was directed toward the heavens by the stories of the Savior’s Star and the Emperor’s Vision. Constantine’s celestial sign, whether by day or night, fired the imaginations of others who were soon, not surprisingly, granted epiphanies of their own. After 312 showers of heavenly cross visions seem to rain down into Christian literature and art.
The emperor’s mother, Helena, sees a heavenly sign guiding her search for the True Cross in essay science and technology of ancient, Jerusalem. Constantine’s sons have cross visions, and, of unit course, Cyril of Jerusalem.* The celestial sign that brought the Emperor to Christ reminded Christians of the one that first guided the Magi to the stable in an nalysis of david hume, Bethlehem. Cross and Star came to be seen in each other’s glorious light. Behind the cruciform stars still found on our Christmas cards lies a long half forgotten history. Thus, regarding the question of the asterism’s origins perhaps the write, most certainty that can be gleaned is that if the recognition of a Cross in the stars of Cygnus had not already taken place by or in the early part of the 4th century it soon became all but inevitable for one to for essays, be found there after Constantine. * Footnotes and illustrations have been withheld. Please consult the article as printed in Culture and how to unit, Cosmos, v. 4, no.2. Online see http://www.cultureandcosmos.com or write to CC , PO Box 1071, Bristol BS99 1HE, UK. The author would like to acknowledge the kind assistance of hardware requirements Prof. Timothy Hegedus (Waterloo Lutheran Seminary), art historian Dr.
Hanna. Witte-Orr, and Dr. R.H. van Gent. Footnotes in how to write, the original article. indicate their specific contributions. Ilustrations presented in original article: The Cross of St.
Helena after Schiller Schickard’s Crux Christi Crux Major from De Cursu Stellarum The Ticinum medallion Constantine’s Vision from the 15th century Church of the Holy Cross of Agiasmati Right and Left end panels from the tomb of Catervius Galla Placida’s celestial cross St. Apollinare de Classe’s starry cross Copyright 2000 by the author.