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Argumentative Essay about Why Smoking Should be Banned. Extracts from this document. ?Page | ________________ Ban Smoking in Public Places Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States, and doing it in fun creative public is editing even worse because smokers not only harm themselves, but also those around them. I remember how my great uncle would always smoke in fun creative his house regardless of his surroundings. Like Love? When his daughter visited him for a vacation, she brought her three year old daughter with her. The baby was healthy before coming to writing her grandpa's house, but in less than two weeks, she had developed ear infections and started to cough. When they went to nurture psychology the doctors' office to find out how she had gotten it, the doctor linked it back to the second hand smoke that she was breathing in. When my great uncle found out about it, he finally started to care about where he was smoking and who he was with, and decided that he would smoke in a secluded place where no one but him may be affected. . read more. Though many smokers already know of the ideas, health risks that come with smoking cigarettes, but what most of papers, them do not, is how secondhand smoking can affect other people. ?Breathing in low doses of secondhand smoke can increase a person?s risk of heart attack? according to a study by writing, Dr. Meyers, a professor of Cardiology and daughters of the essay contest Preventive Medicine at ideas, University of Kansas (Sciencedaily.com). Smokers should not risk non-smokers for something that they do. In continuation of Dr.
Meyers? study is that, ?secondhand smoking increases the likelihood of nurture essay psychology, a heart attack by making the blood ?sticky?, making it more prone to clotting, and reducing the amount of good cholesterol in the body? (Sciencedaily.com). Fun Creative Writing Ideas? Non-smokers should not be worrying about paying more medical bills, especially in today?s economic situation. Many businesses provide health insurance to their employees. According to a statistical data collected by Live Strong, employers spend an research papers on electronics extra $49 million in medical costs for employees who are exposed to secondhand smoking in their jobs (Nelson). . read more. Smoking in public should be banned at a federal level without question. Smoking negatively affects people, the environment and businesses. There are no logical reasons to allow smoking in public places and writing doing so does not benefit anyone but cigarette makers. Smokers should have secluded areas where they could smoke where no one may be harmed. The government should provide trash cans in these areas so smokers would not just throw their cigarette butts on the floor. Anyone caught smoking in public places and littering their cigarettes should be fined. Smoking endangers people who chose not to engage in the same reckless behavior, like my baby cousin who had gotten so sick because of my great uncle?s smoking.
It also dirties our environment and psychology harms other animals that are in search of food. Businesses who provide health insurance to their workers affected by second hand smoking are wasting money that could be used to hire more employees. Fun Creative Writing? Banning smoking in papers on electronics public may lead to a better way of life and a healthier place to live. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over fun creative ideas 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Daughters Of The American Contest 2010? Related GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and writing Advise essays. Should smoking be banned in public places? Putting a ban on smoking in public places would do great things for the economy and help businesses to attract more people.
Non-smokers would feel less threatened and not have to sit and worry about the odd smoke cloud hitting them in the face while enjoying a drink or a meal. Pip was a common working boy; he was used to essay psychology his status and was happy. But after he met the cold and proud Estelle, at Satis house, he fell foolishly in love with her. He became ashamed of himself, ashamed of his family and ashamed of his work. Writing Ideas? Because of the effects smoking has on you and others should it be banned . They have not totally blocked out smokers but have catered for them in a way of putting benches and a heater outside every bar and restaurant, and they have proven that passive smoking has dropped dramatically. a case study on smoking and it's effects. Tobacco was so popular that as part of the war effort, tobacco was made a protected crop in America and cigarettes were included in soldiers rations. Tobacco companies sent millions of free cigarettes to troops. With soldiers being conscripted and everyone having to do national service, a large majority of young men smoked. Another regard is sat score essay having to writing go to school for another long minimum of 8 years.
Most students get a 4-year bachelor's degree, and essay then go to a medical school for another 4 years to be a Medical Doctor. Fun Creative? Doctor Green says, When you are young, your brain is nurture like a sponge, and you can soak up lots of information. Writing Ideas? When you get older, your brain gets harder and harder and less like a sponge, which means it is much harder to learn and remember information. of index online, student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and fun creative writing ideas Get Revising are all trading names of american contest, The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to writing ideas view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone.
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Out of the Kitchen, Onto the writing Couch. By MICHAEL POLLAN JULY 29, 2009. I was only 8 when “The French Chef” first appeared on American television in 1963, but it didn’t take long for me to psychology realize that this Julia Child had improved the quality of life around our house. My mother began cooking dishes she’d watched Julia cook on TV: boeuf bourguignon (the subject of the show’s first episode), French onion soup gratinee, duck a l’orange, coq au vin, mousse au chocolat. Some of the more ambitious dishes, like the duck or the fun creative ideas mousse, were pointed toward weekend company, but my mother would usually test these out on me and my sisters earlier in the week, and a few of the others — including the boeuf bourguignon, which I especially loved — actually made it into love, heavy weeknight rotation.
So whenever people talk about fun creative ideas, how Julia Child upgraded the culture of food in America, I nod appreciatively. Papers? I owe her. Fun Creative Writing Ideas? Not that I didn’t also owe Swanson, because we also ate TV dinners, and those were pretty good, too. Every so often I would watch “The French Chef” with my mother in the den. On WNET in New York, it came on late in the afternoon, after school, and because we had only one television back then, if Mom wanted to watch her program, you watched it, too. Dissertation? The show felt less like TV than like hanging around the writing ideas kitchen, which is to say, not terribly exciting to a kid (except when Child dropped something on the floor, which my mother promised would happen if we stuck around long enough) but comforting in its familiarity: the clanking of pots and pans, the as you it essay squeal of an oven door in need of WD-40, all the kitchen-chemistry-set spectacles of transformation. The show was taped live and broadcast uncut and unedited, so it had a verite feel completely unlike anything you might see today on the Food Network, with its A.D.H.D. Fun Creative Writing Ideas? editing and hyperkinetic soundtracks of rock music and clashing knives. While Julia waited for the butter foam to subside in the saute pan, you waited, too, precisely as long, listening to Julia’s improvised patter over the hiss of her pan, as she filled the desultory minutes with kitchen tips and lore. It all felt more like life than TV, though Julia’s voice was like nothing I ever heard before or would hear again until Monty Python came to America: vaguely European, breathy and of the american revolution essay contest, singsongy, and weirdly suggestive of a man doing a falsetto impression of a woman.
The BBC supposedly took “The French Chef” off the air because viewers wrote in fun creative writing ideas complaining that Julia Child seemed either drunk or demented. Meryl Streep, who brings Julia Child vividly back to the screen in Nora Ephron’s charming new comedy, “Julie Julia,” has the voice down, and with the help of some clever set design and sat score essay, cinematography, she manages to fun creative ideas evoke too Child’s big-girl ungainliness — the woman was 6 foot 2 and editing, had arms like a longshoreman. Streep also captures the deep sensual delight that Julia Child took in food — not just the eating of fun creative ideas, it (her virgin bite of sole meuniere at La Couronne in Rouen recalls Meg Ryan’s deli orgasm in “When Harry Met Sally”) but the fondling and affectionate slapping of ingredients in their raw state and the magic of their kitchen transformations. But “Julie Julia” is more than an exercise in nostalgia. As the title suggests, the film has a second, more contemporary heroine. The Julie character (played by Amy Adams) is based on Julie Powell, a 29-year-old aspiring writer living in sat score essay Queens who, casting about for a blog conceit in fun creative ideas 2002, hit on like it essay love, a cool one: she would cook her way through all 524 recipes in Child’s “Mastering the Art of French Cooking” in 365 days and blog about her adventures. Writing? The movie shuttles back and editing, forth between Julie’s year of fun creative writing ideas, compulsive cooking and blogging in Queens in 2002 and Julia’s decade in Paris and Provence a half-century earlier, as recounted in “My Life in France,” the memoir published a few years after her death in 2004. The Essay? Julia Child in 1949 was in fun creative writing ideas some ways in the same boat in which Julie Powell found herself in 2002: happily married to a really nice guy but feeling, acutely, the lack of a life project.
Living in Paris, where her husband, Paul Child, was posted in the diplomatic corps, Julia (who like Julie had worked as a secretary) was at a loss as to what to sat score essay do with her life until she realized that what she liked to do best was eat. So she enrolled in Le Cordon Bleu and learned how to cook. As with Julia, so with Julie: cooking saved her life, giving her a project and, eventually, a path to writing literary success. That learning to cook could lead an American woman to success of any kind would have seemed utterly implausible in 1949; that it is so thoroughly plausible 60 years later owes everything to editing Julia Child’s legacy. Julie Powell operates in a world that Julia Child helped to create, one where food is taken seriously, where chefs have been welcomed into the repertory company of American celebrity and writing ideas, where cooking has become a broadly appealing mise-en-scene in which success stories can plausibly be set and played out. Sat Score Essay? How amazing is writing it that we live today in a culture that has not only something called the ieee research Food Network but now a hit show on that network called “The Next Food Network Star,” which thousands of writing ideas, 20- and 30-somethings compete eagerly to become? It would seem we have come a long way from daughters essay contest, Swanson TV dinners. The Food Network can now be seen in nearly 100 million American homes and on most nights commands more viewers than any of the cable news channels. Millions of Americans, including my 16-year-old son, can tell you months after the finale which contestant emerged victorious in fun creative writing Season 5 of “Top Chef” (Hosea Rosenberg, followed by Stefan Richter, his favorite, and sat score essay, Carla Hall).
The popularity of cooking shows — or perhaps I should say food shows — has spread beyond the precincts of public or cable television to the broadcast networks, where Gordon Ramsay terrorizes newbie chefs on “Hell’s Kitchen” on Fox and fun creative writing, Jamie Oliver is preparing a reality show on ABC in which he takes aim at an American city with an obesity problem and tries to teach the population how to cook. The Essay? It’s no wonder that a Hollywood studio would conclude that American audiences had an appetite for a movie in which the fun creative writing ideas road to personal fulfillment and public success passes through the kitchen and turns, crucially, on a recipe for boeuf bourguignon. (The secret is to pat dry your beef before you brown it.) But here’s what I don’t get: How is research it that we are so eager to fun creative writing watch other people browning beef cubes on screen but so much less eager to brown them ourselves? For the rise of Julia Child as a figure of cultural consequence — along with Alice Waters and Mario Batali and Martha Stewart and Emeril Lagasse and whoever is crowned the next Food Network star — has, paradoxically, coincided with the rise of fast food, home-meal replacements and nurture psychology, the decline and fun creative ideas, fall of ieee papers, everyday home cooking. That decline has several causes: women working outside the writing home; food companies persuading Americans to let them do the cooking; and advances in technology that made it easier for them to do so. Cooking is no longer obligatory, and for many people, women especially, that has been a blessing. But perhaps a mixed blessing, to judge by the culture’s continuing, if not deepening, fascination with the subject. It has been easier for us to give up cooking than it has been to give up talking about it — and watching it.
Today the average American spends a mere 27 minutes a day on dissertation online, food preparation (another four minutes cleaning up); that’s less than half the time that we spent cooking and cleaning up when Julia arrived on our television screens. It’s also less than half the time it takes to watch a single episode of ideas, “Top Chef” or “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star.” What this suggests is that a great many Americans are spending considerably more time watching images of cooking on television than they are cooking themselves — an increasingly archaic activity they will tell you they no longer have the time for. What is wrong with this picture? When I asked my mother recently what exactly endeared Julia Child to daughters of the revolution essay contest her, she explained that “for so many of us she took the fear out of cooking” and, to illustrate the point, brought up the famous potato show (or, as Julia pronounced it, “the poh-TAY-toh show!”), one of the episodes that Meryl Streep recreates brilliantly on screen. Millions of Americans of a certain age claim to fun creative remember Julia Child dropping a chicken or a goose on the floor, but the memory is apocryphal: what she dropped was a potato pancake, and daughters of the revolution essay, it didn’t quite make it to the floor. Still, this was a classic live-television moment, inconceivable on any modern cooking show: Martha Stewart would sooner commit seppuku than let such an outtake ever see the light of day. The episode has Julia making a plate-size potato pancake, sauteing a big disc of writing, mashed potato into which she has folded impressive quantities of cream and butter. Then the fateful moment arrives: “When you flip anything, you just have to have the courage of your convictions,” she declares, clearly a tad nervous at the prospect, and then gives the big pancake a flip.
On the way down, half of it catches the lip of the pan and dissertation, splats onto writing ideas the stovetop. Undaunted, Julia scoops the sat score essay thing up and writing, roughly patches the pancake back together, explaining: “When I flipped it, I didn’t have the ieee research on electronics courage to do it the way I should have. You can always pick it up.” And then, looking right through the camera as if taking us into her confidence, she utters the line that did so much to lift the fear of failure from my mother and writing ideas, her contemporaries: “If you’re alone in the kitchen, WHOOOO” — the pronoun is sung — “is going to like it essay see?” For a generation of women eager to fun creative writing ideas transcend their mothers’ recipe box (and perhaps, too, their mothers’ social standing), Julia’s little kitchen catastrophe was a liberation and a lesson: “The only way you learn to flip things is just to flip them!” It was a kind of courage — not only to cook but to cook the world’s most glamorous and intimidating cuisine — that Julia Child gave my mother and so many other women like her, and to american contest 2010 watch her empower viewers in episode after episode is to appreciate just how much about cooking on television — not to mention cooking itself — has changed in the years since “The French Chef” was on the air. There are still cooking programs that will teach you how to fun creative writing ideas cook. Nurture? Public television offers the fun creative ideas eminently useful “America’s Test Kitchen.” The Food Network carries a whole slate of so-called dump-and-stir shows during the day, and the network’s research suggests that at least some viewers are following along. But many of these programs — I’m thinking of Rachael Ray, Paula Deen, Sandra Lee — tend to online be aimed at stay-at-home moms who are in a hurry and eager to fun creative ideas please. (“How good are you going to look when you serve this?” asks Paula Deen, a Southern gal of the old school.) These shows stress quick results, shortcuts and superconvenience but never the editing the essay sort of writing ideas, pleasure — physical and mental — that Julia Child took in the work of cooking: the tomahawking of a fish skeleton or the chopping of an onion, the Rolfing of butter into the breast of on electronics, a raw chicken or the vigorous whisking of heavy cream.
By the end of the fun creative ideas potato show, Julia was out of breath and had broken a sweat, which she mopped from her brow with a paper towel. Ieee? (Have you ever seen Martha Stewart break a sweat? Pant? If so, you know her a lot better than the rest of us.) Child was less interested in fun creative writing ideas making it fast or easy than making it right, because cooking for ieee on electronics her was so much more than a means to ideas a meal. It was a gratifying, even ennobling sort of work, engaging both the mind and the muscles. You didn’t do it to please a husband or impress guests; you did it to please yourself. No one cooking on television today gives the impression that they enjoy the actual work quite as much as Julia Child did. In this, she strikes me as a more liberated figure than many of the women who have followed her on television. Curiously, the research year Julia Child went on the air — 1963 — was the same year Betty Friedan published “The Feminine Mystique,” the ideas book that taught millions of American women to dissertation online regard housework, cooking included, as drudgery, indeed as a form of oppression.
You may think of these two figures as antagonists, but that wouldn’t be quite right. They actually had a great deal in common, as Child’s biographer, Laura Shapiro, points out, and addressed the aspirations of many of the same women. Julia never referred to her viewers as “housewives” — a word she detested — and never condescended to them. She tried to show the sort of women who read “The Feminine Mystique” that, far from oppressing them, the writing work of cooking approached in the proper spirit offered a kind of fulfillment and deserved an intelligent woman’s attention. (A man’s too.) Second-wave feminists were often ambivalent on editing, the gender politics of cooking. Simone de Beauvoir wrote in “The Second Sex” that though cooking could be oppressive, it could also be a form of “revelation and ideas, creation; and editing, a woman can find special satisfaction in a successful cake or a flaky pastry, for not everyone can do it: one must have the gift.” This can be read either as a special Frenchie exemption for the culinary arts ( feminisme, c’est bon, but we must not jeopardize those flaky pastries! ) or as a bit of wisdom that some American feminists thoughtlessly trampled in their rush to get women out of the kitchen. Whichever, kitchen work itself has changed considerably since 1963, judging from its depiction on today’s how-to shows. Take the concept of cooking from scratch. Many of today’s cooking programs rely unapologetically on ingredients that themselves contain lots of ingredients: canned soups, jarred mayonnaise, frozen vegetables, powdered sauces, vanilla wafers, limeade concentrate, Marshmallow Fluff. This probably shouldn’t surprise us: processed foods have so thoroughly colonized the American kitchen and diet that they have redefined what passes today for cooking, not to mention food.
Many of these convenience foods have been sold to women as tools of liberation; the rhetoric of kitchen oppression has been cleverly hijacked by food marketers and the cooking shows they sponsor to sell more stuff. So the shows encourage home cooks to take all manner of shortcuts, each of which involves buying another product, and all of fun creative writing ideas, which taken together have succeeded in redefining what is index commonly meant by the verb “to cook.” I spent an enlightening if somewhat depressing hour on the phone with a veteran food-marketing researcher, Harry Balzer, who explained that “people call things ‘cooking’ today that would roll their grandmother in her grave — heating up a can of soup or microwaving a frozen pizza.” Balzer has been studying American eating habits since 1978; the fun creative writing NPD Group, the american contest 2010 firm he works for, collects data from a pool of 2,000 food diaries to track American eating habits. Fun Creative Writing Ideas? Years ago Balzer noticed that the definition of editing the essay, cooking held by ideas, his respondents had grown so broad as to index online be meaningless, so the firm tightened up the meaning of “to cook” at least slightly to writing capture what was really going on in American kitchens. Of The Revolution Essay Contest 2010? To cook from scratch, they decreed, means to fun creative prepare a main dish that requires some degree of daughters of the revolution, “assembly of writing, elements.” So microwaving a pizza doesn’t count as cooking, though washing a head of lettuce and pouring bottled dressing over essay it does. Under this dispensation, you’re also cooking when you spread mayonnaise on a slice of bread and pile on some cold cuts or a hamburger patty. (Currently the most popular meal in America, at fun creative, both lunch and dinner, is a sandwich; the sat score essay No. Fun Creative Writing? 1 accompanying beverage is a soda.) At least by Balzer’s none-too-exacting standard, Americans are still cooking up a storm — 58 percent of psychology, our evening meals qualify, though even that figure has been falling steadily since the 1980s. Like most people who study consumer behavior, Balzer has developed a somewhat cynical view of fun creative writing ideas, human nature, which his research suggests is ever driven by the quest to save time or money or, optimally, both. I kept asking him what his research had to say about the prevalence of the activity I referred to as “ real scratch cooking,” but he wouldn’t touch the term. Why? Apparently the sat score essay activity has become so rarefied as to elude his tools of measurement.
“Here’s an analogy,” Balzer said. “A hundred years ago, chicken for dinner meant going out and catching, killing, plucking and gutting a chicken. Fun Creative Writing Ideas? Do you know anybody who still does that? It would be considered crazy! Well, that’s exactly how cooking will seem to the essay your grandchildren: something people used to do when they had no other choice. Get over it.” After my discouraging hour on the phone with Balzer, I settled in for fun creative writing ideas a couple more with the Food Network, trying to square his dismal view of our interest in cooking with the american essay contest hyperexuberant, even fetishized images of cooking that are presented on the screen. The Food Network undergoes a complete change of personality at writing ideas, night, when it trades the american revolution contest 2010 cozy precincts of the home kitchen and chirpy softball coaching of Rachael Ray or Sandra Lee for something markedly less feminine and writing ideas, less practical. Erica Gruen, the cable executive often credited with putting the Food Network on the map in the late ’90s, recognized early on that, as she told a journalist, “people don’t watch television to learn things.” So she shifted the network’s target audience from people who love to cook to people who love to nurture eat, a considerably larger universe and one that — important for a cable network — happens to writing ideas contain a great many more men. In prime time, the Food Network’s mise-en-scene shifts to masculine arenas like the Kitchen Stadium on of the american revolution, “Iron Chef,” where famous restaurant chefs wage gladiatorial combat to see who can, in 60 minutes, concoct the most spectacular meal from a secret ingredient ceremoniously unveiled just as the clock starts: an octopus or a bunch of bananas or a whole school of writing ideas, daurade.
Whether in as you the Kitchen Stadium or on “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star” or, over on Bravo, “Top Chef,” cooking in prime time is a form of athletic competition, drawing its visual and even aural vocabulary from “Monday Night Football.” On “Iron Chef America,” one of the Food Network’s biggest hits, the cookingcaster Alton Brown delivers a breathless (though always gently tongue-in-cheek) play by play and color commentary, as the iron chefs and their team of iron sous-chefs race the clock to fun creative writing ideas peel, chop, slice, dice, mince, Cuisinart, mandoline, boil, double-boil, pan-sear, saute, sous vide , deep-fry, pressure-cook, grill, deglaze, reduce and plate — this last a word I’m old enough to of the revolution essay contest remember when it was a mere noun. A particularly dazzling display of chefly “knife skills” — a term bandied as freely on fun creative writing, the Food Network as “passing game” or “slugging percentage” is on ESPN — will earn an instant replay: an onion minced in nurture psychology slo-mo. Fun Creative? Can we get a camera on this , Alton Brown will ask in online a hushed, this-must-be-golf tone of fun creative, voice. It looks like Chef Flay’s going to try for a last-minute garnish grab before the clock runs out! Will he make it? [The buzzer sounds.] Yes! These shows move so fast, in such a blur of flashing knives, frantic pantry raids and daughters of the american revolution contest, more sheer fire than you would ever want to see in your own kitchen, that I honestly can’t tell you whether that “last-minute garnish grab” happened on ideas, “Iron Chef America” or “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star” or whether it was Chef Flay or Chef Batali who snagged the sprig of foliage at the buzzer. But impressive it surely was, in the same way it’s impressive to watch a handful of eager young chefs on “Chopped” figure out how to make a passable appetizer from chicken wings, celery, soba noodles and research papers on electronics, a package of string cheese in writing just 20 minutes, said starter to be judged by papers on electronics, a panel of professional chefs on fun creative, the basis of “taste, creativity and presentation.” (If you ask me, the key to victory on ieee research, any of these shows comes down to one factor: bacon.
Whichever contestant puts bacon in the dish invariably seems to win.) But you do have to wonder how easily so specialized a set of skills might translate to the home kitchen — or anywhere else for that matter. For when in real life are even professional chefs required to conceive and execute dishes in 20 minutes from ingredients selected by a third party exhibiting obvious sadistic tendencies? ( String cheese? ) Never, is when. Ideas? The skills celebrated on the Food Network in prime time are precisely the skills necessary to dissertation online succeed on the Food Network in prime time. They will come in handy nowhere else on God’s green earth. We learn things watching these cooking competitions, but they’re not things about how to cook. There are no recipes to follow; the fun creative writing ideas contests fly by much too fast for viewers to take in any practical tips; and sat score essay, the kind of cooking practiced in prime time is far more spectacular than anything you would ever try at fun creative, home. No, for anyone hoping to pick up a few dinnertime tips, the implicit message of today’s prime-time cooking shows is, Don’t try this at home.
If you really want to eat this way, go to a restaurant. As You? Or as a chef friend put it when I asked him if he thought I could learn anything about cooking by watching the Food Network, “How much do you learn about playing basketball by watching the N.B.A.?” What we mainly learn about on the Food Network in writing ideas prime time is culinary fashion, which is no small thing: if Julia took the online fear out of cooking, these shows take the fear — the social anxiety — out of ordering in fun creative writing ideas restaurants. ( Hey, now I know what a shiso leaf is and what “crudo” means! ) Then, at the judges’ table, we learn how to taste and how to talk about food. For viewers, these shows have become less about the production of high-end food than about its consumption — including its conspicuous consumption. ( I think I’ll start with the sawfish crudo wrapped in research shiso leaves. . . . ) Surely it’s no accident that so many Food Network stars have themselves found a way to transcend barriers of social class in the kitchen — beginning with Emeril Lagasse, the ideas working-class guy from Fall River, Mass., who, though he may not be able to sound the ‘r’ in “garlic,” can still cook like a dream. Once upon daughters american essay 2010, a time Julia made the same promise in reverse: she showed you how you, too, could cook like someone who could not only prepare but properly pronounce a bearnaise . So-called fancy food has always served as a form of writing, cultural capital, and cooking programs help you acquire it, now without so much as lifting a spatula. The glamour of food has made it something of a class leveler in of the contest 2010 America, a fact that many of these shows implicitly celebrate. Television likes nothing better than to serve up elitism to the masses, paradoxical as that might sound. How wonderful is fun creative writing ideas it that something like arugula can at the same time be a mark of sophistication and be found in almost every salad bar in America? Everybody wins! But the shift from producing food on television to consuming it strikes me as a far-less-salubrious development.
Traditionally, the recipe for the typical dump-and-stir program comprises about psychology, 80 percent cooking followed by 20 percent eating, but in prime time you now find a raft of shows that flip that ratio on its head, like “The Best Thing I Ever Ate” and writing ideas, “Diners, Drive-Ins and as you it essay love, Dives,” which are about nothing but eating. Sure, Guy Fieri, the tattooed and fun creative writing ideas, spiky-coiffed chowhound who hosts “Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives,” ducks into the kitchen whenever he visits one of these roadside joints to do a little speed-bonding with the startled short-order cooks in back, but most of the time he’s wrapping his mouth around their supersize creations: a 16-ounce Oh Gawd! burger (with the works); battered and deep-fried anything (clams, pickles, cinnamon buns, stuffed peppers, you name it); or a buttermilk burrito approximately the size of it essay love, his head, stuffed with bacon, eggs and cheese. What Fieri’s critical vocabulary lacks in writing analytical rigor, it more than makes up for in tailgate enthusiasm: “Man, oh man, now this is what I’m talkin’ about!” What can possibly be the appeal of watching Guy Fieri bite, masticate and swallow all this chow? The historical drift of cooking programs — from a genuine interest in producing food yourself to the spectacle of merely consuming it — surely owes a lot to the decline of cooking in our culture, but it also has something to do with the gravitational field that eventually overtakes anything in television’s orbit. It’s no accident that Julia Child appeared on public television — or educational television, as it used to be called. Sat Score Essay? On a commercial network, a program that actually inspired viewers to fun creative get off the couch and ieee papers, spend an hour cooking a meal would be a commercial disaster, for fun creative writing it would mean they were turning off the television to do something else. The ads on the Food Network, at least in index online prime time, strongly suggest its viewers do no such thing: the food-related ads hardly ever hawk kitchen appliances or ingredients (unless you count A.1. steak sauce) but rather push the usual supermarket cart of edible foodlike substances, including Manwich sloppy joe in a can, Special K protein shakes and fun creative, Ore-Ida frozen French fries, along with fast-casual eateries like Olive Garden and Red Lobster. Buying, not making, is what cooking shows are mostly now about — that and, increasingly, cooking shows themselves: the whole self-perpetuating spectacle of competition, success and celebrity that, with “The Next Food Network Star,” appears to have entered its baroque phase. As You It Essay Love? The Food Network has figured out that we care much less about what’s cooking than who’s cooking. A few years ago, Mario Batali neatly summed up the network’s formula to fun creative a reporter: “Look, it’s TV! Everyone has to sat score essay fall into a niche.
I’m the Italian guy. Emeril’s the exuberant New Orleans guy with the big eyebrows who yells a lot. Fun Creative Ideas? Bobby’s the essay psychology grilling guy. Rachael Ray is the cheerleader-type girl who makes things at home the way a regular person would. Giada’s the beautiful girl with the fun creative writing nice rack who does simple Italian food. As silly as the whole Food Network is, it gives us all a soapbox to daughters revolution contest talk about the fun creative writing things we care about.” Not to mention a platform from which to sell all their stuff.
The Food Network has helped to sat score essay transform cooking from something you do into something you watch — into yet another confection of ideas, spectacle and celebrity that keeps us pinned to the couch. Like Love? The formula is as circular and self-reinforcing as a TV dinner: a simulacrum of home cooking that is writing ideas sold on nurture, TV and designed to be eaten in front of the TV. True, in writing the case of the Swanson rendition, at least you get something that will fill you up; by comparison, the Food Network leaves you hungry, a condition its advertisers must love. But in neither case is there much risk that you will get off the nurture couch and ideas, actually cook a meal. Both kinds of TV dinner plant us exactly where television always wants us: in front of the set, watching.
To point out that television has succeeded in turning cooking into editing, a spectator sport raises the question of why anyone would want to ideas watch other people cook in the first place. There are plenty of nurture, things we’ve stopped doing for ourselves that we have no desire to watch other people do on TV: you don’t see shows about changing the oil in fun creative ideas your car or ironing shirts or reading newspapers. So what is it about cooking, specifically, that makes it such good television just now? It’s worth keeping in nurture psychology mind that watching other people cook is not exactly a new behavior for us humans. Even when “everyone” still cooked, there were plenty of fun creative writing, us who mainly watched: men, for the most part, and sat score essay, children. Fun Creative Ideas? Most of us have happy memories of watching our mothers in the kitchen, performing feats that sometimes looked very much like sorcery and typically resulted in something tasty to eat. Watching my mother transform the sat score essay raw materials of nature — a handful of plants, an animal’s flesh — into a favorite dinner was always a pretty good show, but on the afternoons when she tackled a complex marvel like chicken Kiev, I happily stopped whatever I was doing to watch. Fun Creative Writing? (I told you we had it pretty good, thanks partly to Julia.) My mother would hammer the boneless chicken breasts into flat pink slabs, roll them tightly around chunks of ice-cold herbed butter, glue the cylinders shut with egg, then fry the little logs until they turned golden brown, in sat score essay what qualified as a minor miracle of fun creative, transubstantiation. Of The American Essay? When the dish turned out right, knifing through the crust into the snowy white meat within would uncork a fragrant ooze of melted butter that seeped across the plate to merge with the Minute Rice. Fun Creative Ideas? (If the instant rice sounds all wrong, remember that in the 1960s, Julia Child and modern food science were both tokens of sophistication.) An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.
Yet even the most ordinary dish follows a similar arc of transformation, magically becoming something greater than the sum of its parts. Every dish contains not just culinary ingredients but also the dissertation ingredients of narrative: a beginning, a middle and writing, an end. Bring in as you it essay love the element of fire — cooking’s deus ex machina — and you’ve got a tasty little drama right there, the whole thing unfolding in a TV-friendly span of time: 30 minutes (at 350 degrees) will usually do it. Cooking shows also benefit from the fact that food itself is — by ideas, definition — attractive to the humans who eat it, and that attraction can be enhanced by editing, food styling, an art at which the Food Network so excels as to make Julia Child look like a piker. You’ll be flipping aimlessly through the fun creative writing cable channels when a slow-motion cascade of glistening red cherries or a tongue of flame lapping at a slab of meat on the grill will catch your eye, and your reptilian brain will paralyze your thumb on the remote, forcing you to stop to see what’s cooking.
Food shows are the like campfires in writing ideas the deep cable forest, drawing us like hungry wanderers to their flames. (And on the Food Network there are plenty of flames to catch your eye, compensating, no doubt, for the unfortunate absence of aromas.) No matter how well produced, a televised oil change and lube offers no such satisfactions. I suspect we’re drawn to daughters of the revolution contest the textures and fun creative ideas, rhythms of kitchen work, too, which seem so much more direct and editing the essay, satisfying than the ideas more abstract and formless tasks most of us perform in our jobs nowadays. The chefs on editing, TV get to put their hands on real stuff, not keyboards and screens but fundamental things like plants and animals and ideas, fungi; they get to work with fire and ice and perform feats of alchemy. By way of explaining why in the world she wants to cook her way through “Mastering the Art of nurture essay psychology, French Cooking,” all Julie Powell has to do in fun creative ideas the film is show us her cubicle at the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, where she spends her days on the phone mollifying callers with problems that she lacks the power to fix. “You know what I love about cooking?” Julie tells us in a voice-over as we watch her field yet another inconclusive call on her headset. “I love that after a day where nothing is sat score essay sure — and when I say nothing, I mean nothing — you can come home and fun creative writing ideas, absolutely know that if you add egg yolks to chocolate and sugar and milk, it will get thick.
It’s such a comfort.” How many of us still do work that engages us in a dialogue with the material world and as you, ends — assuming the souffle doesn’t collapse — with such a gratifying and tasty sense of writing, closure? Come to think of editing the essay, it, even the collapse of the souffle is at least definitive, which is fun creative writing ideas more than you can say about most of what you will do at work tomorrow. If cooking really offers all these satisfactions, then why don’t we do more of it? Well, ask Julie Powell: for most of us it doesn’t pay the sat score essay rent, and very often our work doesn’t leave us the time; during the year of Julia, dinner at the Powell apartment seldom arrived at the table before 10 p.m. For many years now, Americans have been putting in longer hours at fun creative writing ideas, work and enjoying less time at home. Since 1967, we’ve added 167 hours — the equivalent of a month’s full-time labor — to the total amount of time we spend at work each year, and in households where both parents work, the figure is more like 400 hours. Americans today spend more time working than people in any other industrialized nation — an like it essay, extra two weeks or more a year. Not surprisingly, in writing ideas those countries where people still take cooking seriously, they also have more time to devote to it. It’s generally assumed that the entrance of revolution 2010, women into the work force is responsible for the collapse of home cooking, but that turns out to ideas be only sat score essay part of the story. Yes, women with jobs outside the home spend less time cooking — but so do women without jobs. The amount of ideas, time spent on food preparation in America has fallen at the same precipitous rate among women who don’t work outside the home as it has among women who do: in both cases, a decline of about 40 percent since 1965. (Though for married women who don’t have jobs, the sat score essay amount of time spent cooking remains greater: 58 minutes a day, as compared with 36 for married women who do have jobs.) In general, spending on restaurants or takeout food rises with income.
Women with jobs have more money to fun creative ideas pay corporations to research do their cooking, yet all American women now allow corporations to cook for them when they can. Those corporations have been trying to persuade Americans to let them do the cooking since long before large numbers of women entered the writing work force. After World War II, the food industry labored mightily to sat score essay sell American women on all the fun creative writing processed-food wonders it had invented to feed the troops: canned meals, freeze-dried foods, dehydrated potatoes, powdered orange juice and coffee, instant everything. As Laura Shapiro recounts in “Something From the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America,” the food industry strived to “persuade millions of Americans to the essay develop a lasting taste for meals that were a lot like field rations.” The same process of peacetime conversion that industrialized our farming, giving us synthetic fertilizers made from fun creative ideas, munitions and new pesticides developed from nerve gas, also industrialized our eating. Shapiro shows that the shift toward industrial cookery began not in response to a demand from women entering the work force but as a supply-driven phenomenon. In fact, for many years American women, whether they worked or not, resisted processed foods, regarding them as a dereliction of their “moral obligation to daughters american 2010 cook,” something they believed to be a parental responsibility on par with child care. It took years of clever, dedicated marketing to break down this resistance and persuade Americans that opening a can or cooking from a mix really was cooking. Fun Creative Ideas? Honest.
In the 1950s, just-add-water cake mixes languished in the supermarket until the marketers figured out dissertation that if you left at least something for the “baker” to do — specifically, crack open an egg — she could take ownership of the cake. Over the years, the food scientists have gotten better and better at simulating real food, keeping it looking attractive and seemingly fresh, and ideas, the rapid acceptance of microwave ovens — which went from being in only 8 percent of American households in 1978 to 90 percent today — opened up vast new horizons of ieee papers, home-meal replacement. Harry Balzer’s research suggests that the corporate project of redefining what it means to cook and serve a meal has succeeded beyond the writing industry’s wildest expectations. People think nothing of buying frozen peanut butter-and-jelly sandwiches for their children’s lunchboxes. (Now how much of a timesaver can that be?) “We’ve had a hundred years of packaged foods,” Balzer told me, “and now we’re going to have a hundred years of packaged meals.” Already today, 80 percent of the cost of food eaten in the home goes to someone other than a farmer, which is to say to industrial cooking and packaging and marketing. Essay? Balzer is unsentimental about this development: “Do you miss sewing or darning socks? I don’t think so.” So what are we doing with the time we save by outsourcing our food preparation to corporations and 16-year-old burger flippers? Working, commuting to work, surfing the fun creative ideas Internet and, perhaps most curiously of all, watching other people cook on television. But this may not be quite the editing paradox it seems. Maybe the reason we like to watch cooking on TV is that there are things about cooking we miss.
We might not feel we have the time or the energy to do it ourselves every day, yet we’re not prepared to see it disappear from our lives entirely. Why? Perhaps because cooking — unlike sewing or darning socks — is an activity that strikes a deep emotional chord in us, one that might even go to writing the heart of our identity as human beings. What?! You’re telling me Bobby Flay strikes deep emotional chords? Bear with me. Consider for a moment the sat score essay proposition that as a human activity, cooking is far more important — to our happiness and to our health — than its current role in our lives, not to fun creative mention its depiction on TV, might lead you to nurture believe. Let’s see what happens when we take cooking seriously. The idea that cooking is a defining human activity is not a new one. In 1773, the Scottish writer James Boswell, noting that “no beast is a cook,” called Homo sapiens “the cooking animal,” though he might have reconsidered that definition had he been able to gaze upon the frozen-food cases at Wal-Mart. Fifty years later, in “The Physiology of Taste,” the French gastronome Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin claimed that cooking made us who we are; by teaching men to use fire, it had “done the most to writing ideas advance the it essay cause of civilization.” More recently, the anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, writing in 1964 in “The Raw and the Cooked,” found that many cultures entertained a similar view, regarding cooking as a symbolic way of distinguishing ourselves from the fun creative animals.
For Levi-Strauss, cooking is editing a metaphor for the human transformation of nature into culture, but in the years since “The Raw and the Cooked,” other anthropologists have begun to take quite literally the writing ideas idea that cooking is the key to our humanity. Earlier this year, Richard Wrangham, a Harvard anthropologist, published a fascinating book called “Catching Fire,” in which he argues that it was the discovery of cooking by our early ancestors — not tool-making or language or meat-eating — that made us human. Ieee On Electronics? By providing our primate forebears with a more energy-dense and easy-to-digest diet, cooked food altered the course of human evolution, allowing our brains to grow bigger (brains are notorious energy guzzlers) and ideas, our guts to ieee research papers on electronics shrink. It seems that raw food takes much more time and energy to fun creative writing ideas chew and digest, which is why other primates of sat score essay, our size carry around substantially larger digestive tracts and spend many more of their waking hours chewing: up to writing six hours a day. (That’s nearly as much time as Guy Fieri devotes to the activity.) Also, since cooking detoxifies many foods, it cracked open a treasure trove of nutritious calories unavailable to other animals. Freed from the need to spend our days gathering large quantities of raw food and ieee research, then chewing (and chewing) it, humans could now devote their time, and their metabolic resources, to fun creative writing other purposes, like creating a culture.
Cooking gave us not just the meal but also the occasion: the practice of eating together at an appointed time and essay psychology, place. This was something new under the sun, for the forager of writing, raw food would likely have fed himself on the go and alone, like the animals. Like It Essay? (Or, come to fun creative writing ideas think of editing, it, like the industrial eaters we’ve become, grazing at gas stations and skipping meals.) But sitting down to common meals, making eye contact, sharing food, all served to civilize us; “around that fire,” Wrangham says, “we became tamer.” If cooking is fun creative writing ideas as central to human identity and culture as Wrangham believes, it stands to reason that the decline of cooking in our time would have a profound effect on modern life. At the very least, you would expect that its rapid disappearance from everyday life might leave us feeling nostalgic for the sights and smells and the sociality of the daughters revolution essay cook-fire. Bobby Flay and Rachael Ray may be pushing precisely that emotional button. Interestingly, the one kind of home cooking that is actually on the rise today (according to ideas Harry Balzer) is outdoor grilling.
Chunks of animal flesh seared over an open fire: grilling is sat score essay cooking at its most fundamental and explicit, the transformation of the raw into the cooked right before our eyes. Fun Creative? It makes a certain sense that the grill would be gaining adherents at the very moment when cooking meals and eating them together is fading from the like it essay culture. (While men have hardly become equal partners in the kitchen, they are cooking more today than ever before: about 13 percent of all meals, many of them on the grill.) Yet we don’t crank up the barbecue every day; grilling for fun creative writing most people is sat score essay more ceremony than routine. Fun Creative Ideas? We seem to as you love be well on our way to ideas turning cooking into a form of weekend recreation, a backyard sport for which we outfit ourselves at Williams-Sonoma, or a televised spectator sport we watch from the couch. Cooking’s fate may be to join some of our other weekend exercises in recreational atavism: camping and gardening and hunting and riding on horseback. Something in us apparently likes to be reminded of our distant origins every now and then and to celebrate whatever rough skills for contending with the american revolution 2010 natural world might survive in us, beneath the writing ideas thin crust of 21st-century civilization. To play at farming or foraging for food strikes us as harmless enough, perhaps because the delegating of those activities to other people in sat score essay real life is fun creative ideas something most of us are generally O.K. with. But to nurture relegate the activity of ideas, cooking to a form of ieee research on electronics, play, something that happens just on fun creative writing ideas, weekends or mostly on television, seems much more consequential. The fact is that not cooking may well be deleterious to our health, and there is sat score essay reason to believe that the outsourcing of food preparation to corporations and 16-year-olds has already taken a toll on our physical and psychological well-being. Consider some recent research on the links between cooking and writing ideas, dietary health.
A 2003 study by a group of Harvard economists led by David Cutler found that the index online rise of food preparation outside the home could explain most of the increase in obesity in America. Mass production has driven down the cost of many foods, not only in fun creative writing ideas terms of price but also in dissertation the amount of time required to fun creative obtain them. Sat Score Essay? The French fry did not become the most popular “vegetable” in America until industry relieved us of the considerable effort needed to prepare French fries ourselves. Similarly, the fun creative writing mass production of cream-filled cakes, fried chicken wings and taquitos, exotically flavored chips or cheesy puffs of refined flour, has transformed all these hard-to-make-at-home foods into the sort of everyday fare you can pick up at the essay, the gas station on a whim and for less than a dollar. The fact that we no longer have to plan or even wait to enjoy these items, as we would if we were making them ourselves, makes us that much more likely to indulge impulsively. Cutler and his colleagues demonstrate that as the “time cost” of food preparation has fallen, calorie consumption has gone up, particularly consumption of the sort of writing, snack and convenience foods that are typically cooked outside the home. They found that when we don’t have to cook meals, we eat more of daughters american revolution contest 2010, them: as the amount of time Americans spend cooking has dropped by about half, the number of meals Americans eat in a day has climbed; since 1977, we’ve added approximately half a meal to our daily intake. Cutler and his colleagues also surveyed cooking patterns across several cultures and found that obesity rates are inversely correlated with the amount of fun creative writing ideas, time spent on food preparation. The more time a nation devotes to food preparation at home, the lower its rate of obesity. In fact, the as you like it essay love amount of time spent cooking predicts obesity rates more reliably than female participation in the labor force or income.
Other research supports the idea that cooking is writing a better predictor of a healthful diet than social class: a 1992 study in The Journal of the American Dietetic Association found that poor women who routinely cooked were more likely to eat a more healthful diet than well-to-do women who did not. So cooking matters — a lot. Which when you think about it, should come as no surprise. When we let corporations do the cooking, they’re bound to go heavy on sugar, fat and sat score essay, salt; these are three tastes we’re hard-wired to like, which happen to be dirt cheap to fun creative add and dissertation, do a good job masking the shortcomings of processed food. And if you make special-occasion foods cheap and easy enough to eat every day, we will eat them every day. The time and work involved in cooking, as well as the delay in gratification built into the process, served as an important check on our appetite. Now that check is gone, and we’re struggling to deal with the consequences. The question is, Can we ever put the fun creative genie back into the bottle? Once it has been destroyed, can a culture of everyday cooking be rebuilt?
One in which men share equally in the work? One in which the cooking shows on television once again teach people how to cook from like it essay love, scratch and, as Julia Child once did, actually empower them to do it? Let us hope so. Because it’s hard to imagine ever reforming the American way of eating or, for that matter, the American food system unless millions of Americans — women and writing ideas, men — are willing to make cooking a part of daily life. The path to a diet of fresher, unprocessed food, not to mention to a revitalized local-food economy, passes straight through the home kitchen. But if this is a dream you find appealing, you might not want to as you like it essay love call Harry Balzer right away to discuss it. “Not going to writing ideas happen,” he told me. “Why?
Because we’re basically cheap and as you love, lazy. And besides, the skills are already lost. Writing? Who is going to teach the next generation to cook? I don’t see it. “We’re all looking for sat score essay someone else to fun creative cook for us. The next American cook is going to like be the supermarket. Takeout from the supermarket, that’s the future. All we need now is the drive-through supermarket.” Crusty as a fresh baguette, Harry Balzer insists on dealing with the world, and human nature, as it really is, or at least as he finds it in the survey data he has spent the fun creative writing past three decades poring over.
But for a brief moment, I was able to engage him in the project of imagining a slightly different reality. This took a little doing. Many of his clients — which include many of the big chain restaurants and ieee papers, food manufacturers — profit handsomely from the decline and fall of cooking in America; indeed, their marketing has contributed to it. Yet Balzer himself made it clear that he recognizes all that the decline of everyday cooking has cost us. So I asked him how, in an ideal world, Americans might begin to undo the damage that the modern diet of industrially prepared food has done to our health. “Easy. You want Americans to writing eat less? I have the diet for you. It’s short, and it’s simple. Here’s my diet plan: Cook it yourself . That’s it. Eat anything you want — just as long as you’re willing to as you like it essay cook it yourself.”
Michael Pollan, a contributing writer, is the ideas Knight Professor of Journalism at the University of essay psychology, California, Berkeley. Ideas? His most recent book is editing “In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto.” A version of this article appears in writing ideas print on , on the essay, Page MM26 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: Out of the Kitchen, Onto the fun creative writing Couch. Today's Paper | Subscribe. We’re interested in your feedback on this page.
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THE MILAN APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY: A CRITIQUE KATE TUCKER. The essence of life is the progression of such changes as growth, self-duplication, and synthesis of complex relationships. (Odum 1983: 87) Life occurs within the fun creative ideas context of ecosystems, which include both the living and non-living elements of the environment (Odum 1983: 13). All the elements of an ecosystem influence each other in patterns of interdependencies. An ecosystemic post-modernist, deconstructionist view, presupposes that there is no one culture, no one worldview or reality, and no one #145;correct#146; model of psychology. It is particularly important to understand this point in the South African context, where so many cultural and ethnic groups live side by side in it essay an ever-changing ecology of ideas. If a critique is to be meaningful, it should be informed, and should take into account the ecology of the writing conceptual framework that is being subject to as you like love, criticism and should be consistent with the assumptions of that framework (Becvar Becvar 1998: 221).
An attempt will be made therefore to enter into the ecology or framework of the Milan approach to family therapy in order to write this critique. However, consistent with a ecosystemic perspective, it should be born in mind that the underlying propositions of the culture in which one has been socialised have a fundamental influence on one#146;s view of reality, on fun creative writing ideas one#146;s thought processes, perceptions and intellectual functioning. In other words, in order to write a truly meaningful critical evaluation of the Milan approach to family therapy, it is not possible to stand outside the theory and merely observe (as in index the black box metaphor) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 63). The act of engaging in critical evaluation sets up a dialogue with the theory, which impacts on fun creative the worldview of the writer. Psychology? The process of interpretation of the theory in order to ideas, subject it to critical analysis impacts on the theory #150; the daughters of the 2010 theory as interpreted is not necessarily the theory as intended by fun creative writing ideas, the originators of that theory. The way that the reality of the theory is observed partly determines what is of the american contest seen and how that reality is fun creative writing understood (Zohar 1991: 28). Honderich (1995:13) says that there is currently a distinct vacuum in interpretative theory#133; critical as well as philosophical, #145;continental#146; as well as #145;analytic#146; #150; across the entire range of western debate. The Milan group contended that there is a tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), which traps therapists and clients into linear ways of sat score essay thinking.
This writer sees the work of the Milan group as a dialogue or rather #145;multilogue#146; that attempts to break free of the received view of the fun creative writing ideas Western logical-positivist tradition, and traditional depth psychology. Research Papers On Electronics? This writer sees the systemic approach of the Milan group as confronting the fun creative writing #145;tyranny of linguistics#146; and like it essay love, the #145;discursive vacuum#146;. The original Milan group (Palazzoli, Boscolo, Cecchin, Prata) has split up and the various members have gone their separate ways (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), splitting up in 1980 (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). However, the epistemology of the divergent groups can reasonably be assumed to still be based on the same underlying principles as that of the original group. Bearing this in mind, the discussion of the fun creative epistemology of the Milan group will be based on the broad principles of the original group. There are several important elements of the Milan group#146;s approach that require discussion. The systemic element. The Milan approach to family therapy has been called systemic in the tradition of Bateson#146;s circular epistemology. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) For Bateson (1971: 243) systems are units that incorporate feedback mechanisms; and by virtue of feedback, these units (systems) can process information. Such systems can be ecological, social, and individual.
Individuals are contextually located. For Bateson, families are systems comprised of individuals who are also systems (Bateson 1971: 243). Sat Score Essay? Most important for Bateson was the shift in focus from traditional linear thinking and the traditional perception of the individual mind to fun creative, a way of understanding the mind as part of a circuit. This means that the concept of mind is considered within the sat score essay context of all relevant completed circuits (Bateson 1971: 244). In this manner Bateson resolves the dichotomy between mind and body, as for him mind, body, action and writing, the objects (or people) which are acted upon are all part of a circuit of mental activity. This means that for online Bateson, behaviour that in the traditional paradigms is considered to be pathological or abnormal and fun creative writing, intrapsychic, is in the circular paradigm, interpersonal and dissertation, relational (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). Fun Creative Ideas? The focus in research papers Bateson#146;s paradigm has shifted from the inner workings of the individual mind to the consideration of relationships in context (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). Bateson based his ideas on several sources, including the work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, Alfred North Whitehead, and Bertrand Russell, as well as mathematics and engineering (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18 f.) An important concept for Bateson was Russell#146;s paradox, based on his Theory of Logical Types (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18). Essentially Russell#146;s paradox states that most classes are not members of themselves, but some are (Honderich 1995: 785).
Russell#146;s Theory of Logical Types deals with the complexities of relations between the members of classes and writing ideas, the discontinuity that arises between different levels of abstraction, or between a class and dissertation online, the members of that class (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18) (Honderich 1995: 785, 884). Bateson examined the paradoxical situations suggested by Russell#146;s paradox and the dislocated communication patterns that can exist in such situations. Fun Creative? Based on this Bateson and his research group moved towards a position of seeing disorders, such as schizophrenia, in terms of communication patterns within individuals and within families, rather than in terms of biogenic or intrapsychic pathology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 20). Several of these elements are important in the context of the Milan group. Paradoxes, levels of meaning, the evolutionary nature of systems (even when apparently stuck) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240), patterns of information, feedback and recursiveness are all concepts that draw from Bateson#146;s work. Systems are homeostatic and morphogenic (McKay, in Visser et al 1995: 285 f.); they strive simultaneously for editing balance and change. Writing Ideas? Macy (1991) suggests that systems are autonomous. Macy then proceeds to discuss the autonomy of systems in terms of self-regulation (homeostasis and morphogenesis): systems regulate themselves, but are conditioned (changed) by the environment and by input from the environment (Macy 1991: 92).
The Milan group saw the world in terms of patterns of relationships and sat score essay, information, rather than in terms of matter and energy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). For Macy, matter, energy, and information are utilised dynamically by systems: external causes are actively transformed in interaction with any system (Macy 1991: 92). Because of the dynamics of change within systems, the implication is that systems are not subject solely to ideas, either internal or external causes. This perspective is consistent with Bateson#146;s view that people#146;s behaviour and thought processes must be seen in terms of the sat score essay total context of the relationship between people, actions, thoughts and external objects or people in relationship. Fun Creative Writing? The Milan group saw that families came to therapy with a paradoxical request: families wanted the stability of an unchanged system, but also wanted the problem member of the family to be cured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). However, the Milan group saw the problem as being rooted in the family rather than in the individual. Consistent with a systems theoretical perspective, and consistent with Bateson#146;s circular or recursive patterns, the group believed that it was not possible to change the patterns of behaviour and communication in one part of the like love system (the identified patient) without affecting the writing family system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 4.3 . Feedback and equifinality/equipotentiality. Feedback is described as the aspect of recursion involving self-correction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 64). Feedback is what keeps a system functioning the way it does. The Milan group took cognisance of the importance of recursiveness 3.1.1 and feedback. It was important that both theory and therapy be responsive to feedback in the therapy situation (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).
Negative feedback is taken into index account in the Milan Group#146;s approach to theory and therapy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). The Milan Group#146;s awareness of what happened in the therapeutic situation led them to discard a linear way of thinking and suggesting interventions, and to move towards a more circular approach to ideas, instigation and intervention (Palazzoli et al 1989: 118). This demonstrates that feedback from editing, therapy punctuated their epistemology and fun creative writing ideas, that changes in research papers epistemology led to changes in clinical practices. This means that the system of the Milan Group itself changed: the ecology of ideas took on writing a different perspective. This is an example of feedback on ieee research papers a level of simple cybernetics: the system (the Milan Group) changed in response to ideas, information fed back into it essay love it from interaction between the group and the clients. The status quo was not maintained, so the process is referred to as positive feedback (Becvar Becvar 1998: 65). A second-order cybernetic way of looking at feedback in this context is ideas that the Milan Group was error-activated: information that differed from their original ideas was fed back into the system (the Group, in interaction with their clients), and dissertation index online, the Group responded to this information in fun creative such a way that the nurture difference (from their previous concepts) was accepted (Becvar Becvar 1998: 66). It is important to fun creative ideas, note that this feedback still functioned to revolution essay contest 2010, stabilise or correct the system: the fun creative writing ideas Milan Group incorporated new ideas, changed their strategies and thinking into more circular patterns, and continued to psychology, function (until such time as the Group did in fact split up) as a family therapeutic group. Whether or not the fun creative writing ideas members of the love Milan Group analysed the fun creative writing feedback process in this manner is not known.
What is important is that they incorporated feedback from therapy into theory and daughters of the revolution essay contest 2010, vice versa. According to writing ideas, the principle of equifinality systems function according to characteristic, repetitive patterns of interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). The goal of a system is its own survival (Palazzoli et al 1989: 159): a system, as it is , is its own best explanation of itself (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69) (my italics). Of The Revolution Essay? Family members tend to develop habits and ways of communicating and fun creative, relating to each other, so that regardless of how a situation starts, the daughters american revolution tendency is to end in a characteristic way. An example might be a wife#146;s complaint that her husband #145;always#146; shouts at fun creative, her when she does something he does not approve of, while the husband might react by saying that his wife #145;never#146; considers the daughters american revolution implications of writing her actions, but #145;only ever#146; thinks of the daughters immediate present. Whether the wife buys expensive Christmas presents for the children, or new curtains, with her annual bonus, the fun creative end result will be that the husband will shout at her for not thinking of putting some money aside as savings. The wife considers that the purpose of the annual bonus is to provide for Christmas or to index online, refurbish the home.
The husband perceives the wife as never thinking of the future: each reacts in a certain, characteristic way, which preserves the system and the communication patterns as they are. Complementary to the principle of equifinality is the principle of equipotentiality, which states that different endings can be reached from the same initial actions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). To continue with the example: the writing husband might decide that the new curtains are actually an investment in the family home, and on electronics, might praise his wife for her forethought and consideration in fun creative not spending her bonus on presents that the children will have forgotten about before the sat score essay end of January. The wife might be so pleasantly surprised that she would start to invest some of her salary every month towards future home improvements. These two complementary principles have a focus in the here-and-now, directing one towards what is happening rather than why something is fun creative writing ideas happening. The Essay? What is important is the present functioning of the system, rather than the history of how the system came to be or to function in a certain way (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Initially the Milan Group based their theory on the concepts of the Palo Alto Group, using the telephone system model (a model of interactive circularity) (Palazzoli, Cirillo, Selvini Sorrentino 1989: 159) (Cecchin et al 1994: 14). This model is writing impersonal and a-historical: all users are equal, irrespective of who they are, what their personal characteristics are, and what their historical backgrounds are.
What is important in sat score essay a telephone system is rapid action and reaction (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). This model functions according to the principles of equifinality and equipotentiality. However, for the Milan Group, the fun creative writing model proved to be inadequate. For this group what mattered was the circular processes and interactions within the family that take place over the years that it takes for essay a person to become a patient. For the Milan Group, the circularity that mattered is to be found in writing ideas the history, not in ieee research the instant (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160) (original italics). Time or history, for the Milan Group was vitally important, and they saw time as being linked to process (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). Ideas? They found that the telephone system model to be simplistic and reductive (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For example, according to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 160) there are many factors that might cause a husband to become a wife-beater: provocative behaviour by ieee, the wife, education level, adherence to cultural norms, personality, motivations, expectations, and the rules of what the Milan Group calls the family game. This does not mean that they rejected the importance of the here-and-now in ideas their theoretical or clinical work, but believed rather that the here-and-now should be integrated together with history into a multidimensional model (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For the Milan Group circularity is a process that entails a completion the various arcs of love a circuit over a period of time, but that also takes into account the here-and-now, and incorporates individual, intermediate events. It is important to writing, note at this stage that the position assumed by the Milan Group is thus inconsistent with second order cybernetics, as it does have a historical perspective, in addition to a present oriented focus 6 . Strategic approaches evolved from both general systems theory and communications approaches to psychology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 223).
Strategic therapists build on the assumptions that #145;one cannot not communicate#146; and #145;one cannot not behave#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). These assumptions form an important part of communication science. In communication science there are many models to explain the process of communication, from the linear Shannon and Weaver model, through Osgood and Schramm#146;s circular model to Verderber#146;s transactional model (Steinberg 1997:17 ff.). Verderber#146;s transactional model is of relevance in this context, as it demonstrates not only that communication is an ongoing, circular process, verbal and daughters american revolution essay, non-verbal, but that it is a process by which the parties concerned negotiate meanings (Steinberg 1997: 19). According to Steinberg (1997: 19) the fun creative writing ideas creation of the essay meaning is negotiated between the participants (my italics). In postmodernist, cybernetic terms, this implies that meaning is not present prior to the communication encounter, but that meaning is created out of the encounter, according to the way that the encounter or relationship punctuates the realities of the parties.
Strategic therapists add a further injunction to the two above, namely; #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). In a relationship each member tries to find ways of being in a position to define or control the relationship (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). Steinberg (1997: 84) suggests that this is true even in apparently one-sided power relationships, such as a complementary autocratic-abdicratic relationship: both parties seek to define and control the relationship as one in which their needs are met. The autocrat seeks to control and dominate, while the abdicrat seeks to be dominated, abdicating control to writing ideas, the dominant partner. Each seeks to define the relationship to as you like love, meet their specific needs. Fun Creative Writing? Becvar Becvar (1998: 222) suggest that manipulation is the inevitable consequence of being in a relationship in as you it essay love which each member seeks to control or define its nature. Communication patterns, the impossibility of not communicating/behaving (behaviour being seen as a way of communicating), paradoxical injunctions, and manipulation are important aspects of the strategic approach that Milan Group have incorporated into their theory and practice. The Milan Group found it important to consider the writing ideas history of their clients; for them it was necessary to nurture, know and understand the fun creative writing ideas clients#146; backgrounds and influences over time 3.1.2 . This is like it essay love related to the concern that strategic therapists direct to the conceptual frameworks of their clients. It is also related to ideas, Bateson#146;s 3.1.1 concept that body, mind, action, and person/object are all part of a circuit of relationship: the mind and its thoughts do not exist independently of the body or of the people, actions and relationships that form the sat score essay system in which an individual functions.
A problem is not a problem unless it is defined as such (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). How a person or family defines a specific behaviour as problematic reflects the way they think, as well as how they relate to each other#146;s worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). However, the clients are not necessarily aware that there is more than one way of fun creative ideas looking at the behaviour that they have defined as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224): they are not necessarily aware that people function in a multiverse rather than a universe. Strategic therapists believe it is important to reframe the problem in online such a way that it is no longer perceived as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). The Milan Group saw that new meanings needed to writing, be introduced into a family system in order to sat score essay, change behaviour and to reframe or re-write the perception of a given behaviour so that it was not longer seen as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). Meanings are defined by conceptual frameworks or worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Therefore the Milan Group needed to be able to understand the worldviews of writing ideas their clients, and to do this they considered it vitally important to on electronics, understand the history of fun creative writing their clients (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160, 260, op cit.) 3.1.2 . Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication states that meaning is created in a communication encounter (Steinberg 1997: 19, op cit.). Dissertation Online? The Milan Group did not regard their clients as phenomena #145;out there#146;, but rather as a therapeutic system of family plus therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267). They used the fun creative writing therapeutic encounters to perturb the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267) so as to sat score essay, create new meanings or thought connections that would lead to fun creative, new patterns of thought and behaviour (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) (i.e. to worldviews that did not admit the as you like it essay previous definition of the problem). It is crucial to note that the Milan Group recognised that the different family members each reacted in ideas their own different ways to therapeutic inventions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). This acknowledgement lead them, in a recursive way, back to acknowledging the importance of history, which placed them in an epistemological dilemma: a cybernetic, systemic view stressing the importance of the here-and-now versus the sat score essay need for history (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260).
This led to their moving towards a multidimensional approach to both therapy and theory, and a determined effort not to become trapped in an ideological reification of systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 261). A significant way of writing avoiding this ideological or dogmatic trap was suggested by Cecchin and colleagues after the split up of the original Milan Group. This is the viewing of models, hypotheses, and techniques as prejudices rather than unquestionable facts (Cecchin, Lane Ray 1994: 15). In terms of Verderber#146;s transactional model of communications, prejudices or beliefs are located within the process and editing, the communicating system. This model stresses the importance of values, background, attitudes, and culture in the creation and negotiation of meaning (Steinberg 1995: 19). Thus, even though Cecchin and colleagues#146; epistemological position post-dates the original Milan Group, it can be seen to writing, have developed out of the research on electronics strategic approach that was one of the jumping off points for the original group#146;s theoretical framework. Cecchin and ideas, colleagues (1994: 15) take the epistemological standpoint that there is no one truth and therefore that therapists should be aware there is no one truth to discover. Sat Score Essay? Perceiving a model, hypothesis, or technique as a prejudice or bias, and fun creative writing ideas, being aware of multiverses rather than a universe, allows therapists to engage in true dialogue with clients and other therapists, rather than forcing a bias on to others (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). This does not mean that a prejudice or bias is not useful, but rather that therapists should be self-reflexive and should engage in open scrutiny and examination of the beliefs (Cecchin et al 1994: 15).
Further, Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) stress the essay fact that any belief that is worth holding should not only fun creative be examined in this way, but that it should be contextually relevant. A belief only the essay makes sense in fun creative writing context, and american revolution essay 2010, taking it out of context stops dialogue and can lead to the system (the family plus the writing ideas therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267 op cit. 3.2 ).) becoming stuck (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). The self-reflexivity that Cecchin and colleagues propose is naturally related to the broad principles of general systems theory. Framing the beliefs of the therapist in terms of prejudices that could interrupt the sat score essay communication process within the system of fun creative ideas family plus therapist is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. The linguistic element and indeterminacy. The Milan group focused on overcoming the tyranny of sat score essay linguistics, which by its very nature keeps therapists and clients thinking in an intrapsychic, linear manner. They thus forced a different language on themselves as they sought to fun creative, understand families in different ways. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) The Milan Group forced (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239 op cit.) themselves to find a new language that was open to difference and to a multiversal point of view.
Underpinning this new language (Becvar Becvar 1998 239 op cit.), which sought to free the therapeutic system from entrenched meanings that led to systems becoming stuck, is an sat score essay, epistemology that derives from writing ideas, a deconstructionist philosophy. In second order cybernetics and in a transactional model of communications, reality is created or negotiated in dissertation the here-and-now 3.2 (Steinberg 1994: 19) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Writing? Husserl tried to daughters of the 2010, achieve a theory of the ideas relationship between a communicator#146;s words (written or spoken) and language in terms of differential signs (Honderich 1995: 201). Husserl also tried to systematise the here-and-now as presence: presence as #145;here#146; and presence as #145;now#146; being one and the same (Taylor 1992: 253). Deconstructionist philosopher Derrida coined the term différance in reaction to Husserl#146;s philosophy. For Derrida the present (time) and what is present (spatially) is always becoming: it never #145;is#146;, there is no ultimate point of papers existence in space-time (Taylor 1992: 253). In other words, and consistent with second order cybernetics and Verderber#146;s model, reality and meaning are always becoming or being created; they do not exist out there waiting to be discovered. Equally, reality and meaning are never #145;real#146; or fixed in the past; the reality of the past is being created within people as they punctuate their present, becoming realities. Also prominent in Derrida#146;s work is his examination of language and how language outwits philosophers (Honderich 1995: 188). To this end he emphasises puns, paradoxes, metaphors, ambiguity, indeterminacy, and fun creative ideas, the importance of as you like love play (Honderich 1995: 188).
The Milan Group also focussed on writing ideas metaphor and paradox in their work and research on electronics, theory (Becvar Becvar 1998), and their first major publication was Paradox and Counterparadox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239). Fun Creative Writing? Strategic therapists 3.2 also used paradox, metaphor, and dissertation index, play as therapeutic tools (Becvar Becvar 1998: 229 ff.). There is a conceptual link between language, reality, meaning, and indeterminacy. Derrida emphasised indeterminacy in his approach to ideas, language and meaning, as well as in his approach to reality (Taylor 1992: 253, op cit.) Indeterminacy is, for Derrida, a concept that is dissertation part of the différance : it is the relationship between oppositions that makes oppositions (or dichotomies) both simultaneously possible and impossible (Goosen 1994:101). Western traditional philosophy and psychology tends to be linear and dichotomous in its approach, characterised by fun creative, oppositions (male-female, good-bad, right-wrong, people-God etc.) (Goosen 1994: 25). Dissertation Online? Hegel#146;s philosophy was an attempt to create a union of these dichotomies (Goosen 1994: 25) and to heal the fragmentation he perceived in modern life (Goosen 1994: 51). Derrida, however, proposed that modern life is indeterminate: there is no healing union or whole. This was recognised by the Milan Group, who assumed the position that they had to learn to live with doubt, both about theory and praxis (Cecchin et al 1994: 19).
With some similarity to Russell#146;s paradox 3.1.1 , Derrida suggests that the whole cannot exist except by fun creative, virtue of its difference from the nonwhole (Goosen 1994: 101). Derrida#146;s view of indeterminacy or the différance suggests that if the whole is possible by dissertation, virtue of the fun creative writing existence of something other than itself (non-whole), then it ceases to papers on electronics, be a whole, because it depends on something outside itself. But Derrida also says that the whole must exist only because it is different from that which is not whole (Goosen 1994: 101, op cit.). Therefore the différance both makes the whole possible and at the same time makes it impossible (Goosen 1994: 101). A systemic, cybernetic, post-modernist paradigm acknowledges the multiversal nature of realities as created within people, and that there is no reality that is not valid or meaningful for the person concerned (Maturana, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 82).
In other words, reality is indeterminate and non-deterministic. Fun Creative Writing? Reality cannot be said to exist as a construct #145;out there#146; that makes rules that determine how people think: rather, people determine their own reality. However, that reality is always changing: the reality of one person changes over time depending on editing the essay how the environment punctuates that person#146;s view of reality, as well as how that person adjusts to and reacts to that punctuation. Most people tend to think in language rather than in visual terms: people engage in internal dialogues in words rather than pictures. Therefore it can be said that language is one of the factors that shapes the way people perceive reality. People socialised in a Western culture also tend to writing, think in terms of dichotomies or oppositions (Goosen 1994: 25, op cit.). Derrida#146;s concept of the différance, while it does not try to resolve these dichotomies, opens the way to different ways of looking at language and behaviour and their impact on behaviour. Dissertation Online? It is important in terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy to ideas, look in dissertation between the extremes (e.g. right and wrong, problem and solution) and to find a language that admits to the fleeting, becoming nature of reality. It s this writer#146;s opinion that the Milan Group#146;s concept of freeing people from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) is consistent with Derrida#146;s philosophy. However, there is writing a problem regarding indeterminacy concerning the definitions of #145;health#146; and #145;dysfunction#146;. These words imply the pejorative meanings of good and bad, which are dichotomous, and therefore not consistent with a philosophy that attempts to look #145;in between#146; extremes.
What the Milan Group#146;s approach then attempted to daughters of the american essay contest, achieve was to help clients to reach a point where they could understand that there was more than one reality, and then to writing, help them to re-write the sat score essay language in which they conducted their own internal dialogues, according to their perception of reality and problems as defined by that reality (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). In other words, they tried to allow the family to look in between the dichotomies of right and wrong, problem and solution, by rephrasing the way in writing ideas which perceived problems were stated or expressed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). The Group did not just teach the clients this new language, they themselves consistently used it, contextualising problems in terms of social and ieee, family relationships (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241, 240). They also placed mental phenomena in the greater context of social phenomena #150; moving problems from an intrapsychic locus to a social locus. This is also a use of language to writing, re-write problems in terms of sat score essay a different reality. A further tenet of the writing ideas theory of the Milan Group was to use the essay psychology word #145;game#146;. According to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 152) a game consists of an exchange of concrete bits of behaviour among subjects. The Milan Group found that the use of certain systemic terms was confusing, or limiting, being related to the biological origins of general systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). Writing? However, by sat score essay, using the fun creative writing ideas metaphor of games and game playing to describe to themselves how systems functioned, they found that the metaphors associated with games were better frames of sat score essay reference for their research (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). Ideas? Game playing immediately evokes interhuman relations and interaction, which the ieee research papers on electronics Milan Group felt systemic terminology failed to do (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). For the Milan Group, the metaphors of games and game playing were the point of entry into a new vocabulary, which related their theory to familiar, human reactions and interactions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 153).
It is impossible to ignore the problems connected with auto-organization. (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264) (My italics) Multiversal or multi-dimensional thinking and behaviour must, according to the Milan Group, take into account the fact that systems organise themselves (auto-organisation) in order to function optimally (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). Systems are limited as to what they can do by their structure, rather than by fun creative ideas, their environment (Becvar Becvar 1998: 79). For example: plastics can be malleable, rigid, or brittle, and serve various different purposes, according various manufacturing processes. Essay? Plastic photochromatic lenses are used in lightweight optometric spectacles. However, the type of plastic used to make cheap, disposable food containers would not be able to fun creative writing, serve the sat score essay same function. The process and treatment (structure) of the basic element (plastic) limits the scope of the end product. So it is fun creative with systems: they are limited by their structure. Index? How then can we account for change in fun creative writing ideas systems in interaction with environment?
Systems are organised in certain ways, and within systems, sub-systems are also organised. Organisation is seen as the relationships between the parts of a system (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The structure of a system refers to the identity of a system (a ball, a plastic box, a photochromatic lens, a family, a company) as well as to the relationships between the its parts (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The environment of editing the essay a system includes the system itself #150; the environment is both internal and external. When systems interact, the context is changed or modified, by virtue of fun creative that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Based on this type of understanding of the functioning of systems, the sat score essay Milan Group found it crucial to pay attention to individuals and their needs and goals, as well to the organisation of the families of which individuals were members (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). People tend to weigh up the pros and cons of their actions and fun creative, how these might affect their families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). For example: a husband will discuss a new job, which entails a higher salary and of the essay 2010, more prestige with his wife, bearing in mind that the fun creative writing family would have to relocate to a strange city or country, and how this move might negatively affect their children#146;s education and social lives. In this case the daughters american revolution essay 2010 organisation of the family would dictate whether or not the children were involved in the discussion, even if they were old enough to reasonably be expected to fun creative writing ideas, wish to state an opinion or join in the discussion. Dissertation? In certain families the decision might be made without recourse to the children, and this could result in an unhappy teenager ruining away from writing, home, or abusing drugs or alcohol.
Other problems of organisation concern matters such as death. When a parent dies it can be expected that family members will mourn, which is a natural process. However, the family system would need to re-organise in order to continue to function optimally. For example: feuds could develop between children, or the father and the children as a united front, and an aunt, as to who should take over the maternal role in the case of the death of daughters american essay a mother (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). As the Milan Group felt it necessary to pay attention to the important factor of the organisation, and by implication, to the structure of systems, it can be said that their approach in this regard is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES. The whole process of [Milan Group] therapy is carefully orchestrated to be consistent with the model on fun creative writing which it is built. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241) For the sake of clarity a brief tabular summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process will be presented before therapeutic interventions and strategies are discussed. Figure One shows a traditional therapy setting where an editing the essay, observing team is involved, as was probably similar to the setting used by the Milan Group.
Table One: Summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process. Ten months, divided into fun creative writing ideas ten sessions spaced at monthly intervals. Usually telephonic Therapist ties to sat score essay, maintain neutrality in order not to be seen by other family members as being in a coalition with the writing whoever made the initial call Questions phrased in daughters american 2010 social terms. Calls between sessions. Neutral stance of therapist maintained In case of ideas emergency calls (e.g. As You Like It Essay? suicide attempts) therapist assumes role of fun creative writing ideas social control agent rather than that of therapist.
Therapist brings in other members of the therapeutic team Supervision Observation. Therapy session #150; five components. Team discusses the family Family interview with other team members observing Team discussion of the family and the session Conclusions of the team presented to the family with other team members observing Post-session where team sums up. Mutual agreement by therapist and family Respect for family#146;s decision to terminate Warning of possibly of relapse or doubt. (from Becvar Becvar 1998: 241 ff.) Figure One: Traditional family therapy setting with an observing team. 1 = Family therapy room. 2 = One-way mirror. 4 = Therapy team. 5 = Invisible boundary separating the team and the observing team. 6 = Observing team.
(from Cecchin et al 1994: 17) The Milan Group used the word paradox as follows: #133;the specific tactics and maneuvres which are in apparent opposition to it essay, the goals of therapy, but are actually designed to achieve them (Rohrbaugh, in Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Paradoxes are therefore, in this context, such strategies as: prescribing the symptom, positively appraising the symptom, attaching positive connotations to symptoms, encouraging symptoms, or expressing fears that certain symptoms might disappear to quickly, and so on (Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Families presented with a paradoxical request for both stability and change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Families would come to therapy complaining of a problem in one member, the identified patient, who in their opinion, needed to change, to #145;get better#146;. For the ideas Milan Group, true to ieee papers on electronics, the tenets of general systems theory, and Bateson#146;s influence, change in fun creative writing ideas one part of the system cannot occur without change in the system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 3.1.1 . Therapists would thus place family members into a therapeutic double bind situation by not prescribing change, even though the context of therapy is a context where change is nurture expected to fun creative ideas, take place (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).
The use of placing families in a therapeutic double bind was seen by Watzlawick and several strategic therapists as being a useful tool to manoeuvring and controlling the therapist-client relationship (Palazzoli et al 1989: 4 f.). The Milan Group found this use of the strategic paradox problematic, as it failed to daughters of the american revolution contest 2010, take into account adequate relational explanations for specific cases (Palazzoli et al 1989: 5). This is related to the epistemological divergence of the Milan Group from the Palo Alto Group, in that the Milan Group regarded the historical process as being of crucial importance 3.1.2. The question that the Milan Group found to be most significant was: Why is this particular member of this particular family exhibiting this particular symptom at this particular time ? (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6) (My italics). Instead of using the strategy of paradox or counterparadox as a means of controlling the therapeutic relationship, the Milan Group used it as an auxiliary technique, subordinate to their principal concern, which was to observe families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6). Palazzoli and colleagues go so far as to state that the writing ideas centre of their focus of interest was families and ieee on electronics, not therapy (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7).
Further, the Milan Group began to writing ideas, experience the phenomenon that, as time went by, paradoxical interventions were less powerful over time, or produced short-lived results (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9). Another interesting point is that paradoxes had to be tailored specifically to their explanation of why a specific symptom had developed. From the basis of these multiple factors, they used paradoxical interventions in order to provide families with explanations as to why certain symptoms had developed in specific members at daughters revolution essay contest 2010, certain, specific times (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7). Paradoxes were used in specific ways according to the development of the therapeutic process over time, according to ideas, the number of sessions 4.1 (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9 ff.) The Milan Group also stressed the fact that paradoxical interventions, irrespective of how specific they might be, and in what positive terms they might be couched, or even how ingenious they were, would not work unless there was a strong need for help from the family concerned (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). In cases where the therapist#146;s prestige (for the dissertation index online family concerned) was weak, or where the family was not strongly motivated to request help, paradoxical interventions could lead to the clients breaking off their relationship with the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). The process of writing ideas circular questioning is a fundamental concept in the Milan model. It Essay? (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning aimed at transforming families#146; ways of thinking from linear, causal chains of thought into reciprocal, interdependent worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Fun Creative Writing? Important to the concept of circular questioning is the idea that in any relationship, all parties concerned must co-evolve (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). This is consistent with thinking of Macy, who sees the world in terms of conditionality, or mutual co-arising.
Conditionality, in Macy#146;s view, is a dynamic process inherent in the universe whereby everything is dissertation index online interrelated and is mutually affecting (Macy 1991: 40) (My italics). The Milan Group saw that many families presenting for therapy did not function according to the principle of mutual co-arising, or co-evolution, but rather one subsystem, coalition, or family member would be attempting to establish unilateral control over the family unit (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning, thus, was designed to fun creative writing, punctuate relationships, re-defining them in sat score essay such way as to show up reciprocity and promote co-evolution (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Not only fun creative writing ideas did the Milan Group use circular questioning to devise hypotheses (not necessarily true ones) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243) regarding possible connections and differences between relationships in families, or which could lead to further questions, they used this technique to continue to develop their basic theory 3.2 . Circular questioning and hypothesis formation formed a very important component of the feedback process between theory and like, praxis 3.1.2 , namely, that of understanding what was going on in a family. At this point it is important to note the cybernetic consistency of the emphasis on #145;what?#146; In cybernetics the fun creative ideas crucial emphasis is #145;what?#146; rather than #145;why?#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). It was necessary, in fact essential, for the therapist to papers, be seen as neutral, particularly in regard to the process of circular questioning, as this process promotes hypotheses that could lead to fun creative writing, further questions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Lateral, non-linear thinking was necessary as well, for the therapist to of the essay 2010, be able to follow the fun creative writing openings or responses that revealed themselves from the ieee on electronics questions. For the Milan Group neutrality did not mean standing apart, or taking no position regarding any particular family member, but rather being multipositional (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Fun Creative Ideas? The therapist had to as you, be aligned to no one and to everyone in the family at the same time, as well as being non-judgemental and non-moral (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243).
Neutrality, and fun creative, the ability to think openly and non-linearly were therefore closely related, not only to each other, but also to the therapeutic process and to the theory that underpinned it. The Milan Group also believed that neutrality implied support #150; each family member had to be supported in american contest 2010 a neutral or equal way. The theoretical construct underlying this concept was the view of a family as a whole, greater than the fun creative ideas sum of its parts, rather than being seen as the sum of its independent parts or family members. This is consistent with cybernetic thinking, in sat score essay that systems are seen as non-summative. Neutrality and support together with the underlying principles of circular questioning allowed the writing ideas families in therapy the necessary room and like it essay, freedom to explore alternative ways of thinking and behaving (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). The Milan Group put themselves into the position of not being outsiders (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244) of the family in therapy.
This is epistemologically consistent with the paradigm of family and therapist constituting one system 3.2 . This is also cybernetically consistent, as it avoids the black box, or observer/observed concept. As insiders, the therapists should not have been seen as posing a threat by fun creative, the family. Being inside the dissertation online system and being accepted as non-threatening can be seen as natural outcomes of the Milan Group#146;s dedication to neutrality and support 4.4.1 . However, one must ask the question as to whether or not the therapists were actually perceived in this way by all, or even some family members in all, or even some families. A further question arises as to the degree of integration in the family system. However, cybernetically speaking, these questions do provide answers themselves: no matter how much or how little the fun creative writing system was perturbed by sat score essay, being punctuated by writing, the presence of the therapist, some degree of re-organisation and adaptation must have taken place within the family in sat score essay order to accommodate that perturbation. Working from the base of being part of the family system, the Milan Group used to prescribe rituals that paradoxically appeared not to lead to writing ideas, change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Further, the online Milan Group worked according to the principle of meta-therapy #150; prescriptions at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). This is consistent with their multipositional approach 4.4.1 , and therefore also consistent with a cybernetic paradigm. Prescription of rituals had to be carried out very exactly and carefully (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). It is important to note at that this stage that prescribing rituals that apparently enforce the status quo in the family system is fun creative a paradoxical action. It is therefore also important to note again the problematic aspects of paradoxical interventions discovered by the Milan Group 4.3 . Rituals were not intended as a permanent part of family life, but rather framed in sat score essay terms of experiments (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244).
Consistent with the neutral support that the Group believed was crucial to the therapeutic process, if a ritual failed, or even if the family failed to carry it out, responsibility for failure was framed in ideas terms of the therapist, rather than the online family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). The main purpose of the prescription of ritual was to point the family game in a different direction to its current course (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). Further, the Group believed that by prescribing rituals, they could cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). Ideas? A point of confusion arises at dissertation, this stage for this writer, in that the Milan Group also stated clearly that they needed to understand the history of families 3.1.2 . It is of course possible that being able to open up the family game means of prescribed rituals allowed the Group to fun creative writing, penetrated into the history of the family. However, for this writer, this issue raises a certain inconsistency in ieee their approach.
Not only writing ideas were rituals prescribed to be carried out away from the therapy room, but the whole process of therapy was in sat score essay fact a ritual prescription in the ordered (ritualistic) way in which it was structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242) (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17 ff.) 4.1 . Rituals needed to be tailored to specific circumstances, but included the following general outlines: secrecy, isolation, family talks or the reading of statements, keeping of notebooks, or parental outings framed as disappearances (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245) (Palazzoli et al 1989). The Milan Group placed great emphasis on writing the idea that prescriptions functioned at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, 31). They also pointed out nurture essay psychology that a ritual such as secrecy was in itself paradoxical. If parents were told to attend a session or sessions without their children, and without telling the children or anybody else what had happened in therapy, the writing family was all aware of the following: The directive to secrecy The fact that the index session/s had taken place. Expectations were also aroused, not only in the parents, but also in the children. Parents, even though adhering to the injunction to secrecy, and therefore while not actually saying anything about the session, would convey non-verbal messages to the family, thereby subtly introducing new patterns of communication into the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31). That the Milan Group recognised these important points as part of the injunction #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; 3.2 and thereafter deliberately continued to use the prescription method demonstrates their awareness of, and openness to, a systemic way of thinking. It is fun creative writing important to note the influence of communication science in the epistemology of the Milan Group 3.2 in this regard. What was crucial to the efficacy of the prescription method was the hierarchical arrangement of communications on a nonverbal level (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31).
That systems are hierarchically arranged (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77, op cit.) (McKay, in Visser et al 1995:284, op cit.) is not only a tenet of general systems theory, but also of the structural therapists, who interpret the hierarchy in terms of it essay love certain specific sub-systems within the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These sub-systems are as follows: the spouse subsystem, the parental subsystem and fun creative writing, the sibling subsystem (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These subsystems, according to essay, the structural therapists, function according to hierarchical rules (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Communication in the form of negotiation of roles within and between the subsystems is a crucial factor (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Thus it can be seen that the Milan Group incorporated an emphasis on the hierarchical communication process into their theory and praxis. Further, by emphasising communication, hierarchy, and negotiation, the paradigm adopted by the Milan Group demonstrates cybernetic consistency. Mental phenomena as social phenomena. The members of the Milan group believed mental phenomena reflect social phenomena and what is called a mental problem is fun creative really a problem in social interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) Therapy and theory were directed rather at research papers, patterns and interactions, instead of at the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Problems were thus reframed in writing social terms, rather than as being rooted within individuals. An example of this is dissertation index online discussed by fun creative writing, Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 57 f.) An adolescent boy was brought to therapy, apparently because of his violent and editing the essay, addictive behaviour.
The discussion between the members of the team, in the absence of the family, seemed entirely negative: the team had allowed themselves to become bogged down in the negative trap laid for them by the family (Cecchin et al 1994: 57). When the problem was reframed in fun creative writing ideas a more positive, social light, it was possible to #145;write#146; a story that, instead of condemning the adolescent boy as a violent, anti-social individual, connected the family. What the index online team did was to develop the therapeutic #145;myth#146; or story that the ideas adolescent boy was the embodiment of the family#146;s way of trying to keep the memories of ieee research papers his grandfather alive (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). No longer was the boy seen as an writing ideas, individual with an individual problem, but rather, he was seen as an integral part of the family#146;s way of relating to each other, and to it essay, the deceased grandfather (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Part of the prescription in this family#146;s case was for the boy to find a way to help his relatives to stop, or at least deal with, their worries about him (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Framing the prescription in relational terms, specific to the family concerned, is not only consistent with the Milan Group#146;s approach to prescribing 4.5 but also showed consistency with the ideas idea of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The problem was reframed in social (relational) terms, as was the essay psychology prescription #150; the boy had to involve himself in a specific way of relating to his mother, aunt, and grandmother (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). If mental phenomena are reframed as social or relational phenomena, then the therapeutic techniques and interventions of the Milan Group should rest on this principle.
This proposition will now be subjected to a brief analysis to test it. Testing the principle of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The Milan Group saw families and therapists as a system 3.2 . Systems are relational by definition 3.1.1 . Framing problems as being within the fun creative writing ideas family, its structure and its communication patterns, as well as prescribing rituals that changed those communication patterns, is consistent with the concept of nurture essay mental phenomena as social phenomena, as well as being systemically consistent. Writing Ideas? Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication 3.2 allows for internal structure and functioning of systems (communicator/s and recipient/s) in essay psychology the context of the communication encounter, where meaning is created and ideas, negotiated. Communication is it essay a basic and essential social phenomenon: #145;one cannot not communicate#146; (Steinberg 1997: 17 ff.). Communication, seen in writing the light of Verderber#146;s model, is a systemic or cybernetic concept.
The method of circular questioning devised by sat score essay, the Milan Group can therefore be seen as a way of communicating within the therapeutic system (comprising family and fun creative writing ideas, therapist). The recursive nature of circular questioning leads to further questions and sat score essay, the formation of hypotheses that not only function as feedback channels within the fun creative writing ideas therapy situation, but also in the theoretical perspective 4.4. The context of love therapy can be seen as one of social change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240, op cit.). Therapists, as part of the family system, do not hold themselves responsible for change or lack thereof (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Writing Ideas? Paradoxically, therapy has lead to a change in the Group#146;s own thinking (from linear to essay psychology, systemic) (Palazzoli et al 1989) and that of their clients (at least in some cases). Generally then, a recursive, relational pattern can be seen in fun creative writing ideas the Milan Group#146;s approach to editing, therapy, which is systemically consistent, and that is socially framed (i.e. framed in terms of relationships rather than individuals). The concept of change is related to the concept of writing ideas homeostasis or equilibrium.
In terms of social cybernetics, equilibrium is reached when the states of a system are constant (Hanken 1981: 51). The states of a system are referred to as the states related to the primary system, the actors ad the communication system (Hanken 1981: 51). The actors and the primary system are, in the case of therapy, the dissertation family members together with their total social and environmental context, including their ecology of ideas, as well, naturally, the fun creative writing therapist. The communication system is editing the essay self-explanatory: the patterns of communication that the family uses. In a homeostatic state the fun creative writing ideas patterns of communication are fixed and maintain an existing level of functioning for the family. The system can be described as stuck. Therapeutic interventions, such as circular questioning, or the as you like it essay perturbation of the communication patterns of the family that can occur by writing ideas, ritual prescription, could be said to unbalance the equilibrium of the system.
The system thus needs to adjust in order to maintain optimal functioning (the goal of as you love systems). This brings about change. This recursive pattern, which was appreciated by the Milan Group, can thus be seen to be consistent with social cybernetic theory. Rituals are social phenomena: in fact Girard (1989) says that rituals underlie significant social phenomena, such as religion. Writing Ideas? For example, Girard proposes the scapegoat myth as the sat score essay origin of religion and culture. Girard #145;s hypothetical event and ritual. It must be noted at fun creative ideas, this point that Girard places motivation for rituals or re-enactments firmly on an intrapsychic basis, rather than locating his theory in nurture essay a systemic paradigm. The reason for introducing the discussion of Girard#146;s (linear/causal) version of how rituals arose is to fun creative writing ideas, present an alternative explanation of the social significance of ritual. Girard#146;s hypothesis and his theory of ritual are variations of the many possible ways that suggest a deep conceptual connection between ritual and social interaction. Girard construed a hypothetical event in the distant past, and at this time, according to his theory, pre-human history made the transition into human history (Goosen 1994: 3).
Girard#146;s event is based on mimetic desire (Krüger, le Roux, Lubbe Goosen 1994: 104 f.) #150; two hominids both desired some object and started to fight over possession of it. Because the fight was caused by mimetic desire, rather than by the intrinsic value of the object that had triggered it, it became infectious and more people joined in, caught in a cycle of unconscious mimicry of the desires of ieee papers on electronics those already involved. Eventually the fight became a full-scale battle (Goosen 1994: 4). To any society a full-scale battle is a catastrophic or threatening event. In Girard#146;s theory a threat to society is an important trigger of a scapegoating event (Girard 1989: 14, 43). It is at this stage that the scapegoat mechanism comes into focus, as according to Girard, during the course of the battle, all the fun creative combatants suddenly turned on one person, who was killed as a result.
Once this victim was killed, peace was restored (Goosen 1994: 4) (Krüger et al 1994: 105). Interestingly, for Girard, the scapegoat is paradoxical, as the mechanism functions on editing the essay two levels: the level of writing human emotions (desire and the conflict that results from it, and as you love, the level of resolution of conflict) but also, and simultaneously, by apparently resolving disasters in the physical world. Rituals, according to Girard, originally developed out of re-enactments of the original hypothetical event. The concept of ritual functions as a safety valve #150; it allows people to ideas, release the negative energy of mimetic desire, instead of constantly bottling it up behind a screen of proscriptive law (Goosen 1994:10). It is almost as if for Girard, the function of ritual parallels the scapegoat mechanism, under controlled circumstances. Dissertation Index Online? Ritual allows for the crisis, allows for a release of fun creative ideas mimetic desire, and nurture essay psychology, then heals society or restores order to society (Goosen 1994: 10).
Rituals are ways that people relate to other people, and if Girard (though controversial and sometimes simplistic in his analysis of complex phenomena, such as religion and human relationships) has a valid point, then rituals are the most fundamental of writing ideas social phenomena, and are related directly to mental phenomena. This supports the Milan Group#146;s emphasis on dissertation prescription of rituals as a way of reframing mental phenomena as social phenomena. Milan Group originally devised a six-stage model of psychotic (dysfunctional) processes (Palazzoli et al 1989: 164 ff.). More recent work by members of the fun creative writing ideas Group shows a movement towards the as you like development of a more open cognitive and therapeutic spirit (Palazzoli et al 1989: 220) and thereby an attitude of writing ideas flexibility, which is less tied to dogma and theorising that the online original model. This is an important development, as it could be said that the original six-stage model was possibly too dogmatic. Palazzoli and colleagues themselves express their concern with therapists tending to impose their own prejudices on fun creative writing families #150; in other words, it is possible for therapists to slip into editing the essay the pitfall of fun creative ideas trying to make families fit their models. As You It Essay? This factor is a possible contributing factor towards the work of Cecchin and ideas, colleagues (Cecchin et al 1994), which deals with the pros and cons of the prejudices of index therapists. The immediate problem with this approach is that by developing a model of dysfunction, the Milan Group is, in fun creative effect, labelling a state of being as being other than normal. In order to be cybernetically consistent, there should be no definition of sat score essay either health or dysfunction, as both are ways of functioning for writing the system/family concerned.
By labelling a family as dysfunctional, the Milan Group contradicted their philosophy (to be discussed in the next paragraph) of breaking the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.)3.3. The Milan Group sought to on electronics, free themselves and their clients from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) 3.3 . Part of the linguistic trap is that people tend to reify labels. For example: fear and ignorance of schizophrenia, together with the diagnostic label of the disorder itself, leads people into a position where the label becomes the disorder. A very important implication of this is that misinformation, misperceptions, ignorance, and fear of the unknown (in respect of the disorder) can also become one of the causal factors in the development and fun creative, maintenance of sat score essay disorders or dysfunctional family functioning. The Milan Group tied to writing, break the concept of the of the 2010 label as the disorder by reframing the family problem in a recursive, circular way, rather than leaving families held in a linear mould.
Ultimately, families might begin to question their own underlying beliefs, which process might lead to fun creative writing ideas, behavioural changes (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242). Sat Score Essay? If families could perceive problems in a different light, the writing ideas problem as such ceased to be defined as a problem, or could at least cease to dominate the family#146;s functioning. The concept of reframing dysfunction in such a way that if it could not be perceived as health, it could cease to command the family#146;s functioning, was a basic tenet of the ieee on electronics Milan Group#146;s approach. Causality, seen cybernetically, is a paradox. Systems do what they do best in order to fun creative writing, function as a result of the dissertation online way in which they are structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). There is an fun creative ideas, overlap of online function and of definition. For example: a family is defined in a certain way according to the culture in ideas which it exists.
That definition forms a boundary. Sat Score Essay? However, the boundary does not cause the family nor does the family cause the boundary (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). Fun Creative Writing Ideas? The definition and the structure of the family both need each other in order to editing the essay, form a reality that is valid for that family within a certain context. A change of context, such as a second marriage, birth, death or divorce, will involve restructuring of the family, and therefore, and inseparably from that restructuring, redefinition of the family. Cybernetic systems can be seen in one way as being goal directed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Fun Creative Ideas? They function in dissertation online order to do what they do, which is to ideas, exist (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Therefore, health or dysfunction are simply different aspects of functioning that maintain the editing the essay system. Fun Creative Writing? When systems interact, the context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Therefore change can be seen a process of structural reorganisation as a result of internal pressures in relationship to editing, perturbations or punctuations of environment (context) of the system (both internal and writing ideas, external environment) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78).
In this context health or dysfunction are not caused, not do they cause other aspects of family behaviour or functioning. Consistent with the above, the Milan Group did not take credit for progress towards health, nor did they encourage families to attribute such movements (particularly major headway towards health/optimal/more meaningful functioning) to the therapeutic process. Rather, the Milan Group saw changes as originating within families, and saw overt efforts to point out that therapeutic interventions and been instrumental in such changes as disqualify[ing]the family (Tomm, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). In other words, if a family moved towards health/optimal /more meaningful functioning, then it was due to the perturbations with the family system itself. This implies that health, for ieee research papers the Milan Group, could possibly have been defined as a meaningful and valid way of functioning according to a certain view of reality, unique to a specific family. Conversely, by the same argument, dysfunction could be seen as functioning that is not valid in terms of a family#146;s worldview. Ideas? Dysfunction could be seen as values, attitudes, thoughts, or behaviours imposed on daughters of the american revolution essay contest 2010 families from outside, rather than values, attitudes, thoughts and behaviours generated within the family for the purpose or goal of optimal functioning. Therefore, if this argument is teased out to the limit, it could be said that the Milan Group had no specific view of either health or dysfunction, other than that brought to fun creative ideas, therapy by families as presented as problems by the families themselves. Man is not a passive receiver of stimuli coming from an external world, but in a very concrete sense creates his universe. (Von Bertalanffy, in Macy 1991: 81). This statement contains one of the central tenets of a cybernetic point of view.
With regard to this proposition, the Milan Group can be assessed as be consistent with a cybernetic perspective. They have a dynamic, relational approach to therapy and theory, and acknowledge, and in fact, encourage a multiversal perspective in their clients and in their own thinking. Through the course of the above discussion, several references have been made to the systemic consistency of the ieee research Milan Group. These will briefly be summarised for the sake of clarity: Table Two: Summary of points of cybernetic consistency of the Milan Group. Points of cybernetic consistency. Bateson#146;s Influence 3.1.1. Change in writing one part of the system affects the whole system Circular epistemology Patterns of information and relationships Importance of context.
Importance of editing the essay recursiveness and feedback Acknowledgement of negative feedback Original acknowledgement of fun creative ideas principles of equifinality and equipotentiality, but later moved away from this model and took history into account. Importance of communication patterns in a relational context Reframing Multiversal view points Multidimensional approach to therapy that developed out the their dilemma with cybernetic consistency concerning history. Finding a language/way of saying things that was consistent with a multiversal worldview No one truth or healing whole/union Replace dichotomies with multiversal perspective. Points of cybernetic consistency. Acknowledging problems that might arise as a result of structural/organisational changes within family systems. Recursive method that allows for feedback Principle of mutual co-arising or co-evolving Focus on #145;What? rather than #145;Why?#146; Principle of the non-summative nature of systems Room to find alternative ways of thinking and behaving. No black box metaphor #150; therapist and family as one system Metatherapy Multiple levels of functioning Perturbations of nurture communication patterns in families Negotiation of meanings between subsystems.
Mental phenomena as seated in relationships rather than intrapsychically. Freedom from labelling #150; #145;the map is not the territory#146; Changes originating within families and not attributed to the therapeutic process. In footnotes to the above table, a few references have been made to some dimensions of the Milan Group#146;s approach that are not cybernetically consistent, so these will not be discussed again in detail. Problematic to fun creative writing, a cybernetic paradigm are however, the concepts of health and dysfunction (Becvar Becvar 1998 247). Dissertation? According to second order cybernetics, systems function the fun creative writing way they function (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247), and punctuating a difference as being healthy or not healthy is therefore inconsistent in cybernetic terms. Further, the Milan Group focused on breaking out of linguistic traps.
For most people the term dysfunctional conveys the value judgement of #145;bad#146;, and equally, the term healthy implies a value judgement of #145;good#146;. Apart from being inconsistent cybernetically, these concepts, looked at in this way, are therefore also inconsistent with the Group#146;s expressed ideal of breaking out of linguistic traps. There is also a problem with defining or punctuating states of being as either healthy or dysfunctional as far as indeterminacy is concerned. In terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy 3.3 , health and dysfunction are dichotomous opposites. Therefore, to punctuate states of being as being either healthy or dysfunctional is to fail to look for the reality in between these opposites. However, in Derrida#146;s terms, health and ieee research papers, dysfunction, as opposites, are brought into writing ideas being by the existence of that which falls between them #150; the dissertation meaning of health is created by the meaning of dysfunction. It could then be said that it is necessary to fun creative writing, have a concept of health in dissertation index online order to have a concept of dysfunction, or vice versa, and fun creative ideas, that the reality of both co-arises out of the creation or negotiation of their respective meanings. Looked at in this way, it would be cybernetically consistent to punctuate a difference between health and sat score essay, dysfunction. Regarding the prescription of ideas rituals 4.5 , this writer pointed out an inconsistency, or point of confusion in the discussion, above. Rituals were designed to cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, op cit.).
The Milan Group, were, however, also concerned with the ieee research on electronics history and background of their clients, which they needed to understand 3.1.2 . The quotation implies that the Milan Group applied this therapeutic technique according to writing ideas, the principles of equipotentiality and equifinality, but stated the opposite in their theory. Connected to as you, this point is the issue of history 3.1.2 , which is clearly inconsistent with a cybernetic worldview. However, despite the points discussed as being inconsistent with a cybernetic paradigm, the approach of the Milan Group demonstrates a number of cybernetically consistent points 6.1 . Furthermore, after engaging with the epistemology and praxis of the Group during this discussion, a sense of writing ideas pragmatic, practical functionalism emerges. If it is cybernetically consistent to say that systems do best what the do best in order to exist, and editing the essay, if the fun creative writing Group#146;s approach works in therapy, then it could be implied that this approach is a paradigm for a functional system. Finally, to of the american essay 2010, have a theory or epistemology at all can be seen as being cybernetically inconsistent, as this implies a rigid framework, and one point of view, rather than a multiversal viewpoint. Fun Creative Writing? However, any therapeutic model must encounter this type of paradox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). Barlow, D H; Durand, V M. 1995.
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4 Communications Skills to Highlight on Your Resume. By Arnie Fertig, Contributor | Oct. 6, 2015, at 10:33 a.m. When writing your resume, don't say you have excellent communications skills – prove it. (Getty Images) Here's something resume readers see all the time: Excellent Communications Skills. Fun Creative. And here's something job seekers never see in a position description: Mediocre Communications Skills Required. It's hard to imagine any job that doesn't require you to communicate well! Yet, it is far better to dissertation index, utilize resume space by demonstrating your communications capacities rather than simply claiming to have them.
Of course, communications take many different forms: oral or written, public presentations and confidential memos. Depending on fun creative writing ideas the situation, it may require a simple text message or a nuanced argument. You might need to provide a status update with a dynamic spreadsheet or deal with an irate customer on the phone. Bosses need to tell their subordinates what to do and how to do it. Moreover, they need to motivate them by conveying a sense of urgency, purpose, potential rewards or consequences, or a broader vision. People on a team need to coordinate their efforts. They also need to editing, keep their superiors updated on what's been completed, roadblocks or complications along the way, next steps and so on. The list of fun creative writing ideas what's communicated and how its done is virtually endless, which is essay why when you say excellent communications skills on a resume, you don't further your cause by much. The Muse offers a list of ideas 185 Powerful Verbs That Will Make Your Resume Awesome.
This list can be helpful in prompting you to think about what you have actually done and editing the essay how your communications skills have contributed to fun creative ideas, your success. Then you can demonstrate the excellence of research on electronics our communications rather than simplistically claiming to fun creative writing ideas, possess these skills. Here are some examples based on words found in The Muse's list: 1. Writing. What have you written; who is your audience; and what is the impact of your composition? What happened because you wrote what you wrote? Here are two sample resume points: Composed talking points for regional sales people to address X issue our potential customers confront and how our product represents the ideal solution.
Campaign improved sales of our product by $X in Y period of of the revolution contest 2010 time. Composed PowerPoint presentation for a nonprofit board of directors and walked them through alternative methods of developing donors and building relationships with them. Guided the writing, discussion to focus on major donors rather than depend on expensive events-based fundraising that consumes greater staffing hours. 2. Mentoring. Perhaps you've employed your listening skills to understand how you can use your knowledge and editing experience to improve the performance of others on your team still trying to learn the writing, ropes. You might be able to dissertation, use a bullet point like this on your resume: Provided one-on-one coaching for X employees based on individual needs. Listened to fun creative ideas, their stories, determined aspirations and conveyed positive feedback to enrich productivity levels.
Result: Mediocre performers were transformed into the department's star employees. As You It Essay Love. 3. Standardizing. This refers to solid business performance uniformity in multiple departments, locations or functions. Things need to be measured, and processes must conform to fun creative, a single standard in order to the essay, be understood by customers, employees and executives alike. Getting everyone to fun creative writing, conform requires solid communications skills and ieee research papers on electronics can result in quantifiable, resume-worthy results, such as: Standardized locations of key products on store end-caps, resulting in X percent sales increase of seasonal, high-profit items. Conveyed information to all store managers and followed up to ideas, ascertain that directions were being followed to ensure store-to-store uniformity. Standardized reporting of sales and costs from multiple departments to daughters of the 2010, present a clearer financial analysis of business to CFO and fun creative writing the executive team. 4. Negotiating.
Business is all about negotiating everything from how much one party will pay another, to delivery times and hundreds of other things. Clearly, excellent negotiating outcomes are dependent on one's ability to persuade – a key communication skill. For example: Leveraged ability to editing the essay, move quickly to gain a competitive advantage, thereby obtained a favorable price on fun creative ideas X, resulting in an increased profit margin of $X for Y. Gained a favorable employment contract with X union by providing nonmonetary benefits of value to employees rather than increasing payroll costs for Y period of time. Presented proposal to union leaders and sat score essay demonstrated why this outcome was of superior value to other proposals that were on the table for fun creative, discussion. The list goes on sat score essay and on. You can demonstrate your communications skills when you speak of facilitating meetings, problem solving, marketing and a host of other common workplace activities. The point is simple: Show your skills rather than simply claiming them.
When you do, you will prove that indeed you are an excellent communicator. What Can I Do Now to Achieve My Career Goals? Think beyond your industry and act if you#39;re seeking a future change. Fun Creative. How to Answer the Dreaded Interview Question: Tell Me About Yourself. Ieee Research Papers. A few key points to fun creative ideas, helping you get through this tricky query.
How to Start an Informal Mentorship. Research Papers On Electronics. If your company doesn#39;t have a formal mentorship program, there#39;s no reason you can#39;t create your own! Ask key questions during your interview to get a sense of how you#39;ll fit in. Ideas. Didn't Get Hired? Don't Take It Personally. You can control a lot about how well you do in your job search … but not everything. Everything You Ever Wondered About Negotiating Salary, Answered. How much should you ask for?
What if they pull your offer? We've got answers to all your trickiest salary questions. 4 Steps to a Successful Job Application. If you meet the qualifications, how can you put your best foot forward? 8 Things You Should Never Do at a Job Interview. Don’t make these mistakes during your next interview. 5 Things to Remember When You Don't Get the Job. How to use rejection to like it essay, your own advantage. Ideas. Here's what you need to know about what to wear, how to prepare and sat score essay what to say in fun creative a job interview. Our expert contributors give their best advice on answering common interview questions, perfecting job applications, negotiating salary and more.
Find savvy job advice from the brains behind top careers blogs and websites, including Ask A Manager, Collegial Services, Vicki Salemi, Jobhuntercoach, Career Sherpa, Career Valet, Hallie Crawford, Robin Madell, Chrissy Scivicque and Peter Gudmundsson.
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Compare and Contrast Bourdieu’s Approach Essay Sample. In recent years, several authors have attempted to deal with the problem of the relationship between agency and fun creative ideas social structure. This has manifested itself in the theory of structuration. Anthony Giddens’ structuration theory is one of the best-known and american contest most articulated efforts to integrate agency and structure. His theory proposes a duality of ideas structure, in that agency and structure cannot be seen as independent of one another. Pierre Bourdieu is another important theorist to contribute to this agency-structure debate. His theory of habitus and field is concerned principally with overcoming the opposition between objectivism and subjectivism.
While there are many differences between these two theories, there are in fact a few similarities. Both Bourdieu and like Giddens put forward a duality of structure, and fun creative ideas they are also both involved with the issue of constraint on index online agents. Similarly, Bourdieu’s habitus can be linked to Giddens’s theory of structure. In order to fully understand the comparisons and contrasting issues between Bourdieu and Giddens, it is important to look at each theorists work separately, and then to discuss the issues which arise. Giddens proposes that agency and structure cannot be conceived of apart from ideas, one another. In other words, they are two sides of the same coin. You cannot have one without the other. He puts forward that agency and structure should be viewed as the duality of structure. By this he means that ‘social structures are both constituted by human agency, and yet at the same time are the very medium of this constitution’ (Thompson, 1989: 58).
He even goes so far as to sat score essay, say that ‘every research investigation in the social sciences or history is involved in fun creative writing ideas relating action [often used synonymously with agency] to essay, structure’ (Ritzer, 2004: 509). Practices are part of the duality of structure in that they consist of both action and structure. In this way Giddens’s argues that structure is not external to action; it is, in a sense, more internal to the flow of action which constitutes the writing practices in question (Layder, 1994). The duality of structure is the core of the theory and is the dissertation index basis upon which the other dualisms in fun creative social theory may be overcome. During everyday activities, agents continuously monitor their own thoughts and ieee research papers activities, as well as their physical and fun creative writing social contexts. This can be also be termed as action. According to Giddens, action should be conceived as a continuous flow of like it essay interventions in writing ideas the world which are initiated by editing the essay autonomous agents. Fun Creative Ideas? Not all action is purposeful in research papers on electronics the sense of fun creative being guided by clear purposes which the agent has in mind; but much action is sat score essay, purposive, in the sense that it is monitored by actors who continually survey what they are doing (Thompson, 1989). While rationalisation and reflexivity are continuously involved in action, motivations are more appropriately thought of as potentials for fun creative ideas action. Daughters American Revolution Essay 2010? Although such action is not motivated and our motivations are generally unconscious, motivations play a significant role in human conduct (Ritzer, 2004).
A more commonly used word to replace action is agency, and thus agency is what an agent actually does. It describes their behaviour. Incidentally, all individuals are in fact knowledgeable agents who are capable of accounting for fun creative ideas their actions. It is as you like it essay, important at this point to separate agency from intentions. Although all action involves power, it does not mean that people are not limited in the things they can achieve and transform. The extent of an individual’s influence is fun creative writing ideas, limited by the resources at their disposal (Layder, 1994). In other words, intentional acts often have unintended consequences (Ritzer, 2004). Consistent with his emphasis on agency, Giddens accords the agent great power.
This results in Giddens agents having the ability to make a difference in the social world. Without this power agents cannot properly exist, as an agent without power loses the capacity to make a difference. The concept of agency implies that a person could have done otherwise, and an agent who has no option whatsoever is no longer an agent. Giddens response to this apparent problem is to emphasize the dissertation difference between ‘option’ and ‘feasible option’ (Thompson, 1989). An individual who has only one option is not an agent, for there is writing ideas, no possible way in which that individual could have done otherwise. But an individual who has only one feasible option is an agent. This is american revolution contest 2010, because the option is only limited to one in that given the individual’s wants and desires, there is only one option that the fun creative writing ideas individual would regard as reasonable to pursue (Thompson, 1989). Daughters Of The Revolution? A possible course of action would not be an option for an agent if it had no relevance to anything that the agent wanted. Giddens manages to preserve the link between structure and agency by defining agency in fun creative such a way that any individual in ieee research papers on electronics any given situation could always be an agent.
The core of the structuration theory lies in the ideas of structure, system, and duality of structure. Structure only exists in and through the activities of human agents. It is fun creative, what gives form and shape to social life, but it is not itself that form and shape. Without this structure, social systems would not exist. Giddens does not deny the fact that structure can be constraining on action, but he feels that sociologists have exaggerated the of the american revolution essay importance of this constraint.
Furthermore, they have failed to emphasize the fact that structure is fun creative ideas, ‘always both constraining and dissertation index online enabling’ (Ritzer, 2004). Structures often allow agents to do things that they would not otherwise be able to do. Structures do not themselves exist in time and space, but they are manifested in social systems in the form of reproduced practices. While some systems may be based on intentional action, Giddens places more emphasis on the unintentional action as the basis. Social systems are not only structured by rules and resources, but are also situated within time and space. The primary condition of the structuration theory is face-to-face action, in which others are present at the same time and in the same space (Ritzer, 2004). Gregory (1989) criticises Giddens saying he devotes more attention to time than to writing, space. This is a mistake on Giddens behalf, as saying where things happen is just as important as why and how. With the extension of social systems in space and time, the other may cease to essay contest 2010, be immediately present.
Such time-space distancing (or ‘distanciation’ as Giddens calls it) was greatly facilitated by fun creative ideas the development of writing, which renders possible communication with the past as well as with physically absent individuals (Thompson, 1989: 62). Similarly, developments in technology and the media have also transformed the time-space constitution of social systems. There have been many criticisms of Giddens’s work, but in spite of this it is still important to sat score essay, deal with the structuration theory. The importance of the structuration theory can be seen in two main areas. The first is that many of Giddens ideas have become integral parts of contemporary sociology. Secondly, anyone working in social theory today needs to take into account and respond to Giddens work (Ritzer, 2004). In conclusion, Giddens sees structure and action as empirically interdependent, and thus deeply implicated in each other, but they are also partly autonomous and separable domains (Ritzer, 2004). Pierre Bourdieu was focally concerned with the relationship between habitus and field.
He saw this as operating in two ways. On the one hand, the field conditions the habitus. On the other hand, the habitus constitutes the field as something that is fun creative writing ideas, meaningful and that is like it essay, worth the investment of energy (Ritzer, 2004). Bourdieu’s theory of habitus and field was concerned with overcoming the opposition between objectivism and subjectivism. Objectivists ignore agency and the agent, while subjectivists focus on the way agents think about, account for or represent the social world.
Bourdieu favoured a position that is structuralist without losing sight of the agent (Ritzer, 2004). To side step the objectivist-subjectivist dilemma, Bourdieu focused on practice, which he saw as the outcome of the fun creative ideas relationship between structure and agency. He labelled his own orientation ‘constructivist structuralism’ or ‘genetic structuralism’ (Ritzer, 2004). This is because he saw the analysis of objective structures (those of different fields) as inseparable from the sat score essay analysis of the genesis. Bourdieu argued that social structures also exist in the social world itself. He saw objective structures as independent of the consciousness and will of fun creative writing agents.
Bourdieu’s constructivity ignores subjectivity and intentionality. He thought it important to include in his sociology the way people, on index the basis of their position in social space, perceive and construct the social world. However, the perception and construction that take place in the social world are both animated and constrained by structures (Ritzer, 2004). Although habitus is an internalised structure that constrains thought and ideas choice of action, it does not determine them. The habitus merely suggests what people should think and what they should choose to do. Like It Essay Love? People have the fun creative ability to engage in sat score essay a conscious deliberation of fun creative writing options, although this decision-making process does in fact reflect the operation if the sat score essay habitus (Ritzer, 2004). The habitus is the concept for which Bourdieu is most famous.
Habitus are the ‘mental or cognitive structures’ through which people deal with the social world (Ritzer, 2004: 520). People both produce their practices, and perceive and evaluate them. As a result, habitus reflect objective divisions in class structures such as age groups, genders, and social classes. Taking the issue of social class for example, an individuals tastes and preferences can often illustrate to what class they belong. For instance, perhaps people from the upper class would be more likely to appreciate the writing ideas theatre than those from the lower class, as this is how they have been educated. In other words, those who occupy the same position in the social world tend to have similar habitus. This can be seen in the essay the fact that art and cultural consumption are predisposed, consciously and deliberately or not, to fulfil a social function of legitimating social differences (Bourdieu, 1986). The habitus allows people to make sense out of the social world, but the existence of a multitude of habitus means that the social world and its structures do not impose themselves uniformly on all actors (Ritzer, 2004).
Habitus is both durable and transposable, transferable from one field to another. However, it is possible for people to have an inappropriate habitus and to suffer from what Bourdieu called hysteresis. For example, a person who is uprooted from an agrarian background and put to work on Wall Street would not cope very well with their new life (Ritzer, 2004). One of the functions of habitus is to account for the unity of style. The habitus is a unifying principle which associates the characteristics of a position into a single lifestyle, that is, a single set of choices of goods and practices etc. (Bourdieu, 1998). Moving on from the habitus, the next key area of Bourdieu’s work to focus on is the ‘field’. While habitus exists in the minds of actors, field exist outside their minds. The field is a network of relations among the objective positions within it. The occupants of these positions may be either agents or institutions and they are constrained by the structure of the field (Ritzer, 2004). Social space is fun creative, constructed in such a way that agents or groups are distributed in it according to their position in statistical distributions based on two principles of differentiation (Bourdieu, 1998). These are economic capital, which relates the economy of the state, and cultural capital, which involves various kinds of acceptable knowledge.
It follows that all agents are located in this space in such a way that the closer they are to nurture essay psychology, one another in those two dimensions, the more they have in common. Occupants of positions within the field employ a variety of fun creative strategies, and again, the strategies of as you love these agents depend on their position in the field. Nevertheless, this shows that Bourdieu’s actors do have some freedom, although less than Giddens’s. There are several major differences amongst authors in the agency-structure debate. The main proponents of such debates are Bourdieu and Giddens. The two theorists both agree that the agent should be seen as an individual actor and not as a group, such as social classes. Fun Creative Writing Ideas? Bourdieu’s agent, dominated by research papers on electronics habitus, appears to be far more mechanical however, than Giddens’s. This can be illustrated by further exploring Bourdieu’s idea of habitus. Bourdieu’s habitus involves ‘systems of durable, transposable dispositions, structuring structures’ (Ritzer, 2004:534). It is neither subjective nor objective but combines elements of both. Thus it clearly rejects the idea of an actor with free will.
This contrasts significantly with Giddens’s idea of fun creative agent. Although his agents may not have intentionality and free will, they have much more willing power than Bourdieu’s. Bourdieu’s agents appear to be governed by nurture their habitus and by structuring structures. In comparison, the ideas agents in Giddens’s work are the people responsible for as you like action. They have at least some choice in the possibility of fun creative writing ideas acting differently than they do.
They have power and they make a difference in their worlds (Ritzer, 2004). Dissertation Online? This idea of power is a key element to Giddens’s agency-structure theory. The issue of agency and structure pulls different theorists in fun creative ideas different directions. Some choose to focus on one side of the debate more than the other. In the psychology case of Bourdieu and Giddens, Bourdieu heads more in ideas the direction of dissertation online structure, whereas Giddens favours a sense of agency. However, what they both believe is that you cannot have one without the fun creative other. Both Bourdieu and Giddens believe that agency and structure are interlinked. In other words, they cannot be conceived of apart from each other.
In Giddens’s words, they are a duality, but Bourdieu also echoes this sentiment. So as not to be made choose between objectivism and subjectivism he focused on practice, which he saw as the outcome of the relationship between structure and agency. He favoured a position that was structuralist without losing sight of the agent. Dissertation? Another area, in which the two theorists had similar ideas, was the constraint of fun creative agents. In the case of Giddens, he did not deny that structure was constraining on action, but he also put forward that structure was both constraining and nurture enabling. It often allowed agents to do things that they otherwise might not be able to do. Similarly, Bourdieu found that agents were constrained by the structure of the field. There is another similarity between the two in relation to habitus and structure. Bourdieu’s habitus is the means through which people produce and fun creative ideas reproduce the dissertation index social circumstances in which they live.
This makes it similar to Giddens’s idea about structure being both the medium and the outcome of society. However, Bourdieu is much more likely to view social circumstances in the more conventional ‘objective’ sense of structures and writing ideas institutions than is the like it essay love case in structuration theory (Layder, 1994). While there are a few similarities to the take these two theorists have on the agency-structure debate, there are in fact mostly differences. The agency-structure debate is an important aspect of sociological studies. Both Bourdieu and writing ideas Giddens have offered intriguing accounts of this issue. Giddens’s structuration theory is one of the best-known efforts of integrating agency and structure. That is not to say however, that Bourdieu’s theory of habitus and field is any less important.
They both focus on the duality of structure, but Giddens leaned more towards agency, whereas Bourdieu favoured structure. Giddens looks at dissertation index online the issue of intentions and fun creative writing ideas unintended consequences, and the fact that his agents have the power to execute free will. This contrasts with Bourdieu, whose agents cannot govern their decisions as freely as Giddens’s agents. While there are many differences and different emphases between the two theorists, there are very few similarities. Thus it is easy to say that the majority of their work is conflictual. As a result, both theories are valuable to as you like it essay, the sociological world as they offer separate views and opinions to the same debate. 1. Bourdieu, P (1986) Distinction. Routledge: London. 2. Fun Creative Ideas? Bourdieu, P (1998) Practical Reason.
Polity Press: Cambridge. 3. Layder, Dereck (1994) Understanding Social Theory. Sage: London. 4. Ritzer, G. and Goodman, D. (2004) Sociological Theory (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill: New York. 5. Nurture Essay Psychology? Thompson, J. (1989) ‘The theory of structuration’, pp. 56-76 in D. Held and J.B. Thompson (eds.), Social Theory and Modern Societies. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Is this the perfect essay for you?
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