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Anna Lætitia Aikin Barbauld (1743-1825) Anna Lætitia Aikin was born on June 20th, 1743. Bad College Essay? Her family lived near the village of Kibworth Harcourt, in Leicestershire. Her father, John Aikin, was a Presbyterian minister and schoolteacher. Writing? Both he and application, her mother, Jane Jennings Aikin, were Presbyterian Dissenters. As a child, Anna received a conventional domestic education from her mother. Essays On Compensation? She later convinced her father to teach her some Latin and Greek. In 1758 Mr. Aikin moved to Warrington to act as theological tutor at a dissenting academy. In 1761, Joseph Priestley also moved to Warrington to bad college application, teach. Anna Lætitia Aikin became a close friend of Priestley and his wife.
Reading Priestley's verse is believed to have inspired her to write her own. Anethesist Nurse Program? One of her earliest dateable poems was written to Mrs. Priestley, when the Priestleys moved from Warrington to Leeds, in 1767. During the next few years, Corsica and other poems were increasingly circulated in bad college application, manuscript form, mostly among teachers and students at Warrington Academy. Anna's younger brother, John Aikin, strongly encouraged her to write and to publish. Her first published pieces were six poems in his book Essays on Song-Writing , 1771. In 1772, William Enfield included five of anethesist nurse program her hymns in his collection Hymns for Public Worship . In 1773, Miss Aikin published a major collection of her own Poems , which was very successful. The Poems are often quite personal, and show a number of sides to essay, her character. Several reveal her affection for friends and family (cf. The Invitiation to Miss B. and On the Death of Mrs.
Jennings); others display her religious (cf. Twelfth Love Essay? Hymns ) and political convictions (Corsica). Poems also includes an bad college essay important statement about literature and critical thinking what it meant to her to bad college essay, be a woman and a poet, in her tribute to Elizabeth Singer Rowe (1674-1737). In Verses on Mrs. Rowe, Aikin seeks a model for both life and nurse, poetry. Bad College Essay? In 1774 Anna Lætitia Aikin married Rochemont Barbauld, a descendant of the French Huguenot refugees.
He had come to Warrington Academy in 1767, and while there converted from the Church of England to night, Presbyterian Dissent. At the time of their marriage, he was the minister of a church in Palgrave, Suffolk. A number of Barbauld's poems celebrate the love and friendship that she and her husband found in their marriage. Bad College Essay? To Mr. Barbauld, November 14, 1778 playfully chides him for his studious looks when the two of essays them can employ a thousand pleasant arts to pass away the bad college application essay, time, and be happy together in spite of the world and its cares and persuasive essays, concerns. Together, the Barbaulds established a boarding school, which they managed until 1785. They had no children of their own, and in 1777 adopted her brother's third son, born in 1775, to application essay, raise as their own. Anna Barbauld drew heavily on her experience with children in her writing: publishing Devotional Pieces (1775) and Hymns in emerson essays on compensation, Prose for Children (1781), as well as several books on the education of small children. The Hymns are notable for their use of the application essay, natural world as a focus for awareness and celebration of God.
Barbauld's stated intent is to encourage the child to love and praise God, through his creation (e.g. Hymn IV). She also deals sensitively with childhood fears of darkness (Hymn V) and death (Hymn XI.) By 1790, however, Barbauld's published writing was focusing primarily on political and social concerns. She was strongly in favour of abolition, as shown by her Epistle to William Wilberforce, Esq. on on compensation the Rejection of the bad college essay, Bill for Abolishing the Slave Trade of 1791. Other concerns included freedom of emerson religion, revolutionary politics, and international policy. It was a difficult time: Dissenters and other reformers were under attack from both the public and the government. (See To Dr.
Priestley, December 29, 1792.) The Barbaulds received both public criticism and threatening letters for Rochement Barbauld's refusal, as a Dissenter, to sign loyalty oaths to the government. In May 1792, a Royal Proclamation against application, Seditious Writings and Publications was issued. In spite of the hostile political climate, Anna Barbauld published the book Sins of Government, Sins of the Nation in persuasive essays, 1793, in response to England's declaration of war against the French Republic . Over the next few years, Anna Barbauld collaborated with her brother John Aikin in Evenings at Home and contributed to his Monthly Magazine . In 1802 the Barbaulds moved to Stoke-Newington, to be near John Aikin. Mrs. Barbauld became increasingly active in London literary circles. She edited the six volumes of Samuel Richardson's Correspondence (1804), and published a 50 volume collection, The British Novelists (1810), which included biographical essays and critical reviews. Unfortunately, the Barbauld's home life deteriorated tragically during this time.
Rochemont Barbauld became mentally ill, and bad college application, increasingly violent. By January 1808, he had attacked Anna Barbauld, grabbing a knife from the dinner table, and pursuing her about the spanish check, room. She escaped by leaping through a window into the garden. The once-happy couple separated in March, due to application essay, concerns for Anna Barbauld's safety. On November 11, 1808, Rochemont escaped from a keeper to whom he had been committed, and drowned himself in the New River. Anna wrote of her grief and loss, seeking comfort in religious faith, in Dirge.
The last of Mrs. Barbauld's writings to be independently published was Eighteen Hundred And Eleven, A Poem. In it, Barbauld criticized the continuing war between Britain and France, prophesying that England, like other major powers of the past and future, would eventually dwindle and be surpassed. Her words, as applicable to major nations today as to England in 1811, provoked widespread, often vitriolic, criticism from those who think their country just in all her projects, inexhaustible in her resources (John Aikin, in a letter to James Montgomery, 1812). Barbauld continued to write after this time, but did not attempt to essay is important communication, publish further volumes of her work. Application? After her death in 1825, her niece, Lucy Aikin, published two collections of her works: The Works of Anna Lætitia Barbauld, with a Memoir by Lucy Aikin (1825) and spanish essay, A Legacy for Young Ladies (1826). She selected material for the collections from Barbauld's manuscripts. In 1874, Barbauld's great-niece Anna Lætitia LeBreton included a few additional works in her Memoir of Mrs.
Barbauld . Unfortunately, Barbauld's papers, which included a number of bad college application unpublished manuscripts, were destroyed in the bombing of London in September 1940. Persuasive? The most complete collection of Barbauld's work is the recent The Poems of Anna Letitia Barbauld (1994), which includes previously uncollected poems from journals and letters, and extensive footnotes on many poems. Anna Lætitia Aikin Barbaud's writing spans a wide range, from the poetry that brought her both acclaim and rebuffs, to her essays, literary reviews, educational writings, and political works. During her own lifetime, she was acclaimed for bad college application her genius and talent. Oliver Goldsmith, the young Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and William Wordsworth all admired her poetry. Wordsworth regreted that he had not composed the final lines of reading writing thinking her poem Life. Poems such as Ode to Spring and A Summer Evening's Meditation were particularly noted for their elegance of structure and strength of application expression.
In tone, Anna Lætitia Barbauld's poetry expresses a wide variety of emotions, from the light-hearted playfulness of Washing-day and An Inventory of the Furniture in Dr. Priestley's Study, to the joyful piety of The Epiphany, and emerson, the more sombre and reflective tone of On the application essay, King's Illness. Adoption? Barbauld often wrote of home, of children, and of her faith, but she did so in an individual voice, speaking from personal conviction and generally avoiding cliches. Her educational and political writing also reflects her independence of bad college application thought, and strength of conviction. Clearly, she deserves more credit than she has received these past one hundred and fifty years.
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mark messier essay Many sources (including former versions of this webpage) say Charles Messier grew up in humble conditions, a rumor probably going back to incomplete remarks in Delambre's short biography (Delambre 1827). Actually, his family lived in considerable wealth (Philbert 2000): Nicolas Messier served in the administration of the Princes of Salm, including services in bad college application, court, and resided in a beautiful home in Badonviller. Six of essay, his brothers and sisters died at young age, not unusual at that time: the twins Nicolas and Anne (Marie), b. 1716; Anne (b. Bad College Application Essay? 1719), Barbe (1723-1724), Nicolas (b. 1725) and Joseph (1728.1729). Charles Messier knew only 5 of nurse, his brothers and sisters: Three brothers were older than he was, namely Hyacinthe (1717-1791), Claude (b. 1725) and Nicolas-François (b. 1726), while brother Joseph (1732-1804) and bad college application essay, sister Barbe (1734-1787) were younger. In 1741, when Charles was 11, the writing and critical, Messier family suffered from the untimely death of his father. At that time, the oldest brother, Hyacinthe, then at age 24, took over the role of the man in the house.
Hyacinthe had worked with a curator in application, Nancy and had returned to Badonviller in 1740, to take a position in the administration of the Princes of Salm. Also about that time, the young Charles suffered from an accident: While playing turbulently, he was falling out of a window of the literature reading writing thinking, Messiers' house and breaking a leg on the level of the thigh, but he was found and taken care by a farmer of his hometown, who looked after him and assured complete recovery. Charles was taken from school, and Hyacinthe took care of his education, and trained him for eight years for bad college essay administrative and methodic work. During that time, he developed a sense for precise observing and a feeling for fine details, which would become important in his later career. Charles got interested in astronomy in younger years, and seems to have liked observing the stars and the phenomena in the night sky in spanish essay, very early years. When he was 14 years old, a great 6-tailed comet appeared (discovered by Klinkenberg and closer studied by De Chéseaux). His interest was further stimulated by an annular Solar eclipse which was visible (as partial eclipse) from essay, his hometown on July 25, 1748.
In 1751, that part of present-day France was reorganized, and night essay, the Princes of Salm retracted from the control of Badonviller. Bad College Application Essay? Hyacinthe Messier decided to stay loyal to the Princes of Salm, and therefore to leave Badonviller and establish himself at Senones. For Charles, now at 21 years of anethesist, age, time had come to look for work. Bad College Essay? Therefore, a friend of the family, the essay grammar check, Abbé Thélosen, found two opportunities for him to take up a job in Paris: one with the application, curator of a palace, the other with an astronomer. After some consultations with friends, Hyacinthe accepted for him the second position, that with the astronomer, because it promised more advantages and prospects. Charles Messier left Badonviller on September 23, 1751, and went to Paris, where he arrived on program, October 2. He was employed by the astronomer of the Navy, Joseph Nicolas Delisle (1688-1768), because of his fine hand-writing. Delisle and his wife, a couple in their sixties without own childs, gave Messier a new home within their appartment, situated in the Collége Royal de France (Royal College of France). Messier's first job was copying a large map of China; for that purpose, large space was needed, which Delisle assigned him in a long, unheated hall in the Royal College; Delambre (1827) commented that this was just appropriate for bad college application a future observational astronomer.
Besides these activities, he got introduced into Delisle's observatory and essays, instructed in using its instruments by Delisle's secretary and assistant, Libour. This man also instructed him to bad college application, keep careful records of all his observations. Delisle's observatory had been established in 1748, after Delisle's return from Russia a year before, on a tower of nurse program, Hôtel de Clugny (later Hôtel de Cluny), a residence constructed in 1480, on bad college essay, the ruins of Roman thermes from the triangle essay, 4th century, as the temporary Paris residence for the abbots of the Clugny order and their guests. In the 18th century, it was rented to the administration of the Royal Navy. Charles Messier's first documented observation was that of the Mercury transit of May 6, 1753. Delisle himself introduced him into elementary astronomy and convinced him of the usefulness of measuring exact positions of bad college application, all observations -- without doubt one of the most important preliminaries for the success of his catalog. Thinking? In 1754, he was regularly employed as a Depot Clerk of the essay, Navy.
Somewhen in 1757, Charles Messier started looking for comet Halley. Essays? His first reported observation of M32, a companion of the bad college, Andromeda Galaxy, took place in the same year 1757; he must also have seen the Great Nebula M31 latest on this occasion. Comet Halley was expected to return in 1758, which, at that time, was no more than a scientific hypothesis. Delisle himself had calculated an literature reading writing thinking, apparent path where he expected comet Halley to appear, and Messier created a fine star chart of bad college application, this path. Unfortunately, there was a mistake in Delisle's calculations, so that Messier always looked at the wrong positions. However, he discovered another comet on August 14, 1758, which he followed and carefully observed with telescopes to anethesist, November 2, 1758; this comet (C/1758 K1 De la Nux) had been discovered earlier, on essay, May 26, 1758, by De la Nux. During these observations, he discovered another comet-like patch in Taurus on August 28, 1758. Evidently, it turned out that this patch was not moving, and was thus indeed not a comet, but a nebula. He measured its position on September 12, 1758, and it later became the first entry in on compensation, his famous catalog, Messier 1 or M1, -- this object later turned out to essay, be one of the twelfth night, most interesting objects in the sky, the remnant of the supernova 1054, now commonly called the Crab Nebula. Bad College Application Essay? It was also this first discovery of a comet-like nebula which triggered Messier to both looking for comets with telescopes, thus inventing comet hunting, a new discipline of astronomy in these days, and to compile his catalog of nebulous objects which might be taken for comets. Comet Halley was finally discovered by the German amateur astronomer Johann Georg Palitzsch (1723-1788) in the Chrismas night (December 25-26) of 1758.
Messier independently found it on January 21, 1759, about 4 weeks later, when he finally doubted the correctness of Delisle's path. Delisle however did not believe in adoption persuasive, this fault, advised him to continue observing, and bad college essay, refused to announce his discovery. Messier as loyal employee stated: I was a loyal servant of nurse program, M. Delisle, I lived with him in bad college, his house, and I conformed with his command. Adoption Persuasive? When Delisle finally announced the bad college application essay, discovery on April 1, 1759, it was not believed by the other French astronomers (perhaps they took it as an April Fool's joke). Perhaps this disappointment and frustration was even more stimulating to literature reading writing and critical, the 28-year old observer, so that he devoted his professional life to comet hunting. Bad College? This devotion suffered from literature writing, a further frustration (and perhaps got further emphasized) when Delisle refused to publish a further comet discovery by Messier in early 1760. In the following, Delisle changed attitude, supported Messier, and let him do his own observational work; also, it seems that because of bad college, his age, he more and more retracted from astronomical work. Messier recorded his second nebula, M2, previously discovered by Jean-Dominique Maraldi (1709-1788), and adoption, plotted it on a chart showing Comet Halley's track. He observed the transit of essay, Venus of June 6, 1761, and the appearance Saturn's rings. He observed Comet 1762 Klinkenberg from May to night triangle essay, July, 1762, and on bad college application essay, September 28, 1763, he discovered Comet 1763 (Messier), and the next one, Comet 1764 Messier, on January 3, 1764 (this one was as bright as 3.0 mag when discovered, according to Don Machholz). A first hope to enter the French Académie Royale des Sciences [Royal Academy of Sciences] in anethesist program, 1763 did not come true, a considerable disappointment for Charles Messier.
With the discovery of essay, a further nebula, his third object (globular cluster M3) and his first original discovery, it seems that he undertook a serious scan of the skies for these objects, as they could frequently fool comet discoverers. Essay Writing Is Important In Academic? Alternatively, it may be that he decided to undertake this endeavor due to other reasons, and essay, M3 was his first discovery in the course of doing so: It was at that time that Le Gentil's memoir on twelfth night, nebulae was going to be printed (finally, in 1765), and it may well be that Messier had knowlegde and was perhaps influenced by this. Within his search for nebulae, Charles Messier both undertook own scans, leading to 19 original Messier discoveries during that year, and used all the application, catalogs compiled previously by other astronomers he had access to: Edmond Halley's list of 6 objects, the writing is important, catalog of William Derham, who chiefly had extracted from Hevelius' star catalog, Prodomus Astronomiae , which was available in a French translation by Pierre de Maupertuis, and bad college application essay, Nicolas Lacaille's Catalog of Southern Nebulae of 1755, as well as lists of Maraldi and Le Gentil, with some references to essays, (but very probably not the list of) De Chéseaux, probably from bad college, Le Gentil. He cataloged the objects M3--M40 this year, and looked for several non-existent nebulae from the older catalogs (certainly without success, but this explains why the triangle essay, double star M40 entered his catalog). At that time, Messier was in vivid correspondence with astronomers and other academicians in application essay, Britain, Germany, and Russia.
His Russian correspondent, Frederick La Harpe, was exile from Swiss and member of the Academy of sciences. Moreover, on night love triangle essay, May 21, 1764, Charles Messier was selected as a member of the essay, Academy of Harlem (The Netherlands), and on December 6, 1764, was made a foreign member of the Royal Society in London. In 1765, memberships in anethesist program, the Academy of bad college application essay, Auxerre and the Institute of Bologne followed. Early in 1765, he found the star cluster M41. In 1765, Delisle eventually retired, and Charles Messier continued observing from the Hôtel de Cluny observatory; his appointment as Astronomer of the Navy occurred considerably later, though: No earlier than 1771! On March 8, 1766, he discovered a new comet, and co-discovered one more on April 8 of that year. In 1767, Messier, the long-term Depot Clerk and later Astronomer of the Navy, took part in essays, the only naval journey in his life, in order to test and regulate some new marine chronometers, constructed by essay, J. Le Roy. Therefore, he went on the ship L'Aurore for twelfth essay a 3 and a half-month voyage in bad college application essay, the Baltic, together with his colleague Alexander-Guy Pingré (1711-1796). Messier did the astronomical observations and Pingré the communication, necessary calculations. During his absense from May 12 to September 1, 1767, Lalande continued the observing program at Cluny.
In early 1769, Messier must have decided to application, publish a first version of grammar, his catalog, and to enlarge the number of objects, cataloged the well known objects M42--M45 (Orion Nebula, Praesepe, and the Pleiades) on bad college application, March 4, 1769. On August 8, 1769, Messier discovered a new comet (1769 Messier, the Great Comet of check, that year). Bad College Application? He sent a description and a map of essay is important, this comet's discovery to the King of Prussia, who was so impressed that under his influence, Messier was made a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences on September 14, 1769; in April of the same year, he had already been selected as a member of the Royal Academy of Sweden in Stockholm. Finally, in 1770, he was elected into the Paris Académie Royale des Sciences , which he entered on June 30. This occurred about 2 weeks after he had discovered another comet, on June 14, which became known as Comet Lexell; unusually, this comet was not named for its discoverer, Charles Messier, but for the calculator of its orbit, Anders Lexell, a Finnish astronomer and mathematician working at St. Petersburg Observatory. The same year, on bad college application, November 26, 1770, Charles Messier, aged 40, married Marie-Françoise de Vermauchampt (37). They had known each other from viewing for at least about 15 years, when Charles Messier had to do in the College de France. On January 10, 1771, Messier independently co-discovered the Great Comet of that year. On February 16, 1771 he presented the first version of his Catalog of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, with the first 45 objects, to the Paris Academy of Sciences. This was his very first memoir presented to the Academy, followed by a large number of others.
Three nights after this presentation, he measured four more nebulous objects, M46--M49. For two of them, however, M47 and M48, he didn't proceed with the usual care, and did mistakes in the reduction of positional data, so that they were missed until their 20th century identification. M49 was moreover the first Virgo Cluster galaxy discovered. On April 1, he discovered Comet 1771 Messier, his 13th comet in his own counting, his 12th independent and his 7th original discovery. Later this year, on June 7, Messier discovered M62, but only measured an approximate position, so he included this Very Fine Nebula not before 1779. In the anethesist nurse, same year of 1771, on September 30, Charles Messier was finally officially made the Astronomer of the Navy by the Minister of the Navy, de Boines, and granted a regular salary of 1700 francs annually (this was raised again in 1774 to 2000 francs). Also this year. in application, March, 1771, the portrait of Charles Messier displayed at the top of this page has been created by Desportes, together with a portrait of Madame Messier. On October 31, 1771, Messier and his wife moved from his and formerly Delisle's appartment in the Collége de France into a lodging within the Hôtel de Clugny, where the twelfth triangle essay, Observatory of the Navy was situated. On March 15, 1772, Madame Messier gave birth to a son, who was christened Antoine-Charles. Following the birth, both Madame Messier and the small boy died within 11 days, Madame Messier on application essay, March 23, and Antoine-Charles on March 26, 1772. A slightly malicious legend is reported by Jean-François de Laharpe, written in 1801, that the death of spanish essay grammar, Messier's wife had prevented the discovery of another comet which would have been his thirteenth, and Messier was more desperate because of the bad college application, lost discovery than of the death of his wife (especially as this comet was discovered by Montaigne, whom he didn't like).
However, this legend doesn't stand serious criticism: Montaigne had already discovered this one on March 8, a week before Messier's son had been born, and whatever counting is appointed, this was not Messier's thirteenth comet (according to Messier's own counting, as well as a published memoir, and mentioned above, his 13th comet had already appeared in 1771). Anyway, Messier observed this comet March 26 - April 3, 1772. On April 5, 1772, he added another cluster to his list, M50. Later that year, he took a 3-months vacations in essay writing in academic communication, Lorraine, from September to bad college application, November 1772. Spanish Essay Grammar Check? That year, he was also elected a member of the bad college application essay, Academy of emerson essays on compensation, Brussels (Belgium) and the Royal Academy of Hungary. Perhaps partly because of these private experiences, Nebula observation was apparently reduced by Charles Messier in the years following: On August 10, 1773, he discovered the second bright companion of the Andromeda Nebula, M110, but due to bad college application essay, unknown reason did not catalog it. He discovered one more comet on October 13, 1773; this one was found when it was just visible to adoption essays, the naked eye (Glyn Jones), or at 4.5 mag (Machholz). He found two more objects (M51 and M52) in 1774, and observed Comet 1774 Montaigne. Also in the year 1774, Pierre Méchain was introduced to Messier by Jerôme de Lalande, the application, leading French astronomer at on compensation that time; it may well be (according to bad college application, a conjecture of twelfth night triangle essay, Owen Gingerich) that he had met Messier before this time.
Until 1777, Messier did not discover another nebula, nor another comet. In February that year, Messier cataloged M53 (this globular had been discovered two years earlier by Johann Elert Bode). He also contributed to the dubious hypothesis of a planet inside Mercury's orbit, when he reported several small bodies crossing the Sun's disk on June 17, 1777. He added that the application essay, objects observed might be atmospheric phenomena, but more probably small meteorites. On La Harpe's recommendation, Messier was named to twelfth, the Academy of St.
Petersburg in Russia on January 9, 1777. In 1778 Messier found two more nebulae, the original discovery M54, as well as M55 which had been reported by Lacaille, and which Messier had looked for application essay in vain in 1764. In 1779, Messier co-discovered Comet 1779 Bode on January 19, 13 days after its original sighting by twelfth night love triangle essay, Bode on January 6. Bad College Application Essay? Following this comet, until May 19, he observed six objects (M56--M61). Messier discovered M56 and adoption persuasive essays, M57 in Janary 1779. There was a modest discovery outburst when the bad college application essay, comet passed Virgo and program, the Virgo cluster of Galaxies, and was observed by Messier, Johann Gottfried Koehler from Dresden, and Barnabus Oriani in Milan. Thus Koehler discovered M59 and M60 on April 11, 1779, but overlooked M58 which was discovered by Messier when he independently also found the other two on April 15. On May 5, Koehler also found three othersomewhat nebulous stars in the area of the northern shoulder of essay, Virgo, but because of lack of in academic communication, more detail, these cannot be identified with certainty; Wolfgang Steinicke speculates these may be M84, M86, and M87.
Oriani was the bad college, first to identify M61 on May 5, 1779; Messier found it the same day but took it for the comet on check, May 5, 6, and 11 -- he realized its nature as a nebula finally on May 11. When measuring the stars along the application, comet's track, Messier made an accidental prediscovery observation of anethesist, asteroid (2) Pallas, the first known record of an asteroid obeservation! This fact was brought to light only in 2012 by bad college essay, Belgian astronomer and historian René Bourtembourg (Bourtembourg 2012). Messier eventually got a good position for M62 which he had longly discovered in 1771. M63 was the writing in academic, first discovery of bad college application essay, Méchain (on June 14, 1779), who had definitely started observing about that time, and like Messier focussed on comet searching and observing. In January 1780, Messier found M64 which had been discovered previously, in 1779, independently by Edward Pigott and by Johann Elert Bode. Owen Gingerich reports that Messier, by chance, found M65 and M66, in March 1780. Admiral Smyth, and later some other authors probably following him, has assigned these two objects to Pierre Méchain, most probably in error, as Messier didn't acknowledge an earlier discovery, unlike his practise on all such occasions that actually occurred.
Although a comet had passed between these galaxies in 1773, Messier had overlooked them, probably because the comet had outshined them; perhaps this statement caused Smyth to conjecture that not Messier, but Méchain may have found them first. Also, Messier did not find a 3rd galaxy, NGC 3628, of visual magnitude 9.5 (but less surface brightness than the other two), which forms a conspicuous triangular group with them: This gives a hint on the modest power of his telescopes. In April 1780, he discovered two further objects, M67 and essays, M68, and thus completed his observations for a second version of the catalog. This version was containing the objects up to M68, published 1780 in the French almanac, Connoissance des Temps , for application essay 1783. M67 had been discovered earlier by Köhler, before 1779, while M68 was again subject to a misassignment to spanish essay grammar check, Méchain by Admiral Smyth. In May, 1780, Messier became a member of the Literary Society of Upsala, Sweden. Starting in late August 1780, Messier, together with Méchain, took a vigorous effort to catalog more nebulae. Messier's first two new discoveries, M69 and bad college essay, M70, just made it to literature and critical thinking, an appendix to essay, the Connoissance des Temps for 1783. By the essays on compensation, end of the year 1780, Messier had collected the entries up to M79, and discovered a new comet (1780 I Messier, on October 27), shortly after having missed another one, 1780II Montaigne-Olbers.
By April 1781, the list of nebulae and star cluster had increased to 100 objects. Hastily, three more objects observed by Pierre Méchain (M101--M103) were added without personal validation, to get the catalog ready for its final publication in the Connoissance des Temps for bad college essay 1784 (published 1781). Very shortly after publication, on May 11, 1781, Messier added M104 to his personal copy of the catalog, as well as positions for the hitherto undetermined objects M102 and literature writing and critical, M103. A look to Messier's personal matters shows that he had listed two more nebulae, discovered by Méchain and mentioned in essay, the catalog with M97, which are now known as M108 and M109. M109 deserves a closer look, as its identification is somewhat ambigous: Messier's coordinates point to two closely neighbored objects: The Declination coincides with NGC 3992 which had been identified as M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1953, its Right Ascension with that of NGC 3953 - the anethesist, object originally discovered by Pierre Méchain and here referred to as M109B, a fact uncovered only in bad college application, 2006 by Henk Bril; see our discussion on this topic. One of Méchain's discoveries of March 1781, M105, had been overlooked and spanish check, missed the bad college application, final catalog. Essay Grammar? Méchain discovered a further nebulous object, now M106, in July. Méchain also discovered his first two comets in 1781, on June 28 and October 9.
Meanwhile, Friedrich Wilhelm (William) Herschel, who was at that time astronomer (observer and telescope maker) and organist at bad college application essay Bath, England, had discovered planet Uranus on twelfth night essay, March 13. Messier got the note on April 14, 1781, one day after his last observing session for compiling his catalog, and immediately started observing it. He wrote to Herschel: It does you the more honor as nothing could be more difficult than to recognize it and I cannot concieve how you were able to bad college essay, return several times to this star or comet as it was necessary to observe it several days in reading writing thinking, succession to perceive that it had motion, since it had none of the usual characters of a comet. Application Essay? He passed his observations to the French president de Saron, who was a good mathematician, and was among the first to calculate that Uranus was a planet and and critical, not a comet, since its perihelion was too great (this result was obtained on May 8, 1781). Others, namely Boscovich, Lexell, Lalande and Méchain, obtained the same result, and application, confirmed that Uranus was orbiting the sun beyond Saturn's orbit. It may well be that this most exciting discovery has prevented him from further checks to clear up some of the mysteries around the latest objects in his catalog. Later this year, on November 6, Messier's work was unfortunately interrupted by an awful accident, when he fell into the ice cellar about 25 feet deep. Emerson On Compensation? He was severely injured, and it took more than a year for him to recover; he was up not until November 9, 1782. In the meantime, in application, April 1782, Méchain had discovered another nebula, which finally became the latest discovered Messier object, M107. Moreover, in August 1782, stimulated by Messier's catalog, William Herschel, assisted by his sister Caroline, began to observe deepsky objects. Herschel had received a copy on December 7, 1781, from his friend, Dr.
William Watson, which had been sent to them by Alexander Aubert. On September 7, 1782, William Herschel did his first original discovery of a deepsky object, the Saturn Nebula (NGC 7009), and in anethesist program, October 1783, after some research of bad college application essay, efficient observing techniques, he began his extensive deep-sky survey of the sky visible from in academic, England (i.e., the Northern sky), and cataloged 1000 deep-sky objects until 1786, and a total of over 2500 until 1802 (however, some of them don't exist, and some others had been discovered earlier). Three days after his recovery on November 9, 1782, Charles Messier observed a Mercury transit on November 12, 1782. On May 6, 1783, Pierre Méchain wrote an important letter to Bernoulli of the Berlin academy, which was published by Bode in the Astronomisches Jahrbuch for 1786, together with a translation of the Messier catalog. In this letter, among others, he communicated the last three objects discovered by him (now M105-M107), as well as his above-mentioned discoveries of M104, M108, and M109B. He also disclaimed the application, discovery of M102, thereby initiating a still open controversy on the identification of this object (i.e., if it duplicates M101 as Méchain claims, or may be identified with NGC 5866 which matches his description and - up to a reconstructable error in data reduction - Messier's handwritten position).
Messier resumed his assiduous observing activities as before, again concentrating on comets. He seems to and critical thinking, have used his personal copy of his catalog also for a number of years, but apparently did not invest great effort in further attempts to bad college application essay, find new nebulous objects, and not much work to improve the catalog further. This is perhaps because he knew of Herschel's survey, and as he couldn't compete in instrumentation, he may have lost interest: He probably was aware that future comet hunters could use Herschel's compilation also. However, there are a number of notable exceptions: His measurements of stars in the open star clusters Praesepe (M44) and spanish essay, the Pleiades (M45) in 1785, 1790, and 1796, a number of observations of about 1790 of bad college essay, nebulae and clusters marked by hand in his personal copy of the catalog, his corrected positions of 1790 for the Andromeda Nebula (M31) and its companion M32, as well as his 1795 investigations and drawing of the Andromeda Nebula (M31) and both its satellites M32 and essays, M110. Messier himself puts it on bad college, the large number of comets that appeared since about 1785 that did not permit much time for other observational activities. The Messier catalog was finally corrected by essays on compensation, identifying the 4 missing objects (or at least three of bad college application essay, them), and brought into triangle essay its current state by adding the late discoveries of Méchain, M104--M109, plus the bad college application essay, uncataloged discovery M110, only in the 20th century. Messier's comet search led to a further success on essay is important in academic communication, January 7, 1785, when he discovered comet 1785 I Messier-Méchain, when it was about 6.5 magnitudes bright; this one was visible for about 5 weeks. Méchain discovered another comet on bad college application essay, March 11, 1785, and a further one on January 17, 1786; this was the first apparition of comet Encke, the comet with the shortest known orbital period of only about 3.3 years. In 1785, Pierre Méchain became principal editor of the Connoissance des Temps . He served on this post until 1792, and was responsible for the publication of the emerson essays, Connoissance des Temps for bad college application essay 1788 to that for 1794. Some sources say that Messier was also appointed as associate editor of this publication in the same year, and reading writing and critical thinking, hold this post for five years until 1790, but the present author could not yet find evidence to confirm this statement. Both astronomers continued their successful comet search: Messier discovered a new one on bad college essay, November 26, 1788, while Méchain found a further comet on April 10, 1787, and discovered comet Tuttle when it appeared in on compensation, 1790, on January 9. Further academic memberships came for the Academy of Sciences of Dublin (1784), the Académy de Stanislav, Nancy, Lorraine (1785), and the Academy of Vergara, Spain (1788).
Meanwhile, the French Revolution had begun with the bad college, storming of the Bastille on writing is important in academic, July 14, 1789. These events may have intercepted attempts by Charles Messier to publish an updated version of his catalog: In his personal copy, he added notes on observaitons of nebulae and clusters in about 1790. Four years later, this culminated in essay, the Year of Terror in twelfth, France, 1793-1794. Essay? That year, the French King Louis XVI was guillotined on January 21, and Messier's friend, ex-president de Saron, on anethesist program, April 20, 1794, shortly after he had calculated the orbit of Messier's comet discovered on bad college, September 27, 1793, and Messier could notify him secretly that he had found the comet on the calculated path. The terrorism ended when finally Robbespierre himself was guillotined on July 27, 1794. Essay Writing In Academic? During that time, Messier lost his salaries and pension, and had to application, loan oil for his lamp from Lalande. Méchain was in Spain, employed in essay is important, surveying the meridian, where he discovered another comet in January, 1793, but his family lost their estate during this year. He left to Italy, and returned to Paris in 1795.
Together with Messier, he entered the new National Institute of Sciences and Arts , successor of the Academy of Sciences . Bad College Application Essay? As one of four astronomers, Méchain was also selected for the Bureau of Longitudes ; Messier followed him into this organization in June, 1796, after J.D. Cassini (Cassini IV) decided to leave. Messier discovered another comet on April 12, 1798. At that time, he apparently felt the essay is important, need to application essay, comment on his intention for compiling his catalog. Emerson Essays On Compensation? In the Connaissance des Tems for the year IX (of the French republic, i.e., 1800/1801), which was published 1998, he lined out: What caused me to undertake the catalog was the nebula I discovered above the southern horn of Taurus on September 12, 1758, whilst observing the comet of that year. This nebula had such a resemblance to a comet in its form and brightness that I endeavored to find others, so that astronomers would no more confuse these same nebulae with comets just beginning to appear.
I observed further with suitable refractors for the discovery of comets, and this is the purpose I had in mind in compiling the catalog. After me, the celebrated Herschel published a catalog of 2000 which he has observed. This unveiling the heavens, made with instruments of great aperture, does not help in the perusal of the sky for faint comets. Thus my object is different from his, and I need only nebulae visible in a telescope of two feet [focal length]. Since the publication of my catalog, I have observed still others: I will publish them in the future in the order of right ascension for application essay the purpose of making them more easy to anethesist nurse, recognise and for those searching for comets to have less uncertainty. As it came out, Messier never carried out application essay, this plan. In 1801, when the first asteroid, Ceres, had just been discovered by Piazzi on January 1, Charles Messier, now at an age of emerson essays on compensation, 71 (shown at about this time in this image), took part in an observing project of occultations of the mag 1 star Spica (Alpha Virginis) by the Moon, on March 30 and May 24.
Charles Messier did his last score in application essay, comet discovery on July 12, 1801, when he independently co-discovered Comet 1801 Pons; this brought the number of his comet discoveries to 20, 13 being original and 7 independent co-discoveries. He did some observations of the newly discovered planets (asteroids) of Piazzi (Ceres) and of Olbers (Pallas). Pierre Méchain lately became director of the Paris Observatory, a post he had for several years. But as he had been worrying about some latitude determinations in his longitude survey, he finally got Napoleon's permission to extend this survey to essay grammar check, the Balearic Islands. Bad College Application Essay? He left Paris in 1803. Program? After completing parts of this work, he caught yellow fever and bad college application essay, died in anethesist nurse, Castillion de Plaza, Spain, on September 20, 1804. In his older days, Charles Messier finally came to application, a certain portion of honor when Napoleon himself, in 1806, presented him the Cross of the Legion of Honor. In turn, the old man Messier ruined much of twelfth night love triangle essay, his scientific reputation by an elaborated memoir, devoting the great comet of bad college, 1769 to essays, Napoleon, who had been born that year; thus he became probably the last serious scientist who claimed that comets announce events on earth, or as Admiral Smyth put it: 'The last comet put astrologically before the public by an orthodox astronomer'.
In the time following, Messier did less and less observing, although he didn't completely cease, mainly because he suffered from decreasing eyesight. Thus he was unable to determine positions for essay the two comets of 1805 and essays on compensation, that of 1806. His observatory grew into bad college essay worse and worse state, with no funds to anethesist nurse, repair. The last comet Messier reports to bad college, have seen and observed, the positions measured with the essay communication, help of other observers, was the Great Comet of 1807. His last memoir, presented to the National Institute of essay, France, similar to his first of 1771, the first version of the Catalog of Nebulae and Star Clusters, was again a considerably important memoir on nebulae: his presentation of his 1795 observations and a drawing of the Andromeda Nebula M31, together with its companions M32 and anethesist program, M110. In 1815, Messier suffered a stroke which left him partially paralyzed.
After partial recovery, he attended one or two more academy meetings, but his everyday life became more and more difficult. In the night of April 11-12, 1817, Charles Messier passed away in his 87th year, in his home in bad college application, Paris. He was buried on April 14 on the cemetry of spanish, Père Lachaise in essay, Paris. Charles Messier has been honored lately by on compensation, the astronomical community by naming a Moon Crater (or even two) after him, situated on Mare Fecunditatis. Asteroid 7359, discovered on January 16, 1996 by bad college, M. Love Triangle? Tichy at application Klet Observatory, and essays, provisionally designated 1996 BH, was named Messier; it had already been observed previously, and designated 1978 WR14 and application essay, 1989 WT1. Already during his lifetime, in 1775, Messier's French fellow astronomer Jerôme de Lalande had proposed to name a constellation after him: Custos Messium . This constellation was formed from bordering stars of Cepheus, Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis. However, it was very short-lived and is longly extinct now. Anyway, the most obvious honor is certainly the literature writing thinking, still common naming of the Deep Sky Objects in his catalog after him, with their Messier number, e.g.
Messier 42 or M42 for the Orion Nebula, or M31 for the Andromeda Galaxy. Jean-Paul Philbert, 2000. Charles Messier. Bad College Application? Le furet des cometes. Editions Pierron, 2 rue Gutenberg, 57206 Sarreguemines, France. Adoption Persuasive Essays? In French. Special thanks to Jean-Paul for contributing data on Charles Messier's private life, in bad college essay, particular on Madame Messier. Owen Gingerich: Messier and His Catalog.
Sky Telescope, August and September, 1953. Reprinted in Mallas' and Kreimer's Messier Album . Kenneth Glyn Jones: Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters . Faber Faber, 1968; 2nd revised edition Cambridge University Press, 1991. Don Machholz: The Messier Marathon Observer's Guide. Make Wood Products, P.O.Box 1716, Colfax, CA 95713 (USA). Twelfth Night Triangle? 1994. Second edition: The Observing Guide to application essay, the Messier Marathon. A Handbook and Atlas. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, 1827. Histoire de l'Astronomie au dix-huitièmme siècle [History of Astronomy in the Eighteenth Century]. Bachelier (Successor of Mme. Ve. Courcier), Paris, pp. xxxix and 767-774. René Bourtembourg, 2012. On Compensation? Messier's Missed Discovery of Pallas in April 1779. Journal for essay the History of Astronomy, Vol. 43, No. Persuasive? 2, pp. 209-214 (May 2012) [ADS: 2012JHA.
43..209B] More online stuff on Charles Messier's life. Timeline of Charles Messier's life (part of our database) Account of Messier's Deepsky Observations (part of our database) Charles Messier's Comet Discoveries Charles Messier images, NGC/IC observers page Some Charles Messier info, Yann Pothier Shorter biography of Charles Messier The Astronomical Picture of the Day page for June 26, 1996 was devoted to Charles Messier's birthday (his 266th). Dead Link! Short biography of bad college, Charles Messier at JPL TIE. Dead Link!
Charles Messier: the grammar check, Man and his Catalog , by Dave Mitsky . Biography provided by the Astronomical Society of Harrisburg, located at essay the Museum of Scientific Discoveries, Strawberry Square, Harrisburg, PA. Literature Thinking? Charles Messier biography, Mark Miller.
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Physics 152: Homework Problems on Fluids. 1. Atmospheric pressure varies from application essay day to day, but 1 atm is defined as 1.01 x 10 5 Pa. Persuasive Essays. Calculate how far upwards such a pressure would force a column of water in a “water barometer”. (That is, a long inverted glass tube, the top end sealed and having vacuum inside above the essay, water surface, the bottom end immersed under water in a bowl of water, the other water surface in the bowl being open to adoption persuasive essays the atmosphere.) 2. The density of air at room temperature is about 1.29 kg/m 3 . Use this together with the definition of bad college application 1 atm as 1.01 x 10 5 Pa. to find the constant C in the Law of Atmospheres . Use your result to essays on compensation estimate the atmospheric pressure on top of the Blue Ridge (say 4000 feet), Snowmass (11,000 feet) and Mount Everest (29,000 feet). 3. As a practical matter, how would you measure the density of air in a room? Actually, Galileo did this in the early 1600’s. Can you figure out how he managed to do it? (His result was off by a factor of two, but that was still pretty good!)
4. A ball is floating in water, exactly half submerged, as shown in bad college essay, the diagram. Oil is now poured gently onto the water, so that it does not mix, but forms a layer above the water. The oil completely covers the ball. Is the center of the reading and critical thinking, ball now above, below or at the water-oil boundary? 5. A weather balloon is bad college application made of latex, filled with helium (but not stretched) so that it can just lift an instrument package of 10 kg., including the weight of the balloon. (a) What, approximately, is the volume of the balloon? (b) The balloon lifts the package slowly to a height of 6 km., where atmospheric pressure is one-half of that at anethesist nurse program, ground level. Assume (falsely!) that the air temperature is the same. How big is the balloon at 6 km.? (c) How does the bad college essay, lifting capacity of the balloon at 6 km compare with that at ground level?
( Note : actually these balloons can get to 30 km.) 6. I make salad dressing in a conical bottle, wide at the base, steadily narrowing up to the neck. I pour in 100 cc of anethesist vinegar, then add 100 cc of application olive oil. The oil is a layer on top of the vinegar. Then I shake it vigorously, so the two liquids are completely mixed together. How (if at all) does the pressure on the bottom after shaking differ from the pressure on the bottom before shaking? 7. Essay Writing In Academic. If an ice cube is floating in a glass filled to application essay the brim with water, what happens to the water level as the ice cube melts? Would your answer be the same if the check, ice cube were stuck to the glass and fully submerged? 8. Bad College. (a) State the on compensation, Law of bad college Atmospheres: the equation relating the emerson essays, density of air to height above the Earth’s surface. Bad College Application. (You don’t have to essays derive it, just state it.) (b) Given that the density of the atmosphere at 3,500 meters is approximately 2/3 that at sea level, sketch a rough graph of density with height up to 14,000 meters. (Take sea level density 1.3 kg/m 3 .) (c) In 1804, a French chemist, Gay-Lussac, went up in a balloon to about 7,000 meters to check the chemistry of the atmosphere.
The balloon was filled with hydrogen. Make a very rough estimate of the size of the balloon. (Guess Gay-Lussac’s weight, assume the balloon weighed three times as much as he did.) 9. A modern hot air balloon can weigh about 4 tons, fully loaded. The maximum operating temperature for the enclosed hot air is 120 degrees C. (Otherwise the nylon interior deteriorates rapidly.) Assume the essay, enclosed hot air is at 100 degrees, and the outside atmosphere is at zero degrees. If the balloon can just lift off, how big is it? 10. You have a solid metal cylinder, of height h , cross section area A , and density , standing on its end on a table. What is the pressure on writing thinking the table underneath the cylinder? Suppose you now heat the cylinder, and it expands by the same percentage in all directions (so the shape and proportions are unchanged), the height increasing to . What is the pressure on application essay the table now? 11.
Assume you are walking around underwater, breathing through a flexible plastic tube, the other end held on the surface by some floating object. The object is to estimate how far underwater it’s safe for you to go. (a) Assume first you are out of the water, lying flat on your back, with a weight evenly distributed across your chest. What weight would cause you difficulty in breathing? (b) Now, make a guess as to the area of your chest over the lungs, and deduce at what depth the water pressure on your chest would become dangerous. 12. Figure out what total area of essay grammar one tire of your automobile is in contact with the road when the vehicle is parked on level ground. 13. What is the approximate pressure your shoes exert on the ground when you’re standing still? Give a ballpark estimate for application, the pressure exerted by a woman balancing on writing is important in academic communication one high heel.
14. A beaker containing water is placed on a spring scale as shown. Next, a cork of mass 10 grams, and density 200 kg/m 3 , is gently floated on the water, not touching the sides of the container. (a) How does that change the scale reading? (b) A thin rod, of negligible volume, is now used to push the cork underwater, again without it touching the bad college application, container? Does that change the scale reading? Explain your reasoning. (c) What if the cork is held underwater by a thin string attached to triangle a small hook in the middle of the base of the container? What does the scale read in that case? Does the tension in the string play a role?
15. Bad College Application Essay. In a car going down a highway at a steady velocity, a child has a helium-filled balloon on a string, the balloon is at rest directly above the child, not touching the roof of the car. Now the driver accelerates. How does the balloon move? Explain your reasoning. 16. (a) Explain how a nonvertical jet can keep a beach ball in the air. (b) Write down your best guesses for the weight and size of the in academic communication, (very light!) beach ball, etc., then use them to make a ballpark estimate of the speed of the air in the jet holding the ball up. 17. In the flow meter shown, air flows from a pipe of cross sectional area 10 sq cm into one of cross sectional area 40 sq cm. The manometer contains water, the height difference between the two arms is 5 cm. What is the rate of air flow?
18. Application Essay. A large beer keg of height H and cross-section area A 1 is filled with beer. Communication. The top is open to atmospheric pressure. Bad College Essay. At the bottom is a spigot opening of area A 2 , which is much smaller than A 1 . (a) Show that when the height of the beer is h , the speed of the beer leaving the spigot is approximately (2 gh ). (b) Show that for the approximation A 2 A 1 , the rate of change of the height h of the on compensation, beer is given by. (c) Find h as a function of time if h = H at t = 0.
(d) Find the total time needed to drain the keg if H = 2 m, A 1 = 0.8 m 2 , and A 2 = (10 -4 ) A 1 . 19. (a) Write down the equation that defines the coefficient of bad college essay viscosity h . (b) By balancing dimensions on both sides of your equation, find the dimensions M ? L ? T ? of adoption persuasive essays h . (c) What are the dimensions of flow rate of blood through an artery? (d) What are the dimensions of the pressure gradient (pressure drop per unit length) in an artery? (e) Assuming that the blood flow rate depends only on the pressure gradient, the viscosity and the radius R of the artery, give a proof using dimensions, and showing all your steps, that the flow rate is bad college essay proportional to R 4 . (f) If plaque build up in an artery reduces its radius by 10%, estimate how much the blood flow is reduced if the blood pressure stays the spanish essay grammar check, same. 20. A simple hot tub has vertical sides, water depth one meter and application essay area 4 square meters. It has a drain at the bottom, a circular opening of radius 3 cm. When the plug is pulled, it drains gravitationally (no pump). (a) What is the speed of water flow through the circular opening right after the plug is anethesist nurse pulled? (Ignore viscosity: assume the water is flowing at this same speed over application the whole area of the opening.) (b) At what speed is the water level in the tub dropping right after the plug is pulled?
(c) How quickly is the level in essays on compensation, the tub dropping when the tub is half empty? (d) How long does it take for the tub to empty completely? 21. Suppose a mass m of fluid moving at bad college application, v 1 in anethesist nurse program, the x -direction mixes with a mass m moving at v 2 in the x -direction. Momentum conservation tells us that the mixed mass 2 m moves at ½( v 1 + v 2 ). Prove that the essay, total kinetic energy has decreased if v 1 , v 2 are unequal. 22. Using only dimensional arguments, derive the depth dependence of the steady flow of a wide river under gravity. (Note: The appropriate flow rate is cubic meters per second per meter of width of the river .) 23. Plot on a graph the velocity profiles for two rivers, one of depth h and one 2 h , having the same values of What is the ratio of the surface velocities of the two rivers? Suppose that one meter below the twelfth night triangle essay, surface of one of the rivers, the water is flowing 0.5 m.sec -1 slower than it is flowing at the surface.
Would that also be true of the other river? 24. Assuming the flow pattern in the diagram has the application essay, same proportions for different radii (so for a larger radius ball it’s the same pattern magnified), how does the literature, fluid velocity gradient near the “equator” of the bad college, ball change on going from a ball of radius a to one of radius 2 a ? (Assume the two balls are falling through the fluid at the same speed.) Argue that most of the viscous drag on the sphere takes place in a band surrounding the emerson, equator (so, a band shaped like the tropical zone on the earth). From this, make plausible that the bad college application essay, total viscous drag will be proportional to twelfth night love triangle essay the sphere’s radius, not to the square of the radius. 25. An aged professor vigorously cleaning a blackboard raises a cloud of application essay chalk dust that takes several minutes to settle. From this information, make some estimate of the size of chalk particles in spanish essay grammar check, the cloud.
Also state whether the drag force from the air on bad college application essay the particles is mainly viscous or mainly inertial (for air ). 26. Imagine a foggy day when the air is still. Actually, the fog is made up of tiny spherical droplets of water. The fog obviously doesn’t fall to literature reading and critical thinking the ground very fast. Use this fact to make some estimate of the probable maximum size of the droplets. 27. (a) A room freshener sprays out bad college application, a mist of program tiny water droplets (containing some odor neutralizer which has a negligible effect on essay the density of the droplets). It is claimed that the mist will stay in the air for triangle essay, 30 minutes. Assuming the air in the room is still, and neglecting possible evaporation from the droplets, figure out from this the approximate size of the droplets. (b) Justify any formula you use by finding a Reynolds number. 28.
After a storm, some rivers and lakes become muddy. Assume the mud particles have the bad college essay, density of writing and critical thinking ordinary rock, say 2500 kg per cubic meter, and application essay assume they are spherical to a good approximation. If the still water in a lake one meter deep takes two days for the mud to essay communication settle to the bottom, use Stokes’ Law to give a ballpark estimate of the size of the mud particles. 29. By staring at a fizzy drink, make some estimate of the size and speed of a typical bubble rising to the top. Pick the smallest one you can comfortably see and try to time its speed—or make an application essay, estimate. Persuasive. What, very approximately, is the bad college, Reynolds number for the flow of liquid around the bubble? Is the essay grammar check, bubble impeded in its rise mainly by viscous or by inertial forces? (Use the value of for water at essay, room temperature, =1mPa . sec.)
30. Estimate what would be the maximum height of a wall you could jump off and be pretty certain of landing without breaking anything (I’m not responsible if you try this!), and, from that estimate, figure out a reasonable size for the diameter of a parachute. 31. Check. Take the following simple model of a skydiver: suppose that as he falls, all the air is his direct path is deflected sideways just as if it bounced off him, imagining his downward profile to be V-shaped. Ignore viscosity. By making reasonable estimates of the size and weight of the skydiver, figure out his terminal velocity. 32. (a) Write down the definition of the Reynold’s number. (b) Give a ballpark estimate for the Reynold’s number for airflow around a car moving down the highway at 20 m sec - 1 on a day when there is bad college essay no wind.
(c) From your estimate above, how significant is the viscosity of the air in the drag force? (d) If we assume the drag force F only depends on the density of the air r , the dimensions of the literature reading and critical thinking, car a , and application essay the speed of the car v , show from dimensional arguments that F = C r a 2 v 2 , where C is a constant. (e) Take C = 0.2 and give an estimate of program this force for your car. Essay. You can take a value for in academic, r accurate to bad college application essay one significant figure. State clearly what you take for a 2 . (f) What power in kilowatts is the literature and critical, car expending in overcoming this drag force at 20 m sec - 1 ? (g) How much would this power go up if the speed were doubled? 33 . (a) Prove by a dimensional argument that the drag force on a falling sphere caused by pushing air aside has the form , where C is a constant, ? is the application essay, air density, a is the radius of the sphere, and essay v its speed.
(b) You are jogging a 7½ minute mile in light rain. Application Essay. There is no wind, the rain appears to you to be coming down towards you at a 45° angle. How fast is the rain falling, in mph and in night love, m sec -1 ? (1 mile = 1.6 km.) (c) For raindrops, the C in the formula in part (a) is approximately 1. Use this to application find the size of the raindrops in part (b). Anethesist. (Take air density = 1.3 kg/m 3 , g = 10 m.sec -2 .) (d) Find the Reynolds number. Was it OK to neglect viscous drag?
(e) Would you expect a different answer for raindrop size if you were jogging under identical conditions, and seeing the same angle of fall, but at a high altitude resort? Why?
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4 Essay Contests With Impressive Prizes: Win an bad college Inn, Farm or Movie Theatre. You can accomplish a lot with your words. You can earn a living, build a brand, even become location independent, all by wielding your writerly capabilities to engage, inspire and persuade. Twelfth Triangle. And thanks to a new trend, you can now also use your words to win a fully established business. Awarding a business to the winner of an essay contest is bad college essay, becoming a popular way for small business owners to find a next-in-line who will care for the company as much as they do. Persuasive Essays. It allows them to discover candidates who are passionate about the industry but might not be able to afford to buy the business, while also drumming up a little extra cash for the next stage of their lives. As a bonus, the publicity generated by essay contests with such huge rewards can be a boost for the business. If you’re eager to try your hand at running an application essay inn, farm or movie theatre, here are four appealing businesses you can win via essay contest. One of the nurse program, first contests to surface as part of this trend this year, the Main inn essay contest was announced when Janice Sage decided to retire after 22 years as innkeeper of Maine’s Center Lovell Inn and Restaurant.
She herself won the inn in an essay contest in 1993, so she opted to bad college, go the same route to reading and critical thinking, find her successor. What you can win: A BB worth $900,000 with seven guest rooms, 10 staff members and more than 100 dinner guests on busy evenings. Bad College. This isn’t for someone with zero experience who thinks running a bed and breakfast would be a neat hobby; you can expect to be on-duty up to 17 hours a day and must keep the inn and restaurant open for at least a year before you’re free to turn it into something else (if you choose). If 7,500 or more entries are received, you’ll also win $20,000 to put towards running the inn. How to apply: Submit an essay of 200 words or less on the theme, “Why I would like to own and adoption persuasive, operate a Country Inn.” Sage will choose her top 20 favorites based on “grammatically correct entries that show a passion for work;” from there, an impartial judging duo will select the winner “on the basis of bad college essay structure of essay (introduction, body and conclusion), creativity, thought and grammar check, the conveyance of capability and desire to operate a Country Inn.” Further contest details, including the entry form, can be found here.
Entry fee: $125. Bad College Application. If fewer than 7,500 entries are received, this fee will be refunded to adoption persuasive, you. Deadline: June 6, 2015. If you’d rather work with animals than people, check out bad college application essay, Leslie and essay is important in academic, Paul Spell’s contest to give away their goat farm, Humble Heart Goat Dairy Creamery. The Spells tried the traditional route of selling the farm, but they found buyers who seemed the most passionate didn’t have the application, funds to afford the asking price. So they took to literature writing, the internet to create an essay contest that would allow interested parties to win the farm instead. The Spells are also hoping to bad college application essay, raise enough money to pay off the rest of their mortgage; if they get $5,000 entries at $200 apiece, they’ll earn $1 million, enough to cover the mortgage and their retirement. What you can win: A 20-acre goat farm in Elkmont, Alabama, worth $345,000, including 85 goats and all farm equipment, plus training during the first half of essays November for anyone not familiar with the business of making goat cheese. If 2,500 eligible entries are received, the winner will also get a check for essay $20,000. How to apply: Submit an essay of 200 words or less describing why you are “the perfect fit to continue the farmstead goat cheese tradition.” The Spells will choose their top 20 essays, which will go on to a panel of three independent judges for final selection.
Further contest details, including entry form, can be found here. Deadline: October 1, 2015. Goats not your scene? How about a horse farm? Randy Silver and emerson essays on compensation, Carolyn Barry are giving away their Rock Spring Farm because they can no longer care for it themselves. Not only will an essay contest allow them to application essay, handpick who gets their farm, they’re hoping to is important, raise enough money through entry fees to bad college application, be able to retire comfortably and also start a fund for their grandchildren#8217;s education. (Five thousand entries at $200 apiece would net them a cool $1 million.) What you can win: A 35-acre horse farm in Essex County, Virginia, valued at $600,000, complete with a main house, rental cottage, cookhouse, several barns and a woodworking shed. Adoption Persuasive. And, of course, horses (and dogs).
How to apply: Submit an essay of 1,000 words or less “describing your desire to live in a rural area and own a hobby farm.” (If you postmark your essay on or before July 1st, it can be up to 2,000 words.) Silver and Barry will choose their top 25 essays, which will go on to a panel of judges for essay final determination. Further contest details and anethesist, a link to the entry form can be found here. Deadline: October 1, 2015. Bad College Application Essay. Rob Newton has owned the anethesist, Cape Ann Cinema and Stage in bad college Gloucester, Massachusetts, since 2008. In that time, he developed it into an “arthouse cinema” that hosts filmmakers, offers a performance stage and allows guests to enjoy great independent and foreign films in a comfortable setting. Now he needs to step away to emerson on compensation, focus on his health and family, so he’s using the bad college application, essay contest format to find a new owner and raise some funds for other community cinemas. What you can win: A majority share (75 percent) in and critical Cape Ann Cinema and Stage (a local steward will own the other 25 percent) and a “first option” to buy the steward out at any time.
You will receive a lease for the property, all equipment and furnishings, for a total value of $150,000. If 750 entries or more are received, the winner will also get a $20,000 check. If between 500 and 749 entries are received, the winner will get a $10,000 check. How to apply: Submit an essay of no more than 250 words on the theme, “Why I Want to Own and Operate a Small Seaside Cinema.” Newtown and his management team will choose their top 20 essays, which will then go on to two impartial judges for final determination. Entries will be judged “on the basis of structure of essay (introduction, body and conclusion), creativity, thought and the conveyance of capability and desire to operate a Community Cinema.” Further contest details and a link to the entry form can be found here. Entry fee: $99. If fewer than 500 entries are received, entry fees will be refunded. Deadline: June 30, 2015. If you hear about any other interesting essay contests, share them in the comments so we can all benefit! And if none of these are a good fit, consider entering one of bad college these 27 free writing contests. Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and is growing her own freelance writing, editing and blogging empire day by twelfth essay, day.
You can follow her on Twitter and Facebook and bad college essay, hire her services here. Emerson On Compensation. Free-writing is a simple method to unleash your words onto the page. This workshop, led by Cynthia Morris, kickstarts your writing habit with daily prompts. Application. Hi, it seems like the deadline for literature reading the first contest is bad college application essay, not June 6, 2015 but May 30th. Okay, but they#8217;re not exactly #8220;giving away#8221; the properties, are they? Giving away the horse farm for a hoped-for 5000 entries at $200 gets them $1M, as mentioned above, which would seem to be a great improvement over selling the property which is admittedly only worth $600,000. Gambling $200 for a 1 in 5000 chance of getting it is a little rich for my taste but more power to them, as it may suit some people with money to spare for such a long-shot. Similar idea to essay in academic communication, the lottery. I won#8217;t be entering. Better odds than a lottery!
Odds of dying from choking: 4404 to 1. Odds of bad college application dying in and critical thinking a car accident: 272 to bad college, 1. Odds of twelfth night triangle essay winning the lottery: 18 million to 1. Odds of writing a NYT bestseller: 220 to 1. Odds of bad college winning a property in an essay contest: Abt. 5000 to persuasive essays, 1. The difference is the bad college, random, accidental nature of the anethesist nurse program, previous 3, whereas, the odds associated with writing are about skill. I#8217;m in. Application. The odds of winning are not #8220;5000 to 1.#8221; In fact, the odds here cannot be calculated at all since this is a skill contest and not a sweepstakes.
The winning essay will be the one judged to be the best, with absolutely no regard as to how many entries there are. Odds can only be calculated for sweepstakes, not for true contests. Well.. Reading And Critical. If your counting the horses and essay, live stock your making out prettying good.. Thank you for thinking sharing. really appreciate. This is an exciting new trend. We are running an Essay Contest to WIN our business! Prize: The entire prize will be shipped from Gig Harbor, WA to the winner free of cost anywhere within Continental United States.
The prize includes The Badgers Den inventory and equipment to application essay, include 2 pavilions, a 12’ enclosed utility trailer, merchandising displays, inventory, e-commerce website, social media accounts, and essay writing in academic, a check for $10,000 + 25% of the GoFundMe Reserve. https://marlindollarhouse.wordpress.com/ is another one. This looks like a nice historical home in bad college essay Marlin, TX. You could write an essay and win Newstead Farm. A 1.5 million dollar 58 acre farm in Central Virginia with 6,000 sq/ft brick manor house. Send SASE to emerson, Newstead Farm, PO Box 45, Cartersville VA 23027 for official entry blank and rules. Limited to bad college application essay, 7,000 entries. I found your post at spanish essay grammar the perfect momentI was writing about the jump from tradition to selling houses privately and romantically via essay contests! Thank you, I included a link to your blog in mine.
Now, on to that goat farm contest#8230;https://julestorti.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/we-sold-our-house-on-facebook/ Win this Appalachian piece of Heaven in southeastern Ky. with an bad college application essay and entry fee. Click the link to learn more. Love. Do you know any contest for bad college application essay 2017? You#8217;ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writer’s Pitch Checklist.
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Key: Words or phrases italicized are used to focus on emerson essays essential concepts or terms for enhanced learning and retention. https://bigpictureone.wordpress.com/tag/david-a-johanson-historian/ Will The Next Jet Airliner You Fly Be Obsolete, And Ready for Early Retirement? This multimedia essay examines the essay evolving financing strategies and technological developments affecting older generation commercial aircraft. An eLearning program for secondary/post secondary education and community learning. Assessment tool: A quiz and answer key is anethesist nurse, located at the end of the program. Learning content covered: aerospace/airliner— aerospace engineering, avionics, economics business, environmental footprint, financing, manufacturing, marketing, obsolescence management, technology. Bad College! Learning concepts used: Applied Learning, Adult Learning, Competency-based Learning, Critical Thinking, Integrative Learning. Key: Words or phrases italicized are used to focus on essential concepts or terms for enhanced learning and retention. [ Disclaimer: David Johanson is a former Boeing scientific photographer and currently has no stock holdings or a financial interest in: Boeing, Airbus or any other companies referenced in this program. Research in this article has been cross referenced using at least three sources, however, all perspectives and opinions represent only the viewpoints of the nurse author.] https://bigpictureone.wordpress.com/2014/04/22/the-environment-our-earths-lost-frontier/ The Environment, Our Earth’s Lost Frontier. A photo essay dedicated to the environment using photos from editorial and bad college essay industrial photo assignments.
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STEM solar physics undergraduate content, extensive photos, resource links. [ contact -form ] [contact-field label='Name' type='name' class=GINGER_SOFATWARE_correct/] [contact-field label='Email' type='email' class=GINGER_SOFATWARE_correct/] [contact-field label='Website' class=GINGER_SOFATWARE_correct/] [contact-field label='Comment' type='textarea' class=GINGER_SOFATWARE_correct/] [/contact-form] The Unworldly Splendor of Oregon’s Painted Hills. If you would like to essay see an alternative format in the graphic design of some of the essay following multimedia presentations, please see our new site at— http://ScienceTechTablet.wordpress.com. Photo/video and spanish essay grammar check text by: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights. The sun had just set as I arrived at my friend’s condominium on Lake Washington near Seattle.
Rick was loading camera equipment into his SUV, Ford Escape — a gasoline-electric hybrid, which holds the honor of being one of the bad college essay first American-built hybrids. We had a long drive ahead, which required us to literature reading writing thinking drive all night before reaching our destination in the high desert of Central Oregon. It was a cool, but clear, May evening, as the essay SUV climbed steadily up to Snoqualmie pass. After cresting the Cascade Mountains we descended into a dryer, warmer Eastern Washington. Essay Is Important! After a few hours of driving the glow from a near full moon was illuminating the desert sagebrush outside the town of Goldendale on the Columbia River. Our adventure to John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, was planned to coincide with a full moon for illuminating the surreal Painted Hills. Rick and bad college application essay I use digital cameras, featuring full-sized image sensors and fast optical lenses, which are ideal for anethesist, capturing low light environments. Taking the opportunity to harness some moonlight as it rose above the Columbia Gorge, we made a stop to photograph wind turbines. These wind gathering monoliths, heavily populate this section of bad college essay Washington and Oregon. The site is ideal for wind farms, due to persuasive essays the wind tunnel conditions created by compressed airstreams forcefully moving through the constricted Gorge. Standing next to a colossal tower is a strange experience.
These massive wind catchers are the largest machines you’ll probably encounter on land. And the eerie sounds caused from wind moving massive propeller blades takes some time getting use to. Driving on the Washington side of the Columbia River and bad college application essay continuing into Oregon, you see legions of wind turbine sentinels as they constantly harvest the restless winds. It takes an hour of driving south on the highway before we see fewer and then suddenly… no steel towers flanking our drive. Now what I become aware of is not seeing any cars traveling in either direction of nurse a deserted looking highway. Eastern Oregon’s vast size can’t be appreciated unless you spend some time touring its sprawling, unpopulated counties.
After traveling all night and encountering some falling snow as the hybrid SUV started ascending the essay road to the high desert—we finally entered into the realm of the primeval Painted Hills. Emerson Essays! It’s totally dark now that the bad college moon had set hours earlier, cloaking the adoption desert from our view in all directions. Fatigued from hours of driving, we pull into a remote area to catch a couple of hours of sleep before our video and bad college application essay photography expedition can begin. The John Day Fossil Bed National Monument is organized into three Units; the grammar Painted Hills is the application essay third Unit, which contains 3,132 acres of wildlife, plants and some unusual geology. The following morning was a like waking up in anethesist nurse program some eye-candy dreamland. The colors just popped out at you like viewing a TV monitor, with the hue saturation cranked up high. Stunned by the startling beauty, I grabbed my video camera on a tripod and application essay began shooting panorama footage. Twelfth Love Triangle! Attempting to capture the bad college essay details of the environment, an persuasive, external microphone was used to record the outburst of chattering songbirds, which had woken up to announce the beginning of a new day. My first impression was of being overwhelmed by sensory overload — it was challenging to take in all the colors, sounds and bad college surreal shapes of the textured topography. What I was seeing, appeared to be out of this world — like viewing some futuristic post cards of a terraformed Martian landscape.
What I remembered from earlier road trips to anethesist program the Southwest, was how striking the Painted Desert in Arizona was — that location now seemed pale in comparison to application essay the Painted Hills. What makes the geology of emerson on compensation this site so vivid is the bad college saturated colors, caused by a series of volcanic eruptions, taking place over millions of years. Essay Writing Is Important In Academic Communication! The accumulation of application layers of ash, dust and clay mixed together from relentless years of erosion to form the hills of strata of emerson essays colors, like some massive layered cake. What remains buried beneath the volcanic soil is a time-capsule preserving the fossilized carcasses of mammals and plants, which lived in the region during the Cenozoic Era —the Age of Mammals . This era began roughly 65 million years ago, so this National Monument is a target rich environment for paleontologist studying fossils from that era. After I shot about an bad college application, hour worth of video from the spot from the spot I started from, it was time to scout other dramatic locations. Not too far into reading writing and critical thinking our drive we spotted a family of bad college application graceful antelopes, casually grazing in a large field.
Apparently, from essay grammar talking with one of the NPS Rangers, this National Monument is teeming with indigenous wildlife including: bears, cougars and eagles. Latter in the afternoon we stopped at essay, the side of a gravel road to take in essay is important in academic communication a stunning view of one of the larger hills at the site. The clouds above were opening and closing like a massive shutter on a spotlight — producing lighting effects which were irresistible. Essay! We set up tripods along with our video and still cameras to begin shooting right away. Shortly after we setup shop, a ranger pulled up close to the SUV and was intently watching us. And Critical! Rick and I shrugged as we looked at each other with a shrug, thinking perhaps we had unknowingly parked in a restricted area.
Eventually the ranger introduced himself, he had the impression we were part of a National Park Service video crew, which was schedule to be doing work at the Monument. We were invited to join his walking tour with a group of photographers into a restricted area of the Painted Hills. As it turned out, this special photography tour only takes place one weekend out of the bad college entire year —when the John Day chaenactus (a bright yellow wild flower) begins to bloom, then as quickly as it appears—it begins to emerson essays fade away. The photographer’s tour was visually fantastic and bad college application essay can only persuasive be experienced under the supervision of an NPS Ranger. The plant life is so fragile here, you’re only allowed to walk inside a dried out creek bed while touring this area. The Ranger was gracious enough to allow me to interview him about the site. Application! Wind is check, common and unpredictable in this high desert area, so I came prepared with a wind guard on my microphone; but I did experience a few audio dropouts, hopefully you’ll be able to hear the main message clearly enough. Later that evening we photographed the landscapes using a full moon for our lighting. Application! I’ve never seen greater clarity of the twelfth triangle stars and moon from this high desert environment, which created a great backdrop for an unearthly landscape. We photographed throughout the night until the light of predawn appeared. At a little over 2,000 feet in elevation, the high desert can produce cold, bone-chilling weather and as mentioned—windy conditions.
I recommend warm clothing and gloves to help keep your hands comfortable from wind-chill. For photography, the application essay higher altitude is a great benefit, especially for optical clarity if your focus is on night photography of stars and landscapes. I definitely plan to go back to the Painted Hills as soon as possible… it’s a dreamlike setting I have rarely experienced, which captivates the persuasive senses, with its splendor of stunning colors contained within an essay, unworldly environment. Here’s a link to literature and critical thinking National Park Service’s John Day Fossil Bed National Monument: http://www.nps.gov/joda/index.htm. chronicles of the everyday. Movie, Photos, Writing, Stories, Videos, Animation, Drawings, Art and bad college Travel.
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Essay: Marketing strategies – Tesla Motors. Tesla Motors is an American automobile company that designs, manufactures and application essay, markets electric cars and electric power-train components. The company was founded in 2003 by a group of emerson essays intrepid Silicon Valley engineers who set out to prove that electric vehicles is the way of the bad college future in this era of high energy costs. 1. Research and write a brief history of the company, it mission and vision statements. History: Tesla Motors was founded by a group of Silicon Valley engineers, who set out to prove that electric vehicle is future. The first Tesla car ever to hit the roads was ‘The Tesla Roadster’ in early 2008. This car had a range of going from nurse program, 0 to 60mph in 3.7 seconds and it travelled 245 miles per charge. ‘Model S’, a premium sedan was then launched in 2012, which had few modifications over the earlier Tesla Roadster. Model S received numerous praises with, including ‘Car of the year’ award and a 5-star rating from the ‘U.S. National Highway Safety Administration.’ Tesla Motors is all set to launch ‘Model X’ which would be a crossover utility vehicle with style. Tesla’s aim is to work with other car manufacturers and application essay, bring more electric cars on road.
Tesla is anethesist program working towards making increasingly affordable electric cars and making it available to the customers. Vision: Tesla’s vision is to ‘Create to create the most compelling car company of the bad college 21st century by driving the world’s transition to electric cars’. Mission: Tesla’s mission statement is to “Move from emerson essays on compensation, a mine-and-burn hydrocarbon economy towards a sustainable, solar electronic economy”. 2. Identify the key elements of Tesla’s marketing strategy with reference to the 4 Ps and essay, discuss the marketing management orientation(s) that guide the company y’s marketing strategy. Tesla is a very expensive car which costs about $100,000 or more.
Tesla is using very creative marketing strategies to flip over the auto industry business model. Following are the key elements for Tesla’s marketing strategy: a. Thinking! Limited Production/Price: Tesla is known most for the innovative technology i.e. ‘Green Tech Business’ and essay, manufacturing excellence. Tesla Motors make very limited quantity of cars, and the major cause for that is hidden in Tesla’s Mission Statement. They don’t see themselves to be a mass-builder car company until next decade. For now, Tesla’s production plan is literature writing thinking not to reach household of every single family, which is also their ultimate goal. The reason for that being first, it’s a relatively new company, and hence the costs for cars are much higher. Tesla is planning to launch Model X, that would be somewhere between $55,000 and $70,000, but the average would be higher, as there would be other competitions available in the market. Tesla is planning to launch a Sedan by 2017/18 which would cost around $35,000.
The second reason is that Tesla has a gigafactory – a lithium ion battery plant under construction in bad college application essay Nevada, which would be fully operational by 2020. The current production scale of Tesla is 200,000 cars a year even if they push, but with the gigafactory in place, they would be able to produce 500,000 cars a year. b. Persuasive Essays! Promotional Strategies: Tesla’s promotional strategies involve the following elements: Gasoline v/s Electric: The first and foremost tool for their promotion cannot be anything other than their innovation, which is generating an Electric car. It is impossible for the manufacturers to bad college application essay, stop explaining the advantages of electric cars, over nurse, the traditional cars. And it doesn’t compromise the application essay luxury, the speed, or the safety. In fact, it is essays one of the application essay best cars. Direct-to-Customers Sales: Tesla’s one of the major marketing strategies include selling the cars directly to the customers in stores owned and operated by them. Tesla Motors sells very expensive electric cars and reading writing and critical, hence its marketing plan involves direct-to-customer sales.
But this strategy of Tesla has not been completely successful. Automobile dealers were not amused with this strategy, as they have no chance to earn profits from the sales of a new car or the trade-in process. Tesla is bad college battling in separate states legally to get a direct-to-customer sales access. They have direct access to the customers in states like New York, Massachusetts, Virginia, North Carolina, Minnesota, Georgia, and Ohio. But they still hold a ban for direct selling in states such as New Jersey, Texas, Colorado, and Arizona. Service Coverage: Service is very important for customer, and thinking, Tesla is well aware of that. That’s why they have opened more Tesla Service Centers in United States then Stores and Galleries combined. Tesla has Service Centers even at the places where they don’t own a store, to bad college, ensure that their customers have access to Tesla certified technicians.vi. c. Place: Customers buy cars in a very traditional way.
They already decide what car they want to buy. The only thing that matters is negotiating the spanish price with the bad college application essay dealer. Tesla, which is emerson a new car maker company, thought that they would have a very rare opportunity on educating their potential customers about their car model if they placed their car in a traditional auto dealer gallery. That was the reason why, Tesla decided to position the stores and gallery locations at high foot traffic, high visibility retail venues, like malls and shopping streets that people regularly visit with an open-minded buying mood. The product specialist at these places is skilled to answer about the electric cars in general. The sole agenda is to have the customers enjoy the experience of visiting, so they want to come back. Their stores are designed to be informative and interactive.vi. 3. Essay! Discuss customer relationship management and identify strategies that Tesla uses to anethesist program, create value for customers in bad college essay order to capture value back from them. 4. Describe the major trends and forces that are changing the anethesist automobile marketing landscape and how Tesla is taking advantage and/or trendsetting in the automobile industry. The four megatrends that will shape the future of the automotive industry are: Geopolitical change and Regionalism: The world now is multipolar with different economic and social models.
In terms of GDP, it has been estimated that by 2025, China will be the 2nd largest in bad college essay terms of economy and purchasing power, with a current growth rate of 8% annually. US will still be the strongest economy will almost double the GDP of twelfth love China. And, India will hold the 3rd place with the current GDP of 7% annually. Also, there is essay a group of heterogeneous countries known as ‘Next eleven’, which in future will join the essays on compensation group of biggest economies, as per their current growth rate. The car sale by 2025 in N11 countries is expected to show a rise of bad college essay 70% compared to just 42% in the triad countries. However, the essay is important communication increase of car sales in BRIC countries would remarkably be at 111% compared to bad college essay, N11 and writing, triad countries. Regionalism is another important aspect which is on rise, and bilateral trade relations are expected to bad college essay, become more important. Hence, Governments are increasingly influencing automotive industry, by implementing mechanisms such as loans, incentives and premiums.
After the emerson essays on compensation economic crisis of 2008/09, countries have introduced protectionist measures, which are disguised as environmental tariffs. One such example is control on CO2 emission, which can have different target levels at different geographical and political locations. This mechanism cause, extra costs for non-domestic automotive companies while favors the domestic automotive companies. Sustainability: Sustainability is a very important part of public debate. People are more aware of words like ‘Global Warming’ and ‘CO2 footprint’ then they were ever before.
One of the sectors that will play a huge part in CO2 emission will be transport (29%). Hence, this will impact the automotive industry, where customers expect sustainability and bad college application essay, environmental friendly technology from this sector. This can also be a good way for premium brands to display their innovative edge. Evolution of mobility: With the population growth and increase in economy, the adoption persuasive essays overall levels of car ownership will rise by 2025, as the time spent on bad college application mobility has almost remained constant over anethesist program, past decade and is expected to remain same in near future. In Future, travel growth globally will be dominated by, light duty vehicles, air travel and more importantly public transport.
Due the application essay rising desire of car ownership in BRIC nations, low cost cars have been launches in anethesist program past few years which are enjoying a remarkable success. One such example is Tata Nano, which was launched in India in 2009. It is the cheapest car on bad college application essay the Earth. It already got its market share of 2.2% by 2010. In contrast, if the trends are to be observed, it is evident that de-motorization will soon took place.
The current students from various parts of anethesist countries and rank the car a lot below the other interests, such as laptops, communicating devices, music players, video games etc. Bad College! Also, the survey results from Germany show that preferences in younger population are changing. Person owning a Premium car is perceived to anethesist, be a self ‘centered and materialistic. Application! Bikes and e-bikes are considered more attractive, in Germany and essays, Shanghai than the carpools or public transport. Hence, there is an overall shift in bad college application essay the buying pattern in the consumers toward smaller cars in terms of body and engine. Also, for triangle essay the developing countries the important factor is fuel efficiency. Changing technology: It’s a high time that automotive industry brings in wider range of technology. This will serve different usage patterns arising due to mobility shift and change in regulations. Oil, Natural gas and biofuel still being at the top positions, electricity is expected to bad college application, grow strongly. Nurse! The major growth for EVs will be in China with the current share of 10%. One of the application most important technological trends in adoption persuasive essays recent years has been Internet.
It has helped in globalizing the world. This trend is essay expected to continue, with it being a major driving force behind increasing the share of electronic related components in vehicles. The other important trend is mobile connectivity which is very important for night love essay the automotive industries, as mobile devices now can access the web directly for bad college online navigation services. Writing! As the consumer demand is changing, they want mobile devices to be unified seamlessly into information backbone for their vehicles. Tesla is surely taking advantage if we consider the shift in trends towards automotive companies. China is an bad college emerging marker and the sales are growing with the product consumption skyrocketing. Tesla is expecting the same rise in spanish essay check the sales of their car in China. As per bad college essay, the public records, around 14,000 electric cars have been purchased by motorists in adoption persuasive essays China, which is a growth of 30% compared to last year. China plans to populate their highways with electric cars in application near future, and Tesla is seeking to twelfth love triangle essay, be a part of this growth.
Environment sensitivity is increasing and it is bad college getting important for the countries to become green, and China been taking effective measure in doing so, the twelfth love essay CEO of Tesla believes that China can become the largest purchaser of their product in several years. Also Tesla is taking advantage of application essay Technology in their cars; they signed a contract with ATT Inc. to provide high speed wireless services to its vehicles. With the latest merge with the ATT technology, Tesla Cars now allow two way connections of service such as road side assistance and stolen vehicle location. These cars also provide internet services, in-built navigation and essay in academic, entertainment services on essay a touchscreen installed in a car. Tesla I believe is also trend setting, by allowing their competitors to use their patent for their technology.
It shows that they are socially aware as well, and actually want to make electric car as the adoption persuasive future car. Some companies produce no zero emission cars at all. Tesla believes they cannot meet the challenge alone and hence has opened the patents for in hope of spurring further innovation and adoption in EV market. 5. Where would you place Tesla within the competition? Market leader? Challenger? Follower? Explain.
Tesla has positioned itself as a challenger brand. Tesla has provided a successful electric car offering in US market and is now approaching globally. In April 2014, Tesla was number 3 in luxury brands after Mercedes and VMW in California. Tesla conquered this position by essay, making a few powerful enemies. The car dealership market is also not very pleased, as they Tesla doesn’t have dealership networks and their showrooms are in retail malls. It is even possible that petroleum lobby might not be happy with them as well. They are a challenger brand, because they are loud, aggressive and often cast the stone first. They always ensure that they are in anethesist program headlines. They will spin and attack their competitors, because they know that these market leaders won’t retaliate back because of their status and being accused of bullying. They have amazing product, and their success is has acclaimed that people should copy their approach to application essay, marketing.
Tesla is heading fast towards being a market leader. The built up of Gigafactory will surely increase the production of the cars. Also the new innovations in emerson on compensation battery with high efficiency will produce higher volume of electric cars. Tesla is putting full effort in creating innovative changes to its cars. They are also making efforts in marketing and attracting the customers. That is the reason Tesla is bad college future if car industry. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Anethesist Nurse! Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of application expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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