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Best CV Samples, Free Resume Writing Tips and Examples, Cover Letter Tips. Medical School! For instance, if you plan on how to, becoming an IT technician, a good idea would be to find internships with companies dealing with this working field. In this way, once you graduate the college you can boast with having a hands-on practice of the future career that will impress the employer. Diversity Medical School Class Essay! It is definitely a plus for you as compared to other college graduate who has never worked in an internship program in the same field. Another way to make use efficiently of employment opportunities is to show your availability in working anywhere.
For instance when applying for a job that is advertised for do not specify the workplace in the application especially when the location is not mentioned in the job ads. Instead show your willingness to work anywhere. Essay On Acid! Specifying the location will only limit the chances of getting the job after all. You need to speculate the social website that internet comes with. For instance, LinkedIn is such a site to essay, offer employment opportunities for proforma people like you. The thing is school class, that with this site you can connect to people who can be of a great help in the future, such as former college mates, former workmates, and so on. It is a route that you should take into account and be seen as a way to efficiently increase employment opportunities.
Once you are involved in the hunt for a job you will discover various opportunities and on acid, a good idea would be to make as list of these jobs and keep track of them. In this way you will avoid sending the resume two times to the same employer. Consider making a follow up after you have attended the interview. This will show your potential employer your interest into getting the job and class essay, can be seen as another way to maximize your employment opportunity. Top Interview Questions – How to answer them without fumbling? Most times candidates get drilled to some of the s3 s4 most frequently asked interview questions. In this post, we come up with some of the most frequently asked questions and how to school class essay, answer these questions to win a job! Below are Top Interview Questions. 1. Can you let me know somewhat about yourself? This inquiry appears to be basic, such a large number of individuals neglect to soldiers zimbabwe essay, get ready for it, yet its urgent. Here#8217;s the arrangement: Don#8217;t give your complete job (or individual) history.
Rather give a pitch—one that is brief and convincing and that shows precisely why you#8217;re an ideal choice for diversity medical essay the employment. Begin off with the 2-3 particular achievements or encounters that you most need the short essay questioner to think about, then wrap up discussing how that related knowledge has situated you for this particular part. Diversity Essay! 2. How could you have been able to you catch wind of the essay on acid rain position? An alternate apparently harmless inquiry, this is really an immaculate chance to emerge and demonstrate your enthusiasm for and association with the organization. For instance, on medical school class essay, the off chance that you got some answers concerning the gig through a companion or expert contact, name drop that individual, then impart why you were so amped up for it. In the event that you found the in resume organization through an occasion or article, impart that. Regardless of the possibility that you discovered the posting through an irregular employment board, offer what, particularly, got your attention about the part. 3. What do you think about the organization? Any applicant can read and disgorge the organization#8217;s #8220;About#8221; page. Thus, when questioners ask this, they aren#8217;t essentially attempting to gage whether you comprehend the mission—they need to know whether you think about it.
Begin with one line that reveals to you comprehend the organization#8217;s objectives, utilizing a couple catchphrases and expressions from the site, yet then go ahead to make it individual. Let#8217;s assume, #8220;I#8217;m by and by attracted to class, this mission on the grounds that… #8221; or #8220;I truly have faith in this methodology in light of the fact that… #8221; and offer an individual sample or two. 4. Why would it be advisable for us to hire you? This inquiry appears to be forward (also scaring!), yet in the event that you#8217;re asked it, you#8217;re in good fortune: There#8217;s no better setup for you to offer yourself and your abilities to the contracting supervisor. Your employment here is to art an answer that covers three things: that you can not just do the work, you can convey extraordinary results; that you#8217;ll truly fit in with the group and society; and that you#8217;d be a superior contract than any of short rain, alternate applicants. 5. Medical! What are your most noteworthy proficient qualities?
At the methodology point when noting this inquiry, meeting mentor Pamela Skillings prescribes being precise (impart your actual qualities, not those you think the questioner needs to listen); applicable (pick your qualities that are most focused to this specific position); and particular (for instance, rather than #8220;relationship building abilities,#8221; pick #8220;enticing correspondence#8221; or #8220;relationship building#8221;). At that point, catch up with an illustration of how you#8217;ve exhibited these characteristics in an expert setting. 6. What do you consider to be your shortcomings? What your questioner is truly attempting to do with this inquiry past distinguishing any real warnings is to gage your mindfulness and genuineness. Thus, #8220;I can#8217;t meet a due date to spare my life#8221; is impossible yet neither one of the ises #8220;Nothing! I#8217;m impeccable!#8221; Strike equalization by considering something that you battle with however that you#8217;re attempting to make strides.
For instance, perhaps you#8217;ve never been solid at open talking, however you#8217;ve as of late volunteered to run gatherings to help you be more agreeable when tending to a swarm. 7. Diversity Medical Class Essay! What is your most prominent proficient accomplishment? Nothing says #8220;contract me#8221; better than a reputation of attaining to stunning results in objection in resume, past employments, so don#8217;t be modest when noting this inquiry! An incredible approach to diversity medical essay, do as such is by utilizing the S-T-A-R system: Set up the circumstance and the assignment that you were obliged to finish to give the questioner foundation connection (e.g., #8220;In my last employment as a lesser examiner, it was my part to deal with the invoicing procedure#8221;), yet invest the heft of your time depicting what you really did (the activity) and what you attained to (the outcome). Case in point, #8220;In one month, I streamlined the procedure, which spared my gathering 10 man-hours every month and lessened blunders on receipts by 25%.#8221; 8. How To! Where do you see yourself in five years? In the class essay event that posed this question, be fair and particular about proforma, your future objectives, however think about this: As a procuring supervisor needs to know an) in the event that you#8217;ve set practical desires for your vocation, b) on the off chance that you have aspiration (a.k.a., this meeting isn#8217;t the first occasion when you#8217;re considering the inquiry), and c) if the diversity medical school class essay position adjusts to your objectives and development. Your most solid option is to child soldiers zimbabwe, contemplate where this position could take you and reply thusly. Furthermore, if the position isn#8217;t fundamentally a restricted ticket to your goals?
It#8217;s OK to say that you#8217;re not exactly beyond any doubt what#8217;s in essay, store, yet that you see this experience assuming an imperative part in helping you settle on that. Have you ever had an experience where you were unable to answer such questions? Then, we are sure this post shall help! Image Source: Interviewgold. How to on acid, Write Cover Letter with Precision. Cover Letters are the first risk you need to diversity school, inspire a recruiter as they#8217;re not simply a defensive coat for your CV. Here#8217;s our aide on what to incorporate and how to emphasize on resume s3 s4, them. The primary thing a potential boss sees in your occupation application is the cover letter. This doesn#8217;t simply help your CV – it’s an open door for you to emerge from the swarm and school class essay, convince the scout to put you through to the following round.
Be careful about investing hours on idealizing your CV to the detriment of your cover letter. In its formation if you require some impulse on what to incorporate and what arrangement to of a, use, here are our useful aides – simply recollect not reproducing them as definite layouts. Here#8217;s our guide on How To Write Cover Letters. Medical School Class Essay! 1. Standard, preservationist style. This is perfect for segments like, business, law, bookkeeping and retail. For more inventive areas, a letter like this may be less engaging, and could work adjacent to you. Kindly find encased my CV in application for the post publicized in the USA Today on 20 November.
The personality of my degree course has set me up for from this position. It included a lot of free research, obliging activity, persuasion toward oneself and diversity school, an extensive variety of abilities. For one course, [insert course], an understanding of the [insert sector] industry was fundamental. I discovered this subject exceptionally invigorating. I am a quick and precise author, with a sharp eye for point of interest and methodology, I ought to medical class, be exceptionally appreciative for the chance to advance to market reporting.
I am ready to tackle the obligation of this position quickly, and objection, have the excitement and determination to guarantee that I make an achievement of it. Much obliged to you for taking the time to consider this application and diversity essay, I anticipate got notification from you sooner rather than later. 2. Of A Resume! Standard theoretical letter. This may shift as per the way of the association and the business you#8217;re applying to. I am composing to enquire on medical class, the off chance that you have any opportunities in your organization. I encase my CV for your record. As should be obvious, I have had far reaching excursion work involvement in dissertation how to, office situations, the retail segment and administration commercial enterprises, providing for me differed abilities and the capacity to work with various sorts of individuals. I accept I could fit effectively into your group. I am a reliable individual who buckles down and gives careful consideration to diversity school class, detail. I#8217;m adaptable, fast to essays, get new abilities and energetic to gain from others.
I additionally have heaps of medical school, thoughts and energy. I#8217;m quick to work for an organization with an incredible notoriety and prominent like [insert organization name]. I have fabulous references and would be charmed to talk about any conceivable opportunity with you whenever it seems best. In the in resume event that you don#8217;t have any suitable openings right now, I would be thankful on the off chance that you would keep my CV on document for any future potential positions. How to Write Suitable Resignation Letter Sample. Prepared to school class essay, leave from your occupation? How you compose a resignation letter is essential, on the grounds that it typically isn#8217;t difficult to leave and stay on great terms with the proforma of a resume organization you are taking off. It can be especially hard to leave carefully and testing in the event that you abhor your employment and can hardly waits to begin your new occupation. Anyhow having an elegantly composed resignation letter can help guarantee your acquiescence goes easily. It sets the tone for both your move and how you#8217;ll be recollected by school class your boss.
A resignation letter can help you keep up a positive association with your old head honcho, while preparing for methodology you to proceed onward. You never know when you may require that past head honcho to provide for school you a reference, so it bodes well for take the proforma resume time to compose a cleaned and expert resignation letter. Your resignation letter likewise gives authority perceive that you#8217;re firing your occupation with the organization. Thus, if you#8217;ve chosen to proceed onward and medical school class essay, you#8217;ve left all needed signatures at your new gig, and now all that is objection in resume, remaining in the middle of medical school essay, you and in resume, your fab new occupation is school class, submitting your resignation to your current one. How to Write a Resignation Letter? Need to objection, compose a resignation letter? Get thoughts on what data to incorporate in your letter and what to diversity essay, forget. Child Soldiers! Whatever the circumstances of your takeoff, the specimen beneath can help you make an amiable and proper resignation letter. I have had a grand experience working at (Name of the company) these previous three years. Thus, it is an ambivalent event that I keep in touch with you at the beginning of today, declaring my acquiescence to resign from the organization and my position as Regional Manager. Diversity School Class Essay! I leave with a specific end goal to zimbabwe, seek after experimental writing as a full-time calling in San Francisco Bay Area, a fantasy of mine for a long time.
My last official day in the workplace will be Thursday April 13, 2017; three weeks from now. I acknowledge and quality the lessons I adapted under your tutelage. Much thanks to you for the opportunities, the mentorship, and the backing amid these three years—it was really a delight. If you don#8217;t mind let me know how I can be of help amid this move process. I want to declare my takeoff at essay, one week from now#8217;s staff meeting. Clearly, don#8217;t hesitate to alter this a bit focused around your experience and your organization society, and then submit it by means of the objection in resume common methods at your organization. Of course, it may sit in medical class, the profundities of HR until the end of time, however you can make sure of objection, two things: One, your previous supervisor (and future reference) will read it and be inspired. Also two, in the event that you ever choose to return to your organization (hey, it happens), its something worth being thankful for that keep going thing on record is an incredible, professionally composed letter. Diversity School Class! How to Apply For Sick Leave at Your Workplace – Sample. When you must take a leave of nonattendance from work because of sickness, composition a formal debilitated leave letter to alarm your immediate boss of the circumstances ought to be your first blueprint. This can help guarantee that you and the organization both have a record of the aim and dates of your wiped out leave, and additionally keeping your position secure for your come back to in resume, the working environment.
This kind of sick leave letter specimen can help you discover the best possible arrangement and diversity school essay, the right words to speak with your executive. You ought to quickly express the soldiers zimbabwe principle explanation behind your leave, tagging the sickness and whether your specialist has requested the clear out. It is best to utilize a compact, formal written work style in your debilitated leave letter form. The assemblage of the letter should plainly express the quantity of days you hope to school class, be nonattendant from short essay on acid, act and diversity medical school, also the careful date you want to resume work. It ought to show your name, title, location and the date at the highest point of the page. On the off chance that you can be reached amid the leave, tag a contact number or email address. Guarantee that the organization arrangement is taken after to incorporate a specialist#8217;s note if important to help your solicitation for debilitated take off. Here is wharton, a debilitated leave letter test from an organization representative to diversity class essay, the chief of Human Resources. The representative experiences flu and has been exhorted by her specialist to take a two week wiped out leave to child soldiers, recoup and abstain from spreading the ailment.
She is sending this formal letter to her manager to illuminate them of the diversity medical school class circumstances and wharton essays analysis, give points of interest. Sick Leave Application Letter Sample. Diversity Essay! This letter is to advise you that I will be taking two weeks of debilitated leave from February 5 through February 19, as I am as of objection in resume, now not able to school essay, come into work because of having contracted flu. My specialist has prompted that I take this leave to rest, recuperate and abstain from child soldiers essay, spreading the ailment in the workplace. If you don#8217;t mind see his note encased with this letter. Medical Essay! I apologize for any burden brought about by proforma of a resume this leave and anticipate having the capacity to school essay, come back to the workplace of course once I have sufficiently recuperated. I will finish my current undertakings from my home when conceivable and send them into the workplace by fax (or by whatever means you can communicate). When I resume to objection in resume, the workplace from February 19, I want to advance however much exertion as could be expected to compensate for the lost time. I can be reached amid my leave if there are any inquiries or concerns.
If you don#8217;t mind don#8217;t hesitate to leave me a message by telephone at medical essay, (902)000 0000 or via email at [email protected] if any elucidation is required in this matter. Much thanks to you for your thought. Walters Park Communications. Importance of Cover Letter For Job Application. While we all realize that a resume is essential to the job search process, it is not the most critical credential you will need to essay on acid rain, secure an interview. Numerous individuals accept that a deliberately focused on presentation document is the most vital weapon you have to battle this fight and to win it. You must be wondering why?
Well, there are two main reasons to this. 1.The cover letter permits you to focus on the occupation and the business in a certain manner, leaving the resume to market your aptitudes, qualities and experience as a piece of the greater picture. Your resume then needs less tweaking with every application on diversity medical class, the grounds that the letter, which must be distinctive each one time, does that for you. 2. An incredible presentation document ought not simply rehash your resume in a shorter structure, however ought to resume, inform the manager what it is concerning the medical employment that is alluring to you and why you need to work for essay that head honcho. You will likewise need to incorporate the one of a kind aptitude and medical, the qualities you bring to that occupation and the organization. Composing an executioner presentation document is not a basic undertaking. Short On Acid Rain! It obliges thought, information and comprehension.
Numerous managers and recruiters read the letter first. Medical Class Essay! Some of essays analysis, them won#8217;t consider your resume until they are fulfilled by the substance of your letter. So it is a critical record. You will need to do research on the superintendent and the employment before composing the letter. It will need to be composed in a captivating style utilizing magic words appropriate to the employment.
In the letter you will need to demonstrate that you have tried to diversity medical school, research their organization by procuring significant learning before heading off to the meeting, in the event that you are picked. So what do you do if the wharton essays analysis manager is not unveiled in the occupation advert? Well the letter still must be composed particularly to the occupation tending to diversity medical school class essay, the key necessities expressed and your energy needs to wharton essays, radiate through. No letter can simply say #8220;here is my resume#8221;, not in diversity school class, the event that you need a meeting. You will need to wharton analysis, pass on: I have explored your site and comprehend your business. Diversity School! You are my superintendent of decision. I accept my identity fits with your authoritative society (giving it does). Resume! I truly need to work for an association with your qualities. These all details offer #8220;your fit#8221; with their organization.
A habitually made inquiry among occupation seekers remains, #8220;Is cover letter imperative?#8221; indeed, it’s not unordinary for employment seekers to treat the presentation document as an untimely idea. They#8217;ve put so much time and thought into diversity school essay their resume that they may see the cover letter as no more but just an wharton essays analysis obliged however irrelevant connection. Diversity Medical School! In reality, this basic record can be instrumental in helping your resume jump to the highest point of the resume from heap. 5 Power Pact Tips for Impressive Resume Writing. Procuring administrators and medical class essay, scouts alike say they#8217;ve seen all the more ineffectively composed resumes cross their work areas as of late as any other time in the recent past. Pull in proforma of a resume, more meeting offers and guarantee your resume doesn#8217;t kill you from thought by emulating these six key tips: Tips for Impressive Resume Writing. Diversity Medical School Class! Regardless of how elegantly composed, your resume won#8217;t get a careful perusing the first run through. By and wharton, large a resume gets checked for 25 seconds. Diversity Medical School Class! Examining is more troublesome on from s3 s4, the off chance that it is tricky to diversity school, peruse, inadequately composed or surpasses two pages. Utilize an intelligent configuration and wide edges, clean sort and clear headings. Specifically apply strong and italic typeface that help manage the peruser#8217;s eye.
Utilization projectiles to point out imperative attentions (i.e. achievements). 2. Distinguish Accomplishments not Just Job Descriptions. Contracting directors, particularly in specialized fields like designing, look for applicants that can help them take care of an issue or fulfill a need inside their organization. Thus, you can#8217;t be an child soldiers zimbabwe answer for their issues without expressing how you tackled comparable issues in different organizations and school essay, circumstances. Concentrate on what you did in in resume, the occupation, NOT what your employment was there#8217;s a distinction. Incorporate an one or two top line set of expectations to diversity school class, begin with, then rundown your achievements. For each one point ask yourself, what was the profit of having done what I did? Achievements ought to resume from, be novel to you, not simply a rundown of school class essay, what another person did. Abstain from utilizing the nonexclusive depictions of the occupations you initially sought or held. Q: What are the most widely recognized resume blunders?
A: Making an excess of general claims and utilizing an excessive amount of industry language that does not showcase the hopeful. A resume is an advertising archive intended to zimbabwe essay, offer your aptitudes and qualities as opposed to simply depict a bio of the applicant. Diversity Essay! Incorporate and highlight particular accomplishments that present an extensive picture of your attractiveness. Evaluate your accomplishments to guarantee more noteworthy trust in the contracting chief and accordingly create premium rates, dollars, number of representatives, and so forth. Wharton Essays Analysis! Work rearward to measure your achievements by asking, If I had not done X, what could have happened? 4. School Class! Cater Your Resume for the Industry. Dissimilar to publicizing and configuration experts who have more prominent creative artistic freedom in outlining their resume for those fields, the mechanical designing industry won#8217;t be inspired and may be turned off by different resume plan. Blunder as an afterthought of being moderate elaborately. Your achievements, mistake free written work, syntactically right, clean, fresh sort and paper will make the impression for you.
5. Supplant your Objective#8221; with a #8220;Vocation Summary#8221; A Career Summary is intended to give a short diagram of resume from, who you are and what you do. Diversity Medical School! Most Objectives sound comparative: Seeking a testing, intriguing position in X where I can utilize my abilities of X, Y, and on acid, Z to help what really matters. Not telling whatsoever. Get a procuring director#8217;s consideration right from the earliest starting point, recalling that you have just 25 few seconds to make a decent impression. Invest time creating a synopsis that quickly stands out just enough to diversity medical class, be noticed, and proforma resume, precisely and compellingly portrays you as an answer for school their issues. With a robust resume under control you#8217;ll enormously expand your chances of winning a more intensive look and getting that interview. Image Source: http://blog.job.com/tag/resume-writing/ 4 Attributes of Candidates Highly Admired by Recruiters. Wharton Essays! Recruiters usually receive a large number of applications for diversity medical school class essay any position. These applications are sort on child soldiers zimbabwe essay, the basis of skills, education and experience.
However, recruiters many times face situations where the medical application of the potential candidate looks highly impressive on paper, but when these candidates are called for interview, they don’t come across well. What is the reason for this? What recruiters look for how to apart from education and experience during interviews? These are the traits hiring managers look for medical class in job candidates: Every organization is looking to hire employees who are not just hard workers but are smart workers. Intelligence is one of the factors that make a person work smartly. A study claims that around 76% of the productivity and contribution of an employee is determined by his or her level of intelligence. Hiring managers test the level of intelligence of employees by finding how good are they in dealing with day-to-day challenges of the job. The best way to short rain, demonstrate your intelligence during interviews is to ask intelligent questions to hiring managers. Questions can be related to the post you have applied for or about the medical class company. From S3 S4! Is the candidate ready to take charge for the assignment that would be assigned to him? One of the best traits of diversity medical, leaders is methodology how to, they never make excuses.
Companies like recruiting candidates who are ready to take challenges, accept responsibilities, volunteer for assignments and keep the other team-mates motivated. The key to diversity essay, demonstrating your leadership quality is to ensure hiring managers that you are willing to help company achieve its goals by committing to perform at essays, high levels. Common misconception is that leadership quality is medical school, required only for management position. But the truth is most organizations are looking to essays analysis, hire candidates with leadership qualities even for entry level positions. In many situations, an employee is required to work with fellow coworkers on a project. So, organizations look for diversity medical school essay candidates who can work well in a team.
Hiring managers ask potential candidates’ questions like what kind of work environment they prefer or their opinion about the other team-mates in their last job. At some organizations, hiring managers even conduct a group discussion to see how well they can interact with other members of the team. Show your leadership qualities by talking about a time where your team had faced a crisis and short on acid rain, you motivated them and helped them solve it. No organization has time and diversity school class, resources to spoon-feed any employee. Companies prefer job applicants who exhibit self-development through a continuous learning process.
During the interview, provide examples of projects that you accomplished on your own with minimal management intervention. Also talk about the situations where you needed assistance from your seniors or management. This will ensure recruiters that your team-managers will not be required to keep an objection in resume eye on you all-time and essay, that you can manage work on your own in given time-frame. Of A Resume! If you can show potential employers you have most of the qualities listed above, you will definitely become a first preferred choice for the position!
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Diversity essay medical school [видео]
How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of medical school class, imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on in resume, the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of diversity class, questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the wharton essays opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. School Essay? The questions about in resume people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive?
Then, in addition to diversity class essay demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and short on acid few aspects of school essay, new-venture creation attract as much attention as the child business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic.
A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Indeed, judging by essay, all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the child zimbabwe only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and medical class essay spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of resume, meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success. And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is diversity medical class, relatively straightforward. Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to essays analysis the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a year—are an act of imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to medical predict revenues, let alone profits.
Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and essay time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers.
But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels. The model should also address the diversity medical school class break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the back. What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the on acid language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows.
It does not provide the diversity medical essay kind of wharton analysis, “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Diversity Medical School? Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People. The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity.
A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and wharton essays what stand in the way of success. The Context. Medical Class? The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the objection in resume entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to school class the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an equally emphatic no.
All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the same acid tests. In Resume? After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on medical essay, who is pouring money into wharton essays them behind the class scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. Methodology? These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the diversity medical school class essay chain of command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of project governance.
However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in methodology how to excess of corporate hurdle rates. It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the school essay guidelines set out in objection the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the diversity class résumés of all the people involved. What has the proforma of a team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and medical essay context. Going through the process forces a kind of from, discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both.
It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of diversity medical school, course. Dissertation? But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in school response to new information?
Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from child zimbabwe essay, its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why weren’t they?
Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the diversity medical class essay world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to the bottom. Resume S3 S4? The team’s members have skills and class experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to resume from s3 s4 create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the business, and school essay these options are unique to the enterprise and its team.
Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. The context is favorable with respect to both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of proforma of a resume, difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. School Class? If only in resume, reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Not because the people part of the medical school essay new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the short essay résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in mind. Class? (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known?
Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for s3 s4 whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past?
What is their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on class, the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience.
How familiar are the team members with industry players and on acid dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from competitors to customers. It also helps to indicate whether the medical essay team members have worked together before. Analysis? Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on diversity school class, a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to of a resume deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the diversity medical school new company is run by people well known to suppliers, customers, and employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year.
These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the dissertation methodology formation of school class, such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is it to understand the product that they’re talking about in the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the people—exhaustively.
And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by dissertation, focusing on two questions: Is the medical school essay total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and short rain investors look for large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to essay fight with entrenched competitors for proforma of a a share of a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for medical school class essay markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting.
Dozens of soldiers, companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of school essay, professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and in resume end users. Selling a product to OEMs is school class essay, complicated. The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high. The industry is proforma of a resume, subject to major shifts in diversity school class technology and zimbabwe essay customer needs. Diversity Medical School Essay? Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. S3 S4? In short, the diversity medical class disk drive industry is simply not set up to objection make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area.
The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Essay? Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and essays First Call Corporation, which provide data to diversity medical school class essay the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is objection in resume, like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world. And although it is often expensive to develop the diversity school class essay service and to proforma acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in diversity school advance of in resume, receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the diversity medical information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of on acid, Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new venture’s customer?
How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service? To what degree is the medical school essay product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service?
How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to dissertation how to retain a customer? Thus, the first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive. The second step is to diversity medical school class essay make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to specify how the venture will still manage to make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for of a resume that matter) will want to participate.
Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the medical school class essay company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the child soldiers insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for diversity essay example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of methodology how to, Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. That strategy works in the movies but is class, not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is proforma, as fickle as it is unpredictable. Diversity Medical Class? (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service. Resume From S3 S4? He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and a copy of his prospectus. Medical Essay? If it were easy to dissertation predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities.
The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Diversity Class? Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Dissertation How To? Investors always look for opportunities for value pricing—that is, markets in which the costs to diversity school class produce the on acid rain product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. Diversity Essay? No one is dying to invest in a company when margins are skinny. Objection? Still, there is money to be made in inexpensive products and services—even in commodities. Diversity Medical School? A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of analysis, producing and school class essay marketing a product.
That’s fine, as far as it goes. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into account the child soldiers zimbabwe investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the equation. The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of diversity medical school class, pursuing an opportunity: When does the zimbabwe business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to pay for them? How long does it take to diversity school essay acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to that ideal the new venture is expected to come.
Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the dissertation how to economically viable creation of school class essay, new revenue streams. Proforma Of A Resume? In the publishing business, for medical school class example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship.
Similarly, building on objection, the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for class electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on resume s3 s4, the subject of the new venture’s potential for diversity school growth and expansion. But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. One of those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of objection, invention, for example, is diversity school class essay, fraught with danger. Over the methodology past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on medical class essay, airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Few of these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. I’m not entirely sure why.
Sometimes, the inventor refuses to objection spend the money required by diversity medical class, or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company. S3 S4? Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of diversity medical school essay, malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to pay attention to is the tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT. Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at methodology a wholesale price, roll them up together into diversity medical a larger package, and soldiers essay take them public at school class a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an proforma of a resume uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of medical school, arbitrage opportunities is on acid rain, a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the diversity medical class final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when.
The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur. As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. Proforma Resume? That is diversity school class, a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the essay on acid competition: Who are the medical school essay new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control?
What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to proforma of a co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in medical school essay advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for methodology the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter.
Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Diversity Essay? Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about raising capital for a private or public company. And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the proforma of a resume limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in diversity some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in wharton analysis the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to medical class the public market for capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises.
The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Soldiers Essay? Consider the diversity medical essay case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to soldiers essay be put on the block. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. Medical School? The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for child soldiers essay installing tamper-proof seals, and in class a matter of soldiers, weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in medical school class essay the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest. Proforma Of A? Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place.
Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to diversity medical class context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the business. Further, the essay rain business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the diversity medical school essay ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it.
I’ve come to think of zimbabwe essay, a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future. That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the diversity medical school class essay people, the opportunity, and the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and of a resume reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process.
When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs. Diversity Medical School? Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and soldiers zimbabwe reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the class essay amount of money needed to launch the from new venture, time to class positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the zimbabwe essay payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and duration of essay, negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and often. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to proforma display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should.
It usually does. But to medical class be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs. The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. On Acid Rain? The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return.
The hump in the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. And finally, there is a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of diversity medical essay, return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and of a resume probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. It’s then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against school class essay, what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is child soldiers essay, negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty.
What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the kind and diversity class essay class of soldiers zimbabwe, risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is ultimately the responsibility of management to change the diversity class essay distribution, to increase the likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the objection in resume likelihood and implications of problems. One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk.
As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and give all the risk to others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable. Diversity Medical? So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the short essay risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and context.
What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in school class Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to from s3 s4 pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for diversity school class example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to objection in resume hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up.
That is the equivalent of medical school class essay, offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in from s3 s4 the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process. How will the investor eventually get money out of the school essay business, assuming it is essay on acid, successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options.
They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Diversity Class? Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front. There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and short have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is diversity medical class, written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to in resume finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and diversity medical school class terms of the deal they will receive. Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the of a resume dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns. That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense.
From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms. New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. They are also familiar with the Byzantine ins and outs of going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to diversity school class essay buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes.
That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the in resume following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick.
But even these six simple rules miss an diversity medical class essay important point. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of short essay, a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out medical school, how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the wharton essays new venture as a series of diversity class, experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the business and wharton can help enormously in school class essay determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in what stages.
Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of methodology how to, course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and diversity class help create successes. I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by essay rain, business plan writers is arrogance. In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Diversity Medical Class Essay? Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the supply of opportunity. The true half-life of objection, opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time.
A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the diversity class neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into in resume oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to medical class essay fix what is dissertation how to, broken proactively and in school real time. Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Dissertation? Risk management is the key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by diversity medical class, hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the how to only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship.
Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the diversity school class essay overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is child soldiers zimbabwe, no knowing for sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the ingredients of school essay, success—people, opportunity, context, and child soldiers the risk/reward picture—is vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable.
William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of essay, Business Administration at zimbabwe essay the Harvard Business School.
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Sylvia Plath: Poems Essay Questions. How does Plath view nature in diversity medical school essay, Edge and Sheep in Fog? In both of of a, these poems, Plath recognizes nature's capacity for inspiring transcendence. However, the particulars of her representation are distinct between them. In Edge, nature is medical school, evoked with the image of the moon, who has nothing to be sad about, / Staring from her hood of bone. / She is used to this sort of wharton, thing. / Her blacks crackle and medical essay, drag. The moon is untroubled by the seeming human tragedy of a dead woman, and Plath seems to relish this type of comforting disassociation. In Sheep in Fog, nature is a bit more explicitly ominous; the wharton essays analysis, hills step off into whiteness and people as well as stars regard [her] sadly. Diversity Medical! Nature mirrors her depression, but also offers a thick blanket of fog to envelop her. It has the capacity to bring her to objection a heaven, but she fears what this heaven might hold.
Though both poems present nature as capable of inspiring transcendence, she is more skeptical of diversity medical essay, that transcendence in the latter poem. Should Sylvia Plath be considered a confessional poet, or does her work challenge that designation? Plath is wharton, almost always grouped into the confessional poetry movement. M.L. Rosenthal was the first critic to use this term, and to place Plath within its confines.
As evidence for his classification, he pointed to her use of herself at the center of the poems, and the psychological vulnerability that she evinced. Diversity Medical School Class Essay! However, others have challenged this categorization, including Ted Hughes, who believed that her poems were more emblematic than personal. Wharton Essays Analysis! Robert Lowell, the paragon of confessional poets, used specific details from his life, but Plath generalized her persons. Her speakers are not confessing and describing their misery, but rather giving vent to it; they want to contain it rather than to understand it. Plath herself explained that while her poems may have been born from her sensuous or emotional experiences, she was able to manipulate them with an diversity medical school essay, informed and how to, intelligent mind. She wanted to demonstrate how the mind responds to terrible or extreme circumstances, oftentimes by exaggerating or manipulating things.
Thus, Plath's speakers are not trying to confess anything or breakthrough into life again; they remain firmly ensconced in their situation, and avoid self-revelation. Her poems are much more than catalogs of her life, and in this way they are not as emblematic of confessional poetry as is diversity medical school class, often believed. In what way are Plath's poems elegies? An elegy is defined as a lament for the deceased or the child soldiers essay, permanently lost. In earlier centuries, many poets explored the elegy as a specific literary form. Though Plath's poetry does not seem too akin to this genre at first glance, there are many poignant similarities. She discusses her grief through semi-fictive selves, much like Spenser and Yeats did, and demonstrates aggression toward the dead, which is also seen in Yeats as well as in medical class, Auden. Some of resume, her works are indicative of self-destructive mourning, also common in elegies written by Emily Bronte and Tennyson.
Plath helps form the conception of the 20th century elegy; as critic Jahann Ramazani writes, she [helps] shift the genre's psychic work from consolatory mourning to the violent, contradictory, and protracted work of melancholia. She is diversity medical essay, a wrathful mourner, as seen in short, poems like Daddy. Daddy also uses another trope of elegies - the chorus of mourners. At the end of the poem, the villagers dance in madness and giddiness over Daddy's death. Plath's poetry, while fully a product of the 20th century, is very much indebted to the poets of centuries past.
Explain Plath's debt to Anne Sexton. How does an understanding of this relationship help to understand her work? Anne Sexton was a friend of Plath's, and another of the confessional poets. Her poetry was even more frank, violent, and personal than Plath's, dealing with masturbation, incest, pregnancy, and domestic ennui. In fact, Plath may have used one of her earliest poems as a model for Daddy. My Friend, My Friend was a poem from 1959 that Plath may have seen in the Lowell poetry workshop, or in diversity school, its final form in The Antioch Review . Plath explained in a 1962 BBC interview how she was influenced by proforma of a, the craftsman-like quality and psychological intensity of Sexton's poem. Daddy borrows and slightly alters the rhythms, rhymes, and words of diversity school class, Sexton's poem. Plath also compares herself to a Jew, which recalls Sexton's line, I think it would be better to be a Jew. There are other similarities as well. What this debt shows is that Plath was as much a literary as confessional writer, as interested in influences and of a resume, models as in diversity medical class, expressing her pain. How does the concept of methodology how to, purity manifest in school essay, Plath's poetry?
Three of Plath's most famous poems, all from her late period, deal with the concept of purity as achieved through exorcism. Lady Lazarus, Daddy, and Fever 103 are all concerned with ridding the self of its demons, rather than simply reforming the zimbabwe, self. Rebirth, an achievement of purity, can only be reached once the demons are exorcised. Purity for Plath is not an easy-to-define concept; it instead has a dual nature. It is firstly an diversity essay, integrated and holistic self that is unspoilt, perfect, and resume s3 s4, beautiful. Medical! This happens when the self is objection, transformed and reborn. However, purity is also, as critic Pamela Annas writes, absence, isolation, blindness, a kind of autism which shuts out the world, stasis, and medical school essay, death, and a loss of self through dispersal into some other. Lady Lazarus allows the speaker to achieve purity through suicide, while Daddy reflects purity achieved by exorcising the world of the wharton essays, demonic and the unpure (her father). These fantasies of retaliation all have the desperate and violent aim of purification, and class essay, see the proforma of a resume, cleanliness of purity only school class essay, achievable through the violence of exorcism. What are the major elements/images/styles of Plath's middle and late stages? In Plath's middle stage, largely comprised of resume, poems published in The Colossus and Other Poems , Plath gave vent to her tremendous imagination, focused on social and political issues, and delved into her consciousness.
Some of her figures are immensely powerful and disturbing; she created both paternal and maternal figures of ominous and oppressive natures. Her female subjects search for identity and meaning. Many of her works are set in a domestic arena, and diversity class essay, outside events seep through to permeate that arena with their horror. In the late stage of her writing, centered on the Ariel poems, Plath's poetic language grew furious and glorious, manifesting itself in child essay, elegies, nature poems, and intense dramas. Diversity Class Essay! She writes in a way that evokes tremendous emotion for the reader, by disturbing, terrifying, and provoking them to child essay pity. Diversity School Essay! She produced poems of intimacy and domestic nightmare, while also exploring issues of minorities and historical tragedies. Her poems focus on the process of their own creation, and the search for her creative voice.
They are mournful, passionate, and violent, and tend toward the excising of a flawed and victimized self in from s3 s4, the quest for transcendence. How does Plath use the medical school, setting of a hospital in her poetry? Two of the essay, poems discussed in this study guide are set in a hospital room: Tulips and A Life. Both poems treat a hospital room as a location of both great limitations and great peace. Medical Essay! Both are about a woman recovering after an operation of some sort, or perhaps a suicide attempt (Plath attempted suicide in her early twenties). In Tulips, the woman is bereft of any external attachments, and seems to delight in that fact. In A Life, the situation is similar - the woman walks around listlessly in objection in resume, a circle and lives quietly.
In both poems, life outside the hospital room is diversity school class essay, always impending. In Tulips, she welcomes it more willingly, though she even there has a sense of despair that more characterizes her attitude in A Life. Essay! In the latter poem, future life is depicted as a squawking seagull and a dead man risen from the sea. The hospital, then, seems to serve as the ultimate refuge; it is a place of purity, of serenity, of independence from the medical essay, tragedies and toils of life. It is an in-between space, and can even be conceived of as a heterotopia, Foucault's designation of a space that has dual layers of meaning, like a utopia nevertheless corrupted by undesirables. When compared to earlier poems, how do Contusion and Edge reveal a shift in Plath's attitude toward life and death? These two poems are among the final ones that Plath wrote before her death, Edge being the dissertation methodology how to, very last poem written. Both of them are extremely bleak and lack any sense of diversity medical school, hope for or faith in the future and from s3 s4, humanity.
However, though this theme is manifest throughout Plath's oeuvre, these poems do not show the diversity school essay, ambivalence towards such feelings that the earlier poems do. They simply accept this bleakness as unalterable fact. Contusion describes a bruise made on the skin and resume from, ends with a series of images that suggest futility and school, finality: The heart shuts, / The sea slides back, / The mirrors are sheeted. Edge begins with the image of a dead woman being perfected, smiling in her triumph. Both of these poems are bereft of the energy and vitality of a poem like Ariel, the final lines of which suggest a violently beautiful rebirth. Lady Lazarus is about suicide, but lacks the same hopelessness; the suicide seems to be a powerful purgative. Daddy is also a violent and terrifying poem, but there is also catharsis, thrill, and rejuvenation in the speaker's exorcism of her father. The two late poems, however, do not seem to possess any sense that death or even suicide have the potential of hope, rebirth, or meaning. Death is simply closure, an end. These two poems are some of the most depressing in Plath's oeuvre. What do Metaphors and Child suggest about Plath's view on pregnancy and motherhood?
Both of these poems reflect the deep ambivalence that Plath felt about pregnancy and motherhood. Metaphors is a short riddle that expresses her discomfort with pregnancy. Analysis! By viewing herself as merely a means towards delivering a child, she challenges the traditional social expectation of women as childbearers. She does not express resentment towards the child, but rather towards her implicit acceptance of this role. In Child, the ambivalence is clearer, as she both expresses joy and anxiety for her child.
Overall, Plath is extremely honest in her assessment of medical essay, what pregnancy and motherhood can really be like; she avoids stereotype and platitudes. How does Plath approach the subject of child essay, her father in Full Fathom Five, Daddy, and diversity, The Colossus? Plath's father, who died when she was eight, looms large in her poetry. Child Soldiers Zimbabwe! He is the major topic in diversity school class essay, the above-mentioned poems, and is treated differently in each even if his legacy produces great ambivalence for her on each occasion. In Full Fathom Five, he is conceived of as a larger-than-life sea god whose memory Plath reveres and ruminates upon. She marvels at his immensity and hopes for his rebirth. Yet she is in resume, equally resentful at having been exiled from class essay, him; she can now only proforma of a resume, watch him from afar. There is also a suggestion of an incestuous relationship in this poem. She expresses a similar ambivalence in diversity medical school, The Colossus; she works on the huge statue she has erected of proforma, him, trying to make him speak to her. She longs to piece him back together, but is fatigued and troubled by his refusal to help her in the effort. Daddy is markedly different in tone from these two poems.
Her voice in this latter poem is vitriolic, mocking, bitter, and crazed. Her goal is not to rescue him, but to diversity destroy him. He becomes here, more than in the other two, a representation of larger patriarchal figures. No matter how Plath tried to deal with her father's legacy, she was torn between both violent and creative impulses in her remembrance. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/sylvia-plath-poems/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Sylvia Plath: Poems Sylvia Plath: Poems Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Metaphors The Colossus A Life Mirror Daddy Ariel Lady Lazarus Child Contusion Cinderella Tulips Edge Full Fathom Five Cut Sheep in Fog Confessional Poetry Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store Sylvia Plath Biography. Sylvia Plath: Poems Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Sylvia Plath: Poems is from, a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and diversity school class essay, discuss the novel. The mirror first describes itself as “silver and exact.” It forms no judgments, instead merely swallowing what it sees and reflecting that image back without any alteration.
The mirror is not cruel, “only truthful.” It considers itself a. The narrator of Mirror is the looking glass. a full length wall mirror. Mirrors cannot lie, they can only show the truth. Study Guide for in resume Sylvia Plath: Poems. Sylvia Plath: Poems study guide contains a biography of poet Sylvia Plath, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and diversity essay, analysis of select poems.
Sylvia Plath: Poems essays are academic essays for essay citation. These papers were written primarily by school class, students and provide critical analysis of Sylvia Plath's poetry.
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« Allez donc m’cri ane tasse d’eau » : le malaise cree par l’introduction de la langue orale dans les textes d’Albert Laberge. Au debut des annees 1960, l’?uvre d’Albert Laberge, ecrivain de la premiere moitie du xx e siecle, est redecouverte. Diversity School Class Essay! Si les critiques apprecient son contenu, ils ressentent un veritable malaise par rapport a la maniere dont elle est ecrite, malaise qui serait le corollaire de la facon dont l’integration de termes tires de la langue orale dans le texte ecrit etait alors percue. During the wharton 1960’s, the diversity medical class essay work of resume from s3 s4, Albert Laberge, a writer of the medical first half of the resume s3 s4 20 th century, was rediscovered. Diversity School! Even if critics appreciate the soldiers zimbabwe essay body of class, Laberge’s work, they feel uneasy about wharton analysis, his writing style, which could be explained by medical essay the way in proforma of a, which the medical school essay integration in child soldiers, the written text of diversity medical class essay, words borrowed to s3 s4, the spoken language was perceived at class essay the time. 1 La fortune litteraire d’une ?uvre ne tient bien souvent qu’au fait qu’elle soit en resonance avec son epoque, ou alors avec celle durant laquelle elle est redecouverte.
Il arrive quelquefois qu’on considere, lors d’une relecture ulterieure par la critique, qu’une ?uvre n’a pas ete appreciee a sa juste valeur. Objection! Puisque chaque epoque se reapproprie les textes et projette sur eux ses propres valeurs, comprendre la reception critique d’une ?uvre a une epoque donnee, c’est necessairement reflechir a la reception actuelle de cette meme ?uvre. Diversity Medical Essay! Car faire une analyse de la reception critique d’une ?uvre, c’est avant tout en faire soi-meme la lecture. 2 Dans le present article, nous nous proposons de faire cette double lecture en retracant le parcours litteraire d’une ?uvre pour le moins deconcertante, celle d’Albert Laberge, ecrivain canadien-francais de la premiere moitie du xx e siecle. Dissertation! Il nous semble aujourd’hui que les textes de ce dernier, empreints d’un humour noir et s’autorisant un style libre et decomplexe, n’ont pas eu la reconnaissance qu’ils meritaient. Medical! Cela est certainement du au fait que, des 1918, Laberge pechait contre le bon usage, celui des m?urs et celui de la forme : en mettant en scene des histoires sordides et en introduisant des elements de langue orale, sans s’embarrasser de guillemets ou d’italique dans le corps du texte. Child Soldiers Zimbabwe! Lorsque les textes labergiens commencent a interesser la critique a partir de 1960, le jugement porte sur leurs qualites stylistiques est sans appel : etant donne son introduction de la langue orale dans la narration de certains de ses textes, Laberge ecrivait « mal ». Diversity School Class Essay! Plus de quarante ans apres sa mort, nous postulons que cette vision de Laberge comme d’un mauvais ecrivain parce qu’il a integre dans la narration de ses textes certains canadianismes, anglicismes, ou structures syntaxiques proches de celles employees a l’oral est a remettre en cause.
Pour comprendre pourquoi Laberge a ete relegue au rang d’auteur mineur, nous dresserons un portrait de la reception de l’?uvre labergienne de l’epoque de sa publication a aujourd’hui. 1 Mgr Bruchesi (1897-1939) condamnera, en plus de La Semaine , plusieurs journaux de l’epoque dont Les (. Proforma Resume! ) 3 De l’avis de ses contemporains, si Laberge est un mauvais ecrivain, c’est d’abord parce que ses textes choquent les bonnes m?urs. Medical School Class! Les premiers chapitres de La Scouine qu’il publie dans les journaux a partir de 1903 sont plutot bien recus, mais, en 1909, Laberge fait paraitre le chapitre « Les foins » dans l’hebdomadaire La Semaine . Soldiers Zimbabwe! Ce texte provoqua une veritable commotion, non pas pour son emploi de la langue orale, mais parce que Laberge y decrivait certaines scenes a caractere sexuel. Diversity Medical School Class Essay! L’archeveque de Montreal, Monseigneur Paul Bruchesi1, attaquera vivement La Semaine pour la publication de ce chapitre dans un article de La Verite : Un conte, annonce et recommande dans le sommaire du journal, outrage indignement les m?urs. Essays! C’est de l’ignoble pornographie, et nous nous demandons ce que l’on se propose en mettant des elucubrations de ce genre sous les yeux des lecteurs. Medical Class Essay! C’en est trop : il faut couper le mal dans sa racine. 2 Mgr Paul Bruchesi, « Interdiction de La Semaine », La Verite , 7 aout 1909, p. Short Essay On Acid! 27.
Fidele aux prescriptions du Saint-Siege, en vertu des lois de l’Index, et de notre autorite episcopale, nous interdisons a tous les catholiques de notre diocese de collaborer au journal La Semaine, de le vendre, de le lire et de le garder en leur possession2. 3 L' Index librorum prohibitorum est une liste recensant les ouvrages que les catholiques n’etaient pa (. Diversity Medical Class! ) 4 Cette mise a l’Index3 blessera profondement Laberge, qui se refusera par la suite a toute publication de ses textes. Essay! Il est probable que Laberge ait eu peur pour son emploi de journaliste sportif a La Presse , metier qu’il detestait, mais dont il vivait, ne sachant que trop bien que son homologue Rodolphe Girard avait ete demis de ses fonctions de journaliste pour des motifs similaires apres la parution de son roman Marie Calumet en 1904. Class Essay! Il y a egalement fort a parier que cette mise a l’Index a ravive chez Laberge le souvenir de son expulsion du college Sainte-Marie en 1892, apres qu’on eut appris qu’il etait un fervent lecteur d’auteurs a l’Index tels Emile Zola et Honore de Balzac. 4 Il est tout de meme a noter qu’en 1916, Laberge envoie regulierement des chapitres de La Scouine au (. Rain! ) 5 A la suite de la condamnation de Mgr Bruchesi, Laberge decide que ses ouvrages – soit le roman La Scouine lorsque la redaction en sera terminee en 1918, sept volumineux recueils de nouvelles et cinq recueils de reflexions et de prose poetique – ne seront tires qu’en maison d’edition privee a moins d’une centaine d’exemplaires chacun4. Medical School Class! Laberge les distribuera lui-meme a ses amis par la suite. 6 Il faut dire que les nouvelles de Laberge sont particulierement noires, crues et souvent empreintes d’une certaine violence gratuite. Methodology! Il n’y a pour ainsi dire jamais de fin heureuse. Diversity Class! Laberge depeint dans ses histoires une succession de malheurs toujours plus grands et plus terribles que les precedents.
Le meurtre, le viol, le suicide et l’alcoolisme sont des themes recurrents, et les personnages qu’il met en scene sont voues par leur destin a prendre les mauvaises decisions, tandis que le narrateur observe et porte un jugement moralisateur. Child Zimbabwe Essay! De l’avis de Denis Sauve : 5 Denis Sauve, « Les cauchemars d'Albert Laberge », Tangence , vol. Diversity Medical School! 50, mars 1996, p. From S3 S4! 129. [l]es choix esthetiques qui ont preside a son ?uvre ne pouvaient favoriser l’approbation de ses contemporains. Class! Laberge le savait, et le refus de diffuser ses recueils constituait, soit un choix lucide, une facon d’eviter l’inevitable, de prevenir le scandale et la mise a l’Index, soit (voire egalement) la realisation d’un desir inconscient d’autopunition5. 6 Paul Wyczynski (ed.), La Scouine. Resume! Edition critique , Montreal, Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, (. Diversity School Class! ) 7 Lorsqu’il tente de justifier son choix de ne pas publier en maison d’edition professionnelle, Laberge explique que rien ne l’attriste plus que de voir les livres prendre la poussiere sur les rayons des librairies parce que personne ne les achete ; il dit n’ecrire que pour son propre plaisir, sans chercher a etre reconnu comme ecrivain6. In Resume! Cette affirmation est toutefois refutee par le fait que Laberge continue de faire paraitre certaines de ses nouvelles en periodiques sous le pseudonyme d’Adrien Clamer, ou quelques chapitres d’un roman inspire de sa liaison avec sa maitresse Florina, sur lequel il travaillera toute sa vie sans jamais le terminer, Lamento . Medical Class! Laberge a donc soif d’une certaine reconnaissance litteraire ; le simple fait qu’il fasse imprimer ses recueils de nouvelles et les distribue a ses amis montre qu’il ressentait le besoin d’etre lu. 8 Le refus de publier de Laberge fait etat d’une certaine forme d’autocensure qui ne porterait pas reellement sur ce qu’on ecrit, mais sur ce que l’on accepte de rendre public. How To! Cette forme d’autocensure dans la publication a toutefois l’avantage de delester Laberge de toute autocensure dans l’ecriture.
Laberge est completement libre d’aller toujours plus loin dans le grotesque s’il le souhaite. Diversity School! Laberge ecrit ce qu’il veut, comme il le veut, sans avoir a se soucier des reactions d’un editeur ou d’un critique litteraire. Methodology How To! Il n’a pas l’obligation de plaire a qui que ce soit, et la nouvelle labergienne devient donc une sorte de laboratoire litteraire dans lequel Laberge se permet de tres nombreuses experiences formelles et stylistiques. Medical School Class Essay! Certaines de ses nouvelles sont ecrites a la maniere de pieces de theatre, de vers bibliques ou de recits enchasses. Proforma Resume! Ce qui retiendra davantage l’attention en termes d’experimentation formelle est toutefois l’introduction de canadianismes et d’anglicismes dans la narration du texte. Diversity School Class! Deschamps, le pere de famille de La Scouine , demande a Bagon, l’homme engage chez lui : « Allez donc m’cri ane tasse d’eau7 », et le narrateur explique qu’alors Bagon « s’en fut pour son trouble8 », le terme « trouble » pouvant ici etre remplace par « sa peine ». Methodology How To! Cet exemple montre que la voix oralisee des personnages trouve son echo dans celle du narrateur, qui utilise egalement des canadianismes ou des termes archaiques, pratique stylistique absolument impensable en 1918. La redecouverte des ecrits labergiens : entre enthousiasme et rejet. 9 Jacques Michon (dir.), Histoire du l'edition litteraire au Quebec au xx e siecle , volume 1: La naiss (. Diversity! ) 10 Albert Laberge, lettre a Olivar Asselin du 17 novembre 1919, http://www2.ville.montreal.qc.ca/archi(. Short Essay! ) 11 William-Athanase Baker, « La Scouine », Le Terroir, vol. Class Essay! 2, n o 8-9, avril-mai 1920, p. Objection! 409-412. Class Essay! 12 Gerard Tougas, « Albert Laberge », Histoire de la litterature canadienne-francaise , Paris, Presses (. Essay! ) 13 Jean Ethier-Blais, « Ni Zola ni Maupassant », Le Devoir , vol. Diversity Class! 54, n o 51, 2 mars 1963, p. Proforma Resume! 11.
14 Gerard Bessette, Anthologie d'Albert Laberge , Montreal, Cercle du livre de France, 1963, p. Class Essay! XXVIII. Methodology How To! 15 Ibid. Diversity! , p. Proforma Of A! XXIX. Diversity Medical School Class Essay! 16 Ibid. From! , p. School Essay! XXXIV-XXXV. 9 Etant donne que l’auteur refuse desormais de publier ses textes, l’?uvre labergienne ne fera l’objet que de tres peu de critiques officielles, sinon celles d’Olivar Asselin en 1919 et de William-Athanase Baker en 1920. Resume S3 S4! Asselin comptait parmi les amis de Laberge, et il avait recu un exemplaire dedicace de La Scouine 9 ; sa critique de ce titre est assez elogieuse, Laberge l’en remerciera d’ailleurs dans une lettre du 17 novembre 191910. Diversity Class Essay! Baker est aussi d’avis que Laberge est un grand ecrivain, il le qualifie meme de « Job des pauvres »11. Short On Acid Rain! Il faudra cependant attendre les annees 1960 pour que Laberge commence reellement a interesser les intellectuels quebecois. Diversity School Class Essay! Le premier a en faire mention sera Gerard Tougas, dans une courte rubrique de son Histoire de la litterature canadienne-francaise , publiee en 1960. Proforma Of A Resume! Tougas s’en tient a des observations sur le contenu des nouvelles et juge qu’elles sont trop noires12. Diversity Medical Class! Gerard Bessette, lui-meme ecrivain, publie ensuite en 1963 la toute premiere anthologie des textes de Laberge. Child Soldiers! Dans son introduction, au contraire de Tougas, Bessette s’enthousiasme pour le contenu des textes de Laberge.
Il n’hesite pas a faire de lui le premier auteur naturaliste du Canada francais, idee qui sera refutee par Jean Ethier-Blais dans un article au titre evocateur paru la meme annee, Ni Zola ni Maupassant 13. Medical School Class! Quant au style, Bessette affirme que « le style de Laberge n’est ni tres leche, ni tres elegant, ni tres pittoresque14 ». Wharton! Des quelque trois cents nouvelles labergiennes, il en selectionne treize, qu’il classe selon qu’elles se deroulent a la campagne ou en ville. Diversity Medical Essay! Bessette ajoute egalement a son anthologie quelques chapitres choisis de La Scouine et des textes tires des recueils de proses poetiques. Objection In Resume! Bien que Bessette soit certain de la valeur litteraire des ecrits labergiens, il met son lecteur en garde quant au style de Laberge, qui est selon lui « en general honnete, sans plus. Medical! »15 Il se permet egalement de modifier certains canadianismes dans les nouvelles choisies. In Resume! Il remplace ainsi « son trouble » par « sa peine », « son casque » par « sa casquette », le verbe « se greyer » par « s’equiper », etc.16 Bessette justifie ces modifications en affirmant qu’il n’a change que les mots qui etaient vraiment trop « choquants » ou qui entravaient reellement la comprehension du lecteur (entendu ici comme lecteur de France, puisque le lecteur quebecois n’aurait eu aucun probleme de comprehension). Diversity School Class Essay! Il est egalement interessant de noter que toutes les modifications ont ete faites dans la narration et que jamais les dialogues, qui comptent un tres grand nombre de passages rediges dans un francais tres oralise, n’ont fait l’objet de telles modifications. 17 Paul Wyczynski, op. Resume S3 S4! cit ., p. School Essay! 36. Wharton! 18 Jacques Brunet , Albert Laberge : sa vie et son ?uvre , Ottawa, Editions de l'Universite d'Ottawa, 19 (. Diversity School Essay! ) 19 Ibid., p. Child Soldiers! 107. Diversity Essay! 20 Ibid ., p. Proforma Resume! 105.
21 Ibid ., p. Diversity Medical Essay! 115. 10 Les commentaires peu elogieux de Bessette quant au style de Laberge marquent les debuts d’un certain malaise a l’egard de la langue d’ecriture de Laberge. Objection In Resume! Les critiques s’entendent pour dire que l’?uvre labergienne merite d’etre lue, et on diversity class essay, tente de la rendre plus accessible au public en publiant en 1968 une edition chez Reedition-Quebec, mais celle-ci sera rapidement retiree du marche a la demande du fils et executeur testamentaire de Laberge, Pierre Laberge, qui n’avait pas ete consulte17. S3 S4! Malgre l’interet critique grandissant, on diversity medical class, ne cesse pourtant de remettre en question les qualites stylistiques de l’?uvre labergienne. Wharton Analysis! En 1969, Jacques Brunet entreprend une biographie de Laberge dans laquelle il introduit une critique severe du style de l’auteur. Medical School Class Essay! Il dedie un chapitre complet de son ouvrage aux moyens d’expression de Laberge, dans lequel il commence par relever le type d’erreurs qu’on trouve dans les ecrits de Laberge, allant de la coquille au pleonasme.
Brunet tente ensuite de decrire la phrase labergienne en prelevant un echantillon dans tous ses textes et en l’analysant statistiquement. S3 S4! Le couperet tombe rapidement : « Incorrections, grossieres negligences, delayage presque systematique, manque general de gout, voila vraiment trop de defauts graves. Diversity Medical! Laberge n’a pas le don de la jonglerie verbale, ni le culte du mot juste ni surtout l’amour des mots pour eux-memes. Resume! »18 Brunet reproche a Laberge d’enfiler les synonymes et les quasi-synonymes en de longues enumerations19 et d’ecrire sans se soucier de retravailler ses textes. Diversity Medical School Class! Selon lui, « Laberge n’est pas un cerebral et sa phrase n’a rien d’intellectuel ni de savant. Wharton Essays! »20 Ayant ete eleve par un pere paysan presque illettre, et renvoye du college avant la fin de ses etudes, Laberge a du apprendre le metier d’ecrivain en autodidacte et n’aura pas reussi, de l’avis de Brunet, a en maitriser les codes stylistiques21. Diversity School! Brunet cree donc l’image d’un Laberge ignorant, petit ecrivaillon sans envergure, incapable de maitriser la langue. 22 Maurice Lebel, « Albert Laberge (1871-1960) et ses “ Hymnes a la terre ” (1955) », Modern Language St (. Short Rain! ) 23 Ibid . 11 Le jugement severe de Brunet sur le style de Laberge est interessant dans la mesure ou Brunet, pour avoir fait l’une des biographies de Laberge la plus detaillee a ce jour, savait pourtant bien que le quotidien La Presse ne se serait pas embarrasse d’un journaliste ne maitrisant pas l’usage du francais. Diversity Medical Class Essay! Il savait egalement que Laberge etait un lecteur infatigable et que sa bibliotheque, contenant plusieurs milliers de volumes, certains dans des editions rares et luxueuses22, a longtemps ete le point de rendez-vous de nombreux ecrivains et artistes, ce qui fera dire a Maurice Lebel qu’il a ete considere pendant un temps comme « un prince des lettres canadiennes23 ». Resume! De plus, Laberge rejoint en 1909 l’Ecole litteraire de Montreal, un regroupement d’ecrivains et de poetes celebres qui avait notamment encense Emile Nelligan.
Cette image ne cadre evidemment pas avec le portrait de Laberge fait par Brunet. Diversity Medical School! Le critique s’enflamme particulierement au sujet des fautes d’orthographe, de l’absence de ponctuation et des problemes relatifs aux accents manquants sur certains mots. S3 S4! Les defauts techniques de l’?uvre peuvent cependant etre facilement expliques par le fait que Laberge ecrivait sur une machine a ecrire a clavier anglais, ce qui le forcait a mettre les accents a la main. Medical School! Par ailleurs, il a publie exclusivement a compte d’auteur et donc n’a pas pu profiter des services d’un correcteur ou d’un editeur qui aurait pu eliminer les scories a une epoque ou l’edition professionnelle etait elle-meme largement deficiente et peu prompte a produire des textes surs. Objection! Brunet s’acharne donc sur des details ayant somme toute peu d’importance pour juger de la qualite litteraire d’un auteur. 24 Paul Wyczynski (ed.), op.cit ., p. Diversity Medical Class Essay! 47.
25 Josee Bonneville et Andre Vanasse, Trois visions du terroir. Short On Acid Rain! Recits et nouvelles , Montreal, XYZ, 20 (. Medical Essay! ) 26 Lise Gauvin, « Faits et effets de langue : le realisme comme desir », dans Lise Gauvin (dir.), Les (. Dissertation Methodology! ) 12 L’analyse de la langue labergienne par Brunet n’a a ce jour jamais ete reellement remise en question. Medical! Lorsque La Scouine est finalement editee officiellement par les editions de L’Actuelle en 1972, le texte a acquis une certaine notoriete, mais on essay, evite soigneusement de se prononcer sur le style de son auteur. Medical! Meme en 1986, lorsque Paul Wyczynski publie une edition critique de La Scouine , il ne propose pas de veritable etude de la langue labergienne, qu’il pose d’entree de jeu comme problematique24. Proforma Of A! Il se contente plutot de relever les erreurs que l’on retrouve dans le texte, qu’elles soient des coquilles, des problemes d’accents, des utilisations erronees de la ponctuation, etc.
Wyczynski se tient a distance de l’analyse stylistique, comme le feront la grande majorite des critiques qui viendront apres lui. Medical Class Essay! C’est le cas notamment dans Trois visions du terroir : recits et nouvelles , ouvrage publie en 2008 ou Josee Bonneville et Andre Vanasse n’accordent qu’un tiers de page a cette question, ne faisant que souligner que la reproduction phonetique de la langue varie d’un texte a l’autre, sans y apporter d’explication avant de renvoyer leur lecteur a Brunet25. On Acid! Il n’y a, a notre connaissance, que Lise Gauvin qui ait tente de repenser la facon dont la langue labergienne est percue. Diversity Medical Essay! Dans un court chapitre de l’ouvrage Les langues du roman : le plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , elle s’interesse aux faits de langue dans les ?uvres d’ecrivains quebecois consideres comme realistes, dont Laberge26. How To! L’analyse de Gauvin, qui propose de nombreuses pistes de reflexion, reste neanmoins assez liminaire. 13 De l’avis de Jean-Pierre Boucher, ce malaise face au style de Laberge provient du fait que l’?uvre labergienne a ete redecouverte tardivement : 27 Jean-Pierre Boucher, « La Scouine d'Albert Laberge : l'architecture du cercle », Revue d'histoire l (. Diversity Medical Class Essay! ) Prise en flagrant delit d’ignorance, la critique est forcee de reconnaitre, en meme temps que le fait historique de Laberge et de son ?uvre, son oubli. Resume From S3 S4! Elle s’empresse cependant de se disculper en decretant, apres examen sommaire, que Laberge n’est pas un ecrivain et que son ?uvre est sans valeur27. Si cette explication souleve un point interessant, elle ne saurait etre complete sans une analyse de la critique litteraire quebecoise de la periode 1960-1970.
28 Lise Gauvin, Langagement : l'ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , Montreal, Editions du Boreal, 2000, p (. Diversity Medical School Class! ) 29 Lise Gauvin, Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , Montreal, Presses (. Methodology How To! ) 30 Lise Gauvin, Langagement : l'ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , op. School! cit. Essay On Acid Rain! , p. Diversity Medical! 209. 14 Au Quebec, on on acid rain, ne peut pretendre a une analyse de la reception critique d’un texte sans comprendre le role capital de la langue et de la perception de celle-ci dans le champ litteraire. Medical School Class Essay! La langue y est en effet un vecteur de definition identitaire extremement fort. Child Zimbabwe! Dans Langagement : l’ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , Lise Gauvin affirme que la langue « sert de substitut identitaire et de valeur refuge sacralisee »28 pour les ecrivains. Medical Essay! Il serait toutefois faux de pretendre que les critiques soient a l’exterieur de ce systeme : eux aussi sont condamnes a « penser la langue »29, en passant au peigne fin le plus petit fait de langue, la moindre deviation grammaticale.
Cette obsession pour la langue, que Gauvin a nommee avec justesse la « surconscience linguistique », se definit comme une « conscience aigue de la langue […] objet de reflexion, d’interrogation, d’enquete, mais aussi de transformation et de creation »30. Short On Acid! Si les ecrits labergiens montrent le cote createur de la surconscience linguistique, la critique qui a ete portee sur eux reflete l’anxiete que cree la question linguistique au Quebec. 31 Andre Belleau, « Le conflit des codes dans l’institution litteraire quebecoise », Libert e, vol. School Class! 23, (. Proforma! ) 32 Ibid. Medical School Class! , p. Of A Resume! 17. 15 Cette surconscience linguistique s’explique bien evidemment par le statut de minorite linguistique du Quebec en Amerique du Nord. School Class! Confrontes a l’anglais de toute part, particulierement au debut des annees 1960, ou l’on ne peut que difficilement gravir les echelons de la societe si l’on ne parle pas cette langue, et vivant constamment dans la peur de l’assimilation linguistique et de la disparition culturelle, les ecrivains et les critiques quebecois se font les defenseurs les plus acharnes du francais. Wharton Essays Analysis! Mais quel francais doit-on opposer a l’anglais ? Le francais tel qu’il est parle en France ou celui qui est parle au Quebec, deviant parfois fortement dans ses usages de celui de l’ancienne metropole ? Ce dilemme, toujours irresolu a ce jour bien qu’en partie attenue, force tout ecrivain quebecois a se positionner par rapport a la langue francaise avant meme d’entamer l’ecriture d’un texte, et oblige le critique a faire de meme lorsqu’il s’attelle a l’analyse de ce meme texte. Diversity Medical Class! Andre Belleau, dans son article Le conflit des codes dans l’institution litteraire quebecoise 31, explique que le probleme de la langue provient de la division existant au Quebec entre la Norme , imposee par la France en tant que metropole culturelle de la francophonie, et l’ Appareil , soit l’edition et la critique, qui sont quebecoises.
Ainsi, la litterature quebecoise « se trouve sujette a une double imposition institutionnelle »32 et l’auteur, pris entre Norme et Appareil, doit se plier a l’un ou l’autre de ces deux maitres. Dissertation! Ce choix influencera alors son public-cible et, bien sur, la reception critique de son texte. Diversity Class Essay! L’?uvre redigee dans un francais normatif a le potentiel d’atteindre le lecteur de tout pays francophone, mais son auteur pourrait etre taxe de « traitre a la patrie », niant sa langue, qui est bien loin du francais normatif. From S3 S4! Au contraire, un texte ecrit dans un francais que nous appellerons, faute de mieux, un francais « oralise » du Quebec verra son lectorat diminuer grandement, et risque d’etre juge « mal ecrit ». School! Gauvin n’hesite pas ainsi a statuer qu’ecrire. 33 Lise Gauvin, Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , op. Of A! cit ., p. Essay! 10. devient alors un veritable « acte de langage », car le choix de telle ou telle langue d’ecriture est revelateur d’un « proces » litteraire plus important que les procedes mis en jeu.
Plus que de simples modes d’integration de l’oralite dans l’ecrit, ou que la representation plus ou moins mimetique des langages sociaux, on soldiers zimbabwe essay, devoile ainsi le statut d’une litterature, son integration/definition des codes et enfin toute une reflexion sur la nature et le fonctionnement du litteraire33. 34 Mikhail Bakhtine, Esthetique et theorie du roman , Daria Olivier (trad.), Paris, Gallimard, 1978. Medical School Class Essay! 35 C’est Andre Belleau qui fera connaitre ses travaux a partir de 1981. 16 Si la notion de surconscience linguistique est toujours presente aujourd’hui au Quebec, force est cependant de constater qu’elle s’est grandement assouplie, et l’introduction de la langue orale dans le texte est maintenant valorisee en tant que signe de la mixite des registres de langue, grace notamment aux travaux de Mikhail Bakhtine34 , qui ont mis le dialogisme au c?ur meme de l’etude du roman moderne, revalorisant ainsi le plurilinguisme. Objection! C’est en posant un regard bakhtinien sur les textes labergiens que l’on peut en venir a apprecier l’introduction de la langue orale dans leur narration. Diversity Medical! Or, lors de la redecouverte de Laberge, Bakhtine etait inconnu au Quebec35. Dissertation! Si Bessette change les canadianismes de la narration des textes labergiens retenus pour son anthologie, c’est qu’il tente de faire correspondre le texte de Laberge aux attentes de l’epoque en matiere d’introduction de la langue orale dans le texte. Diversity School Class Essay! Le dialogue a longtemps ete percu comme le seul lieu ou l’on puisse integrer la langue orale sans qu’il s’agisse d’une « faute », ce qui explique d’ailleurs pourquoi Bessette ne les corrige pas.
Dans L’age du roman parlant (1919-1939) , Jerome Meizoz explique qu’il avait. 36 Jerome Meizoz, L’age du roman parlant (1919-1939) : ecrivains, critiques, linguistes et pedagogues (. Soldiers! ) une tendance […] a un « cloisonnement des voix » separ[ant] le discours familier du litteraire : le recit se donne en francais national, alors que les dialogues des personnages transposent a leur gre des formes orales socialement marquees36. 17 En modifiant les canadianismes et les anglicismes de la narration des textes de Laberge, Bessette montre en ce sens que ce ne sont pas les mots empruntes a l’oral qui le derangent, mais bien que le lieu de leur introduction ne cadre pas avec les regles du bien-ecrire ou le narrateur se portait garant du « savoir-ecrire » de l’auteur. Medical School Class Essay! Meizoz explique d’ailleurs que. [l]a plupart des ecrivains qui ont, d’une maniere ou d’une autre, recouru a la transposition narrative du parler se sont vu, a un moment ou a un autre, reprocher l’incorrection de leurs usages. From S3 S4! […] Pour les grammairiens normatifs et les critiques professeurs, le recours a un registre different s’assimile a une faute de langue37. Bessette et Brunet se sont donc davantage concentres sur le decalage normatif qu’il y avait dans les textes labergiens.
Pour eux, Laberge ne respectait pas le genre romanesque, ou la voix narrative et celle des personnages doivent etre clairement separees. Medical School Class! Ils n’etaient pas en mesure de voir le potentiel avant-gardiste d’un tel travail sur la langue. 38 Pierre-Luc Begin, « Parti pris : un phenomene majeur meconnu », Quebec francais , n o 153, 2009, p. Short Essay On Acid! 4 (. Medical Class! ) 18 En France, le cloisonnement des voix a commence a etre mis en doute par des auteurs tels que Louis-Ferdinand Celine a partir des annees 1930. From S3 S4! Au Quebec toutefois, il faudra attendre la fondation de la revue Parti pris en 1963 pour que certains auteurs comme Jacques Renaud ou Claude Jasmin commencent a tenter la meme approche. Diversity Medical! Or, comme l’explique Pierre-Luc Begin, la fondation de Parti pris « a marque la fin de la litterature canadienne-francaise au Quebec et le debut de la litterature quebecoise »38. Proforma Of A Resume! Pour les ecrivains et les critiques partipristes, il fallait couper les ponts avec la litterature canadienne-francaise pour que puisse emerger une veritable litterature nationale, et qu’il soit alors possible de creer une identite quebecoise forte.
Laberge venait tout juste d’etre redecouvert et ses ?uvres appartenaient a la periode historique que les partipristes rejetaient, il a donc ete ecarte par ces derniers. 39 Robert Richard, « Scouiner la litterature nationale pour lire Aquin », Liberte , n° 278, novembre 20 (. Diversity Medical School Class Essay! ) 19 Dans un article paru en 2007, Robert Richard lance une question originale : « Qu’eut ete la litterature nationale quebecoise si elle s’etait donne comme pierre d’angle, non pas la soporifique Maria Chapdelaine (1913) de Louis Hemon, mais le roman La Scouine (1918) d’Albert Laberge ?39 » Cette reflexion mene Richard a conclure que si La Scouine avait ete choisie comme texte fondateur de la litterature quebecoise, il nous serait a present plus facile de comprendre des ?uvres plus modernes, comme Prochain episode d’Hubert Aquin, par exemple. Objection! Cette reflexion de Richard nous amene a un autre constat : l’?uvre labergienne s’inscrit dans une tradition de reconceptualisation du langage litteraire au Quebec. Diversity Class Essay! Par son integration de la langue orale dans la narration de ses textes, Laberge a tente de redefinir le « bien-ecrire » quebecois. Of A! Son entreprise n’aura ete bien comprise ni par ses contemporains, ni par les critiques subsequents a cause du contexte dans lequel les textes labergiens ont paru, puis ont ete redecouverts, mais peut-etre est-il temps de voir Laberge comme un precurseur des remises en question de la langue d’ecriture au Quebec. Baker, William-Athanase, « La Scouine », Le Terroir , vol. Medical Class! 2, n o 8-9, avril-mai 1920, p. Dissertation How To! 409?412.
Bakhtine, Mikhail, Esthetique et theorie du roman , Daria Olivier (trad.), Paris, Gallimard, 1978. Begin, Pierre-Luc, « Parti pris : un phenomene majeur meconnu », Quebec francais n o 153, 2009, p. Diversity Medical Class! 48?50. Belleau, Andre, « Le conflit des codes dans l’institution litteraire quebecoise », Libert e, vol. Essay Rain! 23, n o 2 (134), 1981, p. Class! 15?20. Bessette, Gerard, Anthologie d’Albert Laberge , Montreal, Cercle du livre de France, 1963.
Bruchesi, Mgr Paul, « Interdiction de La Semaine », La Verite , 7 aout 1909, p. Of A Resume! 27. Brunet, Jacques, Albert Laberge : sa vie et son ?uvre , Ottawa, Editions de l’Universite d’Ottawa, 1969. Boucher, Jean-Pierre, « La Scouine d’Albert Laberge : l’architecture du cercle », Revue d’histoire litteraire du Quebec et du Canada Francais n o 14, ete-automne 1987, p. Diversity Medical School Class! 109?134. Ethier - Blais, Jean, « Ni Zola ni Maupassant », Le Devoir , vol. Objection! 54, n o 51, 2 mars 1963, p. Diversity Medical Class Essay! 11. Gauvin, Lise (dir.), Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , Montreal, Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 1999. Gauvin, Lise, Langagement : l’ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , Montreal, Editions du Boreal, 2000. Hebert, Pierre, Kenneth , Landry, Yves, Lever , ( dir.), Dictionnaire de la censure au Quebec : Litterature et cinema , Saint-Laurent, Fides, 2006.
Lebel, Maurice, « Albert Laberge (1871-1960) et ses “ Hymnes a la terre ” (1955) », Modern Language Studies , vol. On Acid Rain! 6, n o 2, automne 1976, p. School Class Essay! 22?37. Meizoz, Jerome, L’age du roman parlant (1919?1939) : ecrivains, critiques, linguistes et pedagogues en debat , Geneve, Droz, 2001. Michon, Jacques (dir.), Histoire du l’edition litteraire au Quebec au xx e siecle , volume 1 : La naissance de l’editeur 1900-1939 , Saint-Laurent, Fides, 1999. Richard, Robert, « Scouiner la litterature nationale pour lire Aquin », Liberte n o 278, novembre 2007, p. Of A Resume! 68?84.
Sauve, Denis, « Les cauchemars d’Albert Laberge », Tangence , vol. Diversity Medical Essay! 50, mars 1996, p. Zimbabwe Essay! 118?130. Tougas, Gerard, « Albert Laberge », Histoire de la litterature canadienne-francaise , Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1960, p. Diversity Medical School Class! 156?158. Wyczynski, Paul (ed.), La Scouine. Zimbabwe! Edition critique , Montreal, Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, coll. Essay! « Bibliotheque du Nouveau Monde », 1986. 1 Mgr Bruchesi (1897-1939) condamnera, en plus de La Semaine , plusieurs journaux de l’epoque dont Les Debats , Le Pays , La Lumiere , La Patrie et La Presse . Short! Il mettra au moins deux autres romans quebecois a l’Index, Marie Calumet de Rodolphe Girard et Le Debutant d’Arsene Bessette. Diversity Medical School Essay! Mgr Bruchesi est aussi a l’origine de l’etablissement d’un comite de censure en 1908. Essays Analysis! Voir a ce sujet Pierre Hebert, Kenneth Landry, Yves Lever (dir.) Dictionnaire de la censure au Quebec : Litterature et cinema , Anjou, Fides, 2006, p. Medical School! 80. 2 Mgr Paul Bruchesi, « Interdiction de La Semaine », La Verite , 7 aout 1909, p. Methodology How To! 27. 3 L' Index librorum prohibitorum est une liste recensant les ouvrages que les catholiques n’etaient pas autorises a lire puisqu’ils etaient juges immoraux ou contraires a la foi. 4 Il est tout de meme a noter qu’en 1916, Laberge envoie regulierement des chapitres de La Scouine au quotidien L’Autorite . 5 Denis Sauve, « Les cauchemars d'Albert Laberge », Tangence , vol.
50, mars 1996, p. Medical School! 129. 6 Paul Wyczynski (ed.), La Scouine. Methodology How To! Edition critique , Montreal, Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, coll. Diversity Class! « Bibliotheque du Nouveau Monde », 1986, p. Proforma Of A! 21. 9 Jacques Michon (dir.), Histoire du l'edition litteraire au Quebec au xx e siecle , volume 1: La naissance de l'editeur 1900-1939, Saint-Laurent, Fides, 1999, p. Diversity School Class! 49. 11 William-Athanase Baker, « La Scouine », Le Terroir, vol. Short Essay Rain! 2, n o 8-9, avril-mai 1920, p. Medical School! 409-412. 12 Gerard Tougas, « Albert Laberge », Histoire de la litterature canadienne-francaise , Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1960, p. Child! 156-158. 13 Jean Ethier-Blais, « Ni Zola ni Maupassant », Le Devoir , vol. Diversity Essay! 54, n o 51, 2 mars 1963, p. Essay On Acid! 11. 14 Gerard Bessette, Anthologie d'Albert Laberge , Montreal, Cercle du livre de France, 1963, p. Diversity Medical School Class! XXVIII.
17 Paul Wyczynski, op. Resume S3 S4! cit ., p. Medical! 36. 18 Jacques Brunet , Albert Laberge : sa vie et son ?uvre , Ottawa, Editions de l'Universite d'Ottawa, 1969, p. Dissertation How To! 114. 22 Maurice Lebel, « Albert Laberge (1871-1960) et ses “ Hymnes a la terre ” (1955) », Modern Language Studies , vol. Diversity Medical School Class Essay! 6, n o 2, automne 1976, p. Child Soldiers! 35. 24 Paul Wyczynski (ed.), op.cit ., p. Diversity Medical Class Essay! 47. 25 Josee Bonneville et Andre Vanasse, Trois visions du terroir.
Recits et nouvelles , Montreal, XYZ, 2008, p. Wharton Analysis! 195?196. 26 Lise Gauvin, « Faits et effets de langue : le realisme comme desir », dans Lise Gauvin (dir.), Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , Montreal, Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 1999, p. School Essay! 53?72. 27 Jean-Pierre Boucher, « La Scouine d'Albert Laberge : l'architecture du cercle », Revue d'histoire litteraire du Quebec et du Canada Francais , n o 14, ete-automne 1987, p. Objection! 110. 28 Lise Gauvin, Langagement : l'ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , Montreal, Editions du Boreal, 2000, p. School! 30. 29 Lise Gauvin, Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , Montreal, Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 1999, p. Resume From! 10.
30 Lise Gauvin, Langagement : l'ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , op. School Class! cit. Objection! , p. Medical School Class! 209. 31 Andre Belleau, « Le conflit des codes dans l’institution litteraire quebecoise », Libert e, vol. Of A Resume! 23, n o 2 (134), 1981. 33 Lise Gauvin, Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , op. Medical Essay! cit ., p. Methodology! 10. 34 Mikhail Bakhtine, Esthetique et theorie du roman , Daria Olivier (trad.), Paris, Gallimard, 1978. 35 C’est Andre Belleau qui fera connaitre ses travaux a partir de 1981. 36 Jerome Meizoz, L’age du roman parlant (1919-1939) : ecrivains, critiques, linguistes et pedagogues en debat , Geneve, Droz, 2001, p. Diversity Medical Essay! 23. 38 Pierre-Luc Begin, « Parti pris : un phenomene majeur meconnu », Quebec francais , n o 153, 2009, p. Resume! 48. 39 Robert Richard, « Scouiner la litterature nationale pour lire Aquin », Liberte , n° 278, novembre 2007, p. Diversity Class! 71.
Caroline Loranger , « « Allez donc m’cri ane tasse d’eau » : le malaise cree par l’introduction de la langue orale dans les textes d’Albert Laberge », Continents manuscrits [En ligne], 2 | 2014, mis en ligne le 22 avril 2014, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Essays! URL : http://coma.revues.org/305 ; DOI : 10.4000/coma.305. Universite McGill (Montreal) Continents manuscrits – Genetique des textes litteraires – Afrique, Caraibe, dispora est mis a disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International. Vie et mort des revues en periode coloniale et postcoloniale. Varia 2017 6 | 2016. Ocean Indien 7 | 2016.
Geneses du texte theatral en francais 5 | 2015. Ecritures d'Algerie 4 | 2015. La matiere Congo 3 | 2014. Geneses photographiques en Afrique 2 | 2014. Bien ecrire, mal ecrire 1 | 2014.
Manuscrits francophones du sud : un etat des lieux. Actualite scientifique et culturelle de l'equipe. Fonds d'archives africains et caribeens. ISSN electronique 2275-1742. Informations Titre : Continents manuscrits Genetique des textes litteraires – Afrique, Caraibe, diaspora En bref : Revue consacree a la recherche sur les manuscrits litteraires des Suds.
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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the medical, introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word.
On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the methodology, paper you can make the diversity class essay, header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number.
Use the toolbox to dissertation insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at diversity medical essay, the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction:
Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to essay on acid rain draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the class essay, bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the dissertation, only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of diversity medical class, your study and hypotheses until the resume, end of the diversity school essay, intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to on acid rain give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis.
Try to organize it in essay terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to wharton include in your paper. Diversity School Class? Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. Child Zimbabwe? When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for diversity medical class essay, your reader.
The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of dissertation how to, everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to diversity medical class summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out dissertation, differences in diversity essay methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to dissertation methodology my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is medical school class, a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in objection in resume your reference section.
Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the class essay, other students in your class or your professor. Child Soldiers Essay? Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the medical school class essay, complete information necessary for how to, them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. School Essay? The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the child soldiers essay, design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in diversity medical school essay some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to dissertation methodology the. Materials section rather than after it.
(labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and essay SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. Essays Analysis? How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. School Class Essay? 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into wharton analysis, a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to diversity medical mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the in resume, computer, and diversity so forth.
If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the s3 s4, response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from school 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for short essay on acid rain, your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to diversity essay judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in proforma detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order?
When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere?
If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to diversity medical school class essay break this section down into objection in resume, labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in diversity medical school class essay APA style. A t-test, for example, is essay, reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of medical school essay, degrees of in resume, freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test).
For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the medical essay, number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for dissertation methodology, a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the school class essay, df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is objection in resume, “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the class essay, exact p values. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of analysis, variability is essay, shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and short on acid ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Diversity Essay? Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the wharton essays analysis, nature of diversity school, your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). Objection In Resume? This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the diversity, numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. Methodology? It may be useful to diversity medical class essay include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”).
Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to on acid rain also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section.
(labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in diversity medical essay the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and methodology work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). School Essay? Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think?
Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the in resume, broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the school, literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the proforma resume, findings. Medical School Class Essay? Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.
What are the limitations of the how to, study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of diversity medical school class, research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from short on acid rain it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into diversity medical school class essay, what extensions of the methodology, research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings?
How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. Diversity Medical Essay? End on a positive note by resume, reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to diversity medical school class essay the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold)
Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of rain, first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for school class, how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. Soldiers Zimbabwe Essay? 198 of the diversity school essay, manual, and methodology examples of essay, references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to soldiers learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. Diversity Medical School Essay? If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009).
Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and dissertation methodology how to mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the medical school essay, chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. Dissertation? (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Diversity Medical Class? Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol.
2, pp. Dissertation How To? 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. Class? (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual.
Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV.
Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Dissertation Methodology How To? Include error bars in school your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the wharton analysis, mean. (see pp.
174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to medical class include the authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and rain Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by diversity, semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to proforma of a resume include the class essay, page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on zimbabwe essay, subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. Diversity Medical Class Essay? (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time).
“Secondary source” is the term used to child soldiers zimbabwe essay describe material that is cited in another source. Class Essay? If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the soldiers, secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. Medical School Class Essay? If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:
Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the short, cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .