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How to homework Write a Great Essay for Different A-Level Subjects. In previous articles, we’ve given you lots of papers, advice on helps how to write the perfect essay. However, the skills we’ve discussed up to now have been generic, and have not taken into account the writing class fact that different subjects require different skills when it comes to writing excellent essays for them. Maps? In this article, we look at the particular skills needed to write great essays for individual A-level subjects, so that you can familiarise yourself with what you need to do to excel in whatever A-levels you happen to be studying. Pinocchio Critical? The tempestuous landscape in which Wuthering Heights is set is homework helps maps reflected in the mood of the text. Introduction? Good English literature essays revolve around intelligent interpretation. The problem many students have with this is organising their interpretations into homework maps a tightly structured essay that flows well; many simply let their ideas run wild and flit aimlessly between one point and the next. To combat this problem, you need to consider the writer’s overall aims and then show how they have conveyed those aims, paragraph by paragraph, with each paragraph devoted to a particular technique or focus.

A good structure to use is as follows: Point make a statement, such as “Bronte uses the bleakness of the moorland setting to reflect Heathcliff’s temperament.” Explanation elaborate on the statement in writing class, more detail. In this example, your explanation would involve explaining the parallels between Heathcliff and homework helps maps the moors their unpredictability and wildness, for instance, and the violence of the weather mirroring Heathcliff’s violent personality. Writing Class? Evidence now provide quotes from the homework text to back up what you mean. In the Heathcliff example, you could quote specific words and phrases that show similarities in the way Heathcliff is described and the way in which the moorland landscape and weather are described. Critical Essay? Reiterate close off the paragraph by reiterating the homework maps point, and perhaps developing it a little further or introducing the idea you’re going to carry into the next paragraph. For example, “This ties in with a wider theme running through the book as a whole, which is that nature parallels human emotions.” Good English essays pay close attention to questions detail, noting specific words, phrases and literary devices a writer has used, and to what effect. They quote liberally from the text in order to homework support each point, deconstructing the academic papers writing and analysing the use of language; they look at different interpretations, seeing beyond the surface and maps picking up on possible deeper meanings and connotations.

But they also consider the meaning of the piece as a whole, and the overall effect created by the specific details noted. Ultimate In Life? All this should be considered within the framework of the genre and context of the piece of helps, writing. For instance, a poem by William Wordsworth would be considered within the context of the Romantic poets, and might be compared with work by contemporary poets such as Shelley or Keats; the historical background might also be touched upon where relevant (such as the Industrial Revolution when discussing the format conclusion poetry of William Blake). This painting by Hermann Wislicenus of homework maps, Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms was painted more than 350 years after the events it depicts. Though it’s also a humanities subject, History requires its own very particular set of questions, skills that differ to homework maps an appreciable degree from those expected of writing class, you in English. A history essay is unequivocal about its writer’s opinion, but this opinion must be based on a solid analysis of evidence that very often can’t be taken as fact. Helps? Evidence must be discussed in introduction, terms of its reliability, or lack thereof. The good historian considers what biases may be inherent in a source, what vested interest the source might have, and what viewpoint that source was written from. For instance, you might analyse a source by discussing whether or not the person was present at the events they are describing; how long after the events they were writing (and therefore whether they are remembering it accurately if they were there, or whether they are getting their information second or third hand from someone else; and homework if so, how reliable the original source is); whether they are trying to show evidence to papers support a particular political view; and so on.

So, each time you make a point, back it up with evidence, and homework consider the strengths and introduction conclusion weaknesses of that evidence. A good history essay makes connections between what’s been written about, considering how issues interrelate, so think about how what you’re writing about homework maps, ties in with other things; what was the impact of the event you’re discussing, did it happen in isolation, and what were the events that led to it? The term proletariat, derived from Roman law, is format used in Marxist theory to mean the homework helps maps social class that does not have ownership of the means of in life, production and can only sell their labour. It’s vital to look at both sides of the maps argument or, where many possible viewpoints exist, to acknowledge these nuances. It’s fine to contradict yourself, provided you do so consciously; that is, you can build up an argument and then turn it on its head, observing that you are doing so (for example, “So far, so compelling; but what about the less well-known evidence from such and homework helps such?”). You can use quotes from historians you’ve read, but use these in the context of discussing scholarly opinion. Critical? Don’t quote a historian’s words as evidence of something, because this is only someone’s opinion it’s not proof. Finally, where possible, use specialist terms to show that you know your stuff (“proletariat” instead of “workers”, for example). The primary task that lies ahead of you in writing a French essay is, of course, to demonstrate your superior language skills. Keep the content itself very even-handed, sitting on the fence rather than presenting a forceful opinion that could distract attention away from the quality of your use of homework helps maps, French.

Focus on using as wide a variety of vocabulary and essay introduction conclusion tenses as you can. It will help your essay if you can learn how to say more sophisticated phrases in French, of the sort you would use if you were writing an essay in English. This useful document from homework maps,, Writing Essays in French, will give you numerous useful French phrases to help you put together an impressive essay, including the vocabulary you need to present a balanced argument. Case studies are crucial in Geography essays. Geography is a subject that crosses the divide between the sciences and the humanities, considering both physical processes and human activities (and their effects on the world around us). Essays for writing class Geography may differ depending on which of these focuses the helps essay is discussing, and the evidence you might include in critical, your essay could vary from phenomena observed and data gathered in the natural world to the results of population censuses. To write a good Geography essay, you’ll need to homework include both theory and detailed, real-world case studies to support your answer. Mention specific places by questions, name, and communicate the homework helps facts accurately. Your teacher will be assessing not just your knowledge, but your ability to support what you say with relevant information that proves it.

You shouldn’t just rattle off everything you know about a particular case study; you should deploy relevant facts from the case study to support a specific point you’re trying to make. Keep linking each point back to the question, so that you’re always working towards answering it; this also helps you ensure that everything you include is actually relevant to academic the question. Showing that you’ve thought about an issue from multiple perspectives, and maps that you appreciate how they interrelate, is important in writing class, Geography. You can do this by organising the content of helps, your essay into categories, considering different factors in turn, such as the scale of the issue, and format introduction conclusion the timeframe and environment involved. Discuss the various factors involved logically, one by homework maps, one, such as the environmental impact of climate change or a natural disaster (such as a tsunami or volcanic eruption), followed by its physical, economic, social and political implications. Acknowledging the numerous nuances of the situation will demonstrate your appreciation of its complexity and show that you are thinking at a high level. You can study art and sculpture to learn more about the civilisations that produced them. As the academic papers study of the maps ancient world (primarily ancient Rome and Greece), Classical Civilisations combines archaeology and history, looking both at what survives materially (from small finds, to art and sculpture, to temples) and what survives in the way of texts by ancient authors.

A good essay for this subject analyses, evaluates and interprets. The historical elements of the subject will require the same set of skills we discussed for History earlier, while the archaeological components of this subject require slightly different skills. With your archaeologist hat on, your job becomes similar to that of a detective, piecing together clues. Archaeology crosses over into science, and essay questions with that comes scientific considerations such as how archaeological evidence has been gathered the methods used, their reliability, whether or not they could have been tampered with, how accurately they were recorded, and so on. You’ll look at a variety of different types of evidence, too, from the finds themselves to maps of the local topography. As with Geography, for which you’re required to learn lots of detailed case studies and names, you’ll need to learn plenty of examples of sites and homework helps finds to use as sources of evidence in building up a picture of the critical ancient world.

And, as with any subject, looking at both sides of homework maps, any argument is crucial to good grades. If the evidence you’re discussing could show one thing, but it could also show another, don’t just present one possibility show that you’ve thought in writing class, depth about it and consider all the possible interpretations. It would not be appropriate to mention how fantastic you think the Hubble Space Telescope is. The sciences Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics are generally less essay-focused, so we’re grouping them together here because the helps essay skills required for each of these subjects are very similar. Conclusion? While the fundamentals of helps maps, scientific essay writing are the essay questions same as any other subject having a logical structure, well-developed argument, and so on there are a few subject-specific considerations to bear in mind, and some common pitfalls to watch out for. The first is helps that there is no room for opinion in a scientific essay; unless you’re specifically asked for it, leave your own thoughts out of it and focus instead on a completely objective discussion of the evidence gathered through scientific research, which will most probably be quantitative data. Avoid vague language such as “it is thought that…”; be as precise as possible.

Start with a hypothesis, and then discuss the research that supports or disproves it. Back up every statement you make with solid data; it’s not enough simply to in life drop in the name of the research, so briefly describe what the findings were and why they prove the statement you’ve just made. Another mistake many students make is to maps confuse cause and effect; this arises because of the tendency to assume that correlation implies causation, which is a common logical fallacy. Just because two things appear to be related, it doesn’t mean that one caused the notes other, and committing this error in an essay is a major faux pas that will lose you marks. It’s also a good idea to ensure that you’ve included every piece of research that could be relevant; if you don’t, you could be leaving out homework helps a crucial piece of notes writing, evidence. Finally, mention any limitations there may have been with the methodology used to gather the data you discuss. Psychology, though a science subject, has some overlap with the humanities some Psychology degrees are BAs rather than BScs. Psychology essays are best approached with a scientific mindset, but it’s far more difficult to prove anything in this subject and this should be acknowledged in your essay. The task becomes one of assessing which theory is the more probable one, based on homework an analysis of the data from notes on creative writing, various studies.

Make liberal reference to named and homework helps maps dated psychological experiments and research, but acknowledge the fact that there may be more than one theory that could account for the same set of papers, results. When these experiments are quoted as evidence, this should be done with reference to any possible limitations of how the homework experiment was conducted (such as a small sample size). Writing Class? If you’ve reached the end of this article, you’re now equipped with the knowledge to write fantastic essays guaranteed to impress your teachers. You’re also well on the way to thinking in the right way for university-level essays, so keep working on these skills now and you’ll find it much easier to make the homework helps leap from sixth former to undergraduate. 3 Responses to #8220;How to Write a Great Essay for Different A-Level Subjects#8221; October 31, 2015 at 2:21 am, the poet said: Thanks for such fabulous tips on essay writing. October 31, 2015 at 2:21 am, the poet said: Thanks for such fabulous tips on essay writing. Blessed are you who can share!

January 22, 2017 at 2:02 pm, Neeva said: Very useful tips to writing class improve us, students writing skills, thank you.

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lsd term paper Information, such as this was virtually useless to the CIA and homework Army, however. Therapy was not the on creative, goal of their investigations. Mind control was. The government hoped to develop a method that would allow them to create an exploitable alteration of personality in homework helps maps potential agents, defectors, refugees, POWs, and in an unidentified group of others (Lee Shalin, 10).

Of the drugs that CIA and Army scientists tested, LSD-25 seemed to writing, have the highest potential for helps, use in warfare and intelligence gathering. The government studied and utilized LSD extensively from the early fifties until 1963, when they stopped using it in writing class favor of homework helps maps a stronger hallucinogen, BZ. Around this time, psychologists who had been steadily building an impressive amount of data that supported the therapeutic efficacy of LSD, were forced to halt their research also. Certain psychologists, such as Dr. Timothy Leary and Dr. Richard Alpert of Harvard University, refused to comply with the new LSD regulations. They were dismissed from their posts and format proceeded to educate the public about the spiritual and therapeutic effects of psychedelic drugs.

This paper will be arranged in helps the following manner. First, I will describe the discovery of LSD. Next, I will review the essay, history of CIA and military LSD research. Then, I will summarized the progression and repression of therapeutic LSD studies. Helps Maps. Finally, I will discuss the cultural impact of LSD. In 1938, Dr. Albert Hoffman, a Swiss chemist working for Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, was the first person to synthesize lysergic acid diethylamide. Academic On Bitcoin. He developed the drug accidentally during an attempt to isolate an analeptic compound in ergot, a rye fungus with many medicinal alkaloids. LSD was the twenty fifth in homework a series of ergot derivatives he created while searching for the elusive circulatory stimulant. He quickly lost interest in the drug when it failed to produce significant results in preliminary studies on laboratory animals. Essay. (Lee Shalin, xiv)

Hoffman did not rediscover LSD-25 until April 16, 1943 when he decided to conduct further studies on the compound. In the process of maps synthesizing a new batch, Hoffman absorbed a small dose of notes on creative writing LSD through his fingertips. He described what happened next in a report he sent to one of his colleagues. Three days after his accidental ingestion of LSD-25, Albert Hoffman began to research the compound in earnest. On April 19, 1943 he swallowed 250 micrograms. In his book, LSDMy Problem Child, Hoffman discusses the homework helps maps, implications of his second, more intense LSD experience.

First, to his knowledge, lysergic acid was the only known substance that could evoke such extreme psychic effects in such low doses. Hoffman had not expected the questions, 250 microgram dosage to inebriate him. In fact, the maps, possibility seemed so unlikely that Hoffman's colleagues would not believe he had measured the dosage correctly until they had ingested similar amounts of the compound. (Hoffman, 20) What seemed even more significant to Hoffman was that his memory of the experience was not in the slightest bit marred. He was able to recall every aspect of the trip in minute detail. Nor was Hoffman out of sorts the following morning. Instead, he found himself in essay excellent physical and mental health, wondering how it was that a drug with the ability to produce such a powerful state of inebriation did not also produce a hangover. (Hoffman, 20) Hoffman was optimistic about the implications of his discovery. I was aware that LSD, a new active compound with such properties, would have to be of use in pharmacology, in homework maps neurology, and especially in psychiatry, and that it would attract the interest of essay concerned specialists (Hoffman, 20). Hoffman was correct. When LSD was introduced to the United States in homework helps 1949, for writing class, example, it was well-received by the scientific community, and because of the unique properties of the homework maps, drug it appealed to groups of scientists with very different goals.

Both the government, which was trying to pinocchio critical essay, develop mind-control techniques, and homework helps psychiatrists, who were attempting to develop more effective treatments for their patients, began testing the drug almost immediately. Before LSD became illegal, it was tested on goal in life essay over 40,000 people by psychologists alone. Since 1942, government agents, then working for the Office of helps Strategic Services (OSS), the CIA's predecessor, had been making a concerted effort to locate a speech-inducing, personality-altering drug that could be used in interrogations. Because LSD, which was originally brought into essay, the U.S. by Dr. Max Rinkel, was so powerful in helps maps small doses as well as odorless and tasteless, government officials were certain that it could be useful to them, they simply had to determine how. Perhaps as a result of homework helps their own military goals, they were concerned that LSD would be used by other nations against the citizens of the United States. It was absolutely necessary, from this perspective, to study the drug extensively. I must back track a little in format conclusion order to fully convey the circumstances under which LSD was embraced by the CIA and the military. When General William Donovan, chief of the OSS, assembled six prestigious scientists in maps the spring of 1942 to describe the covert research program that he wished for them to undertake, he was very clear about the government's motivation for this operation. He challenged the writing class, scientists to create a substance that could break down the psychological defenses of enemy spies and helps POWs, thereby causing an uninhibited disclosure of classified information. On Bitcoin. Such a drug would also be useful for helps, screening OSS personnel in order to identify German sympathizers, double agents, and potential misfits (Lee Shalin, 3).

Donovan appointed Dr. Windfred Overhusler chairman of the research committee. The group proceeded to test and reject various drugs including alcohol, barbituates, caffeine, peyote, and scopolamine, before marijuana was singled out as the substance that had the highest potential for inducing speech. (Lee Shalin, 3-4) The OSS proceeded to test marijuana on essay format conclusion both witting on unwitting subjects, including themselves, their associates, U.S. military personnel, and American citizens. They determined that the best method of administration was the injection of THC into a cigarette or cigar. The effects of maps marijuana were described in the following OSS report. Encouraged by these results, the OSS began to use marijuana on essay an operational basis until the drug proved to be too unreliable for their purposes.

While it was true that marijuana often stimulated a rush of talk, on just as many occasions it induced an extreme state of silent paranoia. When the war ended, the OSS was replaced by the CIA, which was eager, along with the military, to continue the research that the OSS had begun in 1942. The Navy initiated Project CHATTER in 1947, the same year that the CIA was formed. The results of the first LSD tests were also published in 1947 by Dr. Maps. Werner Stoll, a close colleague of Dr. Albert Hoffman. The purpose of Project CHATTER was to create a means for obtaining information from people without physical duress. Writing. One of the drugs tested during Project CHATTER was mescaline, a derivative of peyote that induces hallucinations similar to those produced by LSD. Project CHATTER was terminated in 1953, after mescaline failed to serve as an effective truth serum. (Lee Shalin, 5) The CIA was also experimenting with mind-altering drugs during this period. Maps. In 1951, their scattered efforts were combined to form a single program called Bluebird.

Over time project Bluebird came to essay format introduction, be called Artichoke, but the goal of the research did not change. The CIA wished to 'create an exploitable alteration of personality' in selected individuals, specific targets included 'potential agents, defectors, refugees, POW's' and a vague category of 'others' (Lee Shalin, 10). In 1951, shortly after project Bluebird was launched, the CIA conducted an LSD pilot study to measure the effects of the compound on helps maps the subjects' ability to suppress experimental or nonthreat secrets. (Lee Shalin, 13) Shortly after this experiment, CIA researchers designed a study to determine optimal dosage levels of LSD for interrogation. This study included at least twelve subjects of below average intelligence.

The subjects were informed that a new drug was being tested on essay questions them and homework that it was not dangerous. Academic Papers. Even after the experiment, they were never given any further details. The researchers concluded that 100 to 150 micrograms was an optimal dosage. (Lee Shalin, 14) After determining this dosage range, the CIA began to further investigate the potential of LSD to act as a truth serum. They held a series of mock interrogation proceedings, and initially obtained promising results.

CIA scientists prepared a memorandum entitled Potential New Agent for Unconventional Warfare. This document stated, among other things, that LSD was useful for eliciting true and maps accurate statements from academic on bitcoin subjects under its influence during interrogation (Lee Shalin, 14). The researchers also noted that LSD aided in the recovery of repressed memories. The initial success of such experiments, however, could not be consistently replicated. Certain aspects of the LSD trip often interfered with successful interrogation. Unwitting subjects, for example, tended to homework maps, become paranoid and silent as the effects of the drug set in.

Other subjects experienced delusions of grandeur, becoming convinced that they could defy the interrogators indefinitely. Papers On Bitcoin. Another practical matter for the CIA to consider was the fact that any enemy spy who was given LSD would know almost immediately, due to hallucinations, that he had been drugged. Scientists were also disappointed that memories of the period of inebriation were not destroyed after the homework helps, drug wore off. Unlike the other substances that the government studied, LSD was not discarded when it failed to goal in life essay, prove itself a reliable. Instead the CIA and military expanded the scope of homework their testing, believing that such a powerful drug must have a practical application. LSD was used on an operational basis as an aid to interrogation from the mid-1950's until the early 1960's, but the CIA did not limit the employment of goal essay LSD to political targets. In the early 1950's, the homework, government became increasingly concerned that other nations, such as the USSR and China, where ergot flourished, would find a strategic use for LSD.

In light of this suspicion, the CIA project committee decided in November of 1953 that personnel in all components of the agency should be dosed with LSD to demonstrate to them the effects of the hallucinogenic drug so they would prepared if an enemy should attempt to use it against them. Members of the agency who reacted anxiously to impromptu doses of LSD would be excluded from certain assignments. A new program, MK-ULTRA, was formed in this year to include the more comprehensive scope of in life essay LSD research. (Lee Shalin, 17) At first the LSD tests within the CIA were executed systematically. A typical experiment involved two agents secluding themselves in a room, ingesting the drug, and taking notes on their experiences. This analytical approach did not last long, however. CIA agents agreed that it was necessary for all personnel to undergo impromptu trips in order to properly prepare for the event of an enemy-administered dose of LSD. They began to randomly spike each others drinks with lysergic acid.

No one in the agency was excluded from these impromptu trips, and their experiences ranged from mystical to disastrous. One CIA agent stated after his surprise ingestion, I didn't want to leave it. I felt I would be going back to a place where I wouldn't be able to hold on to this kind of beauty. (Lee Shalin, 30) Other, less fortunate agents reacted to LSD with extreme paranoid episodes. In November of 1953, the first LSD-related death occurred. There is little doubt that the suicide of Dr. Frank Olson is the origin of the popular myth that people who take LSD are likely to jump from windows.

Olson was unwittingly dosed with LSD during a three-day work retreat for CIA and Army technicians in the backwoods of Maryland. Homework Maps. Olson, who had never ingested drugs before, was upset that he had been given LSD against his will. He became very withdrawn and depressed under the influence of the powerful substance and questions remained so after its effects subsided. When Olson returned home from the retreat he asked his boss to fire him, claiming that his behavior had ruined the LSD experiment that his colleagues had undertaken the preceding weekend. Three weeks later, Olson jumped head first through a closed window, falling ten stories to the pavement below. Details of the events leading up to Olson's suicide remained confidential, primarily due to the fact that agents working under the MK-ULTRA program were preparing to launch into the next phase of LSD testing: the administration of LSD to homework, unwitting American citizens in real-life settings and questions situations. The CIA selected George Hunter White, a narcotics officer, to execute this plan. White was chosen on the basis of his experience with marijuana. Homework Helps. He had organized the earlier experiments in which marijuana was tested on unwitting American citizens and was quite willing to conduct similar research with LSD. White, funded by the CIA, rented an essay format introduction conclusion apartment in Greenwich Village and equipped it with two-way mirrors and surveillance cameras.

He proceeded to homework, lure artists up to pinocchio, his new home and surreptitiously dose them with LSD. A large number of his subjects had adverse reactions to the unexpected inebriation. In 1955, White was transferred to San Francisco, where he set-up two more of these safe houses, as the helps, CIA called them. At this time, Operation Midnight Climax was established. The purpose of this project was to study how sexual desires could be exploited by CIA agents. Writing Class. In exchange for $100.00 per homework helps maps, night and a guarantee of legal immunity, drug-addicted prostitutes aided White and the CIA by picking up men from area bars and notes on creative bringing them back to one of the homework helps maps, safe houses. White watched from behind the two-way mirror while the men were given drinks laced with LSD and seduced by the prostitutes. The safe house experiments continued until 1963, when the government abandoned its LSD research and began to papers on bitcoin, experiment with BZ, a stronger hallucinogen. (Lee Shalin, 32-33).

During this time the CIA and military also tested LSD on approximately 1500 soldiers, for example, measuring the effects of LSD on their ability to homework, perform routine drills (Lee Shalin, 40). They also slipped LSD to pinocchio essay, certain world leaders, who were not identified specifically in CIA reports (Lee Shalin, 50-1). I was unable to homework helps, locate any information about academic on bitcoin, LSD research on government websites, but the following statement from the DEA site illustrates the dichotomy between the helps, government's private and public actions in relation to academic papers on bitcoin, LSD almost as well as White himself did, arresting drug users by day and homework maps dosing American citizens by night. According to the DEA, America's social upheaval in the early 1960's dictated that a new, tougher approach to pinocchio critical, fighting drugs was warranted. Accordingly, in 1966 a new federal enforcement unit, BDAC…was created. Currently the federal penalty for a first LSD transportation offense is 40 years to life in prison and a fine of maps two to five million dollars. While the government was testing LSD's military and espionage potential, a very different form of research was being carried out by critical essay psychologists in America, Canada, and maps various parts of Europe. Psychologists, unaware that the CIA and military were attempting to develop a method to employ LSD as a weapon, were investigating the therapeutic potential of the introduction, new drug.

In 1999, the most effective method (though effective may be an exaggeration) for homework helps maps, treating alcoholics Alcoholics Anonymous. Pinocchio Critical Essay. The goal of AA and of every twelve step program is to help the client develop a sense of spirituality that will replace the use of alcohol and illicit drugs. Helps Maps. Typically this program requires years of hard work on the part of the subject and pinocchio critical the therapist, but twelve-step spirituality does appear to successfully cure alcoholics and drug addicts who are thoroughly dedicated to the cause of sobriety. One such success story is psychologist, writer, and former alcoholic John Bradshaw. In his book, Healing the Shame That Binds You, which was assigned reading for helps, a counseling class I took at papers, UNH in 1998, Bradshaw describes the two years of agony that culminated in the completion one of the twelve steps that led him to sobriety. Captain Al Hubbard, a former OSS spy, was acting in accordance with the theory that spirituality can induce sobriety when he began to administer LSD to homework maps, hard-core alcoholics in the early 1950's. His private experiments were so successful that he established LSD treatment centers at three major hospitals in writing class Canada. Helps Maps. He also convinced other researchers, such as Dr. Academic Papers On Bitcoin. Humphrey Osmond, to exploit the spiritual aspects of the LSD trip.

Before Hubbard introduced Osmond to maps, the spirituality theory of sobriety, Osmond had been using LSD to induce a nightmarish experience involving delirium tremors in his patients, believing that only pinocchio essay those alcoholics who reached rock-bottom could recover. Homework Maps. Osmond became convinced that Hubbard's method was preferable after he performed an experiment based on the new theory at Weyburn Hospital. Osmond administered a single high dose of LSD to 1000 hard-core alcoholics. Essay. Fifty percent of his subjects did not drink alcohol again. (Lee and Shalin, 50) Osmond continued this research for thirteen years, finally concluding that LSD therapy can turn a large number of alcoholics into sober members of society. Even more importantly, this can be done very quickly and therefore very economically (Lee and Shalin, 50). In 1957, Osmond introduced the word psychedelic to the scientific community and suggested that LSD be utilized in psychotherapy.

Osmond also disputed the popular belief that LSD was a psychtomimetic, or psychosis-mimicking, drug. (Lee Shalin, 55) This brought about a major shift in perspective for psychologists who had been using LSD inebriation to study psychosis. Drugs such as thorazine, which is still used to treat schizophrenics in the U.S., were developed as a result of research executed in accordance with the psychtomimetic model. Two forms of LSD therapy arose in the 1950's with the weakening of the psychometric paradigm: the Psycholytic, or mind-loosening, approach and Psychedelic therapy. Psycholytic therapy involved low to moderate doses of helps LSD in combination with traditional psychotherapy. Writing. When it was employed in repeated sessions, LSD accelerated the process of self-exploration.

It reduced psychological defenses and aided in homework the recovery of repressed traumatic experiences. This form of therapy was primarily used in England, where Dr. Ronald Standison established the first LSD clinic open to the public in 1953, inspiring the formation of similar clinics in many European countries. (Lee and Shalin, 56). Psychedelic therapy, was more popular in academic papers on bitcoin the U.S. and Canada.. It involved the maps, administration of format conclusion high doses of LSD for the purpose of creating a mystical or conversion experience. Homework Helps. Therapists, unknowingly acting under the watchful eyes of CIA field officers, served as guides, helping their patient assimilate his or her experience in a manner that would maximize personal growth.

Therapists often ingested small amounts of the drug before therapy sessions so they could properly empathize with their patients. Dr. Pinocchio Critical. Frank Ogden, who spent 9,000 hours working with 764 patients undergoing psychedelic therapy in British Columbia, recently sent an e-mail to a friend of mine who was kind enough to forward the homework maps, message to me. Ogden, whose research is contained in the medical text The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and notes on creative Alcoholism, included the original, un-edited report of his first psychedelic experience in this e-mail. Ogden states in the conclusion of his report, I believe LSD has a wonderful future to help us understand the human mind. Both the mind that is homework helps maps, sick as well as helping the mind that is writing class, well grow in perception…For me it was 99% wonderful.

Psychedelic therapy was tested on a broad selection of diagnostic categories including, but not limited to, alcoholism, juvenile delinquency, narcotics addiction, and various character neurosis. Helps Maps. (Shalin, 57) Patients continually stated that only a few LSD sessions had been more useful to them than years of psychoanalysis. Psychedelic therapy became a fad among politicians, writers, movie stars, and other members of the economic and intellectual elite during the 1950's, with actors such as Cary Grant publicly advocating the new treatment. The first international conference on LSD therapy was held in 1959. At this meeting the papers on bitcoin, dichotomy between the two major schools of helps maps thought inspired a major debate between those who still worked under the notes, psychtomimetic model for the CIA and military and those who used LSD for therapeutic purposes. The objectivist approach, represented by homework helps maps the government, would eventually dominate American opinion, governing FDA policy decisions and academic on bitcoin drug control laws through the maps, present time. Psychologists tested LSD on writing class approximately 40,000 patients, developing a huge data base of information which supported the efficacy of LSD in the treatment of many disorders, addictions, and various dysfunctional behaviors, but, in the end, this research amounted to nothing more than salvation for helps maps, a selected group of fortunate patients and a waste of time and effort for psychologists who were searching for techniques that could be used legally to help all people live more fulfilling lives. Many LSD researchers blamed Dr. Timothy Leary, a behavioral psychologist at Harvard, for format, the swift progression of policies that lead to the drug's illegal status. It seems highly unlikely that one man could provoke such a crackdown, but then it again, it also seems improbable that a single person could ignite the homework maps, dramatic cultural revolution of the essay, 1960's, as Leary arguably did. Timothy Leary's undergraduate career began rather shakily.

He attended West Point briefly, eventually dropping out because the other students ostracized him. He then enrolled at Alabama University, but was expelled for getting caught in one of the female dorms. After this expulsion, Leary did a short stint in the service, finally enrolling at the University of CA at homework helps, Berkley, where he went on to receive his doctorate in psychology. By 1960, when Leary had his first psychedelic experience, he had established himself as a prominent researcher in the field of psychology. Between 1954 and 1959, he served as the director of clinical research and psychology at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland, California. He published extensively in scientific journals. One well-known study that Leary conducted at the Kaiser Foundation measured the format introduction, progress of patients in psychotherapy against that of patients who were on a waiting list for therapy during a nine month period. The psychological community was quite shocked by the results, which indicated that the homework, improvement ratios of the two groups were virtually identical. (Stevens, 20). Leary also wrote a widely acclaimed text book about the interpretation of psychological tests. He developed a personality test himself called The Leary, which the CIA and essay other organizations used to maps, test prospective employees. (As a side note: this personality test was used on Leary himself many years later when he was jailed on a marijuana charge.

He, of course, found this highly amusing.) These accomplishments eventually lead Leary to an appointment at Harvard, where, inspired by an article in Life magazine and a personal experience with psilocybin mushrooms, Leary established a psilocybin research project in 1960 with the approval of the department chairman. Essay Format Conclusion. Timothy Leary and his colleague Richard Alpert began by investigating the emotional and creative effects of homework helps maps psilocybin. Notes. Emotion and creativity are difficult to quantify, however, and Leary and Alpert eventually turned to more practical forms of psilocybin research. In his famous Concord prison study, Leary administered psilocybin to 32 inmates in a maximum security prison in Concord, Massachusetts. He helped the prisoners assimilate their experiences in such a manner that only maps 25% of essay his subjects ever returned to jail again. Compare this to helps maps, the typical recidivism rate of 80% at that time and in 1999. Psilocybin appeared to reform criminals more effectively than any method that had ever been used or has been used since. (Lee Shalin, 75) During this time, Leary did not limit his psilocybin usage to experimental settings.

He was also using this drug, as well as LSD, during social gatherings that included many famous artists, professionals, and writers, such as Allen Ginsberg. In fact, it was Ginsberg who originally shaped Leary's belief that psychedelics could be used for notes on creative, mass social reform, insisting that the use of LSD should not be limited to the elite. As early as December of 1960, Ginsberg proclaimed to Leary, We're going to teach people to stop hating…Start a peace and love movement (Lee Shalin, 76). The beat poet felt that Leary was ideally suited to head a psychedelic campaign designed to disseminate as much information as possible. Leary embraced this task wholeheartedly, Leary, buoyed by this belief, convinced that the homework, graceful evolution of the human species lay in the ability and notes on creative writing freedom of each individual to homework, intelligently manipulate his or her own nervous system and state of consciousness, proceeded to on creative writing, dedicate the remainder of his life to homework, the cause. (Leary, iv) In 1962, Timothy Leary published an writing article in the Journal of Atomic Sciences suggesting that the government prepare for maps, a possible chemical attack from writing class enemies.

He recommended that they put LSD in city water supplies for the purpose of introducing American citizens to the nature of psychedelic inebriation. Government officials, who had already considered the possibility of water contamination by enemies and had subsequently determined that chlorine neutralized lysergic acid, denounced Leary. In March of 1962, Leary's colleagues at helps maps, Harvard confronted him during a faculty meeting, expressing their concern about the liberal manner in which he distributed psychedelics. A published account of essay introduction conclusion this meeting lead to an investigation by helps maps the FDA, which determined that Leary was no longer permitted to administer psychedelics unless a medical doctor was present. By the end of that year Leary's research projects were officially terminated.

Shortly after, Leary's colleague, Richard Alpert, was fired for homework maps, giving LSD to an undergraduate. Three days later, Leary was also dismissed from the University on the grounds that he had failed to notes on creative, attend an honors program committee meeting. The media frenzy that followed sparked the growth of the helps maps, psychedelic underground. (Lee Shalin, 88) Until his death in critical 1996, at age 75 Leary used various forms of homework helps maps media to educate the masses about the drug he thought of as the critical, liberator of humankind. He used pamphlets, books, music, television, films, lecture circuits, and the Internet. All of homework maps Leary's post-Harvard writings, whether philosophical, scientific, or sociological were carefully geared toward the goal essay, intellect and interests of the average American, written in a language that anyone could understand. For Example, Leary's book Info-Psychology: a Manual on homework helps maps the Use of the Human Nervous System According to the Instructions of the Manufacturers, written in 1976 and originally called exo-psychology, describes DNA and Leary's model of human behavior and on creative writing evolution in terms of a tarot deck. Homework Helps Maps. He, of course, took a great deal of flack from on bitcoin his former colleagues for employing such a ridiculous metaphor. His response: The illustrative metaphors are not important. What is crucial to humanity's graceful mutation is the helps maps, understanding and personal application of Einsteinian, neuro-genetic, quantum-physical perspectives of who we are and whom we choose to become (Leary, X). In the words of Jay Stevens, The psychedelic experience might be as difficult to describe as the taste of notes ice-cream, but it had still attracted an enthusiastic and dangerous bunch of salesmen. First and foremost was Dr.

Timothy Leary…Whether the psychedelic movement would have happened without Timothy Leary is a matter of homework helps debate, but there can be no question that he defined its public style (Stevens, xv). In 1962, the same year that Alpert and Leary were expelled from questions Harvard University, Congress enacted a law that made it virtually impossible for any person or organization, with the exceptions of the CIA and military, to obtain LSD for research purposes. In 1965, Congress passed the Drug Abuse Control Amendments under which the illicit manufacture and sale of LSD became a misdemeanor. In 1966, Senator Robert Kennedy, whose wife had successfully undergone LSD therapy, lead a congressional probe into the organization and helps maps coordination of federal drug research and regulatory programs. After this probe, Kennedy concluded that regulatory agencies were thwarting potentially valuable research. Introduction. The FDA ignored Kennedy's pleas for them to review the scientific reports pertaining to LSD.

This data included approximately 1,000 clinical papers relating to 40,000 patients. In 1968, the sale of LSD became a felony. In 1970, psychedelics were placed in the Schedule I category - a classification reserved for drugs of maps abuse that have no medical value (Lee Shalin, 93) By this time, the CIA had created a backlog of more than twenty-six thousand new compounds to be screened for offensive use. I will conclude this paper by briefly stating my opinions about LSD research. Notes On Creative. I think that the CIA and military were quite justified in maps studying this drug, however I feel that their methods were often sloppy and writing class unethical and I do not personally sympathize with their goal.

I was quite amazed to learn of the therapeutic efficacy of LSD and I think it is unfortunate that the current political climate would most likely not allow for the reconsideration of this psychiatric data. Finally, I think that it is impossible to place a moral value judgment on homework helps maps LSD. People who think it is a destructive drug have a large amount of evidence to support this claim. In Life. People who think it can be used constructively do also. Hoffman, Albert. Homework. LSD My Problem Child . NewYork: Putnam Publishing Group, 1983. Hoffman, Albert. On Timothy Leary.

Leary, Timothy. Chaos and Cyber Culture . Berkeley: Ronin Publishing, Inc., 1994. Leary, Timothy. Info Psychology . Tempe: New Falcon, 1989. Lee, Martin A. and Shlain, Bruce. Acid Dreams . New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1985.

Stevens, Jay. Storming Heaven LSD and format introduction the American Dream . New York: Grove Press, 1987.

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a essay about 9/11 Evident is the homework helps, fact that today the USA is the most powerful country in unequal environment. Writing Class! 21st century starts with doubtless domination of the USA on the international scene. It is the strongest country in almost all aspects – military strength, economic and scientific potential, which controls global markets through the system of transnational corporations and banks predominantly owned by American capital. Being a leading country in homework, the sphere of diplomacy and international relations, the United States has created a network of global alliances yet during the period of cold war, and today the country exercises its ability to format introduction conclusion, “project” its strength on practically every region of the world. And today, according to homework helps maps, views of many political scientists, America exercises its power in unprecedented scopes.

American domination is a fact that is obvious in writing class, short and incontestable in middle-term run. But the long-term perspectives of American global policy will be determined by the American ability to take proper use of its domination today. Today, America faces a problem: it should become aware of its domination, but nevertheless conduct its policy as if there were a number of centers of force worldwide. Homework! In the nearest future no power source comparable to the United States is likely to emerge. Today, the US foreign policy has become “the factor number one” for virtually every state in the world and international system on the whole. However, the status of the pinocchio critical essay, USA as the only global superpower was put under question under 9/11 attacks. On the one hand, the power, security and inviolability of the global center of force were proven to be a little bit exaggerated. The USA turned out to be as vulnerable as every other state in the world and not very capable of securing its own protection.

On the other hand, creation of joint anti-terrorist coalition, a solitary cooperation of the majority of the states supporting American policy in fighting terrorism and attacking Afghanistan and offering tangible assistance to the American forces, followed by almost unilateral actions of America against Iraq, give the ground to conclude that the United States has somewhat ceased to take heed of international opinion and act as if they were only influential power on the globe without need for homework helps maps, international support and critical essay, compliance with the rules and obligations of international behavior. These facts pose a lot of questions as to helps, the nature of international system that is being shaped today and the problems it encounters. This paper will present the comprehensive overview of the major aspects of the issue. A number of problems focus on essay conclusion, the issues of international anti-terrorist coalition and perspectives of combating international terrorism. Also, new image of homework, international security is being formed, and this one contains numerous problems.

Thus, despite process and tendencies which took shape after the events of 9/11, such as creation of anti-terrorist coalition, acquiring a new, forceful and almost aggressive role by the US policy, integrative processes in Europe, and rapprochement of goal in life essay, Russia and West, in reality, uncertainties take dominant place in global processes. Uncertain is the homework, perspective of development of numerous major processes within international system, which take their root in ultimate goal in life essay, destruction of bipolar system. The new system of international relations that was to helps maps, take shape seems to take long time for its creation. Writing Class! Today’s state of international security is characterized by combination of elements inherent to both old a new systems, existing in 19 and 21 centuries, aggravated by continued distrust inherited from the bipolar period. On the one hand, the military campaign against Iraq revealed numerous problems and contradictions, and on the other hand it served as a catalyst for new processes and tendencies which gradually emerged.

Therefore, modern international system, under effect of events following 9/11, has acquired traits of homework, uncertainty. The world, states and politic elites, which over fifty years got used to live in strictly determined, though highly explosive and dangerous, international system, have hard time adapting to new realities, and format introduction, therefore feel insecure and uncomfortable. Of course there exist some certain moments, but uncertainty shows and very often dominates on numerous directions. Tragic events of September 11 revealed these uncertainties which were formed still in 1990s. Becoming aware of these tendencies is of particular importance for elaboration of both strategy and tactics of any state, especially the maps, large one. The first set of uncertainties of early 21st century has formed and continues to form around the USA and its foreign policy.

On the one hand it is ultimate goal essay evident that Washington strives to take use of the situation it found itself after the Cold War. This situation, according to homework, many American political scientists, is the unique for writing class, international system since decline of the Roman Empire. Therefore the aim of the Washington is to ensure to the maximum possible extent the achievement of tactic and helps, strategic goals and ambitions on the basis of unique and recognized in the world military and notes, economic power. Homework Helps! The United States can remain the most powerful state for considerably long time, though not always – the history of the Roman Empire, compared nowadays with the writing class, USA, reminds of that. But the set of instruments and mechanisms of American achievement of its goals poses many questions, is homework uncertain and, taking into account the scale of American activity, may cause system shifts and implications in essay, international relations (for example in Europe) and security which are at the moment difficult to define and predict. Thus, despite all its power and constant declarations that the US is able to act on international arena on its own, in reality America cannot do without its allies. In military actions it needs allies’ armies, airports and other infrastructure, air space, political and informational cooperation and many other assets. The USA a priori relies on traditional international instruments and mechanisms, which in a number if cases began to homework maps, fail and malfunction due to the position of individual states. Especially evidently these problems showed during and after anti-Iraq campaign. Enthusiasm of the part of the allies, such as Great Britain, Spain, a number of new Central-European states – NATO members – Poland and Hungary, isn’t shared by all European states, not to essay, mention other regions.

For instance, Italy behaves warily in helps maps, its support of essay, Washington, but the most serious disturbing factor from both Iraqi campaign viewpoint and possible long-term implications was objection to American actions by the two most powerful European countries – France and Germany. In European Union 10 countries out of 15 (at that time their number was 15) opposed the US actions to different degree. In NATO, the homework maps, number of notes writing, opponents made up 11 out of helps, then-19its members. The new anti-Iraq coalition is considerably inferior by its solidarity and cohesion to the one formed in 1991 during “The Desert Storm” operation. Actual split in the camp of American closest allies seriously weakens transatlantic security structures that have been the essay format introduction, basis of cohesion for maps, more than 50 years after the end of World War II.

The policy of the USA is the evidence of the fact that the papers, USA still hasn’t found a model of transition from the old world to the new one. Dealing with the realities of 21st century, it tries to sometimes apply not only the methods of homework helps maps, 20th century, but even of the 19th with its interventionism, strive to privatize everything in the international relations, including antiterrorism. The mixture of new and questions, old methods and worldviews is the source of uncertainties and potential dangers, obstacle in the process of creating new, realistic international relations system of the homework helps, 21st century. The new tendencies are apparent in Europe, where still recently the pinocchio essay, development has been stable and predictable. The decisive point of the Europe’s new policy is position of France and Germany that was acutely revealed in decisive opposition of these counties to anti-Iraq operation. The special position of France and Germany deals with all set of European and transatlantic relations. Recently a new initiative on creating Franco - German federation emerged and became sensation indicating geopolitical shift in today’s international system. Maps! Significant uncertainties deal with the destiny of NATO.

The Alliance proved incapable of on bitcoin, participation in anti-terrorist campaign against Al-Qaeda and Taliban in Afghanistan. The USA, its allies and partners actually acted in contravention of NATO. Helps Maps! It is difficult to writing class, evaluate if the maps, Alliance will be able to confront new challenges, and if so, how quickly it will adapt to new circumstances. Military operation against Iraq, especially position of Turkey, revealed the scope and the depth of the issues that NATO has to solve to pertain its positions as effective military-political organization. By counteracting to the “old” European leaders – France and Germany- and relying upon today’s favorites – Spain, Italy, Great Britain and new Alliance members, the USA catalyze the split processes within the NATO organization. Taking into account all the contradictions that showed during the Iraqi crisis but have deep system roots, one cannot exclude the possibility that tendencies of notes writing, prosperous development of Europe will be disturbed. Therefore, Europe has become another complex of homework, uncertainties in the result of the events of 9/11. Another uncertainty touches upon the security systems and their development trends in the 21st century. Despite predictions that after the end of the Cold War the security system supported by military methods will cease, today we witness the processes when military aspects of essay, security become the decisive factor once again. The use of interventionism has become a widespread and common international practice, conflicts continue to helps, emerge, weapons of mass destruction increasingly proliferate. Mega terrorism adds to this picture its final sinister accent.

Also, the paradigm of threats to national security has undergone cardinal change. If in 2002 the writing, main attention was drawn to threats emerging from non-state institution, such as Al-Qaeda, today the whole states (Iran, Iraq, North Korea) are claimed to be the maps, new sources of threats. Notes! The mixture of old, traditional threats to national security with the new ones further complicates already contradictory system of homework helps, international relations. What can be done to meet all those challenges and reduce their negative effects? Again, the proper policy of the global superpower is needed. The USA should reconsider its global behavior from essay, rejection of international principles, direct economic and maps, power pressure on its allies, which causes growing resistance and has the adverse effect of diminishing American influence on the international arena, to setting comprehensible rules and strict adhering to them ensuring that the papers, view of the maps, majority of international actors is taken into account and format conclusion, their interests are not ignored. Only in the spirit of cooperation, acting as if the USA weren’t the most powerful state on the globe, can it preserve its leading positions and secure the unipolar status of international system. Dennis Dresang. American Government in a Changed World:The Effects of September 11, 2001.

Longman, 2004. David Buckingham. September 11, Ripple Effects or Paradigm Shift? 14 September 2002. - Storey Hall, RMIT University. Huntington S. The Clash of Civilization. Foreign Affairs, vol.72, #3, Summer 1993. Michael Harris.

The Tragedy Of September 11 and its Multilevel Effects. Eastern Michgan Univesity, 2002. Maps! National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. W.W. Norton Company July 22, 2004.

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Different reasons why people communicate Essay. 1.1 Identify the different reasons why people communicate. Communication and relationships represent one of the most important characteristics of working with others, adults and helps, children. There are a variety of reasons why people communicate, mainly: -Building relationships: the first thing that will happen when I first meet a new child, parent, colleagues, is some form of communication. This might be a smile, wave or a linguistic form of essay, salutation. Homework. By those first form of essay format, communication I begin to homework helps maps build a relationship. -Maintaining relationship: I keep building relationships with children and adults to create a trusting relationship. -Gaining and essay format, sharing information: I need to gain and share info in work non only with children and their families, but also with colleagues and managers. This will help in the way that I work and helps, problem solving. -Expressing needs and feelings: we as human beings all need to express our needs and feelings and also be there to allow children to do the same.

1.2 Explain how communication affects relationship in the work setting. it is essential to establish good relationships with all the people I daily deal with. In Life Essay. Good communication skills are related to strong relationship with children, parents, colleagues and other adults. We need to communicate to share and gain information, like routine info about how a child is homework feeling, play interests or health and welfare. Communication is fundamental to gain parents confidence and writing class, trust in us and homework helps maps, make them feeling comfortable with us. It’s hard but necessary to be able to quickly find ways of communicating with them and building relationship, for writing class, example in a settling in context.

A good quality of homework helps, communication, then, allow a child to feel relaxed and play and learn more effectively. When I can communicate effectively I’ll help to build vocabulary to allow expressing themselves. Communication it’s furthermore important in the case of a child transition to another classroom or school: the main aim is on creative trying to pass all the info related to the child so to allow other people to build relationship as quickly as possible. Communication, finally, is essential to my relationship with all my colleagues, to work well together it is essential to communicate in a strong and professional way. 2.2 Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication.

To promote effective communication it is essential to choose which communication method to use and the right style of homework helps, communication: face to essay questions face interaction, phone conversation, sign language, written communication (emails, reports), gesture, picture of children in action. It’s useful to homework helps maps consider the essay, environment in which the communication happen to homework helps be: it’s better to communicate with adults in a quiet place or create a cosy and critical, homely place to establish relationship with children. Maps. Another important factor is represented by the distance between me and the person I’m communicating with. Writing. Being very close to helps a child can be very useful but not as much as if I don’t know the child of if he/she is shy. Posture is important as well (e.g. standing at the same level of a child while communicating with him). 3.1 Explain why people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways. When people share more or less the same cultural background and the more or less the same experiences, they interpret things in a similar way and this make communication much easier and avoid misunderstandings.

This is easy and happen naturally in a family context, but normally the pinocchio essay, people I daily communicate with comes from a different culture, background and helps, linguistic knowledge. In my Italian culture e.g. it’s important and questions, natural to associate verbal communication with gesture, or in the Chinese culture eye contact is interpreted differently. We build our way of communicating by learning from our parents or family background so mine is homework culturally far from an English speaking family and far from a bilingual speaking family e.g.. this means that I have to be careful and cannot take for, granted that my viewpoint of style of communication will always be effective. It’s important to consider different backgrounds, beliefs and individual values and respect them so to develop the confidence to homework helps maps express themselves freely and make choices. 3.2/3.3 Identify barriers to effective communication and the ways you would overcome these. Language difficulties: different mother tongue represent an important barrier to effective communication, both in oral or written form. I personally try to study English every day and to learn how to communicate effectively in this language. I’m very interested in different culture and always try to learn some word of the other language a child can speak or being able to understand (French, Spanish, Japanese e.g.) Inappropriate method of communication: difficulties in choosing appropriate words or language, inappropriate style or tone, illegibly writing, choosing to write a letter instead of having a word… I think it’s very important to consider each and every situation and the kind of relationship I might have with the people I’m dealing with so to choose the best method of communicate and make it effective.

All the barriers related to the transfer of communication: background noise, unreceived mails…I make sure that the passage of a message to another adult or child is done in writing class an effective way, checking feedbacks and if one of those condition are present: 3.4 Demonstrate strategies misunderstandings that can be used to clarify paraphrasing and reflecting to check understanding; apologizing; simplifying language. 3.5 Explain how to access to helps maps extra support or services below to enable individuals to communicate effectively (translation services, interpreting services, speech and language services, advocacy services) There are a number of services that can be accessed to support communication, including: Interpreters or Translators when we need to support foreigners; Signers to support deaf people; Advocators. Essay Format Introduction. These services can be utilized by educational and health services. through a booking system. Local authorities also have access to a team of specialists, such as Speech and Language therapists.

Support can also be found on the internet through various specialist websites, including The British Deaf Society and The National Blind Children’s Society. Information on how to access to help can be found on internet, but also in clinics and libraries. There is also a range of specialist equipment, like induction loops, Braille embossers and printers. Homework Helps. As a nursery assistant, if I feel that a child is in questions need of extra support, I will refer him/her to my manager. Having explained my concerns, she may choose to observe the child herself. Helps. If she felt it was necessary she would then book any support services that may be required.

4.1 Explain the meaning of the term confidentiality. Confidentiality means not sharing information about people without their knowledge and agreement, and ensuring that written and electronic information cannot be accessed or read by people who have no reason to see it (using a password protected computer which is only accessed by named staff members and notes writing, viewed by appropriate officials like Ofsted and parents). So, you cannot tell anyone what you’ve been told by a teacher, a student or a parent unless you have their permission, knowledge or if you think that the child is going to be in danger. Confidentiality includes respecting other people’s rights and homework maps, keeping safe the, information that they have provided. In such a workplace as a Nursery it is easy to come to homework helps know personal things we are not supposed to. Critical Essay. For example, a child may tell us something private, not understanding we should not know it. It is our duty to keep the homework, information for ourselves.

However, in the setting there is a Policy about the privacy which is to be read and signed by all members of staff and, of course, respected too. 4.3 Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individual’s confidentiality and disclosing concerns. While parents and children have the right to confidentiality there are occasion when the need to maintain confidentiality might be breached. If I have concerns that a child is being abused, I must disclose this information to the Manager, unless I think that by disclosing the information I will put the child in further danger. Pinocchio. Being it very hard to work out such a decision, sharing the concerns with a trusted colleague could help a lot. In case the Manager doesn’t see any abuse where I clearly see it, I will continue to keep an eye on the child I think has been abused and whenever I feel the helps, child is in significant danger, I will report immediately to on bitcoin the Manager again and, in case of maps, necessity, to the owner of the setting.

1.1 Explain each of the terms: speech; language; communication; speech, language and communication needs. Speech is the vocalized form of human communication, based upon the syntactic combination of lexical and names that are drawn from very large vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies differ creating the existence of many thousands of different types of languages. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing. A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language. Writing Class. Speech in some cultures has become the basis of a written language. Helps Maps. Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system.

In addition to its strictly communicative uses, language also has many social and questions, cultural uses, such as signifying group identity, social stratification, as well as for social grooming and homework helps maps, entertainment. Communication is the activity of academic papers, conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by homework helps maps speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of writing class, information between two or a group of living creatures. Homework. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and essay, may occur through spoken or other modes. Speech, language and communication needs it’s a term used to refer to any difficulty that a child has in any of the homework helps maps, three areas, e.g. difficulty in producing certain sounds (speech).

1.2 Explain how speech, language and pinocchio critical, communication skills support each of the following areas in homework helps maps children’s development: learning; emotional; behaviour; social. Speech, language and communication skills support: learning development because they help a child to understand what is being seen or provide a way for the child to essay communicate what he/she has seen. Homework. Babies use sounds and facial expressions to communicate needs and express themselves. Toddlers use words and gestures to make connections and develop their knowledge and writing class, understanding. Pre-school children ask questions and make sense of the helps maps, responses, they use words to express their ideas and develop their understanding; they support emotional development because controlling emotions is a large part of emotional development and if children become frustrated, angry or jealous and can’t communicate their feelings they may have a tantrum. But as their skills develop they can name their emotions and find other ways of expressing them, so babies use sounds and facial expressions to develop an goal in life, attachment and relationship with their main carers, toddlers use words and body language to express their feelings and helps maps, preschool children use speech and language to express their feelings and exert their independence; they support behaviour because once a child understands language they can begin to understand the consequences of their actions and start to think things through, becoming less impulsive and format conclusion, they support social development as children can start to recognise how others feel by watching their body language and listening to what they say and learn to adjust their behaviour accordingly. Children also start to understand social codes and how to helps maps behave appropriately.

So, babies use sounds and pinocchio critical essay, facial expressions in responding to adult interactions, toddlers use words and homework, gestures to interact with others and pre-school children use speech and writing class, language to interact with others and develop friendships. 1.3 Describe the potential impact of speech, language and homework helps, communication difficulties on the development of a child, both currently and in the longer term. Essay. Such difficulties may have an impact on homework maps a child overall development both currently and in longer term. Currently, because a child may not follow the expected pattern of development for communication finding it difficult to communicate with carers and peers and causing him to questions become frustrated and maps, show negative behaviour, anger, lack of notes on creative, confidence, find it difficult to homework helps form relationships, to learn process and apply new information and find it hard to ultimate in life be understood by others. The children may have social problems struggling to communicate with peers leading them to avoid joining in with certain activities or leading them to play on their own affecting their social development. In the long term it can cause continued communication problems, low self-esteem, reduced life chances, finding it hard to make and maintain relationships, feeling isolated and excluded, not being able to be independent, develop antisocial behaviour. It is surely very important to be able as a carer to recognize as early as possible the presence of symptoms of such difficulties in order to intervene promptly and give more chances to the child. 2.1 Explain the ways in which adults can effectively support and helps, extend the speech, language and critical, communication development of children during the early years: – the words and levels of language adults use with children (including the homework maps, use of questions) One of the skills to essay format introduction acquire is to maps quickly work out the level of language we need to use with children and also the style we need to adopt. Adults seem automatically to be able to change the structure of pinocchio critical, their language when working with babies in order to simplify it, this seems to be particularly important so that babies can focus on the key words in a sentence and helps, so begin to associate these words with meaning. Questions play an important part in stimulating and extending children’s speech, they can show children that we are interested in what they are doing or thinking.

Rhetorical questions are useful when working with babies and toddler, but are not helpful with children who already have speech as they simply deny children the questions, opportunity to answer. – informations and activities used. Planning activities or using books will prompt children speech, although it is always important for homework, adults to build on children’s existing interests as well as providing new things for them. – their conversations/interaction with children children who have speech need time to chat to adults, most children like to be doing something or have something to show the adult for the conversation to critical essay take place. This often require the adult to sit down at their level. Good conversation do not work when the adult is moving and helps maps, cannot make eye contact or is distracted. On Creative. For babies and toddlers early interaction is often playful, including songs and rhymes.

– work with parents/carers. Parents/careres often have a strong relationship with their children and they’re able to tune into homework maps them and adapt their language. This means that parents have the potential to be brilliant language partners for their children, where a child has a specific speech and language need, both setting and format introduction conclusion, parents will need to work together with a speech and language therapist. 2.2 Explain the homework helps, relevant positive effects of adult support for the children and their carers: – speech, language and writing class, communication skills. Children can show progress in their speech, language and communication skills if high quality support is given, working with them can be very rewarding and parents are often delight by the improvement that their children are showing. positive support can make a child more outgoing ans also confident in their interactions. Once children have more speech and language they are able to play more easily with other children. – behaviour many children who are finding it difficult to communicate and speak will show aggressive, uncooperative and frustrated behaviour. Being able to communicate effectively can make and enormous difference to homework helps maps children’s behaviour. – emotional development/self confidence. positive aldult support also helps children’s emotional development.

Not only do children become more confident, they also find through words ways of controlling their emotions and expressing their needs. 2.3 Explain how levels of speech and language development vary between children entering early years provision and need to be taken into account during settling in essay questions and planning. Every child is unique. It is obvious then that when they enter the nursery they will not be at homework the same level of development, not necessarily at least. We all know that some children start to speak at the age of 12 month while others will walk at 9 months, but others may take longer to start doing both activities. It is very important to format conclusion help children settle in since their learning opportunities are amplified when children are confident, happy, motivated, engaged and supported in their play and exploration.

For these reasons planning for children’s needs is a requirement of homework, each setting and is an effective way to essay format introduction conclusion support children’s developing communication, speech and language needs. To help children settle in we need to take into account how much stimulation and encouragement they have experienced, what is their first language spoken at home, if there are any individual speech, language or communication needs/difficulties/gaps. That is why when entering the helps, setting all parents are asked to fill in essay introduction conclusion a form for their child where they have the opportunity to give us information about their child’s needs and requirements. To help a child settle in, it is also very important to maps be aware of his/her self-confidence, self-esteem, ability to settle. Moreover, facilitating communication between children helps with understanding each other, forming positive relationships, and notes on creative writing, demonstrates ways each can utilise negotiation and homework helps, conflict resolution by waiting, listening and expression. 4.1 Explain the importance of the essay, environment in supporting speech, language and communication development. Communication friendly spaces are essential to help children develop their speech and homework, language and these spaces should be made available both indoors and outdoors.

Such spaces should be ideated thinking to reduce noise and distractions to a minimum otherwise the children cannot concentrate (for example the book area). The area should have sunlight to maximise the use of light and academic on bitcoin, enable young babies or toddlers to see your face and how we use facial expression (particularly important if you have a child with an hearing impairment or while working with babies that do not speak yet so that are not able to use language to helps maps communicate). Papers. You should consider the impact of the colour to reflect on a child’s emotions, a good colour is yellow since this colour is recognised faster than any other colour, evokes spontaneity, is joyful, optimistic, warm and signifies communication. Our rooms have a different colour each one and one has, as a dominant colour, red and I find it a bit overwhelming, while the other two rooms are light blue and. light grey and you feel more relaxed in homework them. In the book corner we have a nice shelf with different age/stage books in; we also have some very nice musical stories that come with books with illustrations and that children really love a lot. We then have a soft box where we keep soft toys and format, puppets we use for homework, singing time and to mime. All these materials are always kept at children’s keep so they can help themselves, this enables the area to writing class be inviting for the children. University/College: University of homework, Arkansas System.

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