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aspergers homework Disorder be exempted from doing homework? Dr. Tony Attwood. A major cause of anguish for children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder, their families and teachers is the satisfactory completion of weak, homework. Why should this group of children have such an emotional reaction to the mere thought of having to best, start their homework and such difficulty completing assigned tasks? There may be two explanations. The first is based on their degree of stress and weak points mental exhaustion during their day at school and the second is due to essay about bonding, their profile of cognitive skills.
It is essential that we recognise the degree of stress experienced by resume weak such children, as the signs can become evident in their behaviour and mood. Best? The signs include the child who is described as a Dr.Jekyl and Mr.Hyde in resume weak, that the indicators of essays robe, stress are not conspicuous at school but the child is a very different character at home. They may be quiet and weak compliant in the classroom but intolerant and aggressive immediately they return home. Some children become extremely anxious in the morning before going to school and school refusal or walking out of essays book, school can be a sign of unbearable stress. Other children can express the signs at school by episodes of extreme anxiety or anger, with incidents of panic or disruptive and explosive behaviour. Points? Others suffer chronic stress, which contributes to a clinical depression. When I talk to children with autism and Aspergerís Syndrome who are having difficulty learning the social curriculum and coping with the stress of school, they often explain that they want a clear division between home and school. Their comment is ďSchool is for and men friendship learning, home is for fun or relaxationĒ Thus the prospect of interrupting their much needed and deserved fun and weak relaxation with homework is more than they can cope with.
The following range of strategies are designed to minimise the impaired Executive Function, accommodate their profile of cognitive skills and help the child complete their homework assignments with less stress for the child and mfa programs in us family. Create a learning environment. The area where the child works must be conducive to concentration and learning. Resume? A useful model is the childís classroom with appropriate seating, lighting and removal of any distractions. The distractions can be visual such as the presence of and men essay friendship, toys or television, which are a constant reminder of what the child would rather be doing or auditory distraction such as the noise from electrical appliances and the chatter of weak points, siblings. Ensure the working surface only andy mcgorman has equipment relevant to the task. Their working environment must also be safe from curious brothers and sisters. A daily homework timetable can be made by a parent with guidance from the teacher to weak points, define the expected duration and content of each homework activity or assignment. This can be extremely helpful if there are problems with the childís allocation of time to each homework component.
Sometimes the homework can take hours when the teacher intended only several minutes on a specified task. A timer can be used to remind the child how much time is remaining to complete each section of homework. It is also important to ensure that time scheduled for homework does not coincide with the childís favourite television program. Essays? If it does, they may have priority use of the video recorder and can watch the program after their homework. If regular breaks are necessary to promote concentration, the work can be divided into segments to indicate how much work the child has to complete before they can take a momentary break. The usual mistake is to points, expect too much prolonged concentration.
Teacherís preparation of the homework. The teacher can highlight key aspects of the homework sheet, written material and questions so that the child knows which aspects are relevant to their preparation of the assignment. They can ask the child to formulate their plan before commencing the assignment to ensure their work is coherent and logical, especially if the homework is an essay. If the assignment takes several days to complete, it is important that the teacher regularly reviews the essays black robe, childís rough drafts and weak progress, which also increases the science book, likelihood that it will be completed on time. Memory problems If the child has difficulty remembering exactly what was set for homework and remembering relevant information during homework, a characteristic of impaired executive function, a solution is to buy an executive toy. A small cassette recorder used for dictation can provide a record of the weak points, teacherís spoken instructions and the child can add his or her own comments or personal memo to the recording to remind them of key information. The child and their parent will then know exactly what was said and what is relevant to the task. Essay? Another strategy is to have the telephone number of another child in the class to ask them for the relevant information. A homework diary and planner can help the child remember which books to take home and the specific homework for resume each evening.
An executive diary or Ďfilofaxí from essay bonding, a stationary store may make this strategy more appealing to points, the child. The techniques are explained as being appropriate for book adult executives rather than for children with learning problems. Supervision The child may have difficulty getting started or knowing what to do first. Procrastination can be an weak points issue and a parent may have to supervise the start of the homework. Once the child has started, this is not the end of the supervision. A parent will also need to be available if the child requires assistance when they are confused and to ensure that they have chosen the appropriate strategy. There can be a tendency for such children to have a closed mind to alternative strategies and a determination to pursue an approach when other children would have recognised the signs that it would be wise to consider another approach. A technique to show that there is more than one line of thought is to and men essay, provide the child with a list of alternative strategies to weak points, solve the particular problem.
The child may need to know there is a plan ĎBí. Parents and teachers soon become aware of the degree of supervision required which can be a major problem for a parent with other family commitments when the competitions, child is resume weak, doing their homework. Supervision is also necessary to help the child prioritise, plan, assist with word retrieval problems and maintain motivation. Motivation can be enhanced by specific rewards for concentration and creative effort Emotion Management Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder are notorious for their difficulty coping with frustration and resume criticism, and their inability to manage their emotions. They can become quite agitated when confused or having made a mistake. An adult will need to be available to help the child remain calm and logical. The adult will also need to model calmness, which can be difficult when both child and adult are confused as to what to do.
It can end in tears for both parties. Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder often enjoy having access to a computer and may be more able to writing mfa programs, understand material if it is presented on a computer screen. Weak? Material presented by a person adds a social and linguistic dimension to the situation, which can increase the childís confusion. Teachers should consider adapting the homework so that a considerable proportion of the work is conducted using a computer. Bonding? Word processing facilities, especially graphics and grammar and spell check programs are invaluable in improving the legibility and quality of the resume weak points, finished product. If the parent is unable to help the child solve a particular problem, a solution is to come to an arrangement with the essays black robe, teacher where by the teacher is contacted by telephone without hesitation as to the time of day or night and they can talk directly to the child. Regular use of this approach can lead to a significant reduction in the type and amount of homework. Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder require special consideration when learning new material. Homework should primarily be designed to consolidate and practise known information rather than introducing new concepts. Another characteristic is a difficulty explaining their reasoning using speech.
The child may provide the correct solution to a mathematical problem but not be able to use words to explain how they achieved the answer. Their cognitive strategies may be unconventional and intuitive rather than deductive. One may need to accept their correct solution even if the logic is unclear to the neurotypical mind. One problem with this characteristic is points, that it may be difficult for the parent to correct the alternative reasoning when the child has a Ďmental blockí. Mcgorman? Teaching a child with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder requires special skills and weak a parent is not expected to have those skills. Science Essays? As a parent, one is also more emotionally involved than a class teacher and it can be difficult for them to be objective and weak points emotionally detached. World Bank Essay? One option is to hire a homework tutor to provide the skilled guidance and supervision.
However, this may be beyond the financial resources of most families. Resume Points? If all these strategies are unsuccessful, what is the alternative? ĎShould children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder be exempted from doing homework?í If the strategies outlined in thesis, this article are unsuccessful or unable to points, be implemented, then my reply is Ďyesí. Sometimes this advice is to the great relief of the child, their parent and probably their teacher. You can quote me on this. Science Book? [This paper was originally published in the Summer 2000 edition of The Morning News (volume 12, number 2) The Morning News is available from Jenison Public Schools, 2140 Bauer Road, Jenison. MI 49428.
Phone 616 457 8955. The Summer edition features several papers on resume points homework.]
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Sialorrhea and Aspiration Pneumonia: A Case Study. This case study compares two different clinical outcomes for a patient with a long-standing psychotic disorder prescribed clozapine on two occasions. During the first trial, clozapine was used at resume a higher dose for this patient (350-450mg/day) and included clinically significant sialorrhea, pneumonia, and pneumonia-like illnesses requiring immediate medical intervention including hospitalization. Essays On The Robe? There were also patient complaints of fatigue, cough, choking, and constipation leading to poor adherence. Clozapine was discontinued when the patient withdrew his consent due to side effects, despite his awareness of weak points its benefits, including reduction of command hallucinations and irritability. The second clozapine trial was associated with lower daily doses and therapeutic serum blood levels. The patient was actively participating in and adhering to the medication plan. A very narrow window of clozapine dose was exceeded for andy mcgorman thesis two days and the patient complained of hypersalivation, cough, and lethargy. He was subsequently hospitalized for resume points a two week period to about, treat aspiration pneumonia. This hospitalization helped establish the resume weak, ideal daily dose of clozapine for this patient and also brought the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and essay bonding, clozapine to the attention of the psychiatrist and medical specialist. Once the resume weak points, appropriate dosage for this patient was established, his psychotic and affective symptoms were controlled, he was not hampered by adverse side effects, and bonding, he started to resume weak points, actively participate in social and recreational activities and plans that culminated in discharge from a state psychiatric facility to best creative writing in us, a supportive community residence.
It is our hope that the lessons we have learned from our shared experience with this patient will be of benefit to points, other clinicians and patients. This case study compares two different clinical outcomes for a patient with a long-standing psychotic disorder prescribed clozapine on world bank competitions, two occasions, from 2005 to 2009 and again from 2010 to 2012. During the resume weak points, first trial, clozapine was used at a higher dose for this patient (350-450mg/day). This trial included clinically significant sialorrhea, pneumonia, and pneumonia-like illnesses requiring immediate medical intervention including hospitalization. There were also patient complaints of fatigue, cough, choking, and robe, constipation leading to poor adherence. Clozapine was discontinued when the patient withdrew his consent, due to side effects, despite his awareness of resume weak its benefits, which included a reduction of command hallucinations and irritability. The second clozapine trial was associated with lower daily doses and therapeutic serum blood levels. The patient was actively participating in and adhering to best writing mfa programs in us, the medication plan. Clozapine was slowly increased and in two months the weak points, daily dose was 200mg. When the daily dose was increased to 225 mg for two days and 250mg for an additional two days the on the black, patient complained of hypersalivation, cough, and lethargy.
He was subsequently hospitalized for a two-week period to treat aspiration pneumonia. This hospitalization helped establish the ideal daily dose of clozapine for resume weak points this patient and also brought the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and clozapine to the attention of the on the black, psychiatrist and medical specialist. Clozapine was then augmented with quetiapine resulting in the significant clinical improvement of resume weak points psychotic symptoms (relative to baseline). Lithium was also added to the medication regimen to world bank, control affective disorder symptoms. Resume Weak Points? With his psychotic and affective symptoms controlled he started to actively participate in mice essay, social and resume points, recreational activities and plans that culminated in discharge from friendship a state psychiatric facility to resume weak points, a supportive community residence. It is our hope that the best in us, lessons we have learned from our shared experience with this patient will be of benefit to resume weak, other clinicians and patients. This 56-year-old, single, never-married Native-American man had a long history of a psychotic disorder complicated by substance abuse, borderline intellectual functioning, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and criminal behaviors. He had multiple admissions to essays robe, civil and forensic psychiatric facilities since 1967 for the evaluation and treatment of depression, suicidal thoughts and/or self-mutilation, selfisolation, and impulsivity. He also experienced severe, disabling paranoia and auditory hallucinations. In the past he made deep cuts (requiring stitches) to his wrists and arms in response to command hallucinations, as well as several suicide attempts including at least one overdose with over-the-counter medications. Just prior to this patient#x02019;s transfer to our state psychiatric center, he had served 15 years in prison for rape and assault with a weapon (knife).
He was due to be paroled, but he admitted to correctional officers that he felt more comfortable in prison and weak, that if he were released he had anxiety and trepidation that he would rape again and/or kill someone. He was admitted to a forensic psychiatric facility to evaluate his statements and then transferred to our state psychiatric facility, on parole, for continued evaluation, treatment and discharge planning. During admissions to forensic psychiatric facilities, his primary psychiatric diagnosis was borderline personality disorder, though in mcgorman thesis, one instance, after cutting his forearm in response to command hallucinations, his primary psychiatric diagnosis was mood disorder, organic, mixed. Unfortunately, other than the diagnosis, no rationale for this diagnosis is provided. Upon admission to weak, our psychiatric center he was diagnosed with major depression recurrent with psychotic features; polysubstance dependence by history; antisocial personality disorder; and borderline personality disorder. When admitted to essay competitions, our state psychiatric center the admission conference established a diagnosis of schizophrenic reaction, paranoid type, rule out psychopathic personality. The patient had been offered multiple trials of antipsychotic medication, including perphenazine, thiothixene, risperidone, ziprasidone, and quetiapine. He was prescribed primarily valproic acid as a mood stabilizer but recently valproic acid was discontinued in favor of resume weak lithium. His antidepressant medication included doxepin, nortriptyline, bupropion, sertraline, and escitalopram. Mice And Men Friendship? At the time of discharge from points our psychiatric center he was not prescribed an antidepressant.
Reportedly he experienced serious side effects with chlorpromazine and thioridazine in the past, and he is considered #x0201c;allergic#x0201d; to these medications, although his medical records do not list these medications as having been prescribed. The patient had the following health issues: positive purified protein derivative (PPD) test (a skin test used to diagnose tuberculosis) since 1991 (treated with isoniazid [INH]), edentulous with no hard fruits or vegetables (annual choking/aspiration screens performed over the past seven years show that the essay competitions, edentulous patient increased the weak, risk for book choking and/or aspiration), status post-surgery (S/P) for cataracts in 2004, and S/P prostatectomy in 2008. A computed tomography (CT) scan in 2010 indicated #x0201c;normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) versus mild obstructive hydrocephalus.#x0201d; Consultation with neurosurgery did not recommend surgery. The absence of ataxia and dementia ruled out the resume points, diagnosis of essays NPH. He had a 20-year history of smoking one pack of weak cigarettes per day until our facility became smoke-free in January of 2007. A pulmonary CT scan done in 2008 provided evidence of chronic airway disease. First clozapine trial, 2005 to 2009.
In 2005, this patient was admitted to our state psychiatric center, given medical clearance, and, with the patient#x02019;s consent, started on clozapine. Clozapine was titrated over the next two months to essays on the, 450mg daily. The most immediate side effect, and most notable, was sialorrhea. The patient also reported significant lethargy and constipation. One month after starting clozapine, there were multiple nursing reports that the patient was throwing some doses away. Two months after starting clozapine, the patient was taken to an emergency room at a local hospital after being found unconscious and suspected of resume points having a cerebrovascular accident (CVA).
Examination proved mostly negative, but he was admitted for additional testing lasting seven days. With no other viable alternative explanations, it was determined that the world competitions, patient had not been taking his clozapine and points, then resumed use of the 450mg/day prescribed dose. The syncope that had resulted can occur when clozapine is essays, titrated up too quickly. Resume Weak Points? 1 Clozapine was discontinued by the attending physician at the local hospital and the patient was returned to world essay, the state psychiatric center. Shortly after the patient#x02019;s return, clozapine was reordered and titrated to 300mg daily. In 2006, there were mostly complaints from the patient about his medication, such as episodic sore throat, hypersalivation, lethargy, and resume weak points, constipation. For the most part, he was able to manage these side effects with throat lozenges, additional rest, and laxatives. His clozapine blood levels were exceptionally low for his prescribed daily dose. Additionally, we know he used tobacco products at this time, which may be, at least in part, responsible for the lower blood levels.
2 In January of 2006, he complained of a severe sore throat, cough, and best creative mfa programs in us, fever. Rales were noted bilaterally, and the possibility of pneumonia was raised. Resume? Given that sputum and chest x-rays were negative, the patient was not treated and creative writing, the symptoms cleared in a few days. In May of 2006, he complained of a severe cough, and resume points, the chest x-ray was essentially negative. Again, his cough cleared in creative writing in us, a few days. Resume Weak Points? There was no attempt to control his sialorrhea with medication at any time during this first trial. In 2007, additional references to hypersalivation, cough, lethargy, and mcgorman thesis, constipation were noted in his record on daily doses of resume weak points 350 to 400mg. The facility became a tobacco-free zone during 2007, although most patients were able to on the black robe, obtain tobacco for the remainder of 2007. Resume Points? Clozapine blood levels remained lower than expected but higher than in 2005 and 2006 ( Figure 1 ). In May, the patient was admitted for two days to a local hospital with chest pain. Essay? Scattered rales were noted bilaterally. Hypersalivation, cough, and lethargy were patient complaints.
Pneumonia was considered but x-rays were negative. He was hospitalized again in September with similar complaints and symptoms. In addition to points, sialorrhea, cough, and lethargy, he had a fever. Essay About Bonding? A chest x-ray demonstrated either atelectasis or a left basal infiltrate. In 2008, daily doses of 350 to 400mg were prescribed for resume weak points this patient.
He continued to have sialorrhea, cough, and lethargy. There were also two hospitalizations for pneumonia in 2008. The hospital smoking ban was in full effect by essay bonding, this time, and weak points, his serum blood levels continued to move up slowly ( Figure 1 ). In January of 2008, the patient was transferred to a local hospital complaining of about bonding shortness of breath, cough, fever, and resume points, malaise. The CT scan showed #x0201c;infiltrate within the right lower lobe.#x0201d; He was diagnosed with right lower-lobe pneumonia. He was treated and returned to essays, the state psychiatric center. In September of 2008, the patient was again transferred to a local hospital for nine days to treat right lower-lobe pneumonia.
He had a productive cough, fever, and chills. The initial chest x-ray demonstrated right lower pneumonia, a repeat chest x-ray showed only minimal fluid in resume weak, the minor fissure. Additionally, the patient complained of abdominal pain when he presented at the emergency room. A CT scan suggested a significant fecal impaction. Mice And Men Friendship? The patient often complained of resume weak constipation secondary to clozapine. In April of 2009, despite a partial therapeutic response, clozapine was discontinued because staff reported difficulty obtaining weekly blood samples. He was started on a low dose of essays on the haloperidol, which was gradually increased in an effort to control his psychotic symptoms. Haloperidol was augmented with olanzapine, valproic acid, and quetiapine over the following year. On these combinations of medications, he reported severe command auditory hallucinations criticizing him and telling him to harm himself or others. Weak Points? He made no attempt to hurt himself or others during this time; however, it was apparent that his response to clozapine was more effective in controlling his psychosis.
Literature review. Kane and Correll 3 demonstrate two central points: that an effective approach considers current symptoms, past therapeutic response, adverse effects, patient choice and expectations, and that clozapine is the only evidence-based treatment for refractory patients. Farka and world bank essay, Azorin 4 add that clozapine is the treatment of choice for patients with schizophrenia who are refractory to treatment, display violent behaviors, or at high risk for suicide. There are serious and sometimes fatal adverse effects associated with the use of clozapine. Weak Points? Agranulocytosis, seizure activity, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, fever, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (with clozapine alone or when used in combination with lithium or other central nervous system [CNS] drugs) are the more well-known and severe adverse effects. Orthostatic hypotension, sialorrhea, constipation, and somnolence are also considered common but less serious. 5 , 6 Additional events observed possibly related to clozapine are coughing, pneumonia, pneumonia-like symptoms, aspiration, pleural effusion and pneumonia, and lower respiratory tract infection, which may be fatal. Robe? 6. The adverse effects of sialorrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and resume points, pneumonia-like illnesses are central to our discussion. Science Book? Pathophysiology and resume, management of science essays clozapine-induced sialorrhea are reviewed by Praharaj, Arora, and Gandotra and Hussaini.
7 , 8 Sheriff et al 9 note that there is still room for additional research on clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Weak? Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonia-like illnesses and their association to clozapine are increasingly being addressed in the literature. 10 - 13. Hypersalivation is the most prominent side effect associated with the use of clozapine. Approximately 30 to 50 percent of patients prescribed clozapine will report sialorrhea. The question is why, especially given the strong anticholinergic properties of clozapine. 1 , 5 Early studies did not find a significant difference between the essays book, saliva flow rate between healthy controls and those prescribed clozapine.
14 , 15. More recently, the evidence seems to suggest that clozapine does in fact increase the saliva flow rate; however, there was no correlation between salivary flow rate and mean clozapine dose. 16 Ekstrom, Godoy and Riva#x02019;s animal study found the overall actions of clozapine suggested salivation increased during sleep and at rest, but decreased during meals. 17 Clozapine also caused secretion by direct action on muscarinic (M1) receptors of resume weak acinar cells, a response independent of central nervous mechanisms, presynaptic intraglandular events, and circulating catecholamines. World? It appeared likely that the net effect is an weak increase in saliva production with clozapine, which may increase the risk for aspiration pneumonia, especially for those who also experience swallowing difficulties, a side effect also often associated with clozapine. When Rabinowitz et al 15 found that clozapine did not increase saliva flow rate, they hypothesized that drooling, choking, and aspiration may result from essay friendship interference disrupting signals to the brain that the oral cavity needs to weak, be cleared in order to swallow. Essays On The? Pearlman 18 reported that a patient with significant nighttime drooling and episodes of awakening with sensations of choking on his saliva had reduced pharyngeal peristalsis demonstrated by a barium swallow study. However, he noted that instruction in swallowing two or three times without inhaling alleviated the choking sensation without affecting the sialorrhea, leading him to suggest that the risk of choking would be better handled by patient education regarding swallowing than by treating sialorrhea.
Hinkes et al 19 reported that a patient developed severe hypersalivation and moderate sedation secondary to clozapine with subsequent pneumonia. Points? They speculated that the sedation and hypersalivation, in combination with pharyngeal/esophageal peristalsis, may have led to the aspiration of the oral contents. They suggest that a reduction in clozapine dose when patients develop sialorrhea and sedation secondary to clozapine could reduce the risk of life-threatening aspiration pneumonia. McCarthy and Terkelson 20 report two cases in which esophageal dysfunction developed when clozapine was the only treatment agent. One case was complicated by hypersalivation; one was not. Importantly, both individuals responded well to reduced daily doses of clozapine. Mcgorman? Swallowing was greatly improved with no significant subjective complaints voiced by the patients. Kuo#x02019;s group 10 looked at the association between second-generation antipsychotics and resume weak, the risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in mice essay, non-geriatric patients with schizophrenia. Current use of clozapine was found to be associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of pneumonia. Quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone were also found to be associated with increased risk of pneumonia with no clear dose-dependent relationship.
There was also an increased risk of pneumonia if clozapine was used in combination with quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone. Points? They noted that while the affinity of clozapine for the M1 receptors is remarkably high, olanzapine and quetiapine showed moderate affinity and risperidone had minimal affinity for the M1 receptor. The adjusted odds ratio (risk of pneumonia) for the medications followed the affinity profile for the M1 receptors. They also note that clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine had high affinity for the histaminergic-1 (H1) receptor and risk ratios for pneumonia, while risperidone had a low affinity for the H1 receptor and a low risk ratio for pneumonia. The findings, according to Kuo et al 10 provide some association between pneumonia and H1 receptors, and they concluded that affinities for H1 and M1 are the most plausible explanation for the association between a given antipsychotic medication and the risk of pneumonia. Kuo#x02019;s perspective significantly adds to the understanding of the association of atypical antipsychotic medication and essay bonding, the risk of pneumonia. Resume? 10 If the Ekstrom, Godoy, and Riva 17 animal model is applicable to human physiology and clozapine actually causes secretion by the direct action on M1 receptors of the acinar cells, instead of dry mouth we would have increased salivation.
We are not alone in concluding that sialorrhea combined with esophageal hypomotility and sedation could, in certain individuals, lead to aspiration pneumonia. About Bonding? 19 This mechanism is resume weak points, likely responsible for the pneumonia and pneumonia-like symptoms experienced by our patient. Second clozapine trial 2010 to 2012. Due to clear therapeutic effects of clozapine for this patient, especially reduction of auditory hallucinations and absence of lethal command hallucinations, in October of essay about 2010, the patient was approached with the idea of a low-dose clozapine trial. The patient voiced his concerns about the side effects he had experienced with clozapine and the difficulty in resume points, obtaining blood samples from him but acknowledged the mcgorman, positive effects of the medication. He agreed to a trial of points clozapine at doses around 200mg/day. As the clozapine was initiated and titrated he was observed closely.
Adherence to essays on the black, taking clozapine was excellent. One month after restarting clozapine at a daily dose of 200mg, the weak, patient was not complaining of lethargy, sialorrhea, or constipation. The dose was titrated to 225mg for two days and thesis, then to 250mg for resume points two days. After four days at writing in us a daily dose over 200mg the patient complained of a sore throat, increased saliva production, and resume weak points, cough. On The? The next day he was hospitalized for the treatment of aspiration pneumonia.
A videofluoroscopy swallowing study was performed during this hospitalization. It demonstrated residual matter in weak, the patient#x02019;s oropharynx, prolonged pooling of the bolus, and a delay in the swallowing reflex. Recommendations to prevent repeated aspiration pneumonia for this patient included a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube (no oral feedings) or use of friendship a pureed diet. The client objected to both options, though finally agreed to the pureed diet. The patient was returned to the psychiatric center still on a daily dose of 250mg of clozapine. Immediately the dose was lowered to 75mg daily and resume weak, gradually increased to black, 200mg daily. At 200mg daily the patient, as earlier in the second trial, did not complain of lethargy, sialorrhea, or constipation.
However, a year later at a time when he was experiencing increased auditory hallucinations and irritability, the dose was increased once again to resume weak, 250mg for two days. By the second day, the essay, patient reported cough and lethargy. Points? His temperature was 101.1#x000b0; F. He was not hospitalized but his daily dose of clozapine was reduced to 200mg and within a few days his cough and other symptoms resolved. With a daily dose of and men clozapine at 200mg for the following year until present, the patient has not experienced lethargy, constipation, sialorrhea, and/or aspiration pneumonia. A follow-up videofluoroscopy swallowing study was essentially normal as well. Clozapine was then augmented by quetiapine in the second trial resulting in the significant clinical improvement. Lithium was also added to weak points, control symptoms of his affective disorder, specifically irritability. With his psychotic and black, affective symptoms controlled, he started to actively participate in social and recreational activities as an inpatient.
He was discharged to a supportive community residence on clozapine 200mg/day, quetiapine 100mg/day, and lithium 600mg HS. He had been on this combination for at least the past year. Use of a lower clozapine dose. As noted above, the side effects in the second trial were primarily addressed with lower doses of clozapine. Reducing the dose of clozapine to reduce associated side effects is currently supported in the literature and weak points, has been for many years. 1 , 5 , 19 , 21 , 22. While there was significant improvement in the client#x02019;s symptoms of psychosis, he still reported occasional hallucinations. Therefore, with the patient#x02019;s consent, the dose was increased over essay four days to 250mg PO daily. Almost immediately, hypersalivation and cough were noted and the patient was hospitalized for the treatment of points aspiration pneumonia.
Hinkes 19 reported a case of aspiration pneumonia in book, a patient taking 250mg of clozapine daily as well. Substantial symptom reduction in this case occurred with the resume weak, lower dose of clozapine and without the untoward effect of aspiration. Therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine serum levels. Although studies indicate a linear relationship between dosage and serum clozapine up to 1000ug/L with low intra-patient variability in individual patients, there can be a 45-fold difference in serum clozapine levels on the same dose between patients (e.g., a 300mg dose of clozapine can result in serum levels between 200ng/mL and 600ng/mL. 23 - 25 Previous studies mostly agree with Nielsen et al 21 that in case of partial response or non-response, the use of therapeutic drug monitoring of thesis clozapine is weak points, recommended. A minimal plasma level above the therapeutic threshold of 350 to 420ng/mL is best writing mfa programs in us, necessary to points, determine nonresponse to clozapine.
21 , 26 , 27 These studies also found no added value in exceeding the about bonding, upper therapeutic level as it would not improve the points, clinical response but would increase the potential for adverse effects. A more recent article is also in agreement with the 350ng/mL serum lower level; however, it states that the upper level that corresponds to toxicity remains unclear. 28 They suggest that levels between 350 to 1000ng/mL achieved through slow titration are likely to science book, be effective and less likely to cause toxicity. However, they note that levels above 600ng/mL or rapid titration are associated with seizures. They recommend ongoing monitoring when a patient is prescribed higher doses of clozapine (i.e., #x0003e;600mg daily), there has been a change in the patient#x02019;s concomitant medication or cigarette use, and weak points, when there is suboptimal response. During the first three years (2005-2007) the patient#x02019;s serum levels were low considering the prescribed dose. The patient#x02019;s partial adherence and use of world bank essay competitions cigarettes are probable explanations. Points? In 2008, the clozapine levels are elevated, though still in the therapeutic range, at doses similar to and men friendship, what was prescribed in 2007. As noted above, the hospital-wide smoking ban was in weak points, effect at this time and the higher levels are likely to be a reflection of his smoking cessation.
2 , 29 , 30 It was in 2008 that he developed serious respiratory issues including pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia requiring hospitalization. There was never a period during the first trial where he did not have some degree of hypersalivation while using clozapine. It is likely that the upper level that is essay, tolerable before serious side effects for this individual is well below the quasi-established upper limit of 1000ng/mL. The second trial began with adherence and with the patient remaining a nonsmoker. Mostly the patient was prescribed 200mg daily and the serum blood levels were in the 330 to 350ng/mL range. As noted previously, he was a partial responder at this level but side effects, even sialorrhea, were nonexistent.
Two attempts to increase his clozapine to 250mg daily did not significantly improve his clinical presentation, but did cause develop serious side effects including one instance of weak points aspiration pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Writing Mfa Programs In Us? Unfortunately, a blood level is not available around the time he was hospitalized. Resume? But, around the about bonding, second time he developed significant respiratory problems with a dose of 250mg daily, his blood level 523ng/mL. Weak? It appears from this level that moving beyond a blood level of 400 to 450ng/mL predicts serious side effects for this individual. Maintaining serum levels that are in the lower acceptable limits, even though only partially therapeutic, limits the side effect burden for essay bonding him. Augmentation with another antipsychotic medication. Goff and resume weak, Dixon 31 state when patients fail to respond to an adequate dose of an antipsychotic, clozapine is the only option with established efficiency. The problem is that there are a substantial number of patients, estimated to be around 30 to 50 percent, refractory to antipsychotics who will also be refractory or only partial responders to clozapine. World Essay Competitions? 21 , 32 , 33 In this case, how does one proceed? It is important to note that there is still a question a full 23 years since the FDA approved clozapine whether or not clozapine is the answer for a substantial number of treatment-resistant people with schizophrenia. Resume Points? Goff and andy thesis, Dixon 31 suggest that in these situations clinical judgment combined with patient preference must take over weak when treatment algorithms fall short.
Clinical experience holds that when clozapine is ineffective or not an option for a patient, the art of psychopharmacology comes into play. Given that clozapine is typically used in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, combinations of best creative writing mfa programs medications that include clozapine are often tried if clozapine monotherapy is unsuccessful. The addition of another agent can help to lower the dose of clozapine and potentially help with lowering the side effect burden. Augmenting clozapine with other antipsychotics if a patient is a partial responder to clozapine is, though reluctantly, supported by the current literature. 21 , 22 , 34 - 36. After discussing the rationale for augmentation with our patient, he agreed to a low dose of quetiapine in the second clozapine trial. There is some support for the use of quetiapine in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant patients.
35 The choice of resume quetiapine, however, is strictly the prerogative of the prescriber. For this patient, the combination was quite helpful in controlling his positive symptoms of psychosis. Lithium was also added to essay about bonding, the medication plan primarily to address the affective component of our patient#x02019;s psychiatric illness and not necessarily to augment the clozapine. There is support in the literature for using lithium in combination with clozapine. Buckley 21 cited evidence from uncontrolled trials that lithium enhanced the antipsychotic effect when added to a stable dose of resume weak clozapine. This was particularly beneficial for patients with a major affective component to and men essay, their illness. Resume Points? There were also some additional concerns relative to this combination of medications (e.g., seizures and neurotoxicity even with lithium levels #x0003c;0.5mEq/L). This added to the importance that this patient continue to receive very close monitoring for potential side effects. This case suggests a relationship between clozapine dose and vulnerability to aspiration pneumonia. Individual responses to medications have an impact on clinical efficacy and the presence and severity of associated side effects. Further research is bank competitions, needed to clarify this association.
Monitoring aspiration and dose while on clozapine may be of importance for many patients. As a result of our clinical experience with this patient we have ascertained that using tightly controlled pharmacological monitoring and prescribing a finely tuned titration of clozapine dose can result in controlling sialorrhea, and that an effort to rechallenge a patient on resume, clozapine is feasible even when severe sialorrhea and about bonding, complications arising from weak it have occurred previously. FUNDING: There was no funding for the interviews, development, and writing of bank essay competitions this article. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES: The authors do not have conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this article.
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They Pretend To Be Us While Pretending We Don't Exist. White poet Michael Derrick Hudson's use of the Chinese pen name Yi-Fen Chou was an act of yellowface that is part of a long tradition of white voices drowning out those of color in points, the literary world. To be Other in creative writing mfa programs in us, America is to be coveted and resume weak hated at the same time. Itís never been enough to know that I feel it, but I know I am often asked to prove it before I am allowed to speak on it. When I was a graduate student at the Iowa Writersí Workshop for fiction writing, I felt both coveted and on the hated. My white classmates never failed to remind me that I was more fortunate than they were at this particular juncture in resume points, American literature. ďNo one is going to pay attention to a name like mine,Ē a white dude who exclusively wrote stories about white dudes said to me one time when I was feeling particularly low about my writing. I couldnít enjoy a scrap of validation or wallow in a sliver of world bank self-doubt without someone interjecting some version of ďYouíre so lucky. Youíre going to resume weak points have an easier time than any of competitions us getting published.Ē They were shameless about their envy, not shy or coy at all about their certainty that my race and gender were an undeniable asset, which, in turn, implied that I could be as mediocre and shitty as I wanted and still succeed. This was how some of my white classmates imagined the wild spoils of my literary trajectory. This was how they managed to resume weak points turn themselves into the victims.
ďIím writing something for black the first time thatís a little bit autobiographical,Ē this one extremely serious white woman once said to resume weak me after workshop. ďI wanted to get your advice. Bonding. You write about yourself all the time. How do you do it?Ē My characters were always young Asian American women or girls, but I hadnít written anything autobiographical. Just like her, I had imagined my stories. I made them up. Weak Points. They were fiction. But to bank essay her, they were so obviously just an unimaginative extension of weak my already-limited self. I was just tracing my life and my identity artlessly into my stories.
Another white writer talked openly about searching for some kind of obscure ďethnicityĒ that she could write into her stories to andy mcgorman thesis give them an extra edge. ďLike what you have in your writing,Ē she added, meaning well, of course. She and the other white writers who marveled over my luck wanted to try on my Otherness to advance their value in the literary marketplace, but I donít think they wanted to grow up as an immigrant in resume, the United States. And Men Essay. I donít think they wanted to experience racism and resume misogyny on a micro and macro level, be made to feel perpetually foreign no matter how long theyíve lived here, and be denied any opportunity to ever write something without the millstone of but is this authentic/representative/good for black/Asian/Latino/native people? hanging from their necks. In the intro to The Racial Imaginary: Writers on andy mcgorman, Race in the Life of the Mind , the resume weak points editors Claudia Rankine and Beth Loffreda write, ďA lot of us here when asked to talk about world essay, race are most comfortable, or least uncomfortable, talking about it in the language of resume scandal. Best Writing In Us. Itís so satisfying, so clear, so easy.
The wronged. Resume Weak Points. The evildoers. The undeserving. The shady. Book. The good intentions and the cynical manipulations. The righteous side talking, the points head shaking. Scandal is such a helpful, such a relieving distraction. There are times when scandal feels like the sun that race revolves around.Ē I wonít be scandalized by Michael Derrick Hudson pretending to be a Chinese American poet under the pseudonym Yi-Fen Chou after his poem ďThe Bees, the Flowers, Jesus, Ancient Tigers, Poseidon, Adam and EveĒ was rejected 40 times under his real name.
In Hudsonís bio for this yearís Best American Poetry anthology, edited by Sherman Alexie, he writes, ďThere is a very short answer for my use of a non de plume: after a poem of mine has been rejected a multitude of times under my real name, I put Yi-Fenís name on bonding, it send it out again. Resume. As a strategy for Ďplacingí poems this has been quite successful for me. The poem in question, ĎThe Bees, the essay Flowers, Jesus, Ancient Tigers, Poseidon, Adam and Eveí was rejected under my real name forty (40) times before I sent it out as Yi-Fen-Chou (I keep detailed submission records). As Yi-Fen, the poem was rejected nine (9) times before Prairie Schooner took it. If indeed this is weak points one of the best American poems of 2015, it took quite a bit of effort to get it into book print, but Iím nothing if not persistent.Ē I wonít be scandalized by a white man who hasnít considered that perhaps what helped his poem finally get published was less the fake Chinese woman he pretended to be, and more the robust, unflappable confidence bordering on resume points, delusion that he and many privileged white men possess: the capacity to be rejected forty (40) times and not give up, to be told, ďno we donít want youĒ again and andy mcgorman again and resume weak points think, I got this.
I know what will get me in. Book. What may be persistence to him is unfathomable to me. I wonít be scandalized because what Hudson is doing isnít anything that white male writers havenít already been doing since the first recorded instance of our culture embracing any kind of excellence that did not include them: scramble to come up with ways to resume points keep the playing field uneven, to keep the about odds stacked in their favor. The scandal of Hudson performing the points laziest act of yellowface (co-opting a Chinese name) to get his poem published and accepted into the Best American Poetry anthology is lurid fodder for our cultural conversation because of its explicitness, but it should not be strange or unbelievable. Essays Book. White people have always slipped in and out of the resume experiences of people of color and been praised extravagantly for it.
After all, 50 years ago, when black voices were fighting to essays on the be heard, when their stories of trauma and abuse were struggling for legitimacy, it took John Howard Griffin, a white man who dyed his skin black and wrote about his experiences as a ďblackĒ man in his book, Black Like Me , for white Americans to believe that yes, black people were telling the truth about their lived experiences in the Jim Crow South. He was hailed a singular hero. Studs Terkel once said, ďGriffin was one of the most remarkable people I have ever encountered. He was just one of those guys that comes along once or twice in a century and lifts the hearts of the rest of us.Ē It may seem totally nuts now, but as far as who gets credit for simply being affected by black pain, it doesnít seem very removed from our current world where we heap lavish praise on someone like Jon Stewart for announcing on the Daily Show that he was too heartbroken to make jokes after the Charleston church shooting, as if all throughout this countryís present and past, black people and resume weak points people of color have not been so heartbroken and and men essay so violated that we were left humorless, or worse, dead. To praise Stewart as excessively as he was praised is to say to black people: Your pain is unexceptional and does not matter until a white man feels it too. I wonít be scandalized because the pathologizing of black failure has always coincided and worked closely with the points pathologizing and reasoning away of science book Asian American success. Asian American success is often presented as something of resume a horror ó robotic, unfeeling machines psychotically hellbent on excelling, products of abusive tiger parenting who care only world competitions about test scores and perfection, driven to succeed without even knowing why.
When I was graduating from Stanford in 2005, a place that was very much a showcase for Asian excellence, there was an points, article in the Wall Street Journal on the ďNew White FlightĒ in Silicon Valley, a cruelly ironic but unsurprising update to the old ďwhite flight,Ē a term coined in science essays book, the 1960s when white families were fleeing cities with growing black populations for resume the lily-white suburbs. Essay. These fleeing white families believed the resume presence of black people in and men, their communities caused violence to rise and schools to fail. Resume Weak Points. In the new white flight, white families were now fleeing neighborhoods with growing Asian American populations becauseÖ wait for itÖ the schools were becoming TOO EXCELLENT thanks to these wily Asians who insisted on raising the academic standards with their exceptional grades and schoolwork. Essay. The article reported, ďCathy Gatley, co-president of Monta Vista High Schoolís parent-teacher association, recently dissuaded a family with a young child from moving to Cupertino because there are so few young white kids left in the public schools. ĎThis may not sound good,í she confides, Ďbut their child may be the weak only Caucasian kid in the class.í But unlike the andy thesis panic of fifty years ago, when these families would have worried that being the only Caucasian kid in resume points, a predominantly black meant being exposed to a lower standard of academic excellence, it was precisely the opposite. Monta Vista's Academic Performance Index, which compares the academic performance of California's schools, reached an all-time high of 924 out of mice and men 1,000 this year, making it one of the highest-scoring high schools in Northern California.
Grades are so high that a ĎBí average puts a student in the bottom third of a class.Ē The article went on to say, ďSome whites fear that by avoiding schools with large Asian populations parents are short-changing their own children, giving them the idea that they canít compete with Asian kids. Resume Points. ĎMy parents never let me think that because Iím Caucasian, Iím not going to thesis succeed,í says Jessie Hogin, a white Monta Vista graduate.Ē The explicitness is almost refreshing if I can forget for a moment how disturbing it is. One of the founding tenets of racism: a society that will never allow white people to points think that because they are white, they wonít succeed. Iím not surprised Hudson chose a Chinese name instead of a name that might read as Latino or black. Itís been well documented in essay competitions, studies that a resume with a white-sounding name is 50% more likely to receive a callback for an interview than an weak, identical resume with a black-sounding name. A white name like Emily ďyields as many more callbacks as an additional eight years of experienceĒ for the same resume with a name like Lakisha. Essay Competitions. Names do a lot, and Hudson did what any white man who could not bear the thought that his whiteness might keep him from success would do: take on the name of the ultimate model minority! Put another way: Everything people of color must endure, our sensational pain and our sensational brilliance, must be accessible to white people; they must have it in their quest to be rewarded.
Put one more way: white people donít like it when we donít do well and they donít like it when we do. But most of all, they donít like it when they donít do well. My first year at the Iowa Writersí Workshop, there was one poet of resume weak color in the poetry program. Out of 50. Someone like Hudson would have likely seen that and thought, Lucky her, sheíll probably get special treatment and I wonít. But I looked at science essays book, it and thought, Why the fuck is everyone here white, relatively wealthy, and college educated? That canít possibly be the only type of person who can write good poetry . And itís not.
But anyone with even a shred of sense can see why that is precisely the kind of person who pursues poetry, a profession that almost all but guarantees a lifetime of not being paid for writing poetry no matter how ďgoodĒ one gets. Anyone willing to put some effort into it can see why those are the kinds of people who apply to poetry MFA programs, who even know about poetry MFA programs, who can even imagine a future as a poet. My white cohorts at Iowa who blatantly coveted my Otherness went on to sign with agents and publish their books. None of them have followed up with me and my ďluck.Ē None of them speak about the reality of resume what the literary publishing world looks like for andy mcgorman thesis writers of color (short answer: very shitty.) And for weak points all his (40!) rejections as Michael Derrick Hudson, being a white guy didnít seem to stop him from publishing widely under his real name before he became Yi-Fen Chou. I donít think Hudson wants to be a chink though. (I donít know any white person who does, but if you find me one, Iím happy to writing try to trade privileges.) I donít think Hudson ever wanted the things a chink poet like me gets to resume have because what I get to have is certainly not money, and certainly not the andy kind of glory heís after. I donít know if heís interested in interrogating how whiteness has helped his poetry career because so far he hasnít made a public statement, but Iím happy to speak on how my Chinese American name and writing about resume weak, my Chinese American identity has helped me in the literary world. For one, I get asked frequently to donate my intellectual emotional and mcgorman thesis psychic labor to resume weak points educate white audiences and comment on issues of race because I am often the only or one of few people of color that many white writers/poets/editors/organizers of panels and and men essay readings know.
I have been published many times without any compensation for resume points my work in publications that frequently have few to science essays zero other writers of resume points color other than me. I am often put in the position of having to occupy higher moral ground when publications I am in science, are called out for being racist/misogynist/transphobic or whatever injustice they may have openly committed, and have felt pressure to pull my piece, even though as a woman of color who occupies many identities, I really would not have very many places to publish and resume weak share my work if I am to only publish in mice and men essay, places that have never violated any aspect of my identity. It means publications run by mostly white editors specifically reach out to resume weak points me when something horrific happens in the news to black or Muslim people, even though I am not black or of about Muslim faith and weak points the experience of being an Asian person of color is essay bonding so very different from being a black person of color or a person of color who is Muslim (which, even though it is a religion rather than an resume points, ethnicity, is very often racialized to mean any brown-skinned Middle Eastern, North African, or South Asian person), and yet I am often solicited to write something nuanced and educated on any news item affecting people of color because when these publications donít have any black or Muslim writers on staff, I suppose Iím the next best thing, which I could take as a compliment, but more often it feels like a burden. What I want is to best creative writing mfa programs get paid for my labor and be credited for my excellence. Weak Points. What I want is to not have to andy mcgorman thesis be made aware that because most publications only ever make room for one or two writers of color when those publications publish me it means another excellent writer of color does not get to have that spot, and yes, we internalize that scarcity and weak it makes us act wild and violent toward each other sometimes instead of essay bonding kind. What I usually get is a white editor soliciting me because they have failed to broaden their social circles and reading tastes to include more writers of color. What I get is publications that mostly publish white writers using me to resume points prove that they are ďtryingĒ and ďimproving.Ē What I get is people criticizing these publications and erasing my work or dismissing me as just another co-opted writer of color.
No wonder a white writer who doesnít have to take ANY of this on could succeed using an Asian American pseudonym. Because thatís what my cohorts at and men essay, Iowa wanted too, to have the right to a name that gave them an resume weak points, ďedgeĒ without having to endure racism, erasure, tokenization, self-devaluation, and the constant requests for essay free intellectual labor. White supremacy tries to resume points reduce people of color to our traumas. Andy. Resisting white supremacy means insisting that we are more than our traumas. Resume Weak Points. One quick perusal through the shelves of world literature in any bookstore confirms just what the literary world wants to see from writers of color and writers from developing nations: trauma. Why, for example, is the English-speaking literary world mostly interested in essay, fiction or poetry from China if the writer can be labeled as a ďpolitical dissidentĒ? Even better if the weak points writer has been tortured, imprisoned, or sentenced to andy mcgorman thesis hard labor by resume weak points, the Chinese government at one point.
Surely there are amazing Chinese writers who donít just identify as political dissidents just as there are many amazing white American writers who donít identify, or rather, are not identified as one thing. Science Book. Why are we so perversely interested in weak, narratives of suffering when we read things by black and brown writers? Where are my carefree writers of color at? Seriously, where? I have no doubt that as a successful writer of science color, Sherman Alexie is deeply aware of this. His books are heavy with narratives about the violence that Native people have lived through. I love so many of his books and resume weak points Iím not the only one, seeing as how heís the mice one Native writer most white people seem to know about.
In a letter by Alexie explaining his decision to not pull Hudsonís poem from the anthology and why the resume points poem appealed to him in the first place, he writes, ďIt didnít contain any overt or covert Chinese influences or identity. I hadnít been fooled by its ĎChinese-nessí because it contained nothing that I recognized as being inherently Chinese or Asian. There could very well be allusions to Chinese culture that I donít see. But there was nothing in Yi-Fen Chouís public biography about actually being Chinese. In fact, by referencing Adam and Eve, Poseidon, the mice friendship Roman Coliseum, and resume weak Jesus, Iíd argue that the poem is inherently obsessed with European culture. When I first read it, Iíd briefly wondered about the mcgorman thesis life story of a Chinese American poet who would be compelled to write a poem with such overt and affectionate European classical and Christian imagery, and I marveled at how interesting many of us are in our cross-cultural lives, and then I tossed the resume poem on essays, the 'maybe' pile that eventually became a 'yes' pile.Ē
When I read the weak statement, I thought, Of course the lack of ďChinese-nessĒ would be seductive! Itís seductive to bonding me too. I want to read more books by Chinese Americans that are not bound by resume weak, the trauma of white supremacy, immigration, and imperialism. I want to mice friendship write books like that. Perhaps one day I will, but I donít think using a white pseudonym would help.
A white guy, on the other hand, who doesnít need my name to be shielded from resume weak, those same traumas (he only needs to be white) can certainly slap a Chinese name on his poetry and pass it off as something to be marveled. In the black early '90s, well-respected poetry journals became enrapt with the work of Araki Yasusada, a Japanese poet who had survived the points atomic bomb in Hiroshima. The avant-garde was greedy to science consume his work, which was formally experimental but also weighted with the trauma of points living through nuclear war. It was exposed, although never fully confirmed, that Yasusada was the fictional creation of mfa programs in us Kent Johnson, a white poet who taught at an university in Illinois. Weak. In a wonderfully comprehensive essay about the minstrel theatre of the American poetic avant-garde, Ken Chen writes, ďwhat Yasusada created was a way for avant-garde white writers to andy thesis give themselves emotional permission to enjoy lyric poems of suffering.Ē In 2013, the resume points Chinese American writer Bill Cheng published a novel Southern Cross the Dog, which was set in Mississippi and didnít contain any ďChinese-ness.Ē The aesthetic value of the writing itself was almost universally praised, but the subject matter was questioned. On The Robe. Reviewers could not help but ask: CAN A CHINESE AMERICAN MAN FROM QUEENS WRITE ABOUT THE AMERICAN SOUTH? FOR ANSWERS LETíS TURN TO THESE WHITE CRITICS AND PROFESSORS. I donít envy Alexieís position, and I donít think he should shoulder the burden of responsibility (that goes to Hudson and the society that permitted him) but heís continuing the long American tradition of resume points praising white authors who appropriate racial identity and trauma for their art, while writers of color are told to essentially stay in their lane ó an entirely unpaved, shitty, little lane.
Because I donít have a bio in essay, the Best American Poetry anthology Iíll give you mine now, less briefly. Points. I was born in Shanghai. My father studied English on his own when the schools were shut down for much of the years when he should have been receiving a primary school education in China because of the Cultural Revolution. Andy. He studied English literature in college in Shanghai. He straight-up memorized dozens of books from the English literary canon. The dude could quote chapters of resume Moby-Dick from memory. He came to the United States on scholarship to mcgorman thesis study linguistics at resume points, NYU. My mom followed six months later. Essay. I followed two and a half years later. We were poor for many years. My father, despite his excellence and his brilliance had an resume points, accent that preceded any amount of competitions dazzling intelligence he could ever demonstrate, and so his excellence was accented, and considered to points be broken.
He quit his Ph.D. Andy. program in linguistics a month before he was to defend his dissertation. He started all over and went to community college when he was in his late thirties to get his associate degree in computer science. He sure as hell was not jumping with joy and support when I said I wanted to be a writer. My mother cried for weak weeks and threatened to tell Stanford I was a convicted criminal so they would revoke my admission if I didnít promise that I would not try to be a writer. I didnít promise and my mother never made good on hers. They were scared for me and essay about told me no one with a face like mine could ever hope to be anything more than ordinary in America. I hated them for resume weak points saying it, but I really should have hated the racism that taught them to think like that, that threatened to bank competitions prove them right again and again and again. At Stanford, a white girl (well-meaning, of course) wrote a story about a Chinese American woman living in modern-day San Francisco (this was the early 2000s) who wanted to marry a white guy but was forced into resume an arranged marriage with a Chinese man and it was called The Dim Sum of All Things . (Laugh now, cry later!) I donít think Iím being unreasonable when I say the reality of that story was fucked and so was the fantasy. She got into best mfa programs in us a highly coveted advanced fiction writing class taught by a famous writer and I didnít.
The story I submitted was also about Chinese Americans living in modern-day America, but it didnít involve arranged marriage or dim sum or sensuous descriptions of points chopsticks. This didnít mean the teacher made a wrong choice. Essays Black Robe. He made a subjective choice. As Alexie writes in points, his response to how he chose the poems for the anthology, ďSo did I pick the best 75 poems published last year? Of course not.
I picked 75 poems that survived a literary ordeal that happened only in my brain.Ē I get that and I respect that. About Bonding. Whatever injury I perceived or imagined in not being picked for points this class, I did not organize into a strategy as calculated as Michael Derrick Hudson did. My parents were probably right. I was being a fool. My white teachers and on the robe my white classmates told me over and over again they simply didnít believe a Chinese person would ever talk the resume weak way my characters did when workshopping my stories, but heaped lavish praise anytime my white peers wrote stories set in countries theyíve never lived in, narrated by people whose experiences of racism they never personally experienced. I was told to stop writing about myself and write things with more a universal theme. I had a white teacher in college who published some of his stories under an ambiguously ďAsianĒ-sounding name (and also ambiguously gendered) in an anthology he edited so that people would not accuse him of not having enough diverse writers in the anthology. Was that shitty? Yeah. Science Essays. It was. Weak. But so was not soliciting or finding actual writers of color to include in the book.
So was recruiting me, an Asian American writer, to be an assistant editor (for free of course) for science essays the anthology. So was not acknowledging that I was also a fiction writer, that I might have at one point written something that he could give consideration to instead of resume weak choosing to include himself, under an Asian pseudonym that, in the end, I could have never used to get anything at all. I have never had a mentor, but I have had a series of well-meaning white writers who were far more advanced in their career tell me that I was too fragile in temperament to pursue writing. I have had well-meaning white tenure-track professors and established writers discourage me, neg me, derail me, and at one point, even suggest that I take a remedial English class to improve my grammar ó a move, I later realized, many writers of color were familiar with. My imagination and bank essay competitions my talents were framed again and again as too limited, too provincial, too tethered to my identity. This is my bio as an immigrant, as a subaltern, as a Chinese American woman who was educated through various institutions that were supposed to teach me to succeed but instead turned me away and deprived me. This is not extraordinary as much as it is common. Points. And when I havenít failed, when I have insisted on exhibiting pride, when I donít disappear, when I reveal myself as someone who still believes in my worth and my capacity to imagine and invent, and when I am rewarded with anything at mcgorman thesis, all, I always have to resume weak points account for it.
When I gave up on fiction and wrote a book of poetry that I blind-submitted to a contest and essays won and started being invited to readings and panels, it wasnít long before I heard through various backchannels that there were some poets and editors who thought I was overexposed, overpublished, overpraised. These are the same people who are in the room with me when I am the only person of resume weak points color at the reading. These are the same people who are reading and being published in the publications where I am the mcgorman only person of color in the table of contents. Resume Points. When they wonder why I am still here I canít help but suspect itís very different from bonding, when I wonder why I am still here. I canít help but suspect they are enraged there even has to be anyone like me here at all. But Iím here and Iím not the resume only one. When Jacqueline Woodson won the writing mfa programs in us National Book award for Brown Girl Dreaming , Daniel Handler, the host of the evening made a joke about Woodson being allergic to watermelon, and people on social media immediately clapped back.
He apologized. Resume. Iím sure there were many who were more enraged that Handler had to apologize than they were enraged by thesis, the racist joke. When earlier this year, the poet Kenneth Goldsmith, one of the resume weak very few poets in about, America who regularly gets paid to resume weak write and perform his poetry, read from the autopsy report of Michael Brown during a poetry conference at Brown University, with the graduation photo of the murdered teen projected behind him, and concluded the reading with a description of Brownís genitalia, poets of color and their allies and essay competitions the anonymous group The Mongrel Coalition Against Gringpo clapped back. Another much-revered conceptual poet, Vanessa Place, was called out for one of her Twitter accounts where she posted lines, mostly racist dialogue, from Margaret Mitchellís Gone With the Wind , using Hattie McDaniel, the Oscar-award winning actress who played the character of Mammy in the 1939 film, as her profile picture and a gross caricature of resume weak points a Mammy character as her background. Again, poets online clapped back and started a campaign to remove Place from the andy mcgorman thesis Association of Writers and Writing Programs' selection committee on panels for its annual writing conference. I am positive in both instances, there were many people who were more outraged that these poets were asked to apologize than they were outraged by the hurt they caused and the mediocrity they exhibited. When the poet Jim Behrle posted on his Tumblr the story of Michael Derrick Hudson in resume weak points, BAP admitting that he used a Chinese-sounding pen name to competitions help him get published, poets of color, many of whom were also included in BAP , took to Facebook and Twitter to say that the weak actions of creative writing in us this white man do not override or negate the work of poets of color who do exist. Jane Wong, whose poem ďThawĒ was included in the BAP anthology wrote: ďA part of resume weak Hudsonís goal, in revealing himself as white, is to say that POC poets do not deserve their successes. Science Essays. That line in weak points, parentheticals ('I keep detailed submission records') is disgusting and threatening, is saying: 'believe me, itís hard being a white writer.
I have the facts to prove it.' Am I surprised asshole poets like this exist? No. I have been told by essay friendship, many white writers that I should be thankful for being a POC, that I need to take a moratorium on submitting because 'you have to points save room for the rest of and men us [white people].' I almost want to resume points laugh and cry in exhaustion. Hudson and science essays book people defending Hudson have NO IDEA what POC writers have to work against and through to even do what we love to weak points do. Creative In Us. I initially came to poetry not to be bullied, but because it was a refuge. Weak Points. And here, in this state of mcgorman constant emergency, I have to resume weak points continue to work against poets like Hudson while also writing what I love. Am I sickened that this will be in my issue of essays on the robe BAP ? Yes. Mostly because this person does not get to take away my accomplishments and resume weak my work. Book. And he does not get to threaten the POC in resume, the anthology who are anti-racists. On The. He does not get to mar my pride or question the points validity of my work.
And he does not get to quietly head back into the convenience of being a white man in this world after putting on essay about, yellowface. I am proud to be in points, the company of badass poets who continue to push back with stingers on.Ē The long con of white mediocrity may never be exposed because there are too many people invested in robe, making sure not a single instance of white excellence is weak points overlooked but quickly drop the and men essay friendship vigilance when it comes to the excellence of those of points us who were never afforded such protection. But for those of bank essay competitions us who didnít grow up entitled, those of us who grew up underestimated, underinvited, undersolicited, underacknowledged, underloved, I say letís expose each otherís excellence. Resume Weak Points. Be greedy and creative mfa programs indulgent when you read the work of the poets of color in this yearís BAP like Saeed Jones, Claudia Rankine, Chen Chen, Rajiv Mohabir, Monica Youn, Aimee Nezhukumatathil, Jericho Brown, Natalie Diaz, Evie Shockley, and Airea D. Matthews. And beyond this book, beyond this moment, I encourage everyone to seek out the work of Asian American poets who werenít included in weak, the anthology but whose poetry we ought remember long after we forget this white guy in yellowname: Cathy Hong Park, Ken Chen, Tan Lin, Hoa Nguyen, Jason Koo, Jackie Wang, Wendy Xu, Trisha Low, Patrick Rosal, Brandon Shimoda, Bhanu Kapil, Wo Chan, Sally Mao, Ginger Ko, Muriel Leung, Jennifer Nelson, and world essay Geraldine Kim. If thatís not enough, you can find more on Twitter under the hashtag #ActualAsianPoet. We are all here, and we are trying to tell you something: Our pride is our survival and the white wounded ego does not get to ooze over our excellence anymore. We will not be colonized by white injuries scabbing over our words. The reparations white people claw for resume weak points the minute they feel excluded from this world is and men friendship not our problem. Weak. We shine bright like a diamond, and for once the blinding light from our gemstones is not white, but goddamn it is so, so divine.
Jenny Zhang is the author of the science poetry collection Dear Jenny, We Are All Find and the nonfiction chapbook Hags. Points. Her fiction, nonfiction, and poetry have appeared in Lenny Letter, Poetry, The Hairpin, Dazed, Jezebel, The Guardian, The Iowa Review, Glimmertrain , and elsewhere. She writes for teen girls at Rookie magazine and tweets @jennybagel. You're almost there! Check your inbox and confirm your subscription now! Every. Tasty. Video.
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Ancient Rome and Authentic Roman Religion Essay examples. Encyclopedia of Religion. Roman Religion: The Early Period. Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Weak? Vol. 12. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. About Bonding? p7892-7911.
COPYRIGHT 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning. Robert Schilling and Jorg Rupke. ROMAN RELIGION: THE EARLY PERIOD. Resume? HISTORY OF SCHOLARSHIP. Although Roman religious institutions had been studied earlier (by, for on the, example, Barnabe Brissonius, 1583), the differentiation between Greek and Roman religion within antique heathendom or polytheism was the work of nineteenth-century scholars. ConcentratingPage 7893 | Top of Article on literary sources and on origins as described by ancient historiographers and critically reviewed by resume, contemporary historians, the studies by J. A. Hartung (1836), Rudolph H. Klausen (1839), and J. A. Essay? Ambrosch (1839) marked the beginning of a scientific reconstruction of the religion of the city of Rome (and, marginally, of the religions of Italy).
Under the impact of the extensive collection of weak points, inscriptions and the systematization of Roman law and the Roman constitution assembled by Theodor Mommsen (1817Ė1903), German scholars, especially Georg Wissowa (1859Ė1931), reconstructed authentic Roman religion as a body of sacral law and conservative ritualism informed by legal conceptions of deities. The Roman calendar, projected into the regal period as a document of early systematization, and the lost books of the priests (libri sacerdotum), transmitted in occasional antiquarian quotations only, formed the basis of the reconstruction. Essay About Bonding? Any attempt at a historical reconstruction of republican Roman religion has to rely on a critical reading of early Augustan historiography (late first century BCE). Weak? With a few. Related Documents: Ancient Rome and Authentic Roman Religion Essay examples.
Rome: Roman Republic and Caesar Essay. JULIET, Shakespeare#x27;s classic plays concerning the great inevitable are arguably his best. Bank Essay? JULIUS CAESAR is no exception. The real Julius Caesar was a man of great compassion who desired power, but above all, wanted to see the citizens of Rome prosper. Resume Weak? After defeating the armies of Pompey and gaining control of all of best creative writing mfa programs, Rome, Caesar began to institute changes intended for resume weak points, the betterment of the Roman society, and quickly became beloved by his citizens. Unfortunately, his forgiving nature misled. Words 706 - Pages 3. n 133 BC, the best creative writing in us Republic of Rome took control of the Mediterranean Sea. The empire was prosperous and resume points strong, but eventually experienced aThe Roman Empire was without a doubt the most powerful governing body in the Mediterranean ever.
Why did Rome fall? There was not any single cause to the fall of mice and men, Rome. It was many things occurring in resume weak, succession to each other. There was no certain official date when Rome was considered to essay, fall. Many historians though, believe it was in 476 A.D. A small German. Words 504 - Pages 3. Democracy: Ancient Rome and Democracy Essay. rule by laws, not by entities. In a democracy, the rule of weak points, law defends the privileges of people, upholds order, and world bank competitions confines the power of weak points, government. All people are equal in the eyes of the law (Crawford, 2011).
Democracy refers to the people-power or regulation by the folks. The notion originated from the ancient Greeks who united the words Ďdemosí meaning people and Ďkratesí meaning rule to form the andy thesis term. Around twenty five years ago in Ancient Greece, the resume points individuals of the Athens advanced a. Words 529 - Pages 3. shape public policy; and essay a new office of tribune, who represented plebeians, allowed them to block unfavorable legislationĒ (Strayer, 155.) This was also ďThe law of ancient Rome from the time of the points founding of the city in 753 B.C.E. until the fall of the Western Empire in the 5th century C.E. It remained in use in the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire until 1453. As a legal system, Roman law has affected the development. (Roman law, Britannica.) Through government change, Rome was able to improve. Words 1417 - Pages 6. portrayal of her by Elizabeth Taylor as Ďthe strongest imageí of Cleopatra (p.3). And Men Friendship? Elizabeth Taylor was a vision of beauty and perfection used to pacify the Egyptian (?) populous at the of her time. In no way was she an accurate visual depiction of the ancient queen, but instead a glamorous Hollywood star. While Hollywood depicted Cleopatra as being beautiful, the resume points Roman#x27;s depicted her in a negative manormanner , as Winston Churchill famously stated, ďHistory is written by the victorsĒ (Hastings. Words 1962 - Pages 8. Ancient Rome Religion Pagans religions believed in many of gods and generally worshipped the Earth, sea, sun, sky, and various other elements of nature.
The Romans were polytheistic and much of their lives were spent in fervent effort to please their gods. This was because ancient Romans believed that their gods had great influence over their daily lives and fates. In order to placate the gods, the mcgorman thesis Romans believed that certain rituals and resume points rites must be performed in appreciation that certain. Words 344 - Pages 2. Ancient Rome and Gladiators Essay. ?Gladiators Gladiators were war slaves during the essay about Ancient Roman times.
They were captured by the Romans and then put into the Coliseum to fight to the death in barbaric ways for entertainment. If they won they were considered heroes. Gladiatrix Gladiatrix were women gladiators who fought in the coliseum. Points? Many were slaves of war like all the other gladiators. Women were put into the Coliseum because their fights were often more aggressive and emotional than menís. Crupellarius. Words 497 - Pages 2. Bonding? citizens. By the time of the empire, the worship of the emperor had also become part of the official religion of Rome. During the early first century, a Jew by the name Jesus had begun preaching, doing works, and reportedly working miracles within the empire.
His teachings contained many ideas from weak, Judaism, such as monotheism, belief in one god. Many Romans who were losing interest in the ancient Roman gods, which were beginning to seem to people as very impersonal, were drawn to Christianity for essays book, its. Words 2273 - Pages 10. Weak Points? Spartacus: Roman Republic and Ancient Rome Essay. all over the world for his impact on Ancient Rome and his willingness to fight for what was right: freedom. After being in the Roman army, Spartacus was captured and taken into slavery. During this time he was forced into gladiator school where he had no other choice but to learn how to fight till death. Slaves were not treated like humans and Spartacus could not stand the mistreatment any longer.
He led a now famous slave revolt against the Romans to escape bondage. Once escaping in 73BC. Words 594 - Pages 3. Essay on Rome: Roman Empire and Imperial Hegemon Rome. legions, nurtured entrepreneurial endeavor by safeguarding merchants against brigands or corsairs on land or sea, or the chicanery of duplicitous or larcenous business associates. Bank Essay? Justice and the general peace and security for goods and points persons enforced by Romeís martial might freely bound citizens to Rome as the surest guarantor of their long range welfare. Roman justice and willingness to essays robe, embrace diverse populations within its citizenry extended to tolerating religious diversity unless. Resume Weak Points? Words 691 - Pages 3. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the competitions respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website.
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essay hotel ruanda The Research Paper Factory. Extra Credit Summary Response to Beauty and the Labor Market It is apparent from this article that physical attractiveness plays a part in the wage earnings of Americans. While evidence is not necessarily strong because of other unknown characteristics, there is enough data to support that good looking people make more money than homely looking people and resume weak good looking people are usually placed where their looks are productive. This research supports that there should be more focus. Words: 267 - Pages: 2. findings and research in essays, favor of weak points, giving a shortened summary that they feel most readers would enjoy; However, if meant for essay bonding an academic press, Navarrosí article would have been presented differently and shown more in-depth results. Navarro, J. (2009, October 28). Stealth signals: how to decode body language.Psychology Today, Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/collections/201109/the-art-body-language/the-key-understanding-body-language Simone Kuuhn, Barbara C. Points? N. Muuller, Rick B. van Baaren, Anne Wietzker, Ap Dijksterhuis amp; Marcel Brass (2010): Why do I like you when you behave like me? Neural mechanisms mediating positive consequences of essay about bonding, observing someone being imitated, Social Neuroscience, 5:4, 384-392.
Words: 277 - Pages: 2. A Summary of ďThe FASBís Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting: A Critical AnalysisĒ by AAA (2007) This article critically review the Preliminary Conceptual Framework (CF) and draw a conclusion that the FASBí CF is a fundamentally flawed approach and should not be adopted in its present form. The AAA reviews and analyzes the FASBí Preliminary Conceptual Framework in nine parts and gives its comments (COM). 1) The CF cites the users of general purpose financial reports are present and. Words: 507 - Pages: 3. Please see the top 11 risks Marriott will face as below, a) General macro economic risk 1) Ė 3) 1) General economic uncertainty and weak demand in the lodging and resume points timeshare industries could continue to impact Marriottís financial results and growth. 2) The hospitality industries are highly competitive, which may impact Marriotís ability to compete successfully with other hotel and timeshare properties for writing mfa programs in us customers. Weak Points? 3) Currency exchange fluctuation might make Marriot very vulnerable to. Words: 395 - Pages: 2. MARKETING STRATEGY In conjunction to operate a 5 stars hotel, a marketing strategy is a compulsory element toward the growth of the business. In our hotel namely The Venetian Sphere, a marketing strategy becomes an important part in essay bonding, term of gaining profitability from the hotel business operation.
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It is during this era that seeds of hate between the resume weak, two ethnic groups were perpetrated. My discussion will then focus on how events in the post-colonial era unfolded resulting in the genocide activities. Words: 2009 - Pages: 9. Analyse the causes of the Rwandan genocide Genocide has been seen as one of the worst moral crimes in the world. Andy Mcgorman Thesis? In this essay I will be analysing the resume weak, causes of the Rwandan genocide by taking into science essays, account factors such as the resume points, history of Rwanda, the environmental, cultural, political and the role of the creative writing, media and how they contributed to the mass killings of the Rwandan population. Weak? Raphael Lemkin has defined genocide as the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group. Moreover the United. Words: 1462 - Pages: 6.
HAMPTON INN: THE 100% SATISFACTION GUARANTEE 1. The philosophy behind the 100% Satisfaction Guarantee is to have the about bonding, guests act as quality-assurance inspectors by identifying quality deficiencies and weak reporting them to hotel employees. I do think that this is a good way to improve service quality; however, I am not sure that it is the best way. While it may seem to consumers that employees will try harder to satisfy them, if employees are empowered to refund a customerís money, they do not. Words: 417 - Pages: 2. Society: Through the View of Many People African-Americans, Whites, Asians, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and etcÖThey are all classified as ethnicities, that are judged every day in some shape or form. From day one to now Iíve learned more through the class of ďBlack World StudiesĒ taught by about bonding Professor Coates. Coates gave me the weak points, intelligent insight on mfa programs in us, how Africans-Americans were able to succeed through the tough times of learning even when they could die from resume learning how to read. It was a.
Words: 6277 - Pages: 26. PUBLICIZING KIDS THINGS amp; STUFF Introduction Businesses geared to providing products and services for bonding infants, children, and teenagers are experiencing a boom not seen since the early 1990s. This growth market provides tremendous earnings potential for small businesses. It is important to note that there is a preponderance of points, clothing stores in the area that target the same audience, all of which have achieved some level of success. Science Essays Book? As Kids Things amp; Stuff inventory complements but. Words: 486 - Pages: 2. The Role of the 1990-1993 Civil War as a Precursor to the 1994 Rwandan Genocide Nora Aly Student #10025622 Poli470 Words: 3,451 Introduction: Background of resume, Rwanda Ethnic distinctions and fragmentations, whether actual or perceived have proved to be the causes of several genocides throughout history; in the case of the Rwandan genocide, this was no exception.
The Twa, the Hutu and the Tutsi were and continue to best in us, be the groups of people constituting Rwanda (Pearn J, 203). Tensions and. Words: 3707 - Pages: 15. Rwanda, assignment 2 Rwanda#x27;s history is marked by hunger, violence and war, and not least the lack of democracy. Most of us associate Rwanda with the genocide in 1994. It will long be remembered for the international community#x27;s inability to intervene.
Around a million people were killed in the most brutal ways. Then and weak today people still live side by side with the families of the killers. How can a country stand up again and experience the peace and reconciliation? The genocide started 7. Words: 754 - Pages: 4. Critical Analysis of black robe, Darwins Nightmare vs Hotel Rwanda as Development Education Tools in Irish Classroom Settings.
Critical Analysis of Darwins Nightmare Vs Hotel Rwanda as development education tools in Irish classroom settings. The world we live in is ever changing, with technology at everyoneís finger tips how can we keep one step ahead in our classrooms to resume weak points, engage our pupils in development issues that were once only found in print texts. Our pupils live in andy, a media age, where technology is points, built into their lives, the days of waiting for a weekly magazine for the latest news has all but died with a. Words: 1702 - Pages: 7. Rwanda signed a peace treaty with the science essays, Tutsi, making these same projecting and planning the most sensible way to end this president, then this fact Hutu decided to resume, create fear and terror among the people making most exterminate the Tutsi population. In this one, it tells the andy mcgorman thesis, story of weak, a man (Paul Rusesabagina) of Hutu origin, which was in charge of the administration of the Hotel Des Mille Collines (the owners of thesis, this were of origin Belgium), where the same has to take charge of the hotel and. Words: 2183 - Pages: 9.
Tourism 2012 No.9 OCTOBER 2012 VISITOR STATISTICS SEPTEMBER 2012 SUMMARY VISITOR ARRIVALS STATISTICS SEPTEMBER 2012 Tables 1. 2. Weak? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Visitors and cruise ship passengers, 2002 - 2012 Visitor arrivals and best creative writing average length of resume weak points, stay, 2006 - 2012 Visitor arrivals by mice essay friendship purpose of visit, 2009 - 2012 Visitor arrivals by country of points, residence and month, 2012 Visitor departures: distribution of length of stay, 2003 - 2012 Visitor arrivals by mode of best creative, transport, 2011 - 2012 Visitors. Words: 9893 - Pages: 40. The Rwanda Genocide Xenophobia, the hatred or fear of certain targeted Ďoutsiders,í is one of the most destructive group phenomena in human history. Various incidents in resume weak, our collective past portray how xenophobia has negatively impacted the lives of so many people.
One of the most outright and horrific displays of this destructive force was seen in the German treatment of the mice, Jewish race before and weak points during the essays book, Second World War. These events were part of the holocaust, associated with the. Words: 2222 - Pages: 9. BS in Hotel and weak points Restaurant Management The Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management (BSHRM) program is geared towards equipping students with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to provide quality service in the hospitality industry. Creative Writing In Us? The program contains subjects that will address the resume, needs of different sectors in the hospitality industry, such as culinary, front office, tourism, resort and hotel operations.
Its primary concentration is on the development of practical. Words: 414 - Pages: 2. requires taking the exam has to prepare him/her of this because if they do not, they wouldnít be able to andy thesis, practice their courses. If Hotel and resume weak points restaurant Management will be one of the courses who have to take this exam, then the universities will have to take immediate actions on how to better improve the curriculum so that many students will pass the tests. Each will thrive on and men friendship, the enhancement for the betterment of his clientele. The students, on weak, the other hand, will have something to ponder and. Words: 1080 - Pages: 5. SUMMARY Writing a summary means presenting the main ideas or facts in a logical and structured sequence in your own words using signposting language 1) Mention the source and about the author (if it applies) The article/ video was originally published in. It is written by. The author of the article is.
The article comes from the website 2) State the main question or problem the weak points, article deals with The article/ video is devoted to the question of . Writing Mfa Programs? The article/ video deals. Words: 262 - Pages: 2. SUMMARY ON PAPER: REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS THROUGH OPERATIONS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT This paper explains how organisations, be it big or small, can reduce their carbon footprint and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by trying to weak, develop and nurture ďzero emissionĒ supply chains.The author says that emission reduction and profitability are not mutually exclusive and can be implemented regardless of the scale of the organisation. The author has taken two examples, Walmart, and ZETA. Words: 430 - Pages: 2. Term Paper (15 marks) October 28th, 2013 Students are required to pick a disaster that has happened in mice essay friendship, the recent past from a local, national, regional or international level such as Tana River Clashes, Rwanda Genocide, Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2008 Post Election Violence, or Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast etc. Students should give a background of the disaster to weak, include when, where, how, and why it happened. How did the authorities handle the disaster, what impact did it cause to the. Words: 601 - Pages: 3. at the business environment through the mice, institutions that the government has put in place, as a way of encouraging investors. The country of choice for this case is Rwanda, due to the steps it has made to make investments in business to be friendlier. The country was not so long ago faced with a major challenge, where it was rocked with one of the biggest crisis reported in weak points, the recent times, in bank essay, form of genocide.
The country has made major steps in resume weak points, ensuring that the business community. Words: 1872 - Pages: 8. Bonita Robinson October 24, 2013 English 102 11:00 Ė 11:50 Professor: Adam Fisher Hotel Rwanda Movie Review ďHotel RwandaĒ is bank, a harsh drama based on a true story that addresses the genocide in resume weak points, Rwanda in the early mid to nineties. Generations of European conquest by the Belgians, resulted in the establishment of two social classes: the Hutu and Tutsi. Essays? For the majority of the movie, the resume weak, minority Tutsi ruled and oppressed the Hutu, but as the book, level of power reversed, the Hutu, who were in. Words: 304 - Pages: 2. | |Lost in Translation | |Murderball | |Once Were Warriors | |Slumdog Millionaire | |The Kite Runner | |Thirteen | [pic] Name Date Name of points, Movie: hotel rwanda Hotel Rwanda is a true story about a one. Words: 764 - Pages: 4.
Executive Summary On November 26, 2008, Indian City Mumbai was attacked by a group of ten armed terrorists. They divided into sub-groups and attacked a dozen locations in Mumbai including luxury hotels, hospital, railway station, restaurant, and mcgorman a Jewish centre and killed as many as 159 people, both Indians and foreigners, and gravely wounded more than 200. The assault, known as 26/11, shocked the nation and exposed the weak, countryís vulnerability to terrorism yet again. Essays On The Black? The Tajís burning domes. Words: 841 - Pages: 4. Victoria Kurilov Summary Package Professor Fales The Best, The Worst, The Wackiest During my interview with Nadia Vasilevsky, I came across an article that goes back before year 1995. ďThe Best, The Worst, The WackiestÖAnd The EndĒ. It was an article from the Washington Post, my grandfather, has written it. It goes back in time and describes all the different circumstances in Russia. More like a news blog of current time. My grandmother gave it to resume, me and let me read it. Words: 420 - Pages: 2.
International Foreign Policy Nineteen forty-five was thought to be a turning point as the Second World War came to a close. In addition, over fifty-one countries committed themselves to bank, maintaining international peace across the globe, all with the hope of preventing future genocide. Almost forty-seven years after taking this pledge, the world turned their backs on the country of weak points, Rwanda, while Hutu extremists slaughtered almost a million Tutsis. George and bank competitions Keir Pearson wrote the movie Hotel. Words: 914 - Pages: 4. Ethnic Conflict in weak points, Emerging Democracies Rwanda Sri Lanka SOC300036VAO16*1114*001 Sociology of world bank competitions, Developing Countries Instructor: Professor CERTIFICATION OF AUTHORSHIP: I certify that I am the author of this paper and that any assistance received in resume points, its presentation is acknowledged and world essay competitions disclosed in the paper (at the end). I have also cited any sources from which I used data, ideas, or words, either quoted directly or paraphrased. Resume? I also certify that this paper.
Words: 1993 - Pages: 8. HOTEL RWANDA HISTORY QUESTIONS Use history handouts given internet research ( short answer questions) 1. Mice And Men Essay Friendship? What is a culture of impunity and how does it relate to the rule of weak, law? 2. Could the book, Rwandan genocide have been stopped? 3. Resume Points? Who is to blame for the Rwandan genocide of 1994? 4. Both the citizen who killed his Tutsi neighbour with a machete and essays on the the government leader who convinced his people to do the killing but did not kill anyone himself are criminals. Who commits. Words: 801 - Pages: 4. Rwanda, as many other poor countries, is rich in human and natural resources. Resume Weak Points? Although it is assumed that this is a blessing for Rwanda, the on the, income generated from the resume weak points, exploitation of natural resources has created several problems which are as follows. A statement from the Africa Progress Panel (APP) reads that ďthey can either invest their natural resource revenue in mice and men, people to generate jobs and resume weak opportunities for world bank essay millions in present and weak points future generations or they can squander this opportunity.
Words: 1559 - Pages: 7. Final Project: Crisis in Rwanda Rhonda K. Dasher Walden University FPSY6740-01 Dr. Mice And Men Essay? Tracy Mallett November 17, 2013 Abstract The following review is based on the 1994 genocide which occurred in the small sovereign state of Rwanda, with a specific concentration on the rape victims and the consequences of the attacks. The review will describe the crisis intervention approach as well as any legal, ethical, or multicultural considerations concerning the crisis. Followed by an assessment. Words: 3578 - Pages: 15. One hundred days of internal war in Rwanda has become one of the resume, brutal massacres in the history of mfa programs in us, human kind. More than five hundred thousand people died in this injustice religious war where Tutsi people were exploited brutally throughout the whole country by Hutu people( Des et al, 1994 ). When we examine the issue to find the potential stimuli that trigger the war, we cannot deny the fact that the lack of religious tolerance was the main cause to fuel this massive killing.
It can be. Words: 723 - Pages: 3. Chapter 1: Introduction to Hotel Management Founders of the Hotel Industry E.M. Points? Statler: build wood structure that would contain 2084 rooms ad accommodate 5000 guests. It was a temporary structure, and it appeared substantial with a thin layer of world essay, plaster.
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Words: 327 - Pages: 2. Hotel Rwanda Haobo Yang Hotel Rwanda is casted and inspired by a real story. Resume? This story is based on Paul Rusesabagina, who is a Hutu married to a Tutsi during the andy mcgorman thesis, genocide that occurred in points, Rwanda 1994. Tutsi was being called as ďcockroachesĒ in book, the radio and they were being exterminated just like cockroaches. Not only his wife was in danger, but also his children and family, as a result of that, they were looking to Rusesabagina to resume weak points, do something because from mfa programs their perspective nothing but. Words: 592 - Pages: 3. Summary and weak response essay Subwayís slogan and advertisements suggest to essay, eat their fresh food.
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Words: 1781 - Pages: 8. The United Nations, defines genocide as ďActs committed with the intent to destroyÖ a national, ethnic, racial or religious group.Ē In Rwanda, 1994 around one million Tutsi and Hutu opposition members were slaughtered by the extremist Hutu government the Hutuís; the majority ethnic group in Rwanda. Their aim was to exterminate the about, minority of resume, Tutsis, whom comprised about 25% of Rwandaís population, and thus makes it one of the 3 genocides of the 20th century. In order to discuss the Rwandan. Words: 853 - Pages: 4.
Leslie Lim AB in Communication Hotel Rwanda Des Mille Collins Hotel, where Paul Rusesabagina work as a hotel manager. Andy Mcgorman? He is resume points, a Hutu who doesnít support the Hutu violence and rebellion against Tutsi. Essay? Paul bribes military men with money and alcohol so he and his Tutsi family and resume weak also the refugees will be protected. As days past, many refugees still going to the hotel to protect themselves from Hutus. Essay Bonding? Some of them that arrive are children from orphanage. In this, we can see how a good person. Words: 430 - Pages: 2. ________________________________________________________ Introduction 3 Executive summary 4 Marketing 8 Foundations product mix 8 Market analysis 10 Marketing goals 11 Pricing strategy 12 Operations 12 Advertising and promotion 15 SWOT analysis 16 The organizational structure 18 Management and resume weak personnel 18 Administrative organization 19 Construction Bid Education/Skills Training/Internships 20 20 2 Introduction Business description Foundations Hotel.
Words: 4575 - Pages: 19. SUMMARY TEAM A University of Phoenix CJA 484 Dwayne Carr May 4, 2015 SUMMARY What did you find that was really useful, or that challenged your thinking? During this weeks reading and research in class I found it profoundly difficult to completely comprehend the fiscal demands part of correctional institutions as my concentration is on human services not finance. However, keeping fiscal budget demand in mind when implementing policy can be important as the robe, world does revolve. Words: 532 - Pages: 3.
Summary 1. Weak? A summary is a clear concise orderly retelling of the contents of a text and and men essay friendship is ordinarily about 1/3 or 1/4 as long as the original. To make a summary you should: a) write out resume weak, clearly in your own words the main points of the text, subordinating or eliminating minor points; b) preserve the book, proportion of the original; c) change direct narration to points, indirect, use words instead of word combinations and word combinations instead of sentences; d) omit figures of speech, repetitions. Words: 455 - Pages: 2. seek 2 select 2 sequence 3 series 4 sex 3 shift 3 significant 1 similar 1 simulate 7 site 2 so-called 10 sole 7 somewhat 7 source 1 specific 1 specify 3 sphere 9 stable 5 statistic 4 status 4 straightforward 10 strategy 2 stress 4 structure 1 style 5 submit 7 subordinate 9 subsequent 4 subsidy 6 substitute 5 successor 7 sufficient 3 sum 4 summary 4 supplement 9 survey 2 survive 7 suspend 9 sustain 5. Words: 1212 - Pages: 5. Company Background Rangkian Hotel Seri Malaysia(RHSM) was established in April 1994 to essays book, manage a simple cost hotel chain in resume weak points, the country. The company has a paid up capital of RM131.34 million. A total of mice friendship, RM118.93 million (90.6%) of the share capital is owned by the Federal Government through the Minister of Finance (Incorporated).
The other shareholders are the weak points, State where the Hotel Seri Malaysia. To safeguard the interests of the Federal Government and the State Government, RHSM is. Words: 635 - Pages: 3. Craig Cannon History 0874 Prof. David Guba 12/2/13 Final Essay Question The nation of Rwanda has a long and science troubled history. It can be considered an experiment of resume weak points, colonization, a slave state to book, European nations, and even an inferior population living under another nationís law. Germany and weak points Belgium left their roots in Rwanda and Burundi, another nation developed after the independence the Hutuís and Tutsiís won in 1962. The well-known genocide of bonding, Rwanda that began in 1994 erupted for many.
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Essay On Man - Poem by resume weak Alexander Pope. The First Epistle. To low ambition, and the pride of Kings. Let us (since Life can little more supply. Than just to look about us and to die) Expatiate(2) free o'er all this scene of Man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan; A Wild, where weeds and essay about bonding, flow'rs promiscuous shoot, Or Garden, tempting with forbidden fruit. Together let us beat this ample field, Try what the open, what the covert yield;
The latent tracts(3), the giddy heights explore. Of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar; Eye Nature's walks, shoot Folly as it flies, And catch the Manners living as they rise; Laugh where we must, be candid where we can;
But vindicate(4) the ways of God to points, Man. 1. Say first, of God above, or Man below, What can we reason, but from what we know? Of Man what see we, but his station here, From which to reason, or to which refer? Thro' worlds unnumber'd tho' the God be known, 'Tis ours to trace him only in essays on the black, our own.
He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, What vary'd being peoples ev'ry star, May tell why Heav'n has made us as we are.
But of this frame the bearings, and resume weak, the ties, The strong connections, nice dependencies, Gradations just, has thy pervading soul. Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the great chain, that draws all to best creative mfa programs in us, agree, And drawn supports, upheld by God, or thee?
Why form'd so weak, so little, and so blind! First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess, Why form'd no weaker, blinder, and no less! Ask of thy mother earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade?
Or ask of yonder argent fields(5) above, Why JOVE'S Satellites are less than JOVE?(6) Of Systems possible, if 'tis confest. That Wisdom infinite must form the weak, best, Where all must full or not coherent be, And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the scale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain.
There must be, somewhere, such rank as Man; And all the essay about, question (wrangle e'er so long) Is only this, if God has plac'd him wrong? Respecting Man, whatever wrong we call, Nay, must be right, as relative to all. In human works, tho' labour'd on with pain, A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain; In God's, one single can its end produce; Yet serves to resume weak points, second too some other use.
So Man, who here seems principal alone, Perhaps acts second to some sphere unknown, Touches some wheel, or verges to on the, some goal; 'Tis but a part we see, and not a whole. When the proud steed shall know why Man restrains. His fiery course, or drives him o'er the plains; When the dull Ox, why now he breaks the weak points, clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's God:(7) Then shall Man's pride and dullness comprehend. His actions', passions', being's, use and end;
Why doing, suff'ring, check'd, impell'd; and why. This hour a slave, the mcgorman thesis, next a deity. Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault; Say rather, Man's as perfect as he ought; His knowledge measur'd to resume, his state and about, place, His time a moment, and a point his space. If to be perfect in a certain sphere, What matter, soon or late, or here or there? The blest today is as completely so,
As who began a thousand years ago. All but the resume weak points, page prescrib'd, their present state; From brutes what men, from men what spirits know: Or who could suffer Being here below? The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy Reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last, he crops the essay about bonding, flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Oh blindness to the future! kindly giv'n, That each may fill the circle mark'd by Heav'n; Who sees with equal eye, as God of all,
A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and resume weak points, now a world. Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar; Wait the andy mcgorman, great teacher Death, and resume weak points, God adore! What future bliss, he gives not thee to bonding, know,
But gives that Hope to be thy blessing now. Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never Is, but always To be blest: The soul, uneasy and confin'd from home, Rests and expatiates in resume points, a life to bank essay competitions, come. Lo! the poor Indian, whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in points, clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to on the, stray. Far as the solar walk, or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n,
Behind the cloud-topt hill, an humbler heav'n; Some safer world in weak, depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in essay, the watry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To Be, contents his natural desire, He asks no Angel's wing, no Seraph's(8) fire;
But thinks, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Weigh thy Opinion against Providence; Call Imperfection what thou fancy'st such, Say, here he gives too little, there too much;
Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust,(9) Yet cry, If Man's unhappy, God's unjust; If Man alone ingross not Heav'n's high care, Alone made perfect here, immortal there: Snatch from his hand the balance(10) and the rod, Re-judge his justice, be the resume points, GOD of GOD!
In Pride, in reas'ning Pride, our error lies; All quit their sphere, and rush into the skies. Pride still is aiming at the blest abodes, Men would be Angels, Angels would be Gods. Aspiring to be Gods, if Angels fell, Aspiring to be Angels, Men rebel; And who but wishes to robe, invert the laws.
Of ORDER, sins against resume weak points, th' Eternal Cause. Earth for whose use? Pride answers, Tis for book, mine: For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb, and spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Annual for me, the grape, the rose renew. The juice nectareous, and the balmy dew; For me, the resume weak points, mine a thousand treasures brings;
For me, health gushes from essay bonding, a thousand springs; Seas roll to waft me, suns to light me rise; My foot-stool earth, my canopy the skies. But errs not Nature from resume weak, this gracious end, From burning suns when livid deaths descend, When earthquakes swallow, or when tempests sweep. Towns to one grave, whole nations to andy, the deep? No ('tis reply'd) the first Almighty Cause. Acts not by resume partial, but by best creative gen'ral laws; Th' exceptions few; some change since all began,
And what created perfect? -- Why then Man? If the great end be human Happiness, Then Nature deviates; and can Man do less? As much that end a constant course requires. Of show'rs and sun-shine, as of Man's desires;
As much eternal springs and cloudless skies, As Men for ever temp'rate, calm, and points, wise. If plagues or earthquakes break not Heav'n's design, Why then a Borgia,(11) or a Catiline?(12) Who knows but he, whose hand the science essays, light'ning forms, Who heaves old Ocean, and who wings the storms, Pours fierce Ambition in resume points, a Caesar's(13) mind, Or turns young Ammon(14) loose to scourge mankind? From pride, from pride, our very reas'ning springs; Account for moral as for nat'ral things:
Why charge we Heav'n in those, in these acquit? In both, to essay, reason right is to submit. Better for weak points, Us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there all harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind: But ALL subsists by elemental strife; and Passions are the elements of essay bonding Life. The gen'ral ORDER, since the resume weak, whole began,
Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. And little less than Angel,(15) would be more; Now looking downwards, just as griev'd appears. To want the strength of bulls, the essay about, fur of bears. Made for his use all creatures if he call, Say what their use, had he the pow'rs of all? Nature to resume points, these, without profusion kind, The proper organs, proper pow'rs assign'd; Each seeming want compensated of essays black robe course,
Here with degrees of points swiftness, there of force; All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in essays black, its own; Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? The bliss of Man (could Pride that blessing find) Is not to act or think beyond mankind; No pow'rs of body or of soul to points, share, But what his nature and his state can bear.
Why has not Man a microscopic eye? For this plain reason, Man is best, not a Fly. Say what the use, were finer optics giv'n, T' inspect a mite,(16) not comprehend the heav'n? Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er, To smart and agonize at ev'ry pore?
Or quick effluvia(17) darting thro' the brain, Die of a rose in aromatic pain? If nature thunder'd in weak points, his op'ning ears, And stunn'd him with the music of the spheres, How would he wish that Heav'n had left him still. The whisp'ring Zephyr,(18) and essays on the, the purling rill?(19) Who finds not Providence all good and wise, Alike in what it gives, and what denies? The scale of sensual, mental pow'rs ascends:
Mark how it mounts, to Man's imperial race, From the green myriads in the people grass: What modes of sight betwixt each wide extreme, The mole's dim curtain, and the lynx's beam: Of smell, the headlong lioness between, And hound sagacious(20) on the tainted(21) green: Of hearing, from the life that fills the flood,(22) To that which warbles thro' the vernal(23) wood: The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine!
Feels at each thread, and lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew:(24) How Instinct varies in the grov'ling swine, Compar'd, half-reas'ning elephant, with thine: 'Twixt that, and Reason, what a nice barrier; For ever sep'rate, yet for ever near! Remembrance and resume, Reflection how ally'd; What thin partitions Sense from Thought divide: And Middle natures,(25) how they long to join, Yet never pass th' insuperable line!
Without this just gradation, could they be. Subjected these to those, or all to essays black robe, thee? The pow'rs of all subdu'd by weak thee alone, Is not thy Reason all these pow'rs in one? All matter quick, and essays, bursting into birth. Above, how high progressive life may go! Around, how wide! how deep extend below! Vast chain of being, which from resume points, God began, Natures ethereal,(26) human, angel, man.
Beast, bird, fish, insect! what no eye can see, No glass can reach! from best creative mfa programs, Infinite to thee, From thee to Nothing! -- On superior pow'rs. Were we to weak points, press, inferior might on ours: Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destoy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the essay about, chain alike. And if each system in gradation roll, Alike essential to weak, th' amazing whole;
The least confusion but in one, not all. That system only, but the whole must fall. Let Earth unbalanc'd from science book, her orbit fly, Planets and resume, Suns run lawless thro' the mcgorman, sky, Let ruling Angels from weak, their spheres be hurl'd,
Being on being wreck'd, and world on world, Heav'n's whole foundations to their centre nod, And Nature tremble to the throne of God: All this dread ORDER break -- for whom? for thee? Vile worm! -- oh, Madness, Pride, Impiety! Or hand to thesis, toil, aspir'd to be the resume weak points, head? What if the head, the eye, or ear repin'd(27) To serve mere engines to the ruling Mind? Just as absurd, to essay about bonding, mourn the tasks or pains. The great directing MIND of weak ALL ordains.
All are but parts of one stupendous whole, Whose body, Nature is, and God the soul; That, chang'd thro' all, and yet in all the same, Great in the earth, as in th' ethereal frame, Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees, Lives thro' all life, extends thro' all extent, Spreads undivided, operates unspent,
Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal parts, As full, as perfect, in about, a hair as heart; As full, as perfect, in vile Man that mourns, As the rapt Seraph that adores and burns; To him no high, no low, no great, no small; He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all.
Our proper bliss depends on what we blame. Know thy own point: This kind, this due degree. Of blindness, weakness, Heav'n bestows on thee. Submit -- In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in weak, the natal, or the best creative writing mfa programs, mortal hour.
All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see; All Discord, Harmony, not understood; All partial Evil, universal Good: And, spite of resume points Pride, in erring Reason's spite, One truth is clear, Whatever IS, is best creative in us, RIGHT. to study himself. The proper study of Mankind is points, Man. Plac'd on this isthmus of a middle state,(28)
A being darkly wise, and rudely great: With too much knowledge for in us, the Sceptic side, With too much weakness for the Stoic's pride, He hangs between; in doubt to weak, act, or rest, In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast; In doubt his Mind or Body to prefer, Born but to die, and reas'ning but to err; Alike in ignorance, his reason such, Whether he thinks too little, or too much: Chaos of Thought and Passion, all confus'd; Still by himself abus'd, or disabus'd;
Created half to rise, and half to thesis, fall; Great lord of all things, yet a prey to weak points, all; Sole judge of essays Truth, in endless Error hurl'd: The glory, jest, and riddle of the world! 4[explain or defend] 5[silvery fields, i.e., the heavens] 6[the planet Jupiter] 7[ancient Egyptians sometimes worshipped oxen]
8[the highest level of angels] 10[the balance used to weigh justice] 11[Caesar Borgia (1476-1507) who used any cruelty to achieve his ends] 12[Lucious Sergius Catilina (108-62 B.C.) who was a traitor to weak, Rome] 13[Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) who was thought to be overly ambitious Roman]
14[Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.)] 15[Psalm 8:5--Thou hast made him [man] a little lower than the angels. ] 17[vapors which were believed to mice friendship, pass odors to the brain] 18[the West Wind] 20[able to weak points, pick up a scent] 21[having the bank essay competitions, odor of an animal] 24[honey was thought to have medicinal properties] 25[Animals slightly below humans on the chain of being] 28[i.e., on the chain of being between angels and resume weak, animals]
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This poem has not been translated into any other language yet.