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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and thesis creator, research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in on career goals, APA style . Learning about creator APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments.
Quick Navigation through the edgar allan poe essay statement APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to instant thesis creator, referencing the synthesise lsd sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the thesis American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. Apartheid Essay. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on thesis, the title page and synthesise lsd, two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Instant Thesis Creator. Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of edgar allan poe essay in-text references. Thesis. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Thesis Network. Use of quotations . Thesis Creator. APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks.
If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for social network, an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for thesis creator, headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and edgar statement, cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author.
It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in instant, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the essay Image to instant, Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to princeton essay, use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for instant creator, any labels; use 10-12 for essay goals, the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in thesis creator, rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for the alchemist essay, free when you place an order on our website. Instant Thesis. Your essay will come to goals in nursing, you in instant, the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page.
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P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from students on white male privilege, our services, achieving excellence in their courses and creator, education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and princeton essay male privilege, the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in instant thesis creator, APA format. The sources are indicated by essay prompts, the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the instant sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in male, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to creator, an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format.
Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Synthesise Lsd. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to instant, #8220;a caliph who had stepped out social, from the pages of instant thesis creator #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of essay goals in nursing publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in thesis creator, the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924).
4. Multiple authors reference . Students On White Male Privilege. If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of creator no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Apartheid Prompts. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in thesis creator, quotation marks.
Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Students Essay Male. Location: Publisher.
Note: if you have several books by instant creator, the same author in the reference list, you should list them in essay on career in nursing, chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of instant thesis creator article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. Essay. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Creator. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is essay goals of the utmost importance to use the creator titles and headings appropriately.
APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of prompts which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and instant thesis creator, #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in on white male, APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath.
Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and instant thesis, the date of synthesise lsd submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in instant creator, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and thesis social network, figures. Abbreviations can be used later in thesis, the essay after the full form is mention in edgar thesis, the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.
In APA papers both tables and thesis, figures should be presented on separate pages, with the edgar allan caption at thesis creator the bottom of the page. What to thesis, remember with the instant creator APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to thesis, avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. Instant Creator. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an thesis social network, easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay.
It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on thesis creator, the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in goals in nursing, cases where many writers are involved in thesis, the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism.
In an academe, plagiarism is apartheid a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the instant thesis APA style is the formatting guide that is princeton students on white male privilege used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Instant Creator. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on the alchemist, essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the thesis format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers.
In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the the alchemist omens essay title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Thesis. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in thesis social, the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the instant thesis creator level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and thesis network, citing as well as structuring of the essay . Creator. While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and the alchemist omens essay, conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and instant thesis, more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.
A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Apartheid Essay. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Malene Wibe Poulsen is creator defending her PhD thesis: Dietary Advanced Glycation Endproducts Effects on risk markers for apartheid prompts, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease Read more. 27 August 2013, 13:00. Martin Høyer Rose is defending his PhD thesis: Rehabilitation in instant thesis Parkinson's Disease Read more. 21 August 2013, 13:00. PhD defence - Nina Rica Wium Geiker.
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Andreas Vegge is defending his PhD thesis: Treatment of the alchemist neonatal short bowel syndrome. Lessons from animal models - development, treatment and translation Read more. 21 June 2013, 13:00. PhD defence - Mette Viberg Ostergaard. Mette Viberg Østergaard is defending her PhD thesis: Amniotic fluid and development of the immature intestine. Responses to instant thesis, postnatal intake of amniotic fluid in a preterm pig model of necrotizing enterocolitis Read more. 10 June 2013, 14:00. Mads Bendiksen is defending his PhD thesis: Activity profile and physical demands of ball games for children and adults of both genders - optimizing intermittent testing protocols Read more. 31 May 2013, 10:00.
PhD defence - Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum. Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum is defending her PhD thesis: The sense of agency. Movement perception and behavior in healthy individuals and network individuals diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy Read more. 22 May 2013, 14:00. Louise Dalgas Høeg is instant defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of poe essay skeletal muscle insulin action in relation to dietary fatty acids and gender Read more.
25 March 2013, 15:00. Birgitte Høier is defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of creator angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle with specific focus on pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors Read more. 26 February 2013, 13:00. Gözde Gürdeniz is defending her PhD thesis: Data Handling Strategies in Nutritional Metabolomics illustrated using metabolic states and trans -fat exposures Read more. 22 January 2013, 10:00. PhD defence - Mahdi Mohammadi-nezhad. Mahdi Mohammadi-nezhad is defending his PhD thesis: Exercise impact on depressed patients’ self: The impact of exercise on physical self-perception and essay self-esteem of instant outpatients with depressive disorders in Denmark Read more. 18 January 2013, 10:00. Nicole Thualagant is defending her PhD thesis: Fitness Doping and essay on career goals Body Management. An Explorative Study of Body Investment Practices Read more. 26 November 2012, 14:00.
Pia Christensen is defending her PhD thesis: Efficacy and creator Safety of Low Energy Diets in the Treatment of prompts Older Obese Individuals Read more. 22 November 2012, 14:00. Thomas P. Instant Thesis. Gunnarsson is defending his PhD thesis: Effects of intensified training on poe essay muscle ion transport proteins and thesis kinetics in relation to male, fatigue development and instant thesis creator performance of endurance athletes and synthesise lsd soccer players Read more. 12 October 2012, 14:00. Lars Klingenberg is defending his PhD thesis: Acute Effects of instant thesis Insufficient Sleep on Energy Balance Read more. 20 September 2012, 14:30. PhD defence - Christian Kirkegaard Pehmoller. Christian Kirkegaard Pehmøller is defending his PhD thesis: Regulation of allan thesis statement TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in thesis skeletal muscle From mouse to man Read more. PhD defence - Sarah Fredsted Villadsen.
Sarah Fredsted Villadsen is the alchemist defending her PhD thesis: Strategic perspectives on antenatal care. Development of a participatory antenatal care strengthening intervention in Jimma, Ethiopia Read more. PhD defence - Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen. Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen is defending his PhD thesis: The Double Burden. The role of creator diabetes for essay prompts, tuberculosis risk, manifestations, treatment outcomes and survival Read more. 5 July 2012, 13:00. Brynjulf Mortensen is thesis creator defending her PhD thesis: The impact of the intrauterine environment, exercise and physical inactivity on the skeletal muscle AMPK system and downstream targets Read more. 25 June 2012, 14:30. Tue Hvass Petersen is defending his PhD-thesis - Development of Neural Control of Human Gait Read more.
3 May 2012, 13:00. PhD defence - Mette Landau Brab?k Christiansen. Mette Landau Brabæk Christiansen is allan poe essay thesis defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of instant thesis creator lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle - Insights from human cell culture and rodent models Read more. 16 March 2012, 12:30. PhD defence - Jonas Moller Kristensen. Jonas Møller Kristensen is defending his PhD-thesis - Role of metformin in regulation of thesis social network AMPK activation, glucose uptake and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and thesis creator adipose tissue Read more. Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports.
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#8220;Angela#8217;s Ashes#8221; by Frank McCourt Essay. The autobiography Angela#8217;s Ashes by Frank McCourt tells the instant thesis life of the thesis McCourt family while living in poverty in Limerick, Ireland during the 1930#8217;s and 1940#8217;s. Frank McCourt relates his difficult childhood to the reader up until the time he leaves for instant thesis America at the age of nineteen. Angela#8217;s Ashes has many prevailing themes, but one of the most notable is the social settings relationship to the family. The setting of the book ultimately influences the choices and instant thesis lifestyle of the McCourt family in many ways. Living in poverty and omens essay not being able to instant creator meet basic needs leads the characters to students essay on white result to desperate measures, such incidents as stopping Frank McCourt#8217;s education and taking a job to instant creator support the family. Frank is forced to take the job mostly because his father is an alcoholic and uses all the money to buy beer instead of feeding his family. Edgar Allan Poe Essay Thesis! Frank describes this pattern of drinking away the money by saying #8221; when dad comes home with the drink smell there is no money and Mom screams at him till the twins cry#8221;(42). This situation lasts until Mr.McCourt leaves to work in England and is never heard from again which forces Frank to take a job at thesis creator fourteen years old.
Frank takes on the role of the head of the family proudly and comments #8221; Its hard to goals sleep when you know the next day you#8217;re fourteen and starting your first job as a man#8221;(309). Frank#8217;s ability to provide financial stability leads to greater comfort and living conditions for his family. The members of the McCourt family are also forced to beg and steal in order to help the instant creator family#8217;s well being. Mrs.McCourt begs charities especially the St.Vincent de Paul Society for help with basic necessities for the family such as food, clothing, and the alchemist omens essay furniture. Mrs.McCourt is even forced to beg for the family#8217;s Christmas dinner. The butcher who she begs to tells her #8221; What you can now missus, Is black pudding and tripe or a sheep#8217;s head or a pig#8217;s head#8221;(97). Instant Thesis! Mrs.McCourt reluctantly accepted the synthesise lsd pig#8217;s head and is ridiculed walking home with it.
Also, the children are forced to instant thesis creator pick up scraps of coal for the fire from the road on Christmas Day. Frank describes the children#8217;s humiliation by saying, #8221; Even the poorest of the poor don#8217;t go out Christmas Day picking coal off the road#8221;(99). Despite Frank McCourt#8217;s horrid poverty, tiresome starvation and devastating losses, Angela#8217;s Ashes is not a tragic memoir. Essay! It is in fact up lifting, funny and at times triumphant. #8220;When I look back on my childhood I wonder how I managed to survive at all. It was, of course, a miserable child hood: the happy childhood is hardly worth your while. Worse than the ordinary miserable childhood Is the miserable Irish childhood, and worse yet is the thesis miserable Irish Catholic childhood#8221;, writes Frank McCourt of his early life Although Frank McCourt#8217;s autobiography, Angela#8217;s Ashes, paints a picture of both terrible poverty and omens essay struggles, this text is appealing and thesis creator up lifting because of its focus on both humor and hope. McCourt#8217;s text shows the determination people living in on career, dreadful conditions must have in order to rise above their situations and make better lives for themselves and their families. The effect of the instant creator story, although often distressing and omens sad, is instant thesis creator, not depressing.
Frank as the young narrator describes his life events without bitterness, anger, or blame. Poverty and hardship are treated simply as if they are a fact of life, and in spite of the hard circumstances, many episodes during the novel are hilarious. Frank McCourt was born in Brooklyn in 1930, just after the beginning of the Great Depression. During this time, millions of the alchemist omens, people around the world were unemployed and struggling to survive. Franks father, Malachy McCourt, struggled to obtain work and lost it easily due to his alcoholism. His mother, Angela McCourt, being a good catholic wife produced five babies in four years, leaving her unable to provide the most basic care for her children.
When the thesis creator baby, Margaret, died due to the shocking living conditions in Brooklyn, Angela subsided into clinical depression, which went untreated. Other women in the building where the social McCourt#8217;s lived looked after the children until Angela#8217;s cousins arranged for the family to return to Ireland. Life in Limerick was considerably poorer, with a less supportive population than Brooklyn. The McCourt#8217;s lived in a succession of substandard flats and houses characterized by poor sanitation and lack of electricity. The family had so little furniture that they shared beds, with no sheets or blankets. When Malachy McCourt took his family back to an impoverished Ireland he chose to live in the south, where he was discriminated against because of instant thesis creator, his northern name and statement accent.
He was unable to find work and when he finally did it was too late. He had become an alcoholic, unable to control his drinking and conform to the demands of a job. This meant that his family was reduced to instant thesis creator existence on the dole and as a result, his children starved, and were forced to pick coal up from the side of the road in order to synthesise lsd keep the thesis fire burning. When Malachy left for work in England he sent no money home and Angela was forced to beg for food. In these terrible situations two more of her children died, Angela was hospitalized with a miscarriage and pneumonia, while Frank was hospitalized with typhoid fever and conjunctivitis. Survival for the family was clearly difficult and life only improved when Frank found full time employment as a telegram boy. His sense of responsibility guided him to give his mother his wages in order to support the family.
Life in Limerick was often associated with humor. Essay! A lot of laughter derived from instant religious practices such as taking the wafer at mass. Since the wafer regularly stuck to peoples tongues, the boys at school had to practice sucking pieces of newspaper, sticking their tongues out for the teachers. The sins that the children confessed were also often sources of humor for the priests, and when grandma#8217;s demand to know if she should clean Franks vomit up with Holy Water is pure mockery. Social! #8220;bless me father for I have sinned, its been a minute since my last confession#8221;, becomes a sarcastic comment on Grandma#8217;s ignorance. Poverty itself reduced the family to other slapstick situations. Pious Grandma#8217;s deliberate lie to the real estate agent when she denied that there had ever been two rooms upstairs in thesis creator, Angela#8217;s house has a savage humor in light of her piety. For the children Grandma was often the source of unintentional humor from the moment they heard her accent. There is humor in the situations caused by Roman Catholic censorship. On one occasion Frank is evicted from the public library for reading a book about sex left on synthesise lsd, the table.
The irony here is he really wanted to read Butlers Life of the Saints but was enticed by a book that shocked the librarian. From an early age Frank promised to thesis support his family. To do this he dreamed of prompts, returning to America. During the novel there was discussion between Frank and instant his father about the difference in economies of the two countries when his father discussed this over the paper he encouraged him to get a good job in the land of opportunity. These discussions were placed in the context of the edgar poe essay English oppression of Ireland. It is the symbols associated with New York that really sustained Franks dream over the years. The images of the thesis creator Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island which he kept as he left New York as a small boy were so clear that he recognized them on his trip back. Essay Goals! McCourt#8217;s hope of a better future was shared by his father, brother Malachy and hisUncle Pa Sheehan.
However, it was Frank that had the determination to work at any job available and to save money even id his family starved, in order to make the dream real. There is no magic in Angela#8217;s Ashes. Poverty and despair are cured by instant, both hard work and breaking the law. Not everything that Frank did to save his fare was honorable, but his choices were made with long term goals in mind. Angela#8217;s Ashes depicts unrelenting poverty and the terrible consequences for individuals living in edgar poe essay thesis, dirtiness. However, Frank McCourt shows that there is always humor in life, no matter how desperate the instant situation is. Combined with this is the hope that sustained McCourt and drove him to seek a better life in the USA. University/College: University of Chicago.
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on #8220;Angela#8217;s Ashes#8221; by Frank McCourt. for thesis only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.
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Archaeology/ King Tut's Tomb term paper 19039. What does the tomb of thesis, tutankhamen and its contents show about the Egyptian concern for the afterlife? Tutakhamen's tomb, and omens the artifacts inside are an thesis, indication of the concern the Ancient Egyptians held for the after-life of their king. In 26th Nov. 1922, the thesis social network, English archaeologist Howard Carter opened the virtually intact tomb of a largely unknown pharaoh: Tutankhamen. This was the first, and to date the finest royal tomb found virtually intact in the history of instant thesis, Egyptology. It took almost a decade of meticulous and painstaking work to empty the tomb of Tutankhamen. Around 3500 individual items were recovered.
When the essay on career in nursing, Burial Chamber of Tutankhamen was officially opened, on 17 February 1923, the Antechamber had been emptied. It had taken near fifty days to empty the Antechamber; the thesis creator, time required to dismantle and restore the essay on career in nursing, contents of the instant creator, Burial Chamber including the essay in nursing, gilded wooden and the sarcophagus was to be greater, and the work was not completed until November 1930, eight years after the original discovery. Instant Thesis Creator. One must examine both the tomb itself, and its contents, to see the apartheid prompts, connection between the tombs and instant burial rituals and the doctrine of eternal life. The royal tombs were not merely homes in the hereafter for the kings, as are the private tombs of the alchemist omens essay, commoners and nobility. Instead the tombs are cosmological vehicles of rebirth and deification as much as houses of eternity. As the king is supposed to become Osiris in a far more intimate way than commoners, he is equipped with his very own Underworld.
And as the king is supposed to become Re in a way entirely unavailable to commoners, he is instant thesis, equipped with his very own passage of the sun, whether this is thought of as the thesis network, way through the underworld or through the heavens. Tutankhamon's tomb, hurriedly prepared for the premature death of the king at the age of only about 18, is, as Romer says, a hole in the ground, compared to thesis creator a proper royal tomb. The theme of the alchemist omens, fours is conspicuous in Egyptian religious practice. Tutankhamon's tomb contains four chambers. The burial chamber, with a ritual if not an actual orientation towards the West, is the chamber of departure towards the funeral destinies.
The internment of the body certainly is the beginning of the sojourn of the dead, and the Egyptians saw the dead as departing into the West. Instant Thesis Creator. The room called the Treasury is then interpreted to have a ritual orientation towards the North as the chamber of reconstitution of the omens, body. Since the most conspicuous object in the Treasury was a great gilt sledge holding the thesis creator, shrine containing the canopic chest, which holds the king's viscera, this could well suggest the problem of reassembling the synthesise lsd, king's living body. That task, indeed, has a very important place in Egyptian mythology. After the goddess Isis had retrieved her husband Osiris's murdered body from instant creator Byblos, their common brother, Seth, the original murderer, stole the body, cut it into pieces, and tossed them in the Nile. Isis then had to retrieve the parts of the body before Osiris could be restored to princeton privilege life.
Her search through the Delta, which is in the North of Egypt, seems to parallel the sacred pilgrimage to instant thesis cities of the Delta that Desroches-Noblecourt relates as one of ritual acts of the funeral, as many of the other objects in synthesise lsd the Treasury seem to be accessories for that pilgrimage. For the sovereign to be reborn it was necessary that a symbolic pilgrimage be made to the holy cities of the thesis, delta. The principal halts of the journey corresponded almost exactly to the four cardinal points of the delta where these cities were situated. Sais, to the west, represented the necropolis where the body was buried; Buto to the north, with its famous canal, was an essential stage of the transformations within the aquatic world of the primordial abyss, evoking the water surrounding the unborn child; and Mendes to the east whose name could be written with the two pillars of Osiris, the djed pillars, evoking the concept of air. There, said the old texts, the gods Shu and Tefenet were reunited, or again, according to the 17th chapter of The Book of the Dead, that was where the souls of Osiris and Re had joined. Princeton Students Essay Male Privilege. Finally, the southern-most city which completed the cycle of Heliopolis, the city of the sun, symbolizing the fourth [sic] element, fire, where the heavenly body arose in youth glory between the instant, two hills on the horizon. [Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt, 1963, p. 238-9] As these four cities parallel the four rooms of the tomb itself, we seem to have a nice series of parallel symbols.
If Sais, in the West, was significant for its necropolis, then Sais, like the burial chamber, can represent the departure into the West. Buto itself, the northernmost city, then represents the site of the actual reconstitution of the body. What followed Isis's reassembly of Osiris's body was its revivification. Mendes, in the East, where the sun rises, would then seem to be the locus for that, with the associations, especially with Osiris. In the tomb, the small Annex is then associated with this ritual stage, the chamber of rebirth. The ritual pilgrimage then ends at goals in nursing Heliopolis in the South, where the king, having been reborn, reassumes his throne, as Desroches-Noblecourt views the Antechamber of the tomb as the chamber of eternal royalty. Overall, the tomb may be divided into three parts: The Inner Tomb, which means the instant thesis, burial chamber and its side rooms, however elaborate; the Middle Tomb; and the Outer Tomb.
In the Outer Tomb, six parts may be distinguished: four passages, the Well, and the optional well room. The four passages originally consisted of two deep stairs and two sloping corridors. The outer stair might not now be considered part of the tomb proper, since it merely led up to the sealed entrance of the tomb; but the Egyptians saw it as already part of the tomb and allan thesis named it the god's first passage, or the god's first passage of the thesis, sun's path. All the corridors, indeed, were thought to represent the passage of the apartheid essay prompts, sun god Re through the twelve caverns of the underworld in the hours of the night, prior to his rebirth at dawn--the precedent for the rebirth of the king. Consequently, when decorated, they at first held excerpts from the Amduat, the book of That Which is in the Underworld, or the later Book of Gates. As the emphasis slowly shifted with time from the association with the underworld to an association with Re himself, another work, the Litany of Re made its appearance. The stair of the god's third passage was thus originally a room with the stair in its floor. As the creator, stairs later became ramps, and as the descent of the passages leveled out by the alchemist the XX Dynasty, the god's third passage was revealed as having a ritual as well as a practical meaning; for the flat spaces of the original room were preserved, even when they had been reduced to no more than long niches in part of the walls of the third passage.
These were called the sanctuaries in which the gods of East and West repose. East and West refer to the ritual orientation of the passage, East on the Left when facing out of the tomb (as the Egyptians saw it), West on the Right. The fourth passage eventually acquired two niches at the end, called the doorkeepers' niches. The Well itself is instant thesis creator, a feature that has excited considerable interest. The Egyptians called the Well the hall of thesis social network, waiting or hindering. The function of such a room, as symbolic of the thesis, whole tomb, provides a ritual locus for rebirth. The Ba soul in earlier representations flies up the synthesise lsd, shaft of the tomb and out into the world. All that is added in the royal tomb is the king's trip through the underworld, the creator, four entering or, as the Egyptians also saw them, exiting passages.
The Hall of Waiting, with or without the well itself or the lower well room, typically shows scenes of the king meeting the princeton students, gods--one of the motifs of the thesis creator, burial chamber in Tutankhamon's tomb--and this is often shown when decoration has not been completed elsewhere in the tomb, as in that of Thutmose IV. This would indicate some importance to the function of such a part of the tomb. This brings us, through the sealed door, to the Middle Tomb. As the Chariot Hall or Hall of Repelling Rebels, it contains the equipment needed for the king to live an ordinary life and perform his kingly duties once reborn, i.e. Synthesise Lsd. actual chariots, beds, clothing, etc. Some have labeled it the chamber of eternal royalty. One might call it the living room of the tomb, the opposite of the burial chamber with its uniquely funereal equipment. It then may be significant that the rest of the tomb is accessed through the stair or ramp dropped from the floor. Instant Thesis. If the synthesise lsd, spirit of the king comes up from the crypt, entering the Chariot Hall is like rising into instant thesis creator the upper world.
It is at that point that we might divide the whole tomb into the Upper Tomb and the Lower Tomb. The Lower Tomb is about death and rebirth; the Upper Tomb is about the new life and access to essay on career the world (the Chariot Hall and the Outer Tomb, both the shaft of the Well and the outer passages). Instant Thesis Creator. Significantly, the apartheid essay prompts, wall of the Chariot Hall above the passage down (the another god's first passage), often displays an thesis, Osiris shrine, which signal an emphasis on Osiris. Once freed of its contents, it became possible to examine the wall paintings in the only decorated room in the entire tomb, the burial chamber. Princeton Students Privilege. The walls had a yellow background, almost the colour of gold, as if underline the name that ancient Egyptians gave to instant the burial chamber - the synthesise lsd, 'Golden Room'. The surface of the paintings was in an excellent state of preservation though it was speckled with innumerable tiny circular stains due to the development of instant thesis, colonies of micro-organisms. The decoration quite simple and ordinary in style: the northern wall, seen on entering the room, features Tutankhamen in the centre, wearing the dress of essay goals, living, holding the sceptre and the ritual mace, before the goddess Nut, depicted in the act of performing the nyny ritual.
This central scene is flanked by two others: on the Tutankhamen's is shown dressed Osiris in the presence of Pharaoh Ay, his successor. Ay, wearing the costume of the sem-priest and the distinctive skin of a panther, officiates at the rite of the 'Opening of the Mouth', through which the instant thesis, deceased is revived. Tutankhamen is shown with his head draped in the nemes, and, followed by his ka, standing before Osiris. On the adjacent western wall, are illustrations of passages taken from the Book of Amduat, showing the voyage of the sun barque through the 12 hours of the night, represented by 12 deities with the faces of baboons. The eastern wall illustrates the transport of the royal sarcophagus, set inside a shrine mounted on a sledge, drawn by 12 characters, of whom two are dressed differently from the others, indicating a superior social standing.
The south wall was painted last, and is a scene of Tutankhamen, accompanied by Anubis, in the presence of the goddess Hathor. The centre of the room is essay in nursing, now occupied by the quartzite sarcophagus containing the outermost coffin. The last part of the tomb, the Annex, appears not to serve any ritual function. The contents of tomb are also an indication of the importance the Egyptians placed on instant creator the afterlife. It is synthesise lsd, not necessary to examine all the contents of the tomb, as this would be a painstakingly long and arduous task. To see the significance the Egyptian's placed on the after-life, one need only instant, examine a few of the articles found. One of the two life-sized statues which stood guard at the sealed door of the Burial Chamber, on the north side of the Antechamber. The two statues, almost identical except for their headgear, are made of wood, painted with black resin and overlaid with gold in omens essay parts. They depict the pharaoh, or rather the instant creator, pharaoh's ka, in a striding pose and holding a mace in one hand and a long staff in the other. On the students male privilege, gilded triangular skirt, is written that this is the 'royal ka of Harakhty', the Osiris Nebkheprure, the Lord of the Two Lands, made just. Two life-sized wooden statues intended to protect the eternal rest of the creator, Pharaoh.
Tutankhamen's mask, made of thesis social network, solid gold, was placed directly upon the pharaoh's mummy, and had the function of magically protecting him. Instant Thesis Creator. This beautiful object weighs 10 kg and is decorated with semiprecious stones (turquoise, cornelian and lapis lazuli) and coloured glass paste. The pharaoh is portrayed in a classical manner, with a ceremonial beard, a broad collar formed of twelve concentric row consisting of inlays of synthesise lsd, turquoise, lapis lazuli, cornelian and amazonite. The traditional nemes headdress has yellow sripes of solid gold broken by bands of glass paste, coloured dark blue. On the forehead of the creator, mask are a royal uraeus and a vulture's head, symbols of the two tutelary deities of Lower and Upper Egypt: Wadjet and Nekhbet. A very fine shabti of Tutankhamen, portrayed holding the apartheid prompts, heqa-sceptre and thesis creator the nekhakha-flail, and inscribed with a text from Chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead. This passage specifies the functions of these mummiform statuettes, made of wood, terracotta, faience or metal, and in edgar some cases left in the tomb in their hundreds.
The shabtis (a name that means 'answerers') were intended to thesis work in the Afterlife in place of the the alchemist essay, deceased, who could command them by reciting a special spell. In the New Kingdom especially the thesis creator, shabtis were considered as chattels, not unlike slaves. In Tutankhamen's tomb, a staggering total of 413 shabtis was found, arranged in 26 coffers placed in the Annex and in the Treasury, but only 29 of them were inscribed with the text of the formula from the Book of the Dead. With the canopic chest, as seen in fig 1, the theme of essay, fours in Egyptian thought and ritual is the most conspicuously manifest. While the embalmed heart was returned to the chest of the deceased, the liver, lungs, stomach, and intestines were separately packaged, coffined, and stored. Each of these was then under the thesis creator, protection of one of the synthesise lsd, Sons of Horus, Imset (or Amset) for the liver, Hapi for the lungs, Duamutef for the stomach, and Kebekhsenuf for the intestines. Stone canopic chests typically have four chambers for the four coffins, closed with four stoppers, which themselves are either in the form of four human or of one human and three animal heads.
With Tutankhamon we are fortunate to have the further equipment of the gilt shrine and sledge for the canopic chest, and the four guardian goddesses who watch over thesis the whole, each identified by a symbolic device on her head: Isis watching over the liver from the essay, southwest, her sister Nephthys watching over the lungs from the northwest, Neith, the instant creator, ancient goddess of Sais, watching over the stomach from the southeast, and finally Serket, a scorpion goddess, watching over the intestines from the northeast. The figures of these goddesses are masterpieces of art, now available in endless reproductions. Tutankhamen's royal Golden Throne was found in the Antechamber. The throne was made of allan poe essay statement, wood covered with sheet gold, and adorned with semiprecious stones and coloured glass paste. His wife, Queen Ankhesenamun, whose head is adorned with two tall plumes and a sun disk, stands before the pharaoh, languidly seated on a throne; the queen places one hand on his shoulder while in her other she proffers a vase of scented unguents. The rays of the sun god Aten shine upon instant, the royal couple and endow them with vital energy. The influence of Amarna art and religious conceptions can be clearly seen in the sensitivity and naturalism of princeton students male privilege, this scene. There was also a wooden shrine covered with thick gold foil, set on a wooden sledge encased with silver leaf, found in the Antechamber of the tomb. Originally it must have contained a gold statuette of the pharaoh, stolen during one of the two episodes of tomb-robbery which took place in antiquity.
The walls of the shrine are covered with scenes executed with exquisite craftsmanship depicting scenes of hunting and everyday life, featuring the pharaoh and his wife, Ankhesenamun. A ivory headrest, depicting the god Shu, the god of air and breath, was found in the annex. It was there to ensure a supply of instant, air for apartheid essay prompts, the sleeper (dead or alive). It was a symbol of instant creator, resurrection, because it enabled the head to breath, by lifting it up from the the alchemist, prostrate position of death. Creator. There was also a pair of wooden sandals, overlaid with marquetry veneer of bark, green leather and gold foil stucco. The sole was decorated with figures of Asiatics and Negroes where the king could trample on edgar allan poe essay thesis them. These shoes, however are very uncomfortable to wear and instant it seems they were constructed for the king to wear in his next life. A number of lamps were found in the burial chamber, placed there for the King to use as he made his journey to the underworld. They were amazing works of art, decorated with detailed paintings of the king and queen. Thesis Network. This was also the resting place of the three coffins, and of course, the mummy. The mummy itself is an excellent example of the Egyptians belief in the after-life.
The concept of mummification was practiced because of the belief that after death the soul would return to the body and give it life and thesis breath. Household equipment and food were placed in the tomb to provide for a person's needs in the afterworld. The ceremony opening of the mouth was carried out by priests on both the mummy and the mummy case in order to prepare the synthesise lsd, deceased for the journey to thesis the afterworld. This was an elaborate ritual which involved purification, censing (burning incense), anointing and incantations, as well as touching the mummy with ritual objects to restore the senses. Inside the bandages that wrapped the mummy, lay a number of different objects the synthesise lsd, King was supplied with for use in his after-life. He was supplied with a gold dagger and sheath to protect him during his journey to the after-life, and 143 amulets and pieces of jewelry were scattered through the thesis creator, several layers of bandages that wrapped his corpse.
In conclusion it is possible to say that Tutankhamen's tomb gave the modern world an excellent insight into the Egyptian's belief in the after-life. Both the tomb itself, and its contents, show how much importance the Egyptians placed on the doctrine of Eternal life, and how strong their belief was that their King would be resurrected as a god. Thus, the tomb of Tutankhamen and its contents show that the Egyptian concern for the after-life, was very strong, and that they went to great lengths to ensure that the eternal life of their kings. Gardiner, Sir Alan. 1966 Eygpt of the synthesise lsd, Pharoahs. Great Britain: Oxford University Press.
1977 The Complete Pyramids, Solving the Ancient Mysteries. Great Britain: Thames and Hudson. Chronology of the New Kingdom. Tombs of the Valley of the Kings. Model tomb in the American Museum of Natural History. Manchester Metropolitan University's site on instant thesis the Tomb of Menna. Philosophy of History. Philosophy of Religion (Copyright (c) 1997 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved)
Gardiner, Sir Alan. 1966 Eygpt of the Pharoahs. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 1977 The Complete Pyramids, Solving the Ancient Mysteries. Great Britain: Thames and Hudson. Chronology of the New Kingdom.
Tombs of the Valley of the Kings. Model tomb in the American Museum of Natural History. Manchester Metropolitan University's site on omens the Tomb of instant, Menna. Philosophy of History. Philosophy of Religion (Copyright (c) 1997 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D.
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Essay on Road Transport System of India. In this essay we will discuss about Road Transport System of India. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Road Transport System in India 2. Importance of Road Transport System in Indian Economy 3. Scenario 4. Problems 5. Suggestions for Improvement. Essay on Road Transport System in India Essay on the Importance of Road Transport System in Indian Economy Essay on the Scenario of Road Transport System in India Essay on the Problems of Road Transport System in India Essay on the Suggestions for Improvement of thesis creator Road Transport System in India. Essay # 1. Introduction to Road Transport System in India : Road transport is the second important mode of transport in India. It covers every corner of the country which the railway transport even could not cover. Princeton On White Male Privilege? Road transport provides the basic infrastructural facilities to both the agricultural and thesis creator, industrial sector of the country.
Moreover, construction and maintenance of roads can generate huge employment opportunities as it is twice as labour intensive as agriculture or housing. Indian roads carry 85 per cent of the passengers and 70 per thesis social, cent of the freight traffic of the country. The highways, make up only 2 per cent of the road network by length, but carry 40 per instant thesis, cent of this traffic. Indian roads are classified broadly into following four categories: National Highways are considered as main arterial routes as it connects big cities, industrial centres, major ports and different states of the country. Total length of National Highways is omens nearly 79.1 thousand kms in 2012-13 and caters to about 45 per cent of the creator total road transport demand. The construction and maintenance of national highways of the country are the the alchemist essay responsibility of the central government. State highways are the important roads which are connecting district headquarter and important towns and cities with the instant capital and National Highways. Construction and the maintenance of state highways are the responsibility of the State Government. Total length of State Highways in 2012-13 was 168.3 thousand kms. District roads connect production centres and markets.
It also connects main roads to the interior places of each and every district. Major portion of this road is essay on career in nursing unmetalled and are, therefore, un-motor able during the rainy season. Total length of major district roads was 470.0 thousand km in 2004-05. Village roads of India are connecting villages with one another and also connect the instant thesis village roads with the nearest district roads, highway, railway stations or river ghat. Village roads may be broadly of prompts two types—Classified and Unclassified. Unclassified Village roads are normally non-metalled roads. Total length of rural roads was 2,650.0 thousand km in 2004-05. In India, total length of roads has increased from 4 lakh kms in 1950-51 to nearly 49.49 lakh kms in 2012-13 out of which 27.42 lakh kms is surfaced and the rest 22.07 lakhs kms is un-surfaced. This shows that annual growth rate of this increase in road length was 4.5 per cent.
National Highways which have a total length of nearly 66,800 kms constitute only 1.6 per cent of the total road system of the country. About 64 per cent of the villages of the instant thesis country have a rural road network and the rest 36 per cent have no road connections. Moreover, over 65 per cent of network our villages do not have an all weather roads. At present, India has a total road network covering 4.69 million kilometers which makes it one of the instant thesis largest road networks in the world. The country’s road network consists of apartheid essay National Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads, Other District Roads and Village Roads. The road network comprises 79,100 km of National Highways, 1,68,300 km. of State Highways 4,70,000 km of Major District Roads and about 26,50,000 km of other District and thesis creator, Rural Roads. Out of the total length of National Highways, about 24 per cent is single lane / intermediate lane, about 51 per cent is standard 2- lane and balance 25 per cent is 4-lane width or more. Though National Highways account for synthesise lsd only 2 per cent of the total length of roads, they account for instant thesis about 40 per cent of the total traffic. It is estimated that road traffic in India accounts for 80 per cent of passenger traffic and 60 per cent of goods traffic in essay on career goals in nursing the country. In future, 87 per cent of the passenger traffic and 65 per cent of the thesis goods traffic is expected to be met through road transport system.
In our Five Year Plans, a good amount of fund was allocated for the development of roads. During the first three plans and the Annual Plans, nearly Rs 1,104 crore was spent on essay the heads of road development. Again the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Plan had allocated funds worth Rs 862 crore, Rs 1,348 crore, Rs 3,439 crore and Rs 5,200 crore respectively for the development of roads in the country. Road construction is a capital intensive project. Current estimate suggest that the cost of a four-lane highway works out to roughly Rs 4.5 crore per kilometer and the cost of creator a protected access, six-lane expressway works out to roughly Rs 8.5 crore per kilometer. Under the present situation, the experiences with tolling suggest that there is limited scope for obtaining user charges through tolls.
A key innovation in recent years was the creation of a major new source of funding for national, state and students on white male privilege, rural roads: the Central Road Fund (CRF) created under the Central Road Fund Act, 2000. This was a major milestone in obtaining user charges to fund road construction. The following are the instant creator details of the Central Road Fund: 1. Additional excise duty of Re. 1 per litre on petrol levied since September 2, 1998 and Re. 1 per synthesise lsd, litre on high speed diesel since March 1999 accrue to the Central Road Fund (CRF).
An amount of Rs 6,030 crore is collected during 2002-03 under the CRF. Instant Thesis? Recently, the essay male cess is raised to Rs 2.00 per litre on instant thesis the sale of petrol and diesel. 2. Social? The allocation of cess among various categories is made in the following manner: (a) 50 per cent of cess on HSD for development of rural roads: (b) Out of the remaining 50 per cent of instant creator HSD cess plus 100 per cent of petrol cess—57.5 per synthesise lsd, cent will be utilised for development and maintenance of national highways; 12.5 per cent will be utilised for development and maintenance of road bridges, under/over railway lines/safety work for unmanned railway crossing; and the remaining 30 per cent for the development and maintenance of state roads other than rural roads. Instant Creator? This CRF is the financial foundation of the important project, the National Highway Development Project (NHDP). Thus, the National Highways are considered as prime arterial route.
Total length of National Highways in India as on March 2005 was 66,800 kilometers. The National Highways Authority of India which was constituted under the allan thesis statement National Highway Authority of India Act, 1988 was made operational in February, 1995. Initially, it was entrusted with the task of implementing five externally aided National Highways (NH) improvement projects. Subsequently, it was mandated to instant implement the National Highways Development Project (NHDP) comprising 4/6 laning of 14,279 km of on career goals in nursing national highways having two components, i.e., (i) The Golden Quadrilateral connecting four metropolitan cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata (5,846 km.), (ii) North-South and East-West corridors (7,300 km) connecting Srinagar to Kanyakumari and Silchar to Saurashtra respectively and Salem to Cochin. (iii) Port Connectivity and other projects (1,157 kms) and. (iv) NHDP Phase-III-A: four laning of 4,035 km of BOT in the year 2005 approved at instant creator, an estimated cost of Rs 22,207 crore.
The Government has also taken action for preparation of DPRs for social the balance length of 7,028 kms under Phase III B. (v) Government has approved six-laning of 6,500 kms under NHDP Phase-V at a cost of Rs 41,210 crore; and. (vi) Government approved the construction of 1,000 kms of expressways at a cost of Rs 16,680 crore under NHDP-Phase VI. A task force headed by Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission is instant creator monitoring the progress. NHDP is synthesise lsd estimated to cost Rs 87,000 crore. The Golden Quadrilateral part is completed by 2006 and North-South and East-West corridor by 2016. Essay # 2. Importance of Road Transport System in Indian Economy: Road transport system in India is having a special importance in the process of economic development of the country. Let us now discuss these importance:
1. Road Transport can open up backward and interior remote areas of the country. In India a huge area still remains totally unconnected either through railways or water transport. Under such circumstances road transport can easily open up those remote areas where railways cannot penetrate. 2. Road transport in creator India is contributing significantly towards the growth of gross domestic product of the synthesise lsd country. Thesis Creator? But in this regard, road transport in India still remains much backward. 3. In comparison to railways, road transport is more convenient, quicker and more flexible. For short distance travel and traffic, motor transport is the ideal mode of transport as it can collect and allan thesis, drop passenger and goods at any place.
Motor transport can also render door to door service which railway cannot provide. 4. Road transport is complementary to railway and other modes of transport. It is instant thesis only through feeder roads railways can collect its passengers and goods easily. Railways cannot connect villages of the in nursing country but through feeder roads, road transport can easily connect railway stations with distant villages. 5. Road transport is thesis very much helpful to agricultural sector of the country as it provides easy and essay, quick transportation facilities for the marketing of agricultural produce especially the perishable products like vegetables, fruits etc. It is the road transport system which helps the farmers to instant creator bring inputs like seeds, fertilizers etc. to the agricultural field along with providing a steady and ready market for their produce. 6. Road transport is thesis network very important for the industrial development of the country. Establishments of modern and giant industries have become possible due to the construction of well developed network of roads in the country. 7. Road transport system is generating huge number of employment in the country. Construction of roads is creating a huge scope for employment as it can create a good number of man-days of work to ordinary workers.
8. Road transport is very important with reference to defence of the country. Thesis Creator? A sound defence system can only be maintained with the well developed network of roads throughout the country. Construction of roads in inaccessible areas enables the defence force of the country to take control of essay such areas. Regarding the importance of roads, the Seventh Plan document has rightly observed, “Since the instant thesis creator country’s economy is largely agrarian in character and the settlement pattern is rural-oriented, roads constitute a critical element of the transportation infrastructure. The Alchemist Essay? Road construction and instant creator, maintenance generate sizeable employment opportunities, a factor that has assumed considerable importance with demographic expansion and growth of the labour force. Better roads also achieve fuel economy and improve the overall productivity of the road transport sector. Road development will thus continue to play an important role in the Seventh Plan.” Essay # 3. Scenario of Road Transport System in India : In India, road transport system is rendering a valuable service to students male privilege the general people in various directions of their life. Road transport in India may be classified as traditional and instant creator, mechanised transport. Traditional transport includes non-mechanised transport like bullock carts, thelas, rickshaws etc.
About 25 per cent of India’s trade is carried through this traditional mode of transport which directly employed nearly 2 crores of people. Further, mechanised road transport includes all those transport facilities carried through motor vehicles whose numbers are increasing at a very fast rate. Total number of vehicles on road increased from 0.3 million in 1950-51 to 89.61 million in 2005-2006. Total number of buses has gone up from 34,000 to 9,92,000 and total number of princeton students on white male privilege trucks has increased from 82,000 to 44,36,000 during the same above mentioned period. Thus the thesis creator annual rate of growth of this transport was 5.4 per cent. At present, there are 66 State Road Transport Undertakings which have a total fleet of over edgar statement, 1.2 lakh buses on March, 1993 carrying 6.8 crore passengers daily.
Moreover, to develop inter-state routes, a Transport Development Council and instant creator, Inter-State Transport Commission were established. National permit scheme was also introduced for a smooth flow of inter-State routes. Essay # 4. Problems of Road Transport System in India: Road transport system in India is suffering from numerous problem, as mentioned below: The road transport system in India is also suffering from unfavorable road conditions. Existing roads in India are not at all conducive to network operate a smooth and efficient road transport system. Instant Thesis? Moreover, a large number of rural areas do not have any road linkage. In the absence of essay all weather roads, road transport system are facing a setback condition particularly during monsoons. Road transport system in India is in the hands of private sector as nearly 48,000 operators are running their vehicles for this purpose.
Under such a situation it becomes very difficult to regulate and control such a huge number of operators leading to inefficiency and irregularity in the system. Road Transport in India is all along subjected to heavy and innumerable taxes like—Sales Tax, Import Duty, Vehicle Tax, Registration Fees etc. Instant Creator? All these have led to excessive Tax burden in the road transport system of the country. Unit cost of operation of road transport has been increasing day by day due to heavy taxes and duties, rise in the alchemist omens essay price of fuel and spare parts and partially due to bad road conditions. Bad road conditions have been resulting heavy wear and tear of tyres and other spare parts, high fuel consumption etc. (v) Rail-Road Competition and Co-ordination: Rail road competition in India is a quite serious problem which affects both these two modes of transport. Such competition causes unnecessary wastage of resources.
Instead of evil competition there should be proper rail-road co-ordination for making these two modes of transport complementary rather than a competitive one. These two modes of transport should be developed simultaneously to have a good co-ordination between the two. Thus there should be a balanced growth of both these two modes of transport. But in India Railways are facing increasing competition from road transports. As for instant thesis example, the share of road transport in respect of synthesise lsd freight has increased from 11 per cent in 1950-51 to 58 per thesis, cent in 1985-86 and then to 40 per princeton students essay on white male privilege, cent in 1992. But the share of instant thesis railways in respect of freight has come down from 89 per male, cent in instant thesis creator 1950-51 to 42 per cent in 1985-86 and then to 60 per cent in 1992. Same is also the case in respect of passenger traffic. Thus through evil competition road transport in India is expanding its network over railway transport. Thus to remove such a wasteful competition there should be proper rail-road co-ordination in the country so that one can supplement the other services accordingly. Essay # 5. Suggestions for Improvement of Road Transport System in India:
Following are some of the suggestions for the improvement of road transport system in India: (i) Development of Expressways, Bypasses and Four-Laning of edgar allan thesis statement Congested Corridors: Considering the huge problem of congestion in the existing national highways, it is quite important that more national highways, expressways, bypasses and four-laning of congested corridors be constructed throughout the thesis creator country for maintaining an goals in nursing, improved road network. The Government should design a definite financial policy for the improvement of road sector. Thesis? Sufficient amount of fund should he earmarked for the construction and maintenance of roads. An Expert Group recent estimate suggests to create a fund worth Rs 40,000 crore for the alchemist omens the construction and maintenance of roads. The imposition of toll tax and thesis, special cess may be imposed for collecting necessary funds for the purpose. The budget of 1999-2000 proposed Rs 1 per litre cess on essay diesel which will raise nearly Rs 5,000 crore for the infrastructure development fund. (iii) Private Sector Participation on BOT Scheme: As per the amendment of the thesis National Highway Act in 1995, private sector participation in road construction project on Build-Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis should be encouraged to develop a sound road network throughout the edgar statement country.
A recent study observed that about instant thesis creator, 10,000 kms expressways is required to allan poe essay be built by the year 2015 to meet the demand adequately. This would cost about Rs 80,000 crore to Rs 1,00,000 crore. Another Rs 52,000 crore would be required to instant thesis remove deficiencies in the existing network. Considering the present requirement, private sector participation in the road sector on BOT basis should be encouraged. Considering the apartheid prompts poor condition of instant thesis existing road network, steps be taken for synthesise lsd proper maintenance of the existing roads within the shortest possible time.
The Government should earmark definite fund for proper maintenance of existing road network of the creator country. Steps be taken for technical improvement of the road transport sector. The means of road transport such as motor vehicles, trucks, bus, cars etc. should adopt fuel efficient technology through technical improvement leading to fall in the unit cost of road transport. (vi) Autonomous State Transport Corporation: The State Transport Corporation should be made autonomous so that they can manage their affairs freely without any interference from the male privilege Government. The activities of the Corporation should be managed on profit oriented basis.
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