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To give us a jump start on making our ideas work, I'm reprinting thesis QAs from year before last, when Hamlet was also a subject for the black tie essay. Please sort through the questions to see if any resemble yours, then scan the answers for sources of help, refinement, course-correction, etc. Essay. Other than Michelle Dingsun#8217;s and Sam Engle#8217;s (I looked at theirs and talked with both students way back when we had school), all thesis statements from those who submitted them are listed below with my responses, many of which are far more substantial than I had at lyric essays, first intended. I was going to e-mail these separately#8212;then I got the inspiration to post everything so that the thinking of these students and my thinking would be available to everyone. My hope is that there is some sort of answer or guidance to be found below for all of you. Many of the issues that we#8217;ve considered or that lend themselves to essay analysis are raised and topics, so I#8217;ve found that I have written a sort of patchwork essay of my own on Hamlet. Mathematical Starting E. I#8217;ve also been careful to cite the essay topics text wherever necessary as an example of what you can and with, should do. Different Topics. As I write now, the snow has risen above a foot in my neighborhood. It makes last week#8217;s weather, which was enough to suspend school, look pitiful. Well, I hope you enjoyed the added vacation and I hope you are rollicking in the snow while it lasts. To quote that noted thinker and philosopher, Santa Claus, #8220;Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night!#8221; Hamlet#8217;s view on women is based upon ap psychology, his sole judgment on his mother Gertrude and the woman he once loved, Ophelia.

His dismal view on women is founded upon his ill experiences with these two women and helps to different, solidify the hatred shown by Hamlet towards women illuminating the statements about sort of society women lived in during that time period. Topics. I#8217;m afraid I don#8217;t like your thesis proposal very much. It#8217;ll get you into trouble. Lyric Essays. For one, Ophelia is the primary victim of Hamlet#8217;s poisoned view of women, and so hardly responsible for his skewed opinion of womankind. Her situation is different topics, complicated, moreover, because she has a father who is fond of espionage, as Hamlet undoubtedly knows. Polonius does in fact set Ophelia out as bait for ap psychology exam essay the prince, and any suspicion Hamlet has that she is different topics, acting on someone else#8217;s behalf makes things worse for her. I don#8217;t think it#8217;s a good idea to attempt to draw conclusions about the women of #8220;that time period.#8221; You don#8217;t know enough about Shakespeare#8217;s time and exam, society, and anyway that#8217;s exactly the sort of phrase you should quit using in your essays. If you want to different topics, examine this aspect of Hamlet, I think you must concentrate upon Gertrude as the source of narrative about, his misogyny, and perhaps as the essay catalyst for his disillusionment with people in general. He finds wherever he turns that people are not as they seem, starting with his own mother. When first we meet him, he is depressed to the point of suicide and disgusted with the world in general: #8220;#8230;#8216;tis an unweeded garden, / That grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature / Possess it merely#8230;#8221; His disillusionment is an lyric essays, important factor in his subsequent behavior#8212;from behind his #8220;antic#8221; mask he pokes fun at essay topics, the pretenses of people like Polonius and mathematical terms e, Claudius, whom he sees as cynical manipulators, and Ophelia, whom he decides is too easily manipulated and thus false to her true feelings. See what you can develop in that direction.

Thesis: Hamlet#8217;s madness is a cleverly disguised persona that he puts on to carry out his rage and ultimately avenge his father#8217;s death. My essay will be all about Hamlet#8217;s madness, and how he isn#8217;t as mad as he seems, but actually just more full of rage. I#8217;ll also maybe compare it to different essay, ophelias madness, which I think is true madness, and show how the wow install two differ. You must think more specifically. Different Essay Topics. Hamlet himself tells Horatio that Hamlet#8217;s friends should not be surprised no matter #8220;How strange or odd soe#8217;er I bear myself, / As I perchance hereafter shall think meet / To put an antic disposition on#8230;,#8221; nor should they breathe a word to anyone that his madness is anything but genuine. Comparing Ophelia#8217;s genuine madness with Hamlet#8217;s #8220;antic disposition#8221; could be more fruitful, provided you have a clear purpose. If you can argue for Hamlet#8217;s strategy in difference between and research paper finding the truth under an assumed madness, and perhaps show that, once he adopts that mask and is drawn into the quest for different essay topics revenge he really does snap the night of the play, when he unmasks Claudius but kills Polonius. His wild action provokes Ophelia#8217;s madness (Hamlet, the one she loves, not only treats her harshly and cynically, but is responsible for her father#8217;s death), you might have something.

After all, he uses madness as an excuse in starting with e his final apology to Ophelia#8217;s brother Laertes#8212;and we can almost believe that Hamlet is momentarily overcome by passion when he leaps into Ophelia#8217;s grave to essay topics, fight with her brother over who loved her the most. Reagan. His credentials for being the topics most aggrieved, at that point, are suspect to say the least. Consider these things, then, as you build a stronger thesis. Ophelia is only a pawn in the struggle between the men of the thesis statements about court, manipulated by them all to different topics, achieve their own ends. I think you can write a good essay that focuses upon Ophelia, but you#8217;ll need a more definitive thesis than you presently have. Re-read her first scene, in which Laertes, then Polonius, both lecture her about lyric essays, Hamlet#8217;s #8220;true#8221; intentions. Then look at topics, the first scene of Act II, in which Polonius sets Reynaldo to exam essay, spy on Laertes in different topics Paris. He makes it clear that he expects some misbehavior, of much the difference between and research same sort that Laertes promises his sister he won#8217;t do.

In his advice to different, his sister, Laertes is nearly as pompous, and certainly as judgmental, as his father Polonius#8212;just more loving and less harsh. The double standard is impossible to miss, though. We see later that Polonius is willing to use Ophelia as bait with which to probe Hamlet, and that Hamlet uses her quite roughly (but that is a separate issue that you must clearly deal with as such). A young woman of marriageable age was not to be anywhere public without an escort, and so Polonius provides his daughter with a book#8212;not much of difference between manuscript, a substitute for her father, for example. We can see that Ophelia, once she severs her ties with Hamlet, has no confidante. You might find a point of connection with Marlow#8217;s recommendation that women be kept in different blissful oblivion when it comes to thesis statements reagan, the ugly matters of men and their arena of action. He lies to #8220;the Intended#8221; to keep her in that state. See what you can do, Here are some (rough) thesis ideas for different essay my Hamlet paper: · It is in Hamlet#8217;s soliloquies that his true character is most easily seen. Thesis. · If not for his mother#8217;s hasty marriage to his uncle, Hamlet would likely not view all women with such distaste.

· Gertrude plays a much more important role than she is different, given credit for. Lyric Essays. · It is quite possible that Shakespeare based Hamlet off of the Garden of Eden and what took place there. Shea Meisner (ap lit, per different topics, 1) Your ideas are interesting. I#8217;m not sure they belong all in narrative essay about a new language one thesis, but they are not incompatible. You can sort the soliloquies by their theme: #1 #8220;O that this too too sullied flesh#8230;#8221;Hamlet, clearly depressed, expresses his disgust with the world and topics, particularly his mother#8217;s weakness, as well as his consideration of suicide, which continues in difference between #3. Yes, here he says, #8220;Frailty, thy name is woman#8221; and much of his subsequent treatment of Ophelia is topics, clearly warped by the trauma of what he perceives as his mother#8217;s betrayal. #2 #8220;O what a rogue and statements about ronald, peasant slave am I#8230;#8221; After witnessing the passionate impromptu performance of the player, who brings himself to different essay, tears, mingled disappointment and anger directed toward Hamlet himself for his own weaknesses as a #8220;swift avenger.#8221; Then inspiration: his resolve to use his doctored play #8220;to catch the conscience of the king.#8221; Thus this is a more positive reflection that results in the sort of action at which Hamlet excels. #3 #8220;To be or not to be#8230;#8221; I see this Hamlet turning away from action to thesis statements about reagan, reflect on the world in which he dwells (and all of us dwell), and I think it is in some way related to his imprecation at the end of Act I: #8220;The time is out of joint: o cursed spite, / That ever I was born to set it right!#8221; He is an introvert, and perhaps not ideally suited to revenge, as say Fortinbras might be.

He ranges over nearly all the frustrations of human existence and different, considers the afterlife. Narrative Essay Language. This is sort of the calm eye of the storm, in which Hamlet questions the different point of existence. #4 #8220;How all occasions do inform against me#8230;#8221; This one is related to #2, as Hamlet sees Fortinbras coming across Denmark on narrative essay learning, his way to make war in different essay topics Poland #8220;to gain a little patch of lyric essays, ground / That hath in it no profit but the name.#8221; Now he considers what honor is worth#8212;everything, he decides. Hamlet now seems to different essay topics, believe that he should be more like Fortinbras: make his thoughts #8220;bloody or else nothing worth.#8221; I think you should also look at his final statement to Horatio, in which his mood, though fatalistic, is serene. He no longer chastises himself or seeks a way out, and he even paraphrases the Bible: #8220;there#8217;s a special providence in the fall of between manuscript and research, a sparrow.#8221; Maybe his tussle with Laertes in different essay Ophelia#8217;s grave and his cathartic confrontation with Gertrude have together purged him of his inner rage and conflict? That idea, if you develop it, might tie your analysis of questions, Hamlet#8217;s development seen through his soliloquies to your Gertrude/womankind idea. As far as the different #8220;Garden of difference paper, Eden#8221; theme goes, that#8217;s probably material for a separate essay, and a rather technical one that seeks to find parallels and allusions. Very tricky#8212;I#8217;d avoid it (and by the way: the expression is not #8220;based off of#8221; but #8220;based on#8221; or #8220;based upon#8221;). Different Topics. I hope this is helpful. I have a pretty uh interesting thesis statement that many people might disagree with.

Should I scape it all together and start a new thesis with a brand new essay? My thesis statement: Hamlet cannot handle the truth regarding his father#8217;s murder. His grief and sense of betrayal possess him and he becomes a man with a blurred sense of justice. Wow Install. Hamlet#8217;s wretched state is more caused by Gertrude#8217;s betrayal, than his father#8217;s murder. Different Essay. I think your idea could work, provided you structure your thesis properly. Right now you have the idea only. Think about some of these things: Hamlet#8217;s sense of his mother#8217;s betrayal he clearly expresses in his #8220;O that this too too sullied flesh#8230;#8221; soliloquy.

We learn that he is thesis, disenchanted not only with his mother, but with the topics world in general: #8220;How weary, stale, flat and ap psychology, unprofitable, / Seem to me all the different topics uses of this world! / Fie on#8217;t! ah fie! #8216;tis an unweeded garden, / That grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature / Possess it merely#8230;#8221; Remember his standards are very high#8212;he is an idealist who sees cynical behavior (Claudius, Polonius, etc.) all around him and can#8217;t abide it. Manuscript Paper. Hamlet sees Claudius and all who resemble him as the enemy, and now Hamlet#8217;s mother has joined them! I don#8217;t really think his sense of justice becomes blurred (if anything it is different essay, so highly developed that any injustice offends him to the core) #8212;but his view of difference between and research, womankind is essay topics, certainly distorted, and this clearly arises from his feelings about Gertrude. The way his mood and resolve lift when Horatio tells him of the ghost that resembles Hamlet, Sr. Narrative Learning A New Language. (no more thoughts of suicide for a while at least) supports your idea. The Ghost gives him concrete action#8212;revenge#8212;to take, and tells Hamlet that Claudius is essay, a murderer who committed the sin of Cain.

It#8217;s just that, as soon as he has time to resume, pause and reflect, he realizes what a terrible responsibility he now carries: see my note to Shea about topics, Soliloquy #3. Resume Wow Install. The world appears an different essay, even worse place than before, with treachery everywhere and no solution but to kill, to be killed, or to kill onself#8212;and then there may still be no escape from the agony of existence (#8220;#8230;what dreams may come, / when we have shuffled off this mortal coil, / must give us pause#8230;). Statements. There is thus no end to calamity, he decides, and the responsibility is different, all ours. He#8217;s quite an existential prince. On the whole, his mother#8217;s defection appears to be the catalyst that turns a young man I assume (from his banter with Horatio and later with Rosencrantz Guildenstern, and his love for Ophelia) to have been an utterly witty, charming and brilliant Renaissance prince into a man whose humor is expressed through bitter irony and who must hide his inmost feelings from everyone.

Well, I hope there#8217;s something in all this you can make use of. Lyric Essays. Sorry for the delay but I was foolishly under the assumption for most of this weekend that I could put away my thesis statement since you#8217;d looked at it once already. I didn#8217;t realize until only just now that I needed to revise it, so I#8217;ve printed my revised version here now, for posterity: Women occupy an important role in William Shakespeare#8217;s play Hamlet, as their presence in the story reveals aspects of the essay topics title character that could not otherwise be glimpsed. After all, it is only in the company of his mother Gertrude that Hamlet makes evident his absolute, god-like reverence for his father and reveals his distorted notions of spousal loyalty; it is resume, also only in the company of his adored Ophelia that he exposes his warped perception of different essay topics, women, of thesis statements ronald reagan, their position in society and the duties he feels they ought to serve. It is essay topics, among the and research paper play#8217;s female characters that Hamlet is topics, most emotional, that he is most vulnerable, and it is through his interaction with them that Hamlet offers a window through which can be observed his slow, tragic undoing. Please reply back with thoughts/further edits if possible! And please let me know if I got credit for showing you my original thesis statement! Thanks! Enjoy the snow! You might also note that Hamlet admits faults of his own to difference between and research paper, Ophelia in that bitter confrontation. Yes, those two scenes are, next to the soliloquies, perhaps the most revealing of Hamlet#8217;s complex nature and outlook than any others.

I don#8217;t like your expression #8220;distorted notions of spousal loyalty,#8221; though. That sounds like an unsubstantiated value judgment. In that first court scene, when Claudius introduces Gertrude formally to the court as #8220;our sometime sister, now our queen,#8221; Hamlet, Sr. Essay. has been dead less than two months, as Hamlet, Jr. Lyric Essays. tells us: A little month, or ere those shoes were old. With which she follow#8217;d my poor father#8217;s body, Like Niobe, all tears:#8212;why she, even she#8212; O, God! a beast, that wants discourse of reason, Would have mourn#8217;d longer#8212;married with my uncle, My father#8217;s brother, but no more like my father. Than I to Hercules#8230; And to Hamlet, Claudius stands for everything he despises, so Gertrude has, as I observe to Meiying, betrayed more than her love for her son and essay, her former husband. I don#8217;t think many of us, in similar circumstances, would feel less than does Hamlet, though we would express our feelings less elegantly. Your basic idea is ap psychology exam essay questions, promising, as long as you are specific about different essay topics, what you believe constitutes Hamlet#8217;s #8220;slow, tragic undoing.#8221; Maybe keep in mind the difference and research paper Aristotelian notion that tragedy encompasses the topics fall of essay questions, a great man and the grief and destruction that is a part of it.#8221; Hamlet seems to different topics, know, in his last speech to Horatio, that he is heading that way, has always been heading that way since the news of his father#8217;s death, and terms starting with e, #8220;If it be now, #8216;tis not to topics, come; if it be not to come, it will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come: the mathematical with e readiness is all.#8221; I#8217;ve been trying to form my thesis for my Hamlet essay but so far I have been unable to get a good concise idea to work off of. I was contemplating writing about gertrude; i don#8217;t think she was truly in love with Hamlet senior and I think that she married Claudious out of duty, i was going to defend this position by discrediting Hamlets observations of her by the fact that a mother especially a queen must keep a certain attitude of everything being alright to their children and if she was having marital issues she wouldnt have told him, especially since Hamlet idolizes his father. Different Essay Topics. I was also going to difference and research, use gertrude#8217;s optimism toward ophelia and Hamlet to show that she wanted them to have true love because as a mother she would want for her son what she was never able to have or what she was robbed of because of her position.

I was also looking at writing about the essay nature of revenge and why it doesnt work and the consquences of mathematical starting e, Hamlet seaking revenge. Essay. I was thinking about discussing why Hamlet felt the need to seek revenge despite the fact that he is obviously not a murderer and didnt want to be one. He was trying to wow install, fill the role society hat set before him and act how he believed princes were supposed to act#8212; similiarly to how pip acted how he thought a gentleman should act. Im not sure of either of essay, these ideas could bear to narrative learning a new language, fruit in an essay and I was wondering if you thought there was potential or if I should look for something else. Also I feel most of my ideas are coming from the essays we#8217;ve read on Hamlet, and since you said you had some others we could read I was wondering if you get send me the titles and authors so I can look them up online. Thanks so much, I would have just asked you this at school but I didnt want to delay my essay since it looks like more bad weather for the next few days. I think there is a lot of evidence tucked away between the lines of Hamlet that Gertrude was an unhappy queen and that Claudius is, ironically, a better husband to her than the elder Hamlet was. If they lived near Tanasbourne circa 2008, a quick divorce and remarriage might have been in the cards, with young Hamlet disgruntled and different essay, maybe even depressed but hardly required to revenge papa, and full permission to return to his studies in Palo Alto. Claudius strikes me as a king who likes to stay around the castle and enjoy life, while employing his political savvy through delegates to keep everything in tip-top order around Denmark. The problem is: Claudius murdered Hamlet, Sr., and gained the throne and his queen in criminal fashion. Regicide and fraticide all in one!

Shakespeare was highly concerned with the natural order of humankind, under which the king served on earth as God#8217;s designated representative. Lyric Essays. It is because of essay, Claudius#8217;s heinous act that #8220;there is something rotten in the state of Denmark.#8221; Gertrude doesn#8217;t know that, of with e, course. Even Hamlet accepts her stunned reaction as clear evidence of her innocence on that score. Still, we have Hamlet#8217;s view of his father as the incarnation of Hyperion, and different essay topics, his hateful attitude toward mom#8217;s new husband that was poisonous even before Claudius poisoned Hamlet the elder. Ap Psychology Exam. Note his fearful, even guilty response to the Ghost when it appears only to different essay topics, him in Gertrude#8217;s chamber, Act III: #8220;Do you not come your tardy son to chide, That, lapsed in lyric essays time and topics, passion, lets go by. The important acting of your dread command? O, say!#8221; He sounds a bit like a son who has failed to please his father, or to measure up to his father#8217;s expectations (there#8217;s even a hint that this apparition of the Ghost could be a figment of lyric essays, Hamlet#8217;s imagination). Hamlet the elder appears to different topics, have been a fairly grim sort, who was comfortable in resume wow install a suit of armor waging war on his neighbors, as when he #8220;smote the sledded Polacks on the ice.#8221; There is much description of him and his legacy among the men on the parapet in the first scene of Act I. Take a look. Different Essay Topics. Hamlet#8217;s own words regarding his father also are important. Hamlet seems not to value his own attainments when he considers his father#8217;s greatness.

For example, he almost classes himself with the despised Claudius when he says his uncle is no more comparable to wow install, Hamlet#8217;s father #8220;than I to Hercules.#8221; I say that because I believe Hamlet would compare his father favorably to Hercules (definitely smarter, but so is most everyone). If you take Carolyn Heilbrun#8217;s favorable assessment of Gertrude#8217;s way with words as valid (I do), I think you could by extension argue that Hamlet, the brilliant and incisive wit of Elsinore, is more an intellectual and spiritual product of his mother than of his father. Different Essay. Thus, when Hamlet compares himself unfavorably to Fortinbras (IV, iv), he implies that Fortinbras is more the sort of princely offspring one would imagine as the heir to Hamlet the elder#8212;and, of course, that is how our drama turns out! Don#8217;t be afraid to use the ideas of others (Heilbrun, for example) in support of yours. As far as essays on thesis about ronald reagan, Hamlet go, you#8217;ll have a tough time getting any relatively recent ones online. I could suggest a few of the essays in the Norton Critical edition of Hamlet if you like. But think of Hamlet as perhaps the Renaissance philosopher and artist prince (note his easy relations with the players) and essay topics, his father as more of a Medieval warrior king.

And trust your instincts, too. i#8217;m really struggling with my thesis ( as always) , you#8217;re thoughts would be very much appreciated. I apologize for my tardiness, my diligence in manuscript and research checking the blog has been lacking. Shame on me. But if you could give me some help, that#8217;d be great. I was considering focusing on different topics, death as a theme throughout he story, specifically suicide. I was hoping to discuss it with you in narrative essay learning a new language class on essay, Monday, but that#8217;s clearly impossible. U, would it be possible, do you think, to resume wow install, focus on suicide with regard to the different approaches to it? Namely Hamlet#8217;s and Ophelia#8217;s opposite topics, opinions and how that accentuates their characters individually? I#8217;m not sure there#8217;s enough material in this. Perhaps something like this. Suicide, as a central theme of HAMLET, is used by ap psychology essay, Shakespeare to accentuate the essay topics individual attitudes and personal struggles of his main characters as well as draw attention to the intensity of their suffering.

Your assistance would be much appreciated! If you wish to write about Hamlet and suicide, I don#8217;t think you#8217;re going to find any of difference and research, Ophelia#8217;s opinions on the matter. Her genuine madness is understandable: Hamlet, the essay one she loves, not only rejects her harshly and cynically, but is carelessly murders her father. She goes mad and difference manuscript paper, drowns, without getting her thoughts down on paper. Hamlet, on the other hand, has much to different essay topics, say on the matter. His assumed madness is at least in part a response to the #8220;seeming world#8221; around him; through the madness he can meet the #8220;seemers#8221; on his own terms. But he also takes up the idea of suicide at least twice in ap psychology exam essay questions his soliloquies, when he examines the deepest recesses of his conscience. His mother#8217;s lack of fidelity has triggered a disgust for the world in general.

He tries to different, express some of this disgust to his old school chums Rosencrantz Guildenstern in his Act II speech#8212;#8220; I have of late#8212;but wherefore I know not#8212;lost all my mirth, forgone all custom of exercises; and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly frame, the about learning language earth, seems to different essay topics, me a sterile promontory#8230;#8221; That speech could be examined in conjunction with the two soliloquies #8216;O that this too too sullied flesh#8230;#8221; and #8220;To be or not to with, be#8230;#8221; To him suicide could be a release from different all the burdens, disappointments and humiliations of thesis reagan, living (To be or not to be is different essay topics, his major statement) but he rejects suicide at least in part because he fears the dreams that may come to statements, his still living conscience: #8220;the dread of something after death,#8221; and because #8220;the Everlasting#8221; has #8220;fix#8217;d His canon #8216;gainst self-slaughter!#8221; The irony, then, is that Ophelia does (in a maddened state, however) take the route that Hamlet has considered and rejected. And he perceives that she is different topics, receiving the diminished rites of a suicide when he witnesses the funeral party, and ap psychology, must feel his part in her death. The more I look at that funeral scene, the more I think Hamlet#8217;s irrational outburst towards Laertes is a key moment. After all, Laertes has not only a father#8217;s death to avenge, but a sister#8217;s, and Hamlet is responsible for different essay both!

He must look across the grave at Laertes as his mind clears and see himself to some extent. Well, that#8217;s all I intend to say. Between. Hope it gives you something to go on. Different Topics. 1. Concerning #10: As Hamlet considers suicide a method that would surely ease life he understands, somewhere within himself, that he can not kill himself; to kill himself would be too easy, too cowardly; life should be lived under God and human nature obstinately. 2. Concerning #6: Feigned madness and lyric essays, real madness are exhibited by different essay, Hamlet; he fakes his antic disposition to mask his intentions from the King#8217;s spies, yet is also severely grieved by his father#8217;s death to the point where he considers suicide and killing others. 3. Language. Concerning #1: To be rational, or not to be, that is the essay internal conflict Hamlet faces; his long speeches provide a way for ronald reagan Hamlet to present multiple opinions about a subject and a way to rationalize his actions. I think I might have to read the play again, or watch it, or download an different essay topics, audio book version before my thesis and subject is made definite.

With regard to suicide, see my note to Camden above. With regard to narrative essay about learning a new, madness, see my note to Scott. With regard to Hamlet#8217;s speeches as vehicles whereby he comes to terms with his world and it events, see my very long note to Shea. From reading the three thoughts you include, I get the impression that your first contains the idea that most intrigues you. You could read Hamlet, for all its catastrophe, as a rejection of suicide. The act is in Hamlet#8217;s mind when we first see him, and then he speaks of it as something he must regretfully put aside because God forbids it. Later, in different the #8220;To be or not to be#8221; soliloquy, Hamlet does not invoke God, but examines suicide almost as a philosopher would. He is thesis about ronald reagan, just about completely alone, with no one but Horatio to rely upon, and no one including Horatio to different topics, confide in completely. He classes himself with the rest of humankind as desirous of escape from the hateful aspects of life, but fearful of what lies beyond. His glimpse of his father#8217;s spirit (if that#8217;s truly what it is) could hardly be reassuring on learning language, that score. Still, he moves away from suicide and essay, takes the most positive route he can follow to find the truth, until he loses his composure and runs his sword through the fateful arras#8212;the 137 th that Polonius has hidden behind in his career as chief minister to the kind, I#8217;ll bet (and doesn#8217;t count the spying within his family).

As I said to Shea, look also at lyric essays, Hamlet#8217;s acceptance of whatever fate may await him, in that short Act V speech to essay topics, Horatio. Gertrude#8217;s personal mistakes are not solely driven by lust or a simple desire to see those around her happy and exam essay, whole but by a compulsion to find intimate understanding and relationship with the characters around her. I think an essay centering on Gertrude could be good, but you must make your thesis more compelling. How about essay topics, examining Hamlet#8217;s dilemma based upon an analysis of his relations with both his parents. And Research Paper. There are many hints about the character of the elder Hamlet, and most of them indicate a personality very different from the prince#8217;s. Hamlet clearly idealized his parents#8217;s relationship and held his father in near awe. Topics. Why did his mother fall? How much of his plight derives from her failure as a wife and manuscript, mother and how much from the role of revenger that Hamlet must play?

I#8217;m not asking you to psychoanalyze Hamlet, but to different topics, view the tragedy that comes of his mission of revenge from a unique angle#8212;that of lyric essays, a son whose nature is more like his mother#8217;s than his father#8217;s. What do you think? I#8217;m going to take Alexander and David Kim together, as they have something similar in mind:#8221; Abert Johnberry, Phd. (aka Alexander Fine) wrote: In William Shakespeare#8217;s Hamlet, the readers are given a prolonged glimpse of Hamlet#8217;s most personal sentiments. His sharp expression of his disillusionment engages, and speaks for, mankind in ways we couldn#8217;t articulate but still feel. Many have, from Hamlet#8217;s behavior, attempted infer his presumed age.

Yet, to define his age is to limit his message. Part of his effectiveness as a character lies in different essay topics the ageless state in difference and research which he exists. Hamlet, in topics his most speculative moments, speaks for all man, and achieves a state of equilibrium, of both old and new. His existence, like the electron#8217;s wave particle duality, is best interpreted if it is treated at once as two entities#8212;in this case, old and young. Four Hamlet theses: 1. The difficulty in understanding Hamlet as a character comes from the about ronald reagan fact that all the essay topics actors playing him are far too old#8212;when interpreted as much younger, he makes far more sense. a. In this respect, the Folio is wrong (since it more or less explicitly states that he is 30 in the Yorick scene) and the Quarto is difference between manuscript and research, right (it is much looser in essay its woriiding, placing Hamlet at at about 20). 2. The difficulty in understanding Hamlet as a character comes from the fact that he incorporates elements of wow install, both young and old#8212;he is ageless, or rather a union of ages, one character representing the lament of all. Different Essay. 3. The themes in wow install Hamlet are timeless#8212;the play means just as much to audiences today as it did to audiences in the 1600s at the Globe.

4. Descent into madness (along with its extent) is a key element of interpreting Hamlet#8217;s and Ophelia#8217;s character#8212;some sort of different essay, qualitative analysis and assertion follows. Dear Doctor A. Resume. David, I#8217;m going to respond to the ageless, timeless idea that you both present. Everything else you bring up, David, I think I#8217;ve already addressed in different essay topics one or the between other of my previous comments. I will say, though, that you have an acute case of #8220;the-fact-that#8221;-itis, which I hope is not incurable. Different. Neither of terms e, your facts is in fact a fact! But it#8217;s a fact that writers who employ that phrase are almost never dealing with facts. Gosh, that was fun.

And my mind is different topics, so tired from all this thinking about Hamlet. I#8217;m leaving the play to you guys after this. Youth is very much a part of Hamlet. He sees corruption all around him, particularly in the machinations of the starting older ones who hold the reins of power. He is bitterly disappointed in his mother and his friends. He gives up his love for different essay topics Ophelia and everything else to dedicate himself to revenge, as he swears (I, v): Yea, from the table of my memory. I#8217;ll wipe away all trivial fond records, All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past, That youth and observation copied there; And thy commandment all alone shall live. Within the book and volume of my brain, Unmix#8217;d with baser matter#8230; I think Ophelia#8217;s tale of Hamlet#8217;s wordless visit, and the high emotion of his later speech to her, are testimony to difference between manuscript, the degree of different, sacrifice. After all, Shakespeare often dedicated plays (including at least one tragedy) to love. And this is young love.

The difficulty with understanding Hamlet is not so much that he is somehow spiritually #8220;old#8221; as well as young#8212;it#8217;s that he is brilliant and complex, as brilliant and complex, perhaps, as his creator, and Shakespeare does not bother to language, explain everything about Hamlet. He leaves it to different topics, us, his audience, to interpret, to probe and to mathematical terms, infer. Hamlet is seen as a character who embodies universal qualities. Each generation finds something to respond to, and each one tends to different essay, interpret Hamlet according to its prevailing values. The important thing is and research paper, that Hamlet remains modern, because he perceives and expresses the human condition as well as any character in literature has. We share his problems with him, and listen as he thinks himself through them and beyond them to matters far more weighty than a sordid tale of different, murder, betrayal and revenge should be able to convey.

The problem with all this is that it is rather abstract. The universal Hamlet is a subject for a book-length essay. It#8217;s also tempting to carry on resume wow install, as I just have for several paragraphs without quoting the text referring to any concrete event. You must root your essay in specifics and keep your scope at essay, a setting for difference manuscript four to six, not 40 to 60, pages. If he speaks for all humankind, make a list of his most important statements.

Document the falseness he perceives and combats and explain their relevance to different topics, a contemporary audience. Look for narrative learning a new those moments of epiphany, of recognition and the resulting wisdom. I#8217;m just played out at this point. I#8217;m going to different essay topics, sign off.

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Different essay topics | Millionaire Acts

natural rights essay Photo: Paula Kupfer. Natural Rights, Cultural Rights, and the Politics of Memory. Andreas Huyssen | Columbia University. Human rights and memory discourses must be robustly linked with each other to add a necessary dimension of futurity to memory and of history to human rights politics. Drawing on the early modern notion of natural rights, this paper asks to what extent ‘rights of nature’ need to be considered to nurture the essay topics, sustainability of human rights as social rights. I want to ask a simple question that defies easy answers: what do rights have to do with memory?

At the most simple level, one could argue that only memory of between and research paper rights violations can nurture human rights regimes in the future. Memory and human rights must be linked more robustly with each other discursively and practically to prevent memory from becoming a vacuous exercise feeding parasitically on itself and to prevent human rights from losing its historical grounding and risking legalistic abstraction and different political abuse. As Walter Benjamin suggested (1969), the dead do have a claim on us, since we are, from their point of view, the mathematical starting with, coming generations. Nothing messianic about that. No need to talk about redemption. As Max Horkheimer argued (1993) against Benjamin’s theological temptation: the dead are dead and cannot be reawakened. Different Essay Topics! But they do have a right to remembrance. This is a mark of human civilization, after all, long before the explicit articulation of human and resume wow install any other rights, and ever more so after this most murderous century of human history that we have left behind. Where would today’s international human rights movement be without memory of the killing fields of the 20th century? And yet, memory and rights discourses don’t blend easily. Debates about essay topics, human rights and transitional or retroactive justice in law and political theory have too often remained separated by a deep gulf from discussions of memory and historical trauma in the humanities.

This is surprising since one would expect these fields to be inherently complementary and mutually supportive. Yet there remains a fundamental tension between memory and the law. Restrictive limitations that have prevented a closer relationship exist on either side of this discursive divide. Memory discourse is usually concerned with recent collective pasts and their effects on the present, but it lacks a strong normative dimension that would lead toward individual legal rights claims. Thus some legal scholars and political theorists have argued that memory of ap psychology essay questions past injury can only be a weak substitute for justice. At the different topics, same time, however, legal proceedings, especially in cases of retroactive justice after the end of dictatorships as in Chile or Argentina, depend on individual memory to arrive at convictions. Mathematical! In addition, I would argue that what happens in essay topics courts also depends, though indirectly, on the strength of memory discourses in the public sphere—on films, media, literature, the arts, and manuscript and research paper education. The biblical demand to remember, so strong in topics contemporary worldly culture as a counterweight to narrative essay about learning, rampant amnesia, is a moral demand which is not legally enforceable. Reasonably so, since were it enforceable, it would violate the different essay, right to forget. Memory itself always remains fragile and difficult to verify. Human rights, on terms with the other hand, is Janus-faced: morality and law.

It shares the moral dimension with memory discourse which lacks the juridical. This is why there remains a fundamental tension between memory and rights discourse, and given contemporary culture’s often frivolous and exploitative obsessions with memory, one may legitimately ask whether memory helps or hinders justice. Not even to speak of cases where memory is used to incite violence as in Slobodan Milosevic’s Serbian propaganda campaign about the 1389 battle of Kosovo which was key in triggering the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and topics Kosovo. Resume Wow Install! The Croatian writer Dubravka Ugresic, in her book of essays The Culture of different essay Lies (1998), has made the powerful argument that the disintegration of Yugoslavia was characterized by the simultaneity of a terror of forgetting and a terror of memory. Human rights discourse, by contrast, makes strong normative legal claims in the name of essay learning justice, but often ends up in an idolatry of abstract principles, thus ignoring the historical and political contexts which must be recognized and negotiated if a politics of human rights is to take hold in a specific country at a given time. Different Topics! Or it is abused as a political veil of particular interests, which critics of human rights often point to in order to discredit human rights claims altogether. Idolatry and abuse are especially visible internationally in the facile equation of essay about a new language universal human rights with Western democracy. Different Essay Topics! They are implicit in the notion that rights may spread from the essay about language, US to other parts of the world once they reach a certain level of development. While the genealogy of the current international human rights movement goes back to topics, European sources of natural law of the 17th and 18th centuries, its meaning is not exhausted by resume this origin which precedes the essay, democratic revolutions of the US and France.

We must first acknowledge that democracy is neither a human right, nor is it inevitably identical with any ideal type human rights regime (Habermas 2009). To the extent that democracy operates with majority rule, it may violate the rights of minorities, a constellation rife with conflict especially in the years after World War I and its many newly formed nations and again in a different constellation after the end of the between, Cold War. We must also reject any teleological construction of modernity with its theory of cultural and political lag. From its early articulations in Europe on, the propagation of human rights was always coupled with their denial in colonial situations (few exceptions such as the Salamanca school notwithstanding). Different Essay! Thus rights in the colonial world inevitably had to turn against European domination. The question of rights has always been a question of power and asymmetrical relations. And yet, rights discourse conjures up a horizon of expectations that tends to surpass limited human rights practices. Struggles for individual, minority, and ethnic group rights in democratic and non-democratic countries alike abound in the world today and challenge both legal debates and political theory. A second political point must be registered.

The traditional idea of nationhood, as it developed during the Westphalian regime of sovereign nation states since the 17th century and characterizes political communities across the world until this day, is lyric essays, not inevitably conducive to the cultural or political rights of minorities. Ever since the Huguenot massacres in France, minority and cultural group rights have often been suppressed in Europe in the interest of enforcing the kind of religious or national homogeneity which is simply no longer adequate to our contemporary world--its flows of migration and cultural mixing, and essay topics the development of flexible citizenship. Mathematical Terms Starting With E! Ever more frequently, the claims of essay national majority cultures conflict with the rights of others within the nation: indigenous populations, descendants of slaves, disenfranchised groups, sexual minorities, and immigrants of all kinds. At the same time, a human rights regime entirely beyond states and thesis about ronald nations is different essay, not yet imaginable today, even if some political theorists have begun to conceptualize a “global civil society” as opposed to world government (Weltburgergesellschaft; Habermas 2004; Benhabib 2002) . Despite certain forms of denationalization of citizenship (dual citizenship, EU passports, the granting of regional voting rights to non-citizens, etc), states do remain important legislators and guarantors of expanded rights, especially via constitutions, new regulations of citizenship and cultural rights, and commitments to transnational organizations. About A New Language! Most rights struggles still play out within this context. On the other hand, however, new forms of de facto statelessness have developed in the context of illegal migrations, the different essay topics, sex trade, and other new forms of slavery and indentured labor. This is particularly pertinent in the case of “third country immigrants” to the EU and of Latin American and Chinese immigrants to the US. While human rights discourse aims at thesis about ronald, universality, a concept that has had powerful enemies for a long time, discourses about collective memory have typically been limited to national or regional situations, thus blocking insight into the ways a new transnational politics of memory has spread across the world since 1989 in essay topics conjunction with rights discourse and exam yet separate from it (exceptions to this trend: Levy and Sznaider 2006; Rothberg 2009). The idea of collective memory, as it circulates today, mostly relies on different an anthropological notion of mathematical terms starting with culture as homogeneous and closed or self-contained.

With the expansion of essay rights since WWII, such notions of national cultures as distinct and coherent units not subject to mathematical terms starting with, international rights claims have weakened. Tendencies toward globalization of finance, economics and migrations have created new networks that subvert traditional notions of national sovereignty. Still, discourses of lived memory will remain tied to specific communities and territories, even if the different topics, concern with memory itself has become a transnational phenomenon across the world. But even at the national level, memories are always in conflict with each other, more so nowadays than at the highpoint of the Westphalian regime that first saw the invention of national traditions (Hobsbawm 1983). Memories clash just as rights claims confront each other.

The notion of collective memory only makes sense if we acknowledge that in any collectivity, there will inevitably be conflict and struggle over between manuscript paper, memories. Such tensions and conflicts are a key constituent of the public sphere in open societies and must ideally be subject to political recognition, democratic deliberation and negotiation. Key conflict areas today concern the rights of indigenous peoples, language rights, the inequality of different essay gender, sexual rights, citizenship rights and political rights for immigrants. Hannah Arendt’s fundamental claim that there is ap psychology exam essay, a right to have rights (1951), a claim that goes back to the period between the two World Wars in which whole populations were denaturalized and deprived of individual and citizenship rights, has become a shaping political force in the contemporary world. Humanities debates about memory have been especially robust in their interpretive focus on cultural memory (Assmann 1995), trauma, testimony, and witnessing. Some have asked to what extent such a focus on subjectivities, legitimate as it is, doesn’t risk losing sight of the political dimensions of rights discourse in different topics the present and its implications for the future (Sarlo 2005). While this objection does have some force in relation to difference between and research, an overplaying of trauma in a poststructuralist and different topics psychoanalytic vein, I would argue that it is precisely the focus on the force of individual memories of rights violations that can keep human rights discourse from slipping too fast into abstraction and ahistoricity. Human and cultural rights discourse must be supported by mathematical with concrete cases of rights violations read in the context of essay systemic conditions and deep histories, and ap psychology questions it can be supported by works of art that train our imagination to recognize what Susan Sontag (2003) called the pain of others and what classical Greek tragedy first articulated: Antigone not as a play about essay topics, obligations to statements about reagan, the dead, but about the rights of the living. Much of my own past work has been concerned with issues of cultural memory in political context—memory articulations in the visual arts, architecture, and literature which articulate the memory problematic aesthetically in all its fragility and complexity. The rootedness of memory studies in the local may help counter the reproach that human rights, if not the concern with memory itself, is nothing but a Western imposition and imperial ploy.

At the essay, same time, I feel that memory studies in the humanities have reached an resume wow install, impasse—too much of a good thing will eventually diminish the cognitive gain the field can provide. Therefore my argument: If memory studies in the humanities want to have a future, they need to topics, forge a much more robust link with human rights, cultural rights and transitional justice discourse. About Reagan! Such a shift in focus will allow us to move away from an all too exclusive privileging of the past as subject of investigation (a natural for humanists) and to reclaim memory for essay, present and future struggles about rights. Where rights have already merged with memory concerns via testimony and witnessing, a variety of practices of redress have emerged around different types of Truth Commissions that acknowledge local factors and are thus far from making universalist claims. Maybe the difference between manuscript paper, ongoing critique of universalism has itself become a straw-man. Speaking from my field as a Europeanist, I would argue that such a shift from memory to rights is important in the European Union, but I believe it is pertinent in the Americas as well. While the different topics, political reorganization of Europe into a partly post-national federal union certainly requires recognition of past injuries and histories, such concerns all too often veil human rights issues of today which have to do with immigration from outside the EU, especially from the former colonies. It blocks out the troublesome systemic bifurcation of wow install political and social rights, which separates EU citizens from so-called third country migrants. Thus I do not find it productive to claim, as some have done (Diner 2000), that a new European identity is being constructed around Holocaust memory. The dominance of the Holocaust in European memory debates actually hinders recognition of Europe’s colonial heritage, a moral and different political necessity when dealing with immigration especially from Africa and Asia. Manuscript And Research Paper! It is indeed striking to essay, see how within memory discourse itself, there has developed a debilitating conflict between Holocaust memory and the memory of colonialism.

Given the centuries-long trajectory of colonial domination, the ap psychology, privileged focus on Holocaust memory in Europe results in a form of short-sightedness that carries with it an apologetic register of forgetting. Different! Memories in contest with each other may well prolong grievances rather than overcoming them. This is the mathematical starting e, downside of different memory competitions where one set of memories tries to displace or delegitimize another. Recognizing certain inherent limitations of resume wow install both human rights and memory discourse may then indeed represent a first step toward overcoming the gap between them. Topics! The individual strengths of both fields must be mobilized to resume wow install, supplement each other in order to mitigate the deficiencies of different topics either. Both are concerned with the violation and protection of basic human rights and both must draw on narrative history to different essay, do so. Both want to acknowledge, if not right wrongs committed in the past, and both project and imagine a better future.

Both grew to a large degree out of legal, moral, and philosophical discourses about genocide and rights violations after World War II. Statements Reagan! Both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the UN’s Genocide Convention of 1948 were the political result of remembrance (though not about memory as such since in their phrasing they both circumvented the ethnic and particularist dimension of the Holocaust)-- remembrance not only of the unspeakable genocides and forced population transfers of the first half of the 20th-century. But remembrance also of the legacies of the essay, natural law tradition which predates democracy and was influential in the shaping of these UN documents. History of human rights and difference and research memory discourses. In my last book, Present Pasts (2003), I attempted to explain the rise of memory discourses since the 1980s in transnational context. There I argued that memory discourses of a new kind first emerged in the 1960s in the wake of decolonization and the new social movements with their search for alternative and revisionist histories. Walter Benjamin’s (1969) reflections on history and memory provided a theoretical screen for the long trajectory of an emergent focus on the politics of essay memory. The search for other traditions in the postcolonial world and for the traditions of “others”, of minorities and ethnic groups in the West, radically challenged the idee recue of a homogeneous modernity, exemplified for instance in ideas of universal progress and modernization, the North-American notion of the “melting pot,” or in the European understanding of national cultures as unitary, based on language and ethnic identity. Memory discourses accelerated in lyric essays the early 1980s in the US and in Europe, energized then by essay the ever broadening debate about the Holocaust. Historical anniversaries of Nazi rule, World War II and the victory of the allies were widely covered in with the international media, and they helped stir up post-World War II re-codifications of national history in different essay topics Germany, France, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, and Central Europe after 1989.

But soon enough resonances of resume wow install Holocaust and Third Reich memories spread beyond the Northern Transatlantic, attaching themselves to politically and historically very different events and situations in post-dictatorship Latin America or in post-apartheid South Africa. Indeed, one can now observe something like a “globalization” of different Holocaust memory, and it certainly has had an effect on narrative about learning language the international human rights movement. The recurrence of genocidal politics in different essay Rwanda, Bosnia, and Kosovo in the allegedly posthistorical 1990s made Holocaust memory discourse pertinent for evaluating present-day events. It seemed as if the “never again” slogan was put to the lie at a time when public Holocaust awareness had reached a peak. In the case of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and the organized massacres of Rwanda, comparisons with the Holocaust were at first fiercely resisted by politicians, the media, and much of the public, not because of the undeniable historical differences, but rather because of a basic unwillingness to thesis ronald, intervene.

Public opinion changed in the late 1990s with Kosovo. Streams of essay topics refugees across borders, women and children packed into trains for deportation, stories of atrocities, systematic rape, and wanton destruction all mobilized a politics of difference between manuscript and research paper guilt in Europe and the US associated with the appeasement politics of the 1930s. Holocaust memory helped legitimize NATO’s military intervention in Kosovo, but only years after the failure to different, intervene in a timely fashion in the Bosnian genocide of 1992. Srebenica and Rwanda marked an absolute nadir of the wow install, UN’s ability to essay topics, prevent mass violence perpetrated by one ethnic group on another. The Kosovo intervention thus confirms the increasing power of public memory culture since the late 1990s, but it also raises difficult theoretical and political issues. How legitimate or even useful is it to use the Holocaust as universal trope for difference between manuscript paper, historical trauma, organized massacres, and ethnic cleansing?

What about the sanctity or limits of state sovereignty? And how justified is international humanitarian intervention on topics the basis of Holocaust memory and post-Holocaust human rights politics? At any rate, it was in these specific political situations that rights and memory discourse intersected in reality itself in powerful ways, even if in academic discourse they still went their separate ways. If the rise of memory discourse must be made intelligible by historical and terms political contextualization, we also need to understand the contemporary HR movement in its historical evolution and politically changing complexion. Thus political theorist Jean Cohen (2008) has talked about different topics, three phases since the 1940s. A first wave developed after WWII in recognition of the atrocities and massive human rights violations committed against ap psychology exam essay questions, civilians before and during the different essay topics, war; it was based on the revival of theories of manuscript paper natural law and different topics moral rights in the face of the largely discredited legal positivism of an earlier time. Resume! It resulted in the Genocide convention and the UDHR. In a second wave, Cohen argues, HR discourse played a central role in anti-colonial projects of different topics liberation from the late 1940s on, in the internal weakening of the Soviet Empire in the 1970s, when the Soviet Union first accepted certain claims of HR discourse (the Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1975), and with domestically led democratic transitions in Latin America in the 70s and 80s. Mathematical Starting With! Cohen writes: “Despite being largely exhortatory, the human rights declarations and covenants were an important normative referent for domestic civil society and essay topics social movement activists.” (2008; 580) The end of the terms starting, Soviet Empire and the end of apartheid in different essay topics South Africa shortly thereafter were major markers for the renewal and spread of learning language civil society debates and rights implementations in many countries (esp. in different essay topics Eastern Europe and Latin America). The third wave differs dramatically.

Since the end of the Cold War, human rights violations have been selectively invoked as a justification for ap psychology exam essay, the imposition of debilitating sanctions, military invasions and authoritarian occupation administrations by multilateral organizations and/or states acting unilaterally under the rubric of different topics “humanitarian” intervention. Such interventions were typically justified as enforcement of international human rights law. The break-up of Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and Iraq are the pertinent though politically very different cases. Cohen thus distinguishes a traditional from a more current political notion of human rights. Thesis About Ronald Reagan! At stake here is the topics, conflict between human rights and national sovereignty and the recognition that the nation state may no longer remain the main and only guarantor of essay about learning a new language rights in essay topics a globalizing world at a time that has seen many new UN conventions regarding rights, the creation of mathematical terms with e a European Criminal Court and of the International Criminal Court. Different Topics! The International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) has perhaps gone furthest in limiting state sovereignty in its report of 2001, The Responsibility to Protect. While this report clearly came out of the failures of the UN in between and research the 1990s, it is not clear to different essay, me whether the shift from humanitarian intervention (“military humanism” as some have called it) to R2P is statements about ronald, actually more than a semantic shift, given that the potential protectors will inevitably still be the major powers that also led humanitarian interventions. In today’s situation, it seems to me, key dimensions of each of these three waves are intermingled to different degrees, depending on differing constellations on the ground. Taken together, genocide, civil society, and humanitarian intervention shape a dense cluster of political and legal issues that call for specific analysis in each and topics every case. We should not let the abuse of “humanitarian intervention” blind us to the deeper histories of the terms with e, struggles for rights.

To Cohen’s account, one might even add a fourth dimension, which has emerged in recent years. It concerns the transformation of human rights discourse to highlight cultural rights claims pertaining to indigenous populations or descendants of topics slaves in essay learning a new language Latin America, Canada, or Australia. Different Essay Topics! And it also arises around civil and ap psychology questions social rights in the wake of new forms of immigration and diaspora. While Cohen’s third phase challenges traditional notions of state sovereignty by allowing for cross-border interventions, this fourth dimension claims cultural group rights within sovereign nations, but enters into conflict with the traditional notion of human rights as the rights of individuals and with a homogeneous self-understanding of nationhood. Thus it further destabilizes notions of national identity, especially when civil and social, sometimes even limited political rights are reasonably granted to non-citizen immigrants. Given the tensions between memory and the contemporary human rights regime, I am particularly interested in the ways in different essay topics which the human rights declaration of the exam questions, post-WWII period derived its strength from an earlier natural law tradition.

In the 18th century, nature was a revolutionary battle cry in Europe and natural rights as rooted in natural law were claimed both by the American and different French revolutions. Starting With! They made it into the Declaration of Independence (1776) as “the unalienable rights” of “life, liberty, and different essay the pursuit of happiness.” And into the French Declaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen (1789) as “liberty, property, safety and resistance against difference paper, oppression” (Article II). Different Topics! Of course it is well-known how the universal equality of men excluded slaves, women, and colonial subjects and how property was considered sacred. Essay! But once articulated as a normative horizon such universal rights claims developed their own momentum against their limited application, not despite but because of their universal claims. With Hegel, one could speak of the cunning of reason. And so it goes for recent decades. Despite the fact that the UDHR lacks even a minimal enforcement mechanism such as a binding convention, and genocides have not ceased to happen, human rights and different essay topics genocide discourses have gone global in recent decades, and time and again they are tenuously linked with debates about memory and justice. The rise of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions is only one outward sign of the linkage between memory and essay questions rights discourse. At the different topics, same time, TRCs also reveal the inherent tensions between memory and justice regimes.

No rights are ever easily implemented or guaranteed. They can only result from always conflictual political deliberation and will rarely if ever offer easy solutions to essay about learning a new, conflicts and social problems. In some parts of the world human rights are disparaged as a Western imposition of a culturally specific individualism serving imperial economic interests. While this reproach is different topics, not without merits, the radical critique of HR has been just as politically self-serving in non-democratic societies (think of the Asian values debate promoted by developmental authoritarian states such as Singapore or Malaysia in the early 1990s). I would argue that international human rights standards are legitimized less by the cultural background of European civilization than by the attempt to respond to the challenges of a social and economic modernity which has become global. Against a tendency to and research paper, romanticize so-called non-Western forms of cultural diversity and to freeze-dry them in terms of cultural rights and traditional values, we must recognize that modernization affects all cultures and societies today. The attempts to create a global human rights regime represent a response to a situation which does not permit an escape from modernity. The rise of modernity, however, was intimately linked to the emergence of natural law. Therefore I would suggest that we draw on the legacies of natural law which do have a European origin, but can map on topics to ideas about human dignity, liberty, and freedom from oppression present in all cultures of the world. After all, it is no coincidence that the UDHR, passed by the international body of the newly founded UN, drew on the legacies of natural law rather than on culturally specific positive laws.

Then and today natural law has certain conceptual advantages as ground for human rights debates even if, as Habermas has argued (2009) it must be recoded and essay learning a new put into the context of essay topics a deliberative reciprocal negotiation of mathematical starting e rights within a given political community. At a time when human rights has been recoded as the right to humanitarian intervention and many aspects of the current human rights regime have come under suspicion of abuse, I want to suggest that, however limited in essay reach, a shift in discourse from human rights to natural law might help us rethink some basic propositions. Clearly there is no such thing as inborn natural law. The issue for me is not to resurrect the natural law tradition per se, but to mobilize some of its parameters in order to critique abuses that sail today under the learning, flag of human rights. I would suggest that there are five dimensions that make the natural law tradition still pertinent and highly suggestive in a philosophical sense: 1. Universal standards of freedom from oppression, freedom from fear, and human dignity are not culture specific or per se Western, but found in all major cultures of the world. Precisely because it operates at a level of generality in its appeal to nature, natural law may be a better basis for cross-cultural negotiation than specific legal regimes that always carry the stench of domination and oppression with them.

As a concept, “Natural law” may thus restore an aspirational horizon of justice to human rights talk not despite, but precisely because of its ontological dimension. 2. Natural law, as framed in different European countries and at essay, different times by ap psychology essay questions Grotius, Hobbes, Thomasius, Pufendorf, and Locke, evolved out of new economic realities of an emerging capitalism and the struggle of topics a merchant bourgeoisie against between and research paper, the absolutist state, mercantilism, and a confining guild system. Remembering this grounding in political economy, natural law today can be linked to topics, very differently structured issues of economic justice and wealth creation of which class and racialized poverty remain important components. We can tactically use this tradition against the absence of economic rights in most HR discussions. Against the danger of essentializing “nature” as permanent and resume unchanging, we may remember that the notion of nature is itself not fixed, but subject to historical and cultural change which may provide natural law with a welcome openness toward the future, especially at a time when the rights of topics nature itself are increasingly part of the debate. 3. Natural law, as it has been interpreted by philosophers such as Ernst Bloch (1975), is fundamentally political and attuned in a deep sense to specific historical conditions which are often ignored by contemporary human rights discourse in its apolitical humanitarian incarnation.

Its transformative politics today lie in challenging notions of sovereign nationhood and cultural homogeneity under the pressures of globalization, migrations, climate change, and new transnational cultural imaginaries. Statements Reagan! 4. The Natural law tradition encapsulates the right to one’s culture, language, and traditions, all of which ground human identities in historical flux. Essay Topics! Thus it sidesteps the conflict between individual and learning a new group rights so prominent today, and it allows us to seek a mediation between them. Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried Herder has written compellingly about essay topics, this dimension in about the 18th century when dominant identity patterns shifted from transnational and non-ethnic aristocratic identities to topics, middle-class, ethnic, and national identities. Ap Psychology Essay Questions! In this recognition of the flows of deep cultural histories, natural law may also help to link memory to different essay topics, rights discourse. After all, the between and research paper, fact of memory as a human characteristic is different essay topics, as unalienable as the rights stipulated in democratic constitutions. 5. And Research Paper! Natural law is essay, sufficiently different from culturally diverse and often irreconcilable legal positivisms that it can be used to criticize specific legal practices and refer us to lyric essays, some universal standard of what is right. This remains a major legacy of the natural law tradition and it can be used to criticize certain limited applications and political abuses of HR. Taken together, these five points show that philosophically and conceptually, there is a clear trajectory from natural law not only to human rights, but also to memory studies. The tactical advantage of mobilizing natural law for current debates is different essay, twofold: it might mediate the conflict between individual and group rights and, on another front, diminish the tensions between memory and rights discourse. This of course raises the question: can there be a legally enforceable right to thesis ronald reagan, memory just as there is a right to free speech?

It does not seem to make much sense to speak of a legal right to memory except perhaps in a context in which human beings might be technologically or genetically manipulated to forget. Different! SciFi films like Blade Runner (1982) and Total Recall (1990) have addressed such issues. Only in ap psychology exam questions such a situation would it make sense to speak of a legal right to one’s own memory. Of course in a certain dark view of global historical developments as articulated in Horkheimer and Adorno’s Dialectic of Enlightenment (2002) on the threshold between total war and the Cold war and long before genetic engineering, this kind of manipulation and the resulting destruction of memory was compellingly though reductively analyzed as the project of the capitalist culture industry and its consumerist ideology. The threat to essay topics, memory would indeed be a threat to narrative essay about learning, human identity itself—identity always shaped by a given time and space. Even if media of memory and the very place of memory in a culture will differ greatly over time and space, Luis Bunuel was right when he said: “You have to begin to essay, lose your memory, if only in bits and pieces, to realize that memory is difference between manuscript, what makes our lives. […] Our memory is our coherence, our reason, our feeling, even out action. Without it we are nothing…” As an anthropological and historical given, memory, especially collective memory can therefore be related to what has come to be known as cultural rights. Topics! The notion of cultural rights, however, poses serious problems.

Following rights theorists like Seyla Benhabib (2004), I first want to reject the notion that cultural rights can be separated from individual rights. Certain cultural rights are already reflected in several provisions of international human rights law (freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, Art 18; freedom of expression, Art 19 of the UDHR). Cultural rights are also implicitly recognized in the Genocide Convention of 1948 in light of the fact that genocidal policies often are preceded by attacks on manuscript paper an out-group’s culture. To make the different essay, point that cultural and individual rights cannot be separated, it helps to recognize that individual autonomy is not given by nature, but emerges in reciprocal recognition of citizens embedded in a culture and lyric essays engaged in social and topics political relations. All individuality is inherently social. Yet individual autonomy is questions, often attacked in the name of community. So why do some insist on a separate category of communal cultural rights? The cultural rights movement has arisen recently around issues of minority and first nations’ rights within nation states such as Canada or Australia, Colombia, Brazil and other Latin American countries. It can be seen as an essay, expression of the growing emphasis on cultural diversity in an increasingly interconnected world, and it is itself a transformation of earlier struggles, especially struggles for land rights formerly often couched in Marxist terms. It is fundamentally tied to group identity politics and often displays skepticism or even hostility toward individual rights discourse. A major problem here is that cultural rights discourse usually grounds itself in traditions of what colonialists called customary law.

Its claims thus go back more to statements about, lineal descent rather than responding to topics, current needs. Mathematical Terms Starting E! It can, of course, be seen as a legitimate reaction formation against globalization and the fearful prospect of cultural homogenization by different essay topics financial capital, developmentalism, rampant consumerism and global English. By invariably siding with the local against the global, however, cultural rights discourse produces its own set of limitations. These become especially visible when cultural rights are mobilized not to make claims on behalf of marginalized groups (First Nations of Canada, indigenous peoples in the Amazon), but on behalf of states and state power. This happens in the international arena in attempts to counter alien influence, whether Western influence in Islamic societies or the effects of narrative essay learning a new language Islamic presence in different topics Western societies.

And it happens within nations when cultural rights are called on for conservative purposes on behalf of a national culture vis-a-vis its immigrant communities. Essay A New Language! The German example of the Leitkultur debate is a good example of the different essay topics, latter and starting e the European cultural claims against different essay topics, Turkish membership in the EU an example of the resume wow install, former. In both cases recognition of cultural diversity is turned against diversity itself in order to favor the dominant culture. These politically very different claims of cultural rights operate on the basis of an obsolete unitary notion of essay topics culture. All cultures affected by modernity are invariably split, whether such splits operate in vertical ways (high vs. low culture) or in resume wow install terms of privileging different media (print vs. music). Such stratifications will always be a site for struggle over meanings. Topics! They make palpable that you cannot have a meaningful discussion of cultural rights without considering individual social and political rights. Culture is not to be separated from the rights of the and research, person, or the rights of essay citizenship.

If it is, it inevitably becomes constrictive, unitary, homogenizing, and exclusionary whether at the national or the subnational level. Rather than overcoming the power problems inherent in national majority cultures, cultural rights claims as articulated by subnational groups may just reproduce these problems at another level. And yet, with Benhabib (2002) I recognize the claims of culture, especially of language and the expressive values embedded in it, but I argue that cultural rights must be reconciled with the broader category of human rights or natural law. Anything else will lead to cultural oppression and legal relativism or worse. To construct an irreconcilable binary between universal human rights as rights of individuals only and about a new cultural rights as the rights of ethnic or racial groups risks overruling the individual rights of group members in the name of culture. Different Essay Topics! Such arguments are always in danger of simply reproducing the between manuscript and research, problems of national cultures at the subnational level. It would be equally unacceptable, however, to topics, ignore all cultural group claims by limiting rights to autonomous individuals only, as if autonomy could exist outside of social relations. Lyric Essays! Positing such a binary also reproduces the unproductive rift between liberal and communitarian or republican political theory rather than seeing the two as interrelated and in need of mediation. Let me highlight the problem by a simple example: just as human rights include the right of exit from different topics, a nation or state, cultural rights must preserve the prerogative of an individual born into a culture to leave it and to reagan, chose another. This dimension, not sufficiently addressed by topics the proponents of learning language cultural group rights, is especially pertinent to women and other disenfranchised people in societies or ethnic religious groups that ascribe inferior legal status to them. Cultural rights discourse shares a problematic dimension with memory discourse, for it inevitably tends to pit the rights of one group against those of another, most interestingly today in the claims of different essay indigenous peoples against the dominant culture of the nation within which they live where it may even lead to a bifurcation between civil law and customary law as in some Latin American countries (e.g., Colombia).

This constellation finds its analogy in memory debates in competitive discussions of traumatic memories of pogroms, organized state massacres, and genocide. Here it is not a question of one group making legal claims against another that could be adjudicated in a court of law or in a deliberative political process. Memory culture is rather characterized by often vicious and resentful memory competitions that claim priority of one kind of traumatic memory over another, thus creating insidious hierarchies of suffering. The most difficult and contested of such memory competitions is the one between Holocaust memory and the memories of lyric essays colonialism which seem separated today by what W.E. Different Topics! Dubois in another context once called the narrative language, color line.

In debates about the politics of memory, we must avoid such vertical hierarchy of past sufferings in which one kind of memory tries to different, supplant another. Here memory discourse can learn from legal developments. The negotiation of indigenous rights within the framework of nation and constitution, as it has slowly evolved in ap psychology essay questions Canada or Colombia, may indeed provide a theoretical model for reconciliation as opposed to irreconcilability and fierce competition. Different Essay Topics! The task is to recognize a universal (and un-natural) dimension in between manuscript and research paper systemic oppression and essay human suffering rather than pitting one kind of memory against another. There is no doubt that in our time memory politics and human rights can be more intimately connected than ever. Ap Psychology Questions! Indeed, it is a mark of human rights discourse today that it feeds on memory discourse while often disparaging it. The continuing strength of memory politics remains essential for securing human rights in the future.

But as much as its presence is essential for establishing human rights regimes where they do not yet exist, we know that memory may also nurture human rights violations just as HR in some forms is open to essay, political abuse. Mythic and imagined pasts are mobilized to support aggressively nationalist, fundamentalist, or religion-based politics (post-communist Yugoslavia, India). And Research Paper! But even when memory does support human rights, we may want to probe further. Different! With the fading of the social and political utopias of the 20th century—the imagined futures of fascism, communism, and global capitalist modernization—and the mountains of corpses the essay, dictatorships of this dark century have bequeathed to our remembrance, it sometimes seems as if too much of the struggle for human rights focuses on righting past wrongs via redress or restitution claims. Different Essay Topics! Securing the past may be as perilous an undertaking as trying to difference manuscript, secure the future via utopian projections. If human rights activism were to become a prisoner of the past and of memory politics, it would only mean that it will always have come too late. But if it becomes prisoner of globalization the outcome will be equally problematic. Let me conclude with a note on immigration, a rights issue that concerns me greatly as a dual citizen of Germany and the US.

I have argued elsewhere that Holocaust and colonialism discourse should be considered as related to each other rather than remaining reciprocally hostile. But the different topics, linkage of Holocaust and colonialism should also be extended to the contemporary problem of immigration politics in the leading Western nations. Algeria and Morocco are for France, what India and Pakistan are for England; Indonesia for Holland; the Muslim countries formed out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire for Europe and for the US. Immigration politics displaces the problem of colonial rule in postcolonial times to the former colonial powers themselves. This creates new constellations which are articulated and resume wow install used in the contexts of pasts that refuse to different essay, disappear: the Turks as the new Jews of between and research paper Germany; neo-colonial rule in the banlieue of Paris; little Guantanamos in the dispersed for-profit detention centers for “illegal,” mostly Latin American immigrants in the US. In both Europe and the US, the color line does not only exist in certain discourses antagonistic to each other, but in social reality itself.

Given the urgency of such problems, we need artistic works that challenge the lingering of essay racialized and displaced colonial practices in the metropole itself, works that in their aesthetic figuration can do justice to the complexity of the situation. Let me conclude with one recent example, local in one way here in narrative essay about language Latin America, but global in a more important dimension: Doris Salcedo’s Shibboleth , a 2008 installation in London’s Tate Modern. In this work, the theme of immigration as exclusion and different essay denial of rights is articulated in relation to language and visuality as a widening crack in the floor all along the Tate’s old turbine hall. The concrete walls of the crevice are ruptured by a steel mesh fence, not the barbed wire of the Nazi camps, but the steel mesh of today’s border fortifications and the concrete of the walls intended to keep the barbarians outside—whether in Israel or at the Mexican-American border. Shibboleth is the biblical word that cannot be pronounced correctly by the foreigners and that divides the world into friend and foe with deadly consequence.

Biblical past and the contemporary present clash in narrative essay learning language this work which reflects in powerful visual and architectural language on the continuities between colonialism, racism, and immigration. The arc does not only lead from the Holocaust and colonialism to Bosnia, Rwanda and Darfur, but also to migration and the practices of a denial of rights and different essay topics of fundamental asymmetries of power among human beings that will perhaps one day become part of a politics of memory. Difference Manuscript And Research! One wishes it were that already now. Andreas Huyssen is the Villard Professor of German and Comparative Literature at essay, Columbia University. He is founding director of Columbia’s Institute for Comparative Literature and Society (1998-2003) and one of the founding editors of New German Critique (since 1974), the leading journal of German studies in the U.S. His books include After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (1986), Postmoderne—Zeichen eines kulturellen Wandels , co-edited with Klaus Scherpe (1986), Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (1995), and Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory (2003). He is the about language, editor, most recently, of Other Cities, Other Worlds: Urban Imaginaries in a Globalizing Age (2008). Essay! His work has been translated into wow install, many languages worldwide. Arendt, Hannah.

1973. The Origins of Totalitarianism . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Assman, Jan. 1995. Collective Memory and Cultural Identity. Different Essay Topics! New German Critique 65: 125-134. Benhabib, Seyla. 2002. The Claims of Culture . Princeton: Princeton UP. Benhabib, Seyla. 2004.

The Rights of Others . Wow Install! New York: Cambridge UP. Benjamin, Walter. 1969. “Theses on the Philosophy of History,” in Ill uminations . Essay Topics! New York: Schocken Books. Bloch, Ernest. 1975. Naturrecht und menschliche Wurde . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Cohen, Jean L. 2008. Rethinking Human Rights, Democracy, and Sovereignty in the Age of Globalization. Essay About Learning A New! Political Theory 36 (4): 578- 606. Diner, Dan. 2000.

Beyond the Conceivable: Studies on Germany, Nazism, and the Holocaust . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of different topics California Press. Habermas, Jurgen. 2004. Der gespaltene Westen . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Habermas, Jurgen. 2009. “Zur Legitimation durch Menschenrechte,” in Die Politische Theorie . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Hobsbawm, Eric J. and lyric essays Terence O. Ranger, eds.

1983. The Invention of different essay topics Tradition. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Horkheimer, Max. 1993. Difference And Research! “Beginnings of the Bourgeois Philosophy of History,” in Between Philosophy and Social Science. Massachusetts: First MIT Press Paperback edition. Horkheimer, Max and Theodor W. Different Essay! Adorno. 2002. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Huyssen, Andreas.

2003. Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Levy, Daniel and essay learning a new language Nathan Sznaider. 2006. Holocaust Memory in the Global Age . Philadelphia: Temple University. Rothberg, Michael. Different! 2009. Multidirectional Memory . Stanford: Stanford UP. Sarlo, Beatriz. Statements About Ronald! 2005.

Tiempo pasado: cultura de la memoria y giro subjetivo: una discusion . Argentina: Siglo XXI Ediciones. Sontag, Susan. 2003. Regarding the Pain of different Others . New York: Picador. Ugresic, Dubravka. 1998.

The Culture of Lies: Antipolitical Essays . University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. Copyright © 1998–2017 Hemispheric Institute of Performance and mathematical with e Politics.

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Specifications for Thesis Preparation. This entire document can be read from beginning to end or particular sections can be quickly referenced by different essay, using the table of contents. This guide has been prepared by the MIT Libraries, as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs, to assist students and faculty in the preparation of theses. The Institute is committed to the preservation of questions each student's thesis because it is different essay both a requirement for the MIT degree and a record of original research that contains information of wow install lasting value. The requirements in this guide apply to all theses and have been specified both to facilitate the care and dissemination of the thesis and to assure the preservation of the archival paper copy. Individual departments may dictate more stringent requirements.

Questions not answered in this guide should be referred to the appropriate department officer or to the MIT Libraries (14N-118, [email protected], 617-253-5136). The academic department is required to deliver the proper number of essay copies of the thesis to the MIT Libraries within one month after the thesis statements about reagan last day of the term in which the different thesis was submitted (Faculty Regulation 2.72). One copy is kept as part of the permanent archival collection, and resume the other copy is reserved for future disposition. An online catalog record, which includes the thesis abstract, is prepared for all theses deposited in the MIT Libraries. Different! This information appears in wow install, Barton, our online catalog, which is accessible to essay researchers at other institutions through the Internet, as well as in the OCLC database WorldCat, an online international bibliographic system available to libraries and individuals worldwide. PhD and ScD theses are also listed (with abstract) in exam essay questions, ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ) and Dissertation Abstracts International ( DAI ). For each thesis received by the Libraries, a digital version is created and different essay topics made publicly available in [email protected] (http://libraries.mit.edu/mit-theses). Copies of theses may be obtained through the MIT Libraries' Document Services (14-0551, 617-253-5668; [email protected]; http://libraries.mit.edu/docs/).

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Additional copies of the different topics thesis may be required by the department. All theses should be turned in to the appropriate departmental office; the office will deliver the thesis statements about theses to the MIT Libraries within a month after the last day of term. In this guide, the copy that remains in the Archives is different called the first copy . Additional copies required for the divisional libraries (see following section) are referred to as the lyric essays second and (possibly) third copies . The department may ask for copies in addition to different essay topics those required for the Libraries. The student may, of thesis statements about reagan course, keep personal copies. Not all departments send bachelor's theses to the Archives. If your department does, only different essay topics, one copy should be submitted to the Archives. Please check the requirements of your department. Undergraduate students do not pay a library processing fee. Number of copies: Normally, two copies are required for the Libraries €“ one for the Archives and a second for the appropriate divisional library. A third copy is terms required only different, when a student is lyric essays submitting the same thesis to departments or programs from two separate MIT schools (e.g., Management and Engineering).

If the departments are in the same school (e.g., Engineering Systems and topics Mechanical Engineering), only two copies are required. Doctoral theses only: A completed UMI/ProQuest form (see section below) with an additional copy of the resume wow install title page and abstract stapled to essay it is also required. Most MIT theses are written by a single author. In those cases where two or more students are responsible, only a single copy (for undergraduates) or set of copies (for graduate students) should be submitted to the Archives. The title page of the thesis should bear the signatures of all authors and thesis supervisors. (Permission to undertake collaborative thesis research must be obtained in advance from the Dean of Graduate Education [3-138, 617-253-4860, http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/joint-theses). Submission of Doctoral Thesis Abstract to International Database: UMI/ ProQuest Dissertations Theses Database. Abstracts of mathematical terms starting e all doctoral theses (PhD and ScD) will be submitted for different essay, inclusion in ProQuest Dissertations Theses , an online database used by researchers around the world. PQDT can be searched by author name, subject terms, and all words in the title and abstract. Manuscript! All MIT abstracts will contain a note stating that copies of the full text are available from [email protected] or the MIT Libraries' Document Services. Abstracts should be no longer than 350 words; longer abstracts will be edited by UMI/ProQuest.

Please complete the different UMI/ProQuest form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/umi-proquest-form.pdf, staple it to a copy of your title page and abstract, and submit it with your thesis. The form may printed and completed by hand or opened and filled out in Acrobat Reader, then printed. When filling out the form, choose the appropriate subject categories from the list provided with the form. Starting E! Please take care both in choosing terms and writing them (if filling out the form by hand). Subject-based access to your thesis will depend on the accuracy of the topics information you provide and mathematical terms with e the precision with which it is transcribed by UMI/ProQuest. Different Essay! It is especially important that your name appear on this form exactly as it does on the title page and abstract of your thesis. CHANGES AFTER SUBMISSION OF THESIS.

All change made to a thesis, after the thesis has been submitted to the MIT Libraries by the student's department, must have prior approval from the Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education. Mathematical Terms Starting! When the purpose is to different topics correct significant errors in content, the student should create an errata sheet using the form and instructions at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/errata-sheet.pdf and difference between obtain approval from both thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. If the purpose of change is to excise classified, proprietary, or confidential information, the essay topics student should fill out the application form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/page-substitution.pdf and between have the request approved by the thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for different essay topics, Graduate or Undergraduate Education. Students and supervisors should vet thesis content carefully before submission to avoid both scenarios whenever possible. Students receiving advanced degrees from MIT are required to ap psychology exam questions pay a library processing fee: $115.00 for different topics, a doctoral thesis ($50 for thesis, processing and $65 for essay topics, the UMI/ProQuest abstract fee) and $50.00 for all other advanced-degree theses.

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Personal copies may be bound in hard or soft cover at MIT CopyTech or many commercial binderies in the Boston area. The Institute's policy concerning ownership of thesis copyright is covered in Rules and different Regulations of the Faculty , 2.73. (http://web.mit.edu/faculty/governance/rules/2.70.html) and MIT Policies and Procedures 13.1.3 (http://web.mit.edu/policies/13/13.1.html#sub3). The following are guidelines to assist the student in between manuscript and research, determining who holds ownership of the thesis copyright: The Institute will hold ownership of the copyrights to theses if: the thesis research is performed in topics, whole or in part by the student with financial support in essay about a new language, the form of wages, salary, stipend, or grant from funds administered by the Institute. the thesis research is performed in whole or in different essay, part utilizing equipment or facilities provided to the Institute under conditions that impose copyright restrictions.. In general, students may retain ownership of thesis copyrights when the only form of support is (a) teaching assistantships (the duties of which do not include research activities) and thesis ronald reagan (b) NSF and NIH traineeships and fellowships (although the trainee or fellow may be required to grant certain publishing rights to NSF or NIH). Actual determination of different essay a student's status is exam essay questions made by reference to the account from which the different essay topics student receives support. Questions regarding restrictions imposed on any of the Institute's facilities or equipment may be addressed to the administrative officer of the laboratory or department or to mathematical terms with the appropriate contract administrator in the Office of Sponsored Programs (http://osp.mit.edu/). Specific questions on permission to copyright should be referred to the Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, [email protected]). When copyright ownership is held by the student, the student must, as condition of a degree award, grant royalty-free permission to essay the Institute to reproduce and publicly distribute copies of the thesis, and must place the following legend on the thesis title page: The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document in whole or in lyric essays, part in any medium now known or hereafter created.

For such theses, requests for permission to use portions of the thesis in third-party publications must be addressed to and granted by the student author. When copyright is held by the Institute, students and different topics third parties should contact the MIT Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, [email protected]) to obtain permission to reuse thesis content in other publications. Lyric Essays! However, the different essay topics student is lyric essays authorized to post electronic versions of the student€™s own thesis, in whole or in part, on the World Wide Web. Any further publication of the thesis in whole or in different essay topics, part shall be made only with the authorization of the Technology Licensing Office, in consultation with the head of the resume department or course in which the student was registered when the thesis was accepted. Regardless of whether copyright is held by different, the student or the Institute, the MIT Libraries publish the thesis electronically in [email protected] (http://dspace.mit.edu) allowing open access viewing and limited downloading/ printing. Students may request a waiver of Institute copyright by written application to the Institute's Technology Licensing Office (http://tlo.mit.edu/). The waiver shall be granted only if the retained rights of the student as described in this guide are inadequate for the student€™s needs and if a license from the Institute to the student would also be inadequate. Any such waiver of the Institute€™s copyright shall be subject to a royalty-free grant from the student to the Institute to publicly distribute copies of the thesis, in whole or in part. The student must also place the legend above on the thesis title page.

Implementation: How to Copyright a Thesis. Each student should place the appropriate copyright notice on resume wow install the thesis. Copyright notice consists of four elements: the symbol c with a circle around it © and/or the word copyright, the topics year of publication (the year in which the degree is to be awarded), the name of the narrative about language copyright owner, and the words All rights reserved. These four elements should appear together on essay topics the title page (or verso of the title page). student is copyright owner: © 2008 Jane Doe. All rights reserved. Institute is copyright owner: © 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.

See sample title pages. A copyright notice should also appear on any non-paper material (e.g., DVD or CD) included with a thesis. Use of Previously Published Material in a Thesis. Each student is responsible for obtaining permission, if necessary, to include previously published material in lyric essays, the thesis. Different Topics! This applies to most third-party materials (i.e., those created and mathematical terms with e published by someone else); it may also apply to the student€™s own previous work. Different Essay! If, for example, a student has already published part of the thesis as a journal article and, as a condition of publication, has assigned title to the journal's publisher, the student has no further rights in the article. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher to include the article, or any portion of it, in the thesis.

Similarly, permission must be obtained to include papers written while the student was employed by a commercial company or non-profit organization if title belongs to the company or organization. A sample permission letter can be obtained from the Office of the General Counsel (https://ogc.mit.edu/frequently-asked-questions). If the student knows, prior to publication or employment, that such material will be included in a thesis, he or she may wish to retain title to the material or to reserve sufficient rights to use the material. Further information is available at wow install, Scholarly Publishing @MIT Libraries (http://libraries.mit.edu/scholarly/) or by contacting [email protected] for more information. POLICY FOR TEMPORARY RESTRICTIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THESES. Thesis research should be undertaken in light of MIT's policy of open research and the free interchange of information.

Written notification of different topics patent holds and other restrictions must reach the Institute Archives before the thesis in question is received, since under normal circumstances all theses are open and available for public inspection once they have been received by resume, the Archives. When there is good reason for delaying the distribution of a thesis, the procedures below should be followed. For additional details on procedures for temporary restrictions, please see Graduate Policies and Procedures at http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/restrictions-on-thesis-publication/. When MIT holds the rights to different topics any intellectual property contained in a thesis, students and their supervisors must work with the MIT Technology Licensing Office (http://web.mit.edu/tlo/www/) to determine if a patent application is to be filed. Resume! If so, the Technology Licensing Office will notify the Institute Archives, and the thesis will be withheld from distribution for up to three months. Topics! If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for wow install, Research, who will inform the different essay Archives if an essay about learning language extension is different topics approved. When a student holds the rights to wow install any intellectual property contained in essay topics, his or her thesis, application for permission to withhold a thesis must be made to the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses.

If the hold is granted, the dean will inform the Archives, and the thesis will be withheld for a period of three months. Terms With E! If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for essay topics, Research. A student should not embark without prior approval on a thesis that requires government restrictions. The Institute recognizes that certain government agencies which sponsor research may require that theses be submitted for security review before they can be placed in the Libraries or published. Occasionally, on completing a thesis, a student may believe that its distribution will jeopardize the privacy or safety of the author, other individuals, or organizations. If the thesis cannot be rewritten to remove the problematic material, the lyric essays author and supervisor should submit the thesis to the director of the program, who will prepare a recommendation for the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses, who will then consult with the Vice President for different essay, Research. The appropriate office will advise the Institute Archives of the restricted period. In all cases the restricted period should be kept to a minimum. The title page is always considered to be page 1, and every page must be included in the count regardless of whether a number is physically printed on a page. The entire thesis (including title page, prefatory material, illustrations, and reagan all text and appendices) must be paginated in one consecutive numbering sequence.

Theses should be prepared double-sided whenever possible. In a double-sided thesis, both sides of different every page (starting with the title page and including any pages that have been left blank) must be accounted for in the lyric essays numbering sequence. Therefore, in a double-sided thesis, odd-numbered pages are always on the right and even-numbered pages on essay the left. Pages with illustrations may be single-sided, but both sides should be counted. Lyric Essays! Single-sided theses should be numbered only on the front of every sheet. When using thesis templates on Athena, use caution and verify that the pagination requirements are being met. Your work will be a more valuable research tool for other scholars if it can be located easily. Search engines use the words in the title, and sometimes other descriptive words, to locate works.

Therefore, be sure to different topics select a title that is a meaningful description of the content of your manuscript; and when possible, use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, etc., which do not appear on most computer keyboards and would make your title more difficult to search. The Effects of Ion Implantation and Annealing on the Properties of difference manuscript and research paper Titanium Silicide [not TiSi 2 ] Films on Silicon Substrates Radiative Decays of the J/Psi [not J/ ψ] to Two Pseudoscalar Final States The title page of the first copy must bear the original signatures of the author, supervisor, and chairman; a photocopy of the essay signed title page is acceptable for the second copy. The title page should contain the title, name of the author, previous degrees, the degree(s) to be awarded at MIT, the date the degree(s) will be conferred (June, September, or February only), copyright notice, and appropriate names and thesis statements ronald signatures. For candidates receiving two degrees, both degrees to be awarded should appear on the title page. For candidates receiving degrees across departments or programs, all degrees and departments or programs should appear on the title page and the signatures of both department heads/committee chairmen are required. Different Topics! Whenever there are co-supervisors, both signatures are required.

Each thesis offered for a graduate degree must include an abstract, preferably one single-spaced page, but never more than two pages (generally less than 350 words). Exam Questions! The abstract should be thought of as a brief descriptive summary rather than a lengthy introduction to essay the thesis. Doctoral abstracts are submitted for inclusion in UMI/ProQuest€™s Dissertation Abstracts International and ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ). Essay Questions! Doctoral candidates should keep their abstracts under 350 words. Longer abstracts will be edited and different essay shortened by UMI/ProQuest . Databases such as PQDT provide full-text searching of lyric essays abstracts, so the presence of significant key words in a short abstract will facilitate access. The abstract should immediately follow the title page. Biographical Note and Acknowledgment. Although not a requirement, each thesis may contain a short biography of the candidate, including institutions attended and dates of essay attendance, degrees and honors, titles of publications, teaching and professional experience, and other matters that may be pertinent.

An acknowledgment page may also be included. These sections may be single-spaced. Please note that your thesis will be publicly available online at [email protected], which is regularly crawled and indexed by Google and other search-engine providers.. The style of quotations, footnotes, and bibliographic references may be prescribed by your department. If your department does not prescribe a style or specify a style manual, choose one and be consistent. Further information is available on the web site of the MIT Writing Center (http://cmsw.mit.edu/writing-and-communication-center/citation-formats/). NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES. Whenever possible, notes should be placed at the bottom of the appropriate page or in thesis about ronald, the body of the text.

Notes should conform to the style appropriate to the discipline. If notes appear at different topics, the bottom of the page, they should be single-spaced and included within the specified margins (see section below). It may be appropriate to place bibliographic references either at the end of the starting with e chapter in which they occur or at the end of the different topics thesis.. The same paper size and quality, pagination, margins, notes, and illustration requirements apply to appendices. They support the research in your thesis and should be as readable and reproducible as the rest of your work.

Page numbering should continue the about reagan consecutive pagination of the essay thesis. For the main body of the text, including appendices and front matter, font size should be at least 11-point and statements about reagan should not be script or italic. Italics may, however, be used for short quotations or to highlight variables in different essay, an equation, for example. Notes and the text in tables, etc., should not be smaller than 10-point. Top, bottom, and both side margins must be at paper, least an inch wide (1) to allow for binding and trimming. All information (text headings, notes, and illustrations), excluding page numbers , must be within the different topics text area. Theses should be prepared using both sides of the paper (double-sided) whenever possible. Oversize sheets must be folded to reagan come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in essay, during the binding procedure. The text of the ap psychology exam thesis may be single- double- or one-and-a-half-spaced. The abstract, biography, notes, bibliography, and acknowledgment should be single-spaced. If you are writing your thesis on different essay topics Athena, follow the formatting and ap psychology exam essay typeface instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers on different essay topics any Athena workstation.

If you are preparing your thesis on Athena, follow the instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers. Lyric Essays! When using Athena templates, be sure the format conforms to the required specifications, especially for the title page and pagination. Different Essay Topics! Final copies should be printed on the printer Thesis (11-004), which is stocked with acid-neutral, Libraries-approved thesis paper. First copy: For the first copy the paper must be chosen for ronald reagan, its permanence and different topics durability. This is the copy that should bear the original signatures. The paper must be (a) acid€‘neutral or acid-free, (b) watermarked, (c) at least 20-lb. weight, and (d) contain at least 25% cotton.

It may contain some post-consumer waste (pcw) recycled material. The following 20€‘lb. watermarked acid€‘neutral papers are examples of those that are acceptable. Mohawk Via Bright White (available at CopyTech, 11-004) Xerox Image Elite Crane's Thesis Paper Hammermill Bond Strathmore Bond. Second copy: The paper for exam, the second copy should be (a) acid-neutral or acid-free, (b) at least 20-lb. weight, and (c) contain 25% cotton. It need not be watermarked. The following are not acceptable for either copy: MIT bond, erasable paper, or regular paper from photocopy machines. Topics! The paper used should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other.

If there are any questions about the acceptability of paper, contact the Institute Archives ([email protected], 617-253-5136). The standard size for theses is 8˝ by 11 inches (see section on oversized pages). DOUBLE-SIDED OR SINGLE-SIDED PRINTING. Double-sided printing is strongly recommended. However, the paper should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on terms starting the other side. A single-sided illustration page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides. When creating a double-sided copy, be sure that the page numbers are either in the center or on the outside edge of each page. Charts, graphs, tables, etc., should be reduced whenever possible to an 8˝-by-11-inch format. Topics! If material is not reducible, oversize sheets must be folded to come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in during the binding procedure.

Acceptable 11-by-17-inch watermarked paper can be requested at CopyTech (11-004). Students may print their theses in full color. Theses containing color figures, illustrations, and photos will be scanned in color and converted to color PDFs for inclusion in [email protected] Please be aware that heavily saturated color graphics may €śbleed through€ť and compromise legibility for double-sided pages. In such cases, use of single-sided printing or heavier, less transparent paper stock is advised.. Pages containing photographs should be numbered as regular pages. A single-sided photograph page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides. All graphics must respect the lyric essays 1€ť margins. Digital and magnetic materials such as cassette tapes, CDs, and different topics DVDs may accompany the ap psychology questions written text of the thesis; one should accompany each copy of the thesis submitted . No guarantee can be given that the Libraries can preserve, reproduce, or make this information available in the future. Therefore, when feasible, the information that is in these forms should also be represented in the written text of the different topics thesis.

A label containing the author's name, the narrative essay about learning date of the thesis, and the copyright notice must be applied to all material in non-paper format. The label should also include any relevant technical information, such as software or hardware specifications. Is the author€™s full name on the title page and the abstract? (See sections on essay title page and abstract.) Before submitting to your department. Are all necessary signatures on the title page of each copy? (See section on title page ) Institute Archives and Special Collections. Technology Licensing Office. One Cambridge Center. Cambridge, MA 02142.

Office of the General Counsel. Office of the Dean for Graduate Education. Dean for mathematical terms starting e, Undergraduate Education. Office of the Vice President for Research. Prepared by the MIT Libraries.

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A New SAT Aims to Realign With Schoolwork. Saying its college admission exams do not focus enough on the important academic skills, the different topics, College Board announced on Wednesday a fundamental rethinking of the SAT, ending the longstanding penalty for guessing wrong, cutting obscure vocabulary words and making the wow install, essay optional. The president of the College Board, David Coleman, criticized his own test, the SAT, and its main rival, the ACT, saying that both had “become disconnected from the work of our high schools.” In addition, Mr. Coleman announced programs to help low-income students, who will now be given fee waivers allowing them to apply to different essay topics four colleges at no charge. Thesis About! And even before the new exam is introduced, in the spring of different essay topics, 2016, the College Board, in partnership with Khan Academy, will offer free online practice problems and instructional videos showing how to solve them. The changes are extensive: The SAT’s rarefied vocabulary challenges will be replaced by a new language, words that are common in college courses, like “empirical” and different topics, “synthesis.” The math questions, now scattered across many topics, will focus more narrowly on linear equations, functions and proportional thinking.

The use of a calculator will no longer be allowed on lyric essays, some of the math sections. The new exam will be available on paper and computer, and the scoring will revert to the old 1,600-point scale — from 2,400 — with top scores of 800 on math and 800 on what will now be called “evidence-based reading and writing.” The optional essay, which strong writers may choose to do, will have a separate score. Different Topics! Once the pre-eminent college admissions exam, the SAT has lost ground to the ACT, which is based more directly on high school curriculums and is now taken by a slightly higher number of students. Last year, 1.8 million students took the resume, ACT and 1.7 million the essay, SAT. Resume Wow Install! The new SAT will not quell all criticism of standardized tests. Essay! Critics have long pointed out — and Mr.

Coleman admits — that high school grades are a better predictor of college success than standardized test scores. More colleges have in recent years become “test optional,” allowing students to forgo the exams and and research, submit their grades, transcripts and different essay topics, perhaps a graded paper. For many students, Mr. Thesis Reagan! Coleman said, the tests are mysterious and “filled with unproductive anxiety.” And, he acknowledged, they inspire little respect from different essay topics, classroom teachers: only 20 percent, he said, see the college-admission tests as a fair measure of the work their students have done. Mr. Coleman came to the College Board in 2012, from a job as an architect of the wow install, Common Core curriculum standards, which set out the content that students must master at each level and are now making their way into school. He announced plans to revise the SAT a year ago and almost from the start expressed dissatisfaction with the essay that was added in 2005. He said he also wanted to make the essay topics, test reflect more closely what students did in high school and, perhaps most important, rein in the intense coaching and tutoring on how to take the test that often gave affluent students an advantage. “It is time for the College Board to say in resume wow install a clearer voice that the culture and practice of costly test preparation that has arisen around admissions exams drives the perception of inequality and injustice in our country,” Mr. Coleman said Wednesday. “It may not be our fault, but it is our problem.” While test-preparation companies said the SAT was moving in the right direction, with more openness and more free online test preparation, the changes were unlikely to diminish the demand for their services. “People will always want an edge,” said Seppy Basili, a vice president of Kaplan Test Prep. “And test changes always spur demand.” The suggested changes were well received among many educators, but Mr. Coleman’s comments about the ACT drew harsh words from an executive of that company. “David Coleman is not a spokesman for the ACT, and I acknowledge his political gamesmanship but I don’t appreciate it,” said Jon Erickson, president of ACT’s education division. “It seems like they’re mostly following what we’ve always done.” Philip Ballinger, the director of undergraduate admissions at the University of Washington, said he admired Mr.

Coleman’s heartfelt “damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead” approach to improving the SAT and appreciated the effort to tame the test-prep industry. “It’s absurd, and topics, that’s the nicest thing I can call it, how much test prep has grown and manuscript and research, how guilt-ridden parents have become about different, trying to prepare their kids for the test,” Mr. Ballinger said. “If this helps test prep become learning, not gaming, well, shoot, that’s great. “ Some changes will make the new SAT more like the ACT, which for narrative essay the last two years has outpaced the essay topics, SAT in test takers. Narrative About Language! Thirteen states administer the ACT to different topics all public high school juniors, and three more are planning to do so. The ACT has no guessing penalty, and its essay is optional. It also includes a science section, and while the SAT is resume not adding one, the redesigned reading test will include a science passage. Essay! But beyond the particulars, Mr. Coleman emphasized that the resume wow install, three-hour exam — three hours and 50 minutes with the essay — had been redesigned with an eye toward reinforcing the skills and different essay topics, evidence-based thinking that students should be learning in high school, and moving away from thesis statements ronald, a need for different essay topics test-taking tricks and strategies. Mathematical Terms With! Sometimes, students will be asked not just to select the right answer but to justify it by choosing the different essay topics, quotation from a text that provides the best supporting evidence for their answer.

The revised essay, in particular, will shift in essay questions that direction. Students now write about their experiences and opinions, with no penalty for incorrect assertions, even egregiously wrong ones. In the future, though, students will receive a source document and be asked to analyze it for its use of evidence, reasoning and essay topics, persuasive or stylistic technique. The text will be different on thesis statements about reagan, each exam, but the essay task will remain constant. Topics! The required essay never entirely caught on with college admissions officers. Many never figured the wow install, score into different, the admission decision and looked at narrative about learning a new the actual essays only rarely, as a raw writing sample to help detect how much parents, consultants and counselors had edited and polished the essay submitted with the application. Different Essay! These will be among the changes in between manuscript the new SAT, starting in essay the spring of 2016: ¦ Instead of arcane “SAT words” (“depreciatory,” “membranous”), the vocabulary definitions on the new exam will be those of words commonly used in college courses, such as “synthesis” and “empirical.” ¦ The essay, required since 2005, will become optional. Those who choose to write an essay will be asked to read a passage and analyze the ways its author used evidence, reasoning and stylistic elements to build an argument. ¦ The guessing penalty, in which points are deducted for incorrect answers, will be eliminated. ¦ The overall scoring will return to the old 1,600-point scale, based on a top score of 800 in reading and math. The essay will have a separate score. ¦ Math questions will focus on three areas: linear equations; complex equations or functions; and ratios, percentages and proportional reasoning.

Calculators will be permitted on lyric essays, only part of the different essay topics, math section. ¦ Every exam will include, in the reading and writing section, source documents from a broad range of disciplines, including science and social studies, and on some questions, students will be asked to select the quotation from the text that supports the lyric essays, answer they have chosen. ¦ Every exam will include a reading passage either from one of the nation’s “founding documents,” such as the Declaration of Independence or the Bill of Rights, or from one of the important discussions of such texts, such as the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s “Letter From Birmingham Jail.” A version of this article appears in print on March 6, 2014, on Page A1 of the New York edition with the headline: A New SAT Aims to Realign With Schoolwork. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page.

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The Customer agrees that the details provided at the time of placing their Order and making payment may be stored on the UK Study Help’s secure database, on the understanding that these details will not be shared with any third party The UK Study Help agrees that they will not disclose any personal information provided by the Customer other than as required to do so by any lawful authority, and/or to pursue any fraudulent transactions The UK Study Help operates a privacy policy which complies fully with the about reagan requirements of the Data Protection Act. Essay Topics. The UK Study Help’s privacy policy is available on the UK Study Help’s websites and resume a copy can be provided on request. The Customer may not request amendments to their Order specification after payment has been made or a deposit has been taken and different topics the Order has been assigned to thesis ronald reagan, an Assignment Editing Expert The Customer may provide the different essay topics Assignment Editing Expert with additional supporting information shortly after full payment or a deposit has been taken, provided that this does not add to or conflict with the details contained in narrative essay learning a new language their original Order specification If the Customer provides additional information after full payment or a deposit has been taken and this does substantially conflict with the details contained in the original Order specification, the UK Study Help may at their discretion either obtain a quote for the changed specification or reallocate the Order, as soon as is reasonable, to a different Assignment Editing Expert without consulting the Customer. The Customer understands that this may result in a delay in the delivery of their Work for which the UK Study Help will not be held responsible. Different Essay Topics. Under these circumstances, the ‘Completion on Time’ Guarantee will not be payable. The UK Study Help agrees that if the statements about ronald reagan Customer believes that their completed Work does not follow their exact instructions and/or the guarantees of the Assignment Editing Expert as set out on the UK Study Help website, the Customer may request amendments to the Work within 7 days of the delivery date, or longer if they have specifically paid to extend the different essay topics amendments period. About Learning. Such amendments will be made free of charge to the Customer The Customer is permitted to make one request, containing all details of the required amendments. Different Essay Topics. This will be sent to the Assignment Editing Expert for comment. If the request is reasonable, the Assignment Editing Expert will amend the Work and return it to narrative learning a new, the Customer within twenty-four hours. The Assignment Editing Expert may request additional time to complete the different topics amendments and this may be granted at the discretion of the Customer. If the UK Study Help agrees to refund the mathematical starting e Customer in full or part, this refund will be made using the credit or debit card that the Customer used to essay, make their payment initially.

If no such card was used (for example, where the Customer deposited the fee directly into the UK Study Help’s bank account) the UK Study Help will offer the Customer a choice of refund via bank transfer or credit towards a future order. All refunds are made at the discretion of the UK Study Help. Unless payment is taken at the time of lyric essays, placing an order, once the UK Study Help has found a suitably qualified and experienced Assignment Editing Expert to undertake the topics Customer’s order, they will contact the Customer by essay, email to take payment. If, at their discretion, the UK Study Help accepts a deposit rather than the topics full value of the Order, the essay about learning language Customer acknowledges that the full balance will remain outstanding at different essay topics, all times and will be paid to the UK Study Help before the delivery date for the Work. Resume Wow Install. The Customer agrees that once an Order is different essay paid for then the Assignment Editing Expert allocated by the UK Study Help begins work on narrative language that Order, and that the Order may not be cancelled or refunded. Until payment or a deposit has been made and the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the essay topics Customer may choose to continue with the Order or to cancel the wow install Order at any time The Customer agrees to be bound by different essay, the UK Study Help’s refund policies and acknowledges that due to the highly specialized and difference between manuscript individual nature of the services that full refunds will only topics, be given in the circumstances outlined in these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in terms which event any refund or discount is given at the discretion of the different essay UK Study Help. UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and Essay papers to the students. Papers provided are only for mathematical with the reference purposes to essay topics, assist the terms with buyer by providing a guideline and topics the product provided is intended to be used for research or study purposes. The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the ap psychology exam questions copyright to different topics, the Work supplied through the UK Study Help’s services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and that the UK Study Help reserves the right to refuse supply of services to those suspected of such behavior.

The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for the provision of independent personalized research services in order to help students learn and advance educational standards, and about learning that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the Customer’s own or as anyone else’s, nor be handed in topics as the Customer’s own work, either in mathematical terms starting with whole or in part. In addition, the Customer undertakes not to carry out essay topics any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the Work and the Customer agrees to handle the Work in a way that fully respects the fact that the Customer does not hold the between manuscript and research paper copyright to the Work. The Customer acknowledges that if the UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the above rules that the UK Study Help has the right to refuse to carry out any further work for the person or organization involved and that the UK Study Help bears no liability for any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for remuneration or otherwise after its completion. The UK Study Help also undertakes that Work will not be placed on essay topics any website or essay bank after it has been completed. Simon Evans ( Student ) The manner UK study help has removed grammatical, spelling and different mistakes from difference paper my research paper, it modified into amazing. Robert Perry ( Student ) It's far absolutely a difficult mission for me to finish my assignments until the different essay professional consultants of UK study help.

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