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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and research, Tips. With the 2016 AP English Language and Composition exam approaching on Wednesday, May 11, it’s time to make sure that you’re familiar with all aspects of the career paper exam. In this article, I’ll give a brief overview of the test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the thesis methodology exam is scored, offer some strategies for studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips. The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself? That is the essence of cover letter for sap, rhetorical analysis. The exam has two parts: the first section is an hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice section that asks you questions on the rhetorical construction and techniques of a series of nonfiction passages. The second section is free response. It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and paper research methodology, then you’ll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays: one synthesizing several provided texts to create an argument, one analyzing a nonfiction passage for cover bi consultant its rhetorical construction, and one creating an original argument in response to a prompt.
You will have about 40 minutes to write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from essay to methodology essay—you can structure the 120 minutes as you wish. In the next sections I’ll go over each section of the children exam more closely—first multiple choice, and then free response. The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice. The multiple-choice section is paper methodology primarily focused on how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for their use of rhetorical devices and tools. You will be presented with 4-5 passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. “This passage is excerpted from a collection of essays on boating” or “This passage is excerpted from an essay about america culture essay written in 19th-century Haiti.” You will be asked somewhere from 10-15 questions per thesis research passage.
There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to encounter on the multiple-choice section of the essay culture exam. I’ve taken my examples from the sample questions in the “Course and Exam Description.” Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions! These questions are focused on verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. You can identify these questions from phrases like “according to” “refers,” etc. The best way to thesis methodology succeed on these questions is to go back and re-read the part of the about culture passage referred to very carefully. These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the author is implying without directly coming out and saying it.
These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on evidence from the passage. Which interpretation offered in the answers does the passage most support? You can identify questions like these from paper methodology words like “best supported,” ‘“implies,” “suggests,” “inferred,” and so on. Type 3: Overall Passage and Author Questions. These questions ask about overall elements of the passage or the author, such as the author’s attitude on the issue discussed, the purpose of the passage, the passage’s overarching style, the audience for the passage, and so on. You can identify these because they won’t refer back to french a specific moment in the text. For these questions, you’ll need to thesis research methodology think of the passage from how to an eei a “bird’s-eye view” and consider what all of the small details together are combining to say. Thesis Paper Research Methodology! Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Text. Some questions will ask you to describe the relationship between two parts of the text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines.
You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about french, a relationship implicitly, by saying something like “compared to the rest of the passage.” Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language. These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Thesis Paper! Essentially, why did the author choose to essay about use this simile or this metaphor? What is s/he trying to accomplish? You can generally identify questions like this because the question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in the text.
However, it might not be immediately apparent that the thesis paper research methodology phrase being referenced is figurative, so you may need to go back and paper, look at it in the passage to be sure of what kind of question you are facing. Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text. Still other questions will ask you to identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the author’s larger argument. What is the author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in the text identified in the question? You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves. You may also see words or phrases like “serves to” or “function.” These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author.
They will often specifically use the phrase “rhetorical strategy,” although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities. Some questions will ask you about stylistic moments in the text and the effect created by the those stylistic choices. What is the author evoking through their stylistic choices? You can identify these questions because they will generally mention “effect.” Some very important stylish effects going on here. The AP English Language and Composition Free Response.
The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. Paper Research! After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks. Because the about america first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the entire 15-minute reading period to read the thesis methodology sources and plan the first essay. Essay About! However, you may want to glance at paper, the other questions during the reading period so that ideas can percolate in watermarks paper the back of your mind as you work on the first essay. Thesis Research Methodology! Essay One: Synthesis. For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six-eight sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. You will then need to write an argumentative essay with support from the documents. If this sounds a lot like a DBQ, as on the history AP exams, that’s because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the letter documents. Paper Research Methodology! In the second essay, you’ll be presented with an excerpt from a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and asked to cover letter bi consultant write an essay analyzing the rhetorical strategies used to construct the passage’s argument.
You will also be given some orienting information—where the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at all), and to whom it was directed. In the third essay, you will be presented with an issue and asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. You will need to research support your position with evidence from your “reading, experience, and marathi essays children, observations.” This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument. How The AP Language and methodology, Composition Exam Is Scored. The multiple-choice section of the exam is essay about america culture worth 45% of thesis methodology, your score, and the free-response section is worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your score. And Responses! As on thesis research, other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5. This exam has a relatively low 5 rate.
Only 9.9% of an eei, test takers received a 5 last year, although 55% of students received a score of 3 or higher. In terms of how the raw score is obtained, the multiple-choice section is similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for every question you answer correctly, and there is no penalty for guessing. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from 0-9, based on thesis paper research, a rubric. The rubrics all assess, in career research paper general, 3 major things: How well you responded to the prompt: Did you completely and fully address all of the tasks presented in methodology the prompt, without misunderstanding any of them? How convincing and well-supported your argument was: Do you take a clear position that is not overly basic, simplistic, or obvious? Can you comprehensively support your position with evidence? Is your evidence well-chosen and well-explained? Do you tie everything back to your main argument? Have you thought through the cover letter bi consultant implications of your stated position? How strong your writing was: Does your writing clearly communicate your ideas?
Are your sentences not just grammatically correct, but sophisticated? Do you have a consistent style and a strong vocabulary? Is your paper well-organized and logically arranged? Each rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is methodology also different in nature, so the rubrics do have some differences. I’ll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here. Write An Eei! Essays earning a score of 9 meet the research criteria for the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in development, or impressive in their control of language. You did everything an 8 essay did, but either your argument is issues in jewish law essays and responses particularly compelling or well-supported, or your writing is particularly effective/sophisticated.
Essays earning a score of thesis research, 8 effectively address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by effectively synthesizing at least three of the sources. The evidence and cover for sap, explanations used are appropriate and convincing. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to research methodology control a wide range of the about america elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You thoroughly responded to thesis paper research methodology the prompt, successfully using (and citing) at least three of the essays for school children sources to research support your argument. You supported your argument in a persuasive way. Your writing is competent, although there may be some minor errors. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for research paper the score of research methodology, 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. Your essay did everything a 6 essay does but is either better explained, better argued, or better-written; however, it’s not quite up to an 8 level. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately address the about culture task in the prompt.
They develop their argument by adequately synthesizing at least three of the sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient. The language may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the paper methodology prose is clear. You responded to the prompt in a reasonable way. You used and cited at least 3 of the sources in creating your argument. You supported your argument in a reasonably persuasive way, although not as compellingly as an america 8 essay. Your writing is generally understandable. Essays earning a score of methodology, 5 address the how to write an eei task in paper research methodology the prompt. French Watermarks Paper! They develop their argument by synthesizing at least three sources, but how they use and methodology, explain sources is somewhat uneven, inconsistent, or limited. How To! The writer’s argument is generally clear, and the sources generally develop the thesis paper writer’s position, but the links between the sources and the argument may be strained.
The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You did respond to french watermarks paper the prompt. You used and cited at least 3 of the sources in thesis research creating your argument, but you did not use all of essay america, them particularly effectively. The connection between the documents and your argument is underdeveloped. Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of thesis paper research, 4 inadequately address the task in the prompt.
They develop their argument by synthesizing at on pharmacy, least two sources, but the evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The sources may dominate the thesis paper methodology essay’s attempts at development, the link between the argument and the sources may be weak, or the french paper student may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify the sources. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the thesis research elements of effective writing. You did not adequately respond to the prompt. Marathi Essays For School Children! You used and cited at least two sources, but you did not effectively link them to your argument. Your essay may summarize sources instead of truly taking a position, or you may have misread the sources. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in addressing the task.
They are less perceptive in thesis their understanding of the sources, or their explanation or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in marathi essays for school children their control of writing. Your essay did not adequately respond to the prompt. Your interpretation of the sources is incorrect or your argument is overly simplistic. Your writing is thesis paper overly basic or unclear.
Essays earning a score of gender issues in jewish law essays and responses, demonstrate little success in addressing the task in the prompt. They may merely allude to knowledge gained from methodology reading the sources rather than cite the marathi essays children sources themselves. Paper! These essays may misread the sources, fail to develop a position, or substitute a simpler task by write an eei, merely summarizing or categorizing the sources or by merely responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Essays that score 2 often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of paper methodology, development or organization, or a lack of control. You barely addressed the prompt. You may not cite any sources directly, misunderstand the sources, never take a position, or write things that are not relevant to career research the prompt. Writing is very weak, including grammatical issues.
Essays earning a score of methodology, 1 meet the criteria for gender in jewish the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in thesis paper their explanation, weak in their control of gender and responses, writing, or do not allude to or cite even one source. Thesis Paper! Your writing barely addressed the prompt. Gender Issues In Jewish Law Essays! Explanations are extremely simple, writing is incredibly weak, or sources are not used or cited at all. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in thesis paper research methodology a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! Time to marathi essays for school children synthesize this dough into some cookies. Essays earning a score of thesis research methodology, 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in paper addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in their development, or impressive in their control of language. You achieved everything an 8 essay did, but the research methodology quality of french watermarks paper, either your argument or your writing is exceptional. Thesis Methodology! Essays earning a score of 8 effectively analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument.
They develop their analysis with evidence and french paper, explanations that are appropriate and convincing, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You successfully and persuasively analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt in a way that is strongly supported by specific examples in paper research the text. Your writing is versatile and strong. Cover Letter! Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. You achieved everything a 6 essay did, but your argument was either better explained or supported or your writing was of a higher caliber. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. Paper Research! They develop their analysis with evidence and explanations that are appropriate and sufficient, referring to watermarks paper the passage explicitly or implicitly. Paper! The essay may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is in jewish and responses clear.
You successfully analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, using appropriate references to the text. Research! Your writing was generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 analyze the rhetorical strategies used to gender in jewish develop the author’s argument. Paper Research Methodology! The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. About America! The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, although evidence from the passage may have been poorly used or deployed.
Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the research passage, misrepresent the strategies the author uses, or may analyze these strategies insufficiently. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of effective writing. You did not analyze the rhetoric in the passage in a reasonable way. You may have misread the passage or misidentified the author’s rhetorical strategies, or you may simply not have supported your argument enough. Issues In Jewish And Responses! Textual evidence may not be appropriate to thesis paper research the task at hand.
Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in analyzing the rhetorical strategies the author uses to develop his/her argument. They are less perceptive in cover letter bi consultant their understanding of the passage or the author’s strategies, or the explanations or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. Paper Research Methodology! The essays may show less maturity in control of letter for sap bi consultant, writing. Thesis Paper Research! A 3 essay has similar weaknesses to a 4 essay, but displays less understanding of the how to write passage or the author’s intent. The writing may also be even more inconsistent or basic. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in analyzing the rhetorical strategies used by thesis paper methodology, the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, misread the passage, fail to analyze the cover letter strategies used, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation.
The essays often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of control. Paper Research! You barely analyzed the passage. You may have misunderstood the assigned task, seriously misread the passage or the author’s intent, or responded to write something other than the prompt. Writing is consistently weak. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in thesis paper their explanation, or weak in their control of language. A 1 essay is has similar weaknesses to a 2 essay, but is even more poorly supported or poorly written. French Watermarks Paper! Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English.
You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! Examine your texts closely! Argumentative Essay Rubric. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in their development, or particularly impressive in their control of paper methodology, language. You meet the criteria for an 8, plus you have either a particularly strong argument, strong support, or strong writing. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively develop a position on essay america, the issue presented. The evidence and thesis paper methodology, explanations used are appropriate and convincing, and marathi, the argument is thesis paper especially coherent and well developed. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to gender issues law essays and responses control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is thesis methodology not necessarily flawless.
You persuasively address the prompt, using strong evidence to gender in jewish law essays support your argument. Your writing is strong but not necessarily perfect. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide a more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. A 7 essay meets the criteria for thesis research methodology a 6 essay but is french paper either better-argued, better-supported, or more well-written. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately develop a position on paper, the issue presented. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient, and the argument is coherent and adequately developed.
The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. You reasonably address the prompt, using reasonable evidence to support your argument. Your writing is generally good but may have some mistakes. Paper On Pharmacy! Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in research diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You do address the prompt, although the support for essay about your argument may be sparse or not wholly convincing. Your writing is usually clear, but not always. Essays earning a score of thesis, 4 inadequately develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The argument may have lapses in gender law essays coherence or be inadequately developed.
The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of thesis paper research methodology, effective writing. You do not adequately address the prompt or form a strong argument. Your evidence may be sparse or unconvincing, or your argument may be too weak. How To An Eei! Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in developing a position on the issue.
The essays may show less maturity in control of writing. 3 essays meet the criteria for a 4 but have either weaker arguments or less clear writing. Essays earning a score of thesis paper, 2 demonstrate little success in developing a position on marathi for school children, the issue. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Thesis Paper Methodology! The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in marathi for school children writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of coherence and control. You barely addressed the assigned task. Your essay may misunderstand the prompt. Your evidence may be irrelevant or inaccurate. Your writing is weak on multiple levels. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in thesis methodology their explanation and career research paper, argument, weak in research methodology their control of language, or especially lacking in essays for school coherence. Thesis Paper Methodology! A 1 essay meets the gender law essays criteria for a 2 but the argument is even less developed or coherent.
Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in thesis paper methodology a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! As you can see, the synthesis rubric is focused on how you used sources, the analysis rubric is focused on how well you analyzed the text, and the argument rubric is focused on the strength of marathi essays for school, your argumentative writing without outside sources. Achieving a high score on an AP Lang and Comp essay is no easy feat. The average scores on essays last year were all under 5, with the Synthesis essay at about a 4.7 and the other two at just over 4. So even getting a 7 out of 9 is thesis paper methodology very impressive! You may feel that these rubrics are a little bit vague and frustratingly subjective. Essay! And, indeed, what separates a 6 from a 7, a 7 from an 8, an 8 from paper research methodology a 9 may not be entirely clear in every case, no matter the issues and responses pains taken by the College Board to standardize AP essay grading.
That said, the general principles behind the rubrics— respond to thesis the prompt, build a strong argument, and issues and responses, write well —hold up. If you can write strong essays in the time allotted, you’ll be well on your way to a score of paper research, 5 even if your essays got 7s instead of 8s. So what can you do to prepare yourself for the frenzy of AP English Lit activity? The best kind of frenzy is a puppy frenzy! Unlike its cousin, the AP English Literature and Composition exam, the cover letter bi consultant AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry.
So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to what to thesis paper research do to prepare. Luckily for write an eei you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for you! A major thing you can do to prepare for the AP Lang and Comp exam is to read nonfiction— particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and research, personal essays). Read a variety of non-fiction genres and topics, and pay attention to the following: What is the career paper on pharmacy author’s argument? What evidence do they use to thesis paper methodology support their position? What rhetorical techniques and strategies do they use to build their argument? Are they persuasive? What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them? Thinking about these questions with all the reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills.
Learn Rhetorical Terms and Strategies. Of course, if you’re going to be analyzing the nonfiction works you read for their rhetorical techniques and strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of issues law essays, rhetorical terms from your teacher, but here’s my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms (coming soon). If you want to review, there are many resources you could consult: Wikibooks offers a list of “Basic Rhetorical Strategies,” which explains some of the most fundamental rhetoric-related terms. MiraCosta college has another good list of some of the most important rhetorical strategies and thesis research, devices. French Watermarks! A heroic individual from Riverside schools in Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of rhetorical terms with examples. It’s 27 pages long, and you definitely shouldn’t expect to know all of these for the exam, but it’s a useful resource for learning some new terms.
Another great resource for thesis research methodology learning about rhetorical analysis and how rhetorical devices are actually used is the YouTube Channel Teach Argument, which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to paper Super Bowl commercials. It’s a fun way to think about rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures. Finally, a great book—which you might already use in your class—is “They Say, I Say.” This book provides an overview of rhetoric specifically for academic purposes, which will serve you well for AP preparation and beyond. You also need to practice argumentative and persuasive writing. In particular, you should practice the writing styles that will be tested on the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of writing in-depth, and creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and experience. Thesis Methodology! You should be doing lots of culture, writing assignments in research methodology your AP class to prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help.
You don’t necessarily need to turn all of the practice writing you do into polished pieces, either—just writing for yourself, while trying to address some of these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to try out research on pharmacy different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and developing your own writing style. Not the most auspicious start to an argumentative essay. Finally, you’ll need to practice specifically for research the exam format. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the “AP Course and Exam Description,” and old free-response questions on the College Board website. Unfortunately, the College Board hasn’t officially released any complete exams from previous years for for sap bi consultant the AP English Language and Composition exam, but you might be able to paper research find some that teachers have uploaded to school websites and watermarks paper, so on by Googling “AP Language complete released exams.” I also have a guide to AP Language and Composition practice tests (coming soon). Thesis Research Methodology! Once you’re prepped and ready to go, how can you do your best on the test? AP Language and Composition Test Day Tips.
Here are four key tips for gender issues in jewish law essays test-day success. You are one hundred percent success! When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for the first two free-response questions, interact with the text! Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the author’s argument, and anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the thesis methodology text. This will help you engage with the text and watermarks paper, make it easier to answer questions or write an essay about the passage. Think About Every Text’s Overarching Purpose and Argument. Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the author’s overarching purpose and argument. If you can confidently figure out what the author’s primary assertion is, it will be easier to trace how all of the other aspects of the text play into the author’s main point. The single most important thing you can do for yourself on the free-response section of the AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and outlining your essays before you start to write them. Unlike on some other exams, where the content is the most important aspect of the thesis research methodology essay, on the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores. About America! An outline will help you with all of these things.
You’ll be able to make sure each part of your argument is logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in a way that is clear and flows well. Anticipate and Address Counterarguments. Another thing you can do to give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and thesis, address them within your essay. This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders. Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to sender! The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. The exam has two sections. In Jewish! The first section is an hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice test based on the rhetorical techniques and strategies deployed in nonfiction passages. Research! The second section is a two-hour free-response section (with a 15-minute initial reading period) with three essay questions: one where you must synthesize given sources to make an original argument, one where you must rhetorically analyze a given passage, and one where you must create a wholly original argument about an issue with no outside sources given. You’ll receive one point for write every correct answer on the multiple-choice section of the exam, which is worth 45% of your score.
The free-response section is worth 55% of thesis paper research methodology, your score. For each free-response question, you’ll get a score based on a rubric from 1-9. Your total raw score will be converted to watermarks a scaled score from paper 1-5. Here are some test prep strategies for AP Lang: Read nonfiction with an eye for rhetoric Learn rhetorical strategies and techniques Practice writing to deploy rhetorical skills Practice for marathi for school the exam! Here are some test-day success tips: Interact with each passage you encounter! Consider every text’s overarching purpose and paper research methodology, argument. Keep track of time Plan your essays Identify and address counterarguments in your essays. With all of this knowledge, you’re ready to slay the AP English Language and Composition beast! Noble knight, prepare to slay the AP dragon!
Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on issues, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Critical Essays. The major problem in analyzing Longfellow as a poet in the early twenty-first century is disinterring what was once a great reputation. The values of Longfellow’s audience and time—metrical skill, the paper long narrative poem, and an abundance of paper, sentiment—are not those of modern poets. By the moderns Longfellow was judged, perhaps, too harshly and too unhistorically. Thesis Methodology? One can still recover some of Longfellow’s poetry, although what one sees in it today may not be what the nineteenth century valued. Longfellow’s use of American myths and legends—and the way he altered them—remains important. There had been tales and novels in which American Indians appeared before those of Longfellow. How To Write An Eei? Most prominently, there are the novels of thesis methodology, James Fenimore Cooper; however, in those novels, the letter Indian is never the hero and never has a central position in the narrative. There is thesis research methodology always a white man to lead or defeat the how to Indians, and the rites and ways of the Indian are seen as barbarous or passed over. Longfellow attempted to make the thesis paper research methodology American Indian an epic hero on the scale of Achilles or Odysseus.
He is, perhaps, less successful in his attempt to make Evangeline into an epic heroine; she does not approach the heroes of essay america, Homer or Vergil. She is all too accepting of the fate that overcomes her. Finally, in The Courtship of Miles Standish , Longfellow attempted to make the Puritan past of New England into a charming world where repression and the inculcation of dogma become a marriage triangle in which (in the classical comic mode) an old man is paper research methodology forced to relinquish a young woman to one who is more fitting. Longfellow’s social goals seem very similar to those of the British Victorian poets. Longfellow’s “Psalm of Life” proclaims: “Life is real! Life is earnest!/ And the grave is not its goal.” This earnest striving to improve oneself and society is at the heart of many of his poems. Even Evangeline’s tragedy is blotted out by a submission to a beneficent God who is working to make things better. There is a firm belief in progress. In addition, Longfellow portrays women in a very Victorian manner. They are pure and virginal, and their primary goal is to marathi for school follow their male leader. Longfellow’s vision, in methodology, fact, was primarily domestic.
The scenes between Evangeline and her father, Hiawatha and his mother, and Pilgrims Priscilla and french paper, John Alden all evoke the world of the thesis parlor. Longfellow is not really interested in essays for school children, the wildness of the Indian or even the thesis research tyranny of the British in driving out the Acadians. One hears nothing of the dark worlds of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville—or even Henry David Thoreau. In its place is the Angel of the House, the watermarks woman who is at research methodology the center of nearly all Longfellow’s works, who offers solace to all. One reason for his (once) nearly universal acceptance is his ability to gender issues and responses present the sometimes violent American past as easily accessible and paper methodology, comforting. Rather than make the American past dark and mysterious, as other writers had, he attempted to write an eei make it familiar. His own sunny boyhood, very early success, and European sojourns may have led him to portray America in such a genteel manner. First published: 1847. Type of work: Poem.
A woman loses her Acadian home and her betrothed, whom she finds only at methodology his death. Evangeline had its origin in an anecdote. A South Boston man named Connolly urged Nathaniel Hawthorne to write the tale of a young woman who was exiled from Nova Scotia and searched for her lost love, only to find him a moment before his death. Watermarks Paper? Hawthorne never picked up the subject, but Longfellow did. He believed that it was a wonderful tale of research methodology, a woman’s fidelity; it was a perfect subject for his gentle sensibility. Marathi For School Children? He also used historical sources, so the basic tale and the historical frame were given to thesis paper methodology the poet. Evangeline begins with a brief introduction in which Longfellow evokes the “forest primeval” that remains while the hearts “beneath it” have vanished. His poem has a “woman’s devotion” as its epic theme and an Eden, “Acadie, home of the happy,” as its beginning scene.
The village of Grand Pre in the land of Acadie is a “fruitful valley” filled with happy peasants from Normandy, France. Evangeline, “the pride of the gender in jewish law essays village,” is a maiden of seventeen living with her aged farmer father, Benedict. Her life is a pastoral one; she helps the workers in the field and thesis research, directs the household of her father. The first scene in the poem is the visit of law essays and responses, Basil the blacksmith and his son, Gabriel, to Benedict. Their purpose is to sign a contract of betrothal between Evangeline and Gabriel. The joyous occasion is threatened, however, by thesis research news of a British warship in the bay. Father LeBlanc believes that they are safe because they are “at peace.” Basil, however, objects, saying that in this world “might is the right of the strongest!” The old notary reconciles these positions with a tale about a maid unjustly accused of stealing a necklace of pearls; as she is on the scaffold about to be hanged, a bolt of thunder reveals the “necklace of pearls interwoven” in a magpie’s nest. The tale obviously mirrors that of an eei, Evangeline : An innocent girl is freed from an her unjust oppression, although only at the end of a long trial. The next day is paper research one of feasting, especially in the house of essay america culture, Benedict, but this is broken by the arrival of British troops. The language changes from the soft descriptions of nature to legal language: “By his Majesty’s orders . . . Thesis Paper Methodology? all your lands, and dwellings, and cattle of all kinds/ Forfeited be to the Crown.” The settlers are to be “transported to other lands.” In the rush to depart, Gabriel is separated from Evangeline. Evangeline has other problems, however; her father cannot bear the thought of being separated from his land and dies of age and sorrow.
The second part of the poem deals with Evangeline’s search for Gabriel. She descends the established settlements of early America to the Mississippi River and the bayous of Louisiana. She hears news of Gabriel, but she always seems to miss him. She has a guide, Father Felician, who attempts to assuage her sorrow and lead her to her beloved. Longfellow effectively conveys the mysteriousness of America at this time in the resonant names of places, rivers, and Indian tribes. The unusual words must have fascinated an audience of the mid-nineteenth century. Evangeline finds Basil the blacksmith in Louisiana, but Gabriel “is only this day” departed. Basil is happy in Louisiana, as it is a more fertile land than Acadie and there is no winter; however, Evangeline yearns for Gabriel. Basil leads her into Indian country to search for Gabriel; they come upon a Shawnee maiden who leads them to the Mission of the Black Robe. The Shawnee maiden, after hearing the tale of Evangeline, tells her of Indian myths that mirror her tale. Longfellow uses the letter bi consultant Indian tales as parallels and contrasts to Evangeline’s tale.
However, the fatalism of the Indian myths is very different from the Christian providence that dominates the main tale. The priest at the mission tells Evangeline that Gabriel had been there six days before. He had departed, saying he would return to the mission. Evangeline decides to wait. When the thesis paper methodology seasons pass and he does not return, however, she goes in search of him in write, the “Michigan forests.” Evangeline finds another refuge in a Moravian community and finally settles in Philadelphia, where the gentle Quakers are dominant. Thesis Research Methodology? She becomes a Sister of Mercy, nursing the sick and comforting the dying. Issues? In the hospital, she notices a man dying of thesis paper research, fever. Suddenly, the decrepit man assumes “once more the forms of [his] earlier manhood.” She cries “Gabriel!
O my beloved!” and he calls to his mind: Green Acadian meadows, with sylvan rivers among them, Village, and mountain, and woodlands; and walking under their shadow, As in the days of her youth, Evangeline rose in his vision. While Evangeline has the power to convey Gabriel back to his earlier and happy life, she does not have the power to essay save him. He dies in her arms. Evangeline does not complain about this cruel trick of fate, but “meekly” accepts it: “Father, I thank thee!” Evangeline does find her beloved, even if it is at thesis research methodology the moment of cover for sap bi consultant, his death. Longfellow’s world is one of affirmation, not doubt. One reason that Evangeline is no longer popular is the passivity of the main character. She undergoes terrible trials but never seems to lose her optimism. Methodology? The reader does not see any internal conflict, only a chain of accidents that separate the pair.
Her affirmation at the seeming irony of discovering Gabriel on his deathbed rings hollow in the twenty-first century. “The Jewish Cemetery at Newport” First published: 1854 (collected in The Courtship of Miles Standish, and Other Poems , 1858) Type of work: Poem. This work laments a people who have been persecuted and a nation that will never rise again. “The Jewish Cemetery at letter for sap bi consultant Newport” is research methodology structured by a series of contrasts. The silent “Hebrews” in their graves are contrasted with the motion of the waves. Death, declare the bi consultant mourners, “giveth Life that nevermore shall cease.” The central contrast is the one between the thesis living and the dead.
The synagogue is closed, and career, the living have gone, “but the dead remain,/ And not neglected; for a hand unseen,/ Scattering its bounty, like a summer rain,/ Still keeps their graves and their remembrance green.” The dead seem to be especially blessed by that “unseen hand” of nature or God. Longfellow then traces the historical situation of the Jews, however, showing that no “unseen hand” has protected them from methodology, persecution. Longfellow is very direct in assigning “Christian hate” as the cause of the cover persecution and dislocation of the research methodology Jews. He imaginatively captures the for sap bi consultant persecution in significant detail. He imagines their exile over the sea, “that desert desolate,” and their lives in “narrow streets” and “mirk and mire.” In another set of contrasts, the Jews “fed” upon the “bitter herbs of exile” and “slaked [their] thirst” with tears. In addition, they are “Taught in paper research, the school of patience to endure/ The life of anguish and the death of fire.” The contrasts of the poem are resolved by reversing the positions of past and issues law essays, future: “And all the great traditions of the Past/ They saw reflected in the coming time.” Longfellow then uses an appropriate and powerful metaphor reversing past and thesis methodology, present, the living and the dead. And thus forever with reverted look The mystic volume of the in jewish world they read, Spelling it backward, like a Hebrew book, Till life became a Legend of the Dead. All the negative elements of the poem are contrasted with or overcome by their opposites. Death leads to life, and exile to knowledge.
The last stanza of the research methodology poem, however, reverses the patterns that have been established: “But ah! What once has been shall be no more!” The people of write an eei, Israel may find life in death and endurance in thesis paper research methodology, exile, but the nation of Israel cannot. Its creation is described in a metaphor of birth. “The groaning earth in travail and in french, pain/ Brings forth its races, but does not restore,/ And the dead nations never rise again.” A nation, in Longfellow’s view, is research methodology bound by natural laws, while a people are free of such restraints. (It is ironic that the nation of Israel was indeed to “rise again” in 1949.) Longfellow overcame the prejudices of his time in imaginatively and sympathetically portraying the Jews, but in children, the last stanza, he becomes a man bound by his time and place by being unable to overcome ideas of the life cycle of a nation. Thesis Paper Research? Nevertheless, “The Jewish Cemetery at Newport” is a beautifully constructed and about america culture, powerful poem. The Song of Hiawatha. First published: 1855. Type of paper methodology, work: Poem. An Indian hero and marathi essays for school children, teacher leaves a land that is soon to be transformed by white people. Longfellow gathered the material for The Song of thesis paper, Hiawatha from many sources, and his aim was to codify the various tales he read into a coherent mythology. He sought to introduce a white audience to about culture Indian mythology.
It begins, as most mythologies do, with people and their god. Gitche Manito, “the mighty/ He the Master of Life,” brings the various tribes together to smoke the peace pipe. Gitche Manito will also send a prophet to the people “Who shall guide you and shall teach you,/ Who shall toil and suffer with you.” This prophet, who sounds very much like Jesus, will bring prosperity if the people listen. The prophet is Hiawatha. Section 2 of the poem shows the taming of nature, of the four winds—especially the West-Wind, which is to be Hiawatha’s father. Hiawatha, after his mysterious conception (an element common to nearly all mythologies), lives with his grandmother, Nokomis, who teaches him about nature. In the fourth section of the poem, Hiawatha goes to see his father, the West-Wind. The West-Wind praises him and defines Hiawatha’s mission in thesis, life: Go back to your home and people, Live among them, toil among them, Cleanse the earth from about, all that harms it, Clear the fishing grounds and rivers, Slay all monsters and magicians. One of the most important contributions Hiawatha makes to his people comes after a long fast. Hiawatha is challenged by Mondamin, “a friend of man,” to wrestle.
The wrestling takes three days, and on the third day Hiawatha defeats, strips, and paper methodology, buries Mondamin. Soon after, plant shoots appear, then maize, the staple food of the people. Hiawatha does not go in search of great deeds so that he might win praise or honor; rather, he struggles to bring benefits to his people. The progress from hero to leader is reminiscent of the ancient epics of Beowulf and The Epic of Gilgamesh . Hiawatha has, as an epic hero should, friends who embody lesser skills: Chibiabos is a musician, and Kwasind is “the strongest of all mortals.” Hiawatha goes wooing, but once more it is not for his own pleasure but for french watermarks paper the people. He will woo and marry Minnehaha, a Dacotah maiden. Nokomis describes the Dacotah as “very fierce” and says that “Often there is war between us.” The wooing, therefore, has political and social benefits; a marriage will unite the warring Dacotah and Objibway tribes. Paper Research? Minnehaha is the only character in the poem invented by Longfellow, and she is another of his long-suffering and cover bi consultant, passive women. Thesis Paper Research? Her answer to Hiawatha’s proposal is, “I will follow you, my husband!” There are some disturbing events in this saga: Hiawatha loses his two friends, Chibiabos and Kwasind, and his wife, Minnehaha. His friends die in gender in jewish law essays, action, but Minnehaha dies in a famine. Significantly, Hiawatha has no power to overcome this natural event.
Her death, however, is thesis paper research seen as something of a blessing, as she will be carried to french watermarks the “Islands of the Blessed,” where there is no labor or suffering. Hiawatha had discovered the existence of these islands earlier in methodology, the poem, bringing consolation to the people—and to himself for the loss of his bride. The next-to-last section of the marathi children poem deals with the coming of the thesis paper research methodology white people. A canoe “Bigger than the Big-Sea Water,! Broader than the Gitche-Gumee” appears. Hiawatha counsels peace: “Let us welcome, then, the strangers,/ Hail them as our friends and brothers,/ And the heart’s right hand of friendship/ Give them when they come to see us.” This vision of peace and brotherhood is, however, immediately obliterated by another vision. Hiawatha sees “our nation scattered” and the “remnants of the people” swept away “Like the withered leaves of Autumn.” It is a poignant passage that reveals the historic fate of the American Indian and letter, destroys the thesis research methodology optimistic dream. About America Culture? Longfellow does not assign any blame to white people for the destruction of the Indian way of life. The last section of the poem describes Hiawatha’s departure. He will not be there for the uprooting of the people he has served.
Before departing, Hiawatha invites Christian message they bring into his wigwam. The Christian message is then received and welcomed by the chiefs. (There is no hint of the thesis research methodology historic martyrdom that was to come to so many Jesuits or of the lack of interest in career paper on pharmacy, the Christian message by the Indians.) After having completed his mission, Hiawatha departs in a birchbark canoe by sunset. The Song of Hiawatha is one of Longfellow’s most successful poems. It portrays the Indians with sympathy and some understanding. The meter of the poem is research very noticeable. Longfellow rejected the long dactylic hexameters of Evangeline for a short unrhymed trochaic tetrameter. It has the effect of a chant and often fits the material perfectly. The hero of the poem may be a little too noble, good, and unselfish. About Culture? He has none of the human faults that make Beowulf and Gilgamesh, for example, so interesting.
At times, Hiawatha is more a Victorian gentleman bringing progress to “lesser breeds without the law” than an American Indian warrior. The Courtship of Miles Standish. First published: 1858 (collected in The Courtship of Miles Standish, and Other Poems , 1858) Type of work: Poem. In this Puritan idyll, an old warrior surrenders his claim to the hand of a young woman to a more appropriate young scholar.
The Courtship of thesis, Miles Standish is how to an eei another historical narrative poem; this time Longfellow turns to the Pilgrims of Plymouth Plantation for his material, and he once more softens the harshness of thesis research, his subject and makes it accessible to his audience. The meter he chose for gender in jewish the poem is dactylic hexameter, but it has none of the monotony of Evangeline ; it is very loosely structured and at times seems on the edge of prose. It also has none of the heroic treatment of Evangeline or The Song of Hiawatha . It is really a romantic drama, not an imitation of Greek or Finnish epic. The poem begins with a description of Miles Standish as “strongly built and athletic,/ Broad in the shoulders, deep-chested, with muscles and thesis paper, sinews of iron.” John Alden is not described in the same detail, but it is clear that he is the opposite of Miles Standish. Alden is no soldier but is career on pharmacy called a scholar. Standish is a man of research methodology, few words, while Alden is a closet poet hymning the name of Priscilla. The conflict of the tale is quickly brought out.
Miles Standish has lost his wife and uses biblical authority rather than personal passion to research on pharmacy justify his search for a new bride. She is to be Priscilla Mullins. Standish does not have the words to woo a maiden, however, so he turns to Alden. Alden’s conflict is quickly resolved: “The name of friendship is sacred;/ What you demand in that name, I have not the power to deny you!” His divided feelings emerge, however, love contends with friendship, and he wonders if he must “relinquish” the joys of love. He resolves the dilemma by seeing his love as vanity; “I have worshipped too much the heart’s desire and devices.” Religious authority prevails.
Alden’s delivery of Standish’s proposal to Priscilla is surprisingly blunt. Thesis Research? There is no poetic prologue or honeyed words, merely the facts of the case. Essay Culture? “So I have come to you now, with an offer and proffer of marriage! Made by a good man and paper methodology, true, Miles Standish the Captain of Plymouth.” Priscilla replies directly: “Why does he not come himself, and take the marathi essays for school trouble to woo me?” She is not the submissive Minnehaha or the dutiful Evangeline but an independent and witty woman. She takes the failure of Standish to woo her as a reason to reject him. She sees him as “old and rough” and one lacking in the basic elements of courtship: He will never win her. Alden tries to make a case for Standish, but Priscilla is not interested in his virtues. Paper Research? Instead she give Alden hope and increases his conflict by uttering the famous words, “Why don’t you speak for yourself, John?” Alden is filled with joy, yet downcast at his betrayal.
He vows to depart from Plymouth and return to England on the Mayflower . Standish is shocked and angered when he hears of gender law essays, Priscilla’s rejection of his proposal and thesis paper research methodology, her encouragement of Alden’s suit. More weighty matters demand his attention, however: How shall the Pilgrim settlers answer the Indians who have sent the “skin of a rattlesnake” as a challenge to war? The Elder of Plymouth counsels peace; Standish is essay america adamant for war. “Truly the only tongue that is understood by a savage/ Must be the tongue of fire that speaks from the thesis paper research mouth of the cannon!” Standish consistently rejects language and in jewish law essays and responses, translates words into military action. The next day, Alden’s conflict over whether to sail for England or stay and woo Priscilla continues. He decides to stay but not to woo. The pair’s relationship is redefined; he will be her friend. Priscilla defines the relationship with precision and candor. “Let us, then, be what we are, and speak what we think, and in all things/ Keep ourselves loyal to truth, and the sacred professions of friendship.” Standish goes to war and answers the words of the Indian chief, Pecksuot, with action: He snatches Pecksuot’s knife from paper research methodology, him and kills him.
Priscilla is not pleased by this valor but repelled by it. The poem’s conflict is partially resolved when news comes that Standish has died in battle. Alden and french, Priscilla are free to marry, but the thesis research methodology shadow of Standish still hovers over their relationship. The denouement of the poem comes on the wedding day of Alden and Priscilla. After the service, the ghost of Standish appears to french watermarks paper bless the marriage. “Mine is the same hot blood that leaped in the veins of Hugh Standish/ Sensitive, swift to resent, but as swift in atoning for methodology error./ Never so much as now was Miles Standish the friend of John Alden!” Standish remains his old self, telling the people that he “had rather by far break into an Indian encampment,/ Than come again to a wedding to which he had not been invited.” With his presence removed, the familiar landscape of french paper, Plymouth is transfigured into the “Garden of Eden.” The Courtship of Miles Standish is one of thesis paper research, Longfellow’s most successful poems. Career On Pharmacy? The meter is not oppressive, and the narrative is skillfully constructed. The biblical language elevates the paper methodology romance without overwhelming it. Cover Letter For Sap? The characters are also well conceived. Standish’s gruff soldier in the role of a lover and his inability to use words are perfectly captured. Priscilla Mullins is a clever and imaginative creation, very different from the submissive female Longfellow usually portrays.
Longfellow also removes some of the excessive solemnity of the Pilgrims and makes their world delightful and human. Access our Henry Wadsworth. Study Guide for Free. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Homework Help Questions. In his poem, “A Psalm of paper research, Life,” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow argues that individuals should live active, full lives rather than passively allowing life to slip away. In the first two lines of the. In the write an eei first stanza of A Psalm of Life, the speaker tells the Psalmist not to paper research say that life is an empty dream because a soul that slumbers is dead. A person has a soul. That person/soul cannot be.
Longfellow's poem is about the coming of rain in french, a draught or in a dry season. He heralds how the thesis research methodology rain looks coming down in fiery streets and lanes. He tells of how it sounds as it clatters. Longfellow's poem Rain in Summer details the impact which the rain has on different persons and objects described within the poem. Longfellow begins by detailing how the rain quenches the thirst.
Longfellow wrote the poem to french watermarks paper memorialize his wife who died in a freak accident (her dress caught fire from a candle, and she burned to paper death). The poem follows the in jewish law essays structure of an Italian sonnet by.
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The Complete Guide to Academic Writing. Writing is never easy. Thesis Methodology. Our guide will teach you how to independently produce the paper highest-quality paper. Although we cannot guarantee an “A” on every assignment, we can guarantee drastic improvements in your writing quality and writing confidence. Read everything - Sometimes keys to answering your thesis can be found in research methodology places you wouldn’t consider looking, such as a preface, introduction, epilogue, or in footnotes. Read the back cover, the inside flaps, and the “About the Author” of any text you have at hand. Ask why? - Why did the author write this work? For whom is it intended? Why did he choose this title?
Why are you reading this for cover letter for sap class? How does this work fit in with your other assigned readings, class discussions, or item on thesis the syllabus? How does it fit in with the overall theme of your class? Take notes as you read - Highlight any quotes or passages which you deem important, make you react in a certain way, or confuse you. You can use these as food for thoughts when working on your essays or bring them up during class discussions. No rushing - If you know your essay prompt in advance, keep it in mind as you read each text. Career On Pharmacy. Even if you think you understand the essay prompt, make sure your professor approves of paper methodology, your thesis before you actually begin writing. Research - Research, research, research! Read lighter, easier materials before delving into more complicated matter. As you read, make sure to jot down interesting quotes (and their source/page number) which you may later incorporate into your paper. Watermarks Paper. Use actual books and academic journals; your college or university’s library will most likely offer information sessions on thesis how to use their databases to conduct research at the start of each academic year.
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You may choose to present all of cover letter for sap bi consultant, your arguments first and research then all of your counterarguments. Or you may choose to present an argument imminently followed by career research, its corresponding counterargument. Decide on what works best for the essay at paper research hand. Watermarks. You may choose to place your weaker arguments and counterarguments in the middle of the essay- this is the thesis paper research methodology part that readers tend to remember least. For School Children. Some writers like to research, use a climactic arrangement, working up paragraphs to watermarks paper, the strongest point.
The first couple of sentences often tend to be the most difficult to write. Don’t worry; as long as you have a strong thesis, you can write the whole paper first and then go back to the introduction. It’s often easier to come up with an opening after you have already fleshed out your ideas. Grab your reader’s attention. You can start your paper with basically anything- an anecdote, a mental image, a quote, etc. Just make sure it is interesting enough that your reader will want to continue reading. Your opening should establish the thesis paper methodology context of your essay and lead up to your thesis, so be specific. You will probably also modify your opening as you write your paper, so do not waste time trying to perfect it before the career paper is finished. Each paragraph should consist of one main idea which you thoroughly explore and develop. Ideas should connect smoothly from one to the next, and thesis research each paragraph should flow smoothly into the next through use of topic sentences. A topic sentence is the essays for school children first sentence of thesis paper methodology, each paragraph.
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Make sure your writing is clear, direct, and concrete. Do not use extra, unnecessary words. Double-check to thesis research methodology, make sure that each topic sentence is gender and responses supported throughout its corresponding paragraph. Research Methodology. Spell-check! Make sure you use the active voice whenever possible (for example: The data is used to french, show that — The data shows that…). Is your essay in the proper format (MLA or APA, depending on the subject)? What is the main point of paper methodology, your paper? Does your opening smoothly connect to your thesis? Is your thesis clear and identifiable?
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Case#x02013;Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in research Chinese Children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and research paper on pharmacy, blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. We conducted a pair-matching case#x02013;control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4#x02013;12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and thesis paper, socioeconomic status. Paper On Pharmacy! The case and control children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of paper research Mental Disorders , 4th ed., revised criteria (DSM-IV-R). We evaluated the association between BLLs and ADHD using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data. We then performed conditional multiple variables logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to predict risk factors for ADHD. There was a significant difference in BLLs between ADHD cases and controls. How To Write! ADHD cases were more likely to research, have been exposed to lead during childhood than the non-ADHD control subjects, with adjustment for other known risk factors [children with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL vs. #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.10#x02013;8.77, p #x0003c; 0.01; 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL vs.#x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.47#x02013;6.98, p #x0003c; 0.01]. These results were not modified by age and sex variables. This was the largest sample size case#x02013;control study to date to study the association between BLLs and how to write an eei, ADHD in Chinese children.
ADHD may be an additional deleterious outcome of lead exposure during childhood, even when BLLs are #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is methodology one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders, characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity [American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2000; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Rappley 2005; Remschmidt 2005]. Prevalence of essay culture ADHD in children has been reported to be 3#x02013;8% worldwide (Froehlich et al. 2007; Leung et al. Methodology! 1996; Remschmidt 2005). Write! Children who have ADHD are at increased risk for conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse later in life (Satterfield et al. 2007). Moreover, the costs associated with their medical care and thesis, education are substantial (Leibson et al. 2001). Although the gender in jewish, causes of thesis methodology ADHD remain unclear, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to influence the etiology of essay about america culture ADHD (Banerjee et al.
2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Millichap 2008; Remschmidt 2005; Swanson et al. 2007). Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated high heritability, and various polymorphisms of research methodology dopamine-related genes have been found to increase susceptibility to ADHD (Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Durston 2003; Khan and Faraone 2006). Furthermore, many environmental risk factors and research on pharmacy, potential gene#x02013;environment interactions have also been shown to increase the thesis, risk for the disorder (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; Thapar et al.
2007). Career Research Paper On Pharmacy! Indeed, there is growing interest in studying the relationship between chronic heavy metal toxicity, including lead exposure, and ADHD (Braun et al. 2006; Konofal and thesis research methodology, Cortese 2007; Millichap 2008; Nigg et al. French Watermarks Paper! 2008). Lead is one of the paper research, well-established environmental poisons, and its general toxic effects, particularly in children, continue to be a major public health issue worldwide [American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2005; Lidsky and Schneider 2003; Needleman 2004]. It is well known that lead can cause cognitive impairment and correlate with decreased IQ scores and impaired attention (Canfield et al.
2003; Koller et al. 2004), and increased BLLs were associated with higher distractibility and impulsiveness scores in the affected children (Needleman 1993). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that child blood lead levels (BLLs) not exceed 10 #x003bc;g/dL (CDC 1991; WHO 1995). As a result of rapid industrialization in China, it is estimated that tens of millions of french children 1#x02013;18 years of age have BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Huo et al. 2007; Ren et al.
2006; Wang and Zhang 2006). Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in children still exist even with BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Binns et al. 2007; Braun et al. 2006; Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004). Early studies have documented an association between dentine lead, whole-tooth lead, hair lead, and methodology, symptoms of inattention (Bellinger et al. 1994a, 1994b; Fergusson et al. 1993; Needleman and Leviton 1979; Needleman et al.
1979; Tuthill 1996), and subsequent studies showed that lead exposure can cause attention deficit disorder and impulsivity (Brockel and Cory-Slechta 1998; Burns et al. 1999; Eppright et al. How To Write An Eei! 1997; Kahn et al. 1995; Minder et al. 1994; Silva et al. Thesis Paper Research Methodology! 1988; Thomson et al. 1989; Wasserman et al. 1998, 2001). However, these studies may not be conclusive. First, few studies have investigated the effect of how to write lead exposure on ADHD formally diagnosed with the established criteria in International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) (WHO 2007) or in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., revised (DSM-IV-R; APA 2000) (Burns et al.
1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Silva et al. 1988). Thesis Paper! Second, most studies were limited by small sample size, and some studies lacked sufficient control of confounding factors (Bellinger et al. 1994b; Minder et al. 1994). About Culture! Third, early studies involved children who had higher BLLs than the research, levels seen in contemporary children (Needleman and Leviton 1979; Wasserman et al. 1998) and thus may not be directly relevant to children with lower levels of lead exposure. In addition, there is no investigation of lead exposure and ADHD in letter for sap Chinese children.
Therefore, in thesis paper research methodology an effort to cover for sap bi consultant, evaluate the association between BLLs and thesis methodology, the risk for ADHD in cover for sap Chinese children, we performed a case#x02013;control study involving large samples of children 4#x02013;12 years of age. We also considered known potential variables in the etiology of thesis ADHD, such as delivery characteristics, perinatal factors, parental psychosocial factors, and prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol. This study was designed as a pair-matching case#x02013;control study. ADHD subjects were consecutively recruited from children coming for initial or follow-up assessment from October 2003 to letter, August 2007 in two pediatric clinics at paper the Anhui Provincial Children#x02019;s Hospital and the Institute of Anhui Traditional Chinese Medicine in for sap Anhui Province, People#x02019;s Republic of China. The two major hospitals served the research methodology, same local population in essay about culture Anhui province and accepted referrals from thesis research methodology, all administrative districts within the province. All ADHD (ICD-10 codes F90, 208#x02013;210) subjects were children of in jewish and responses Chinese Han nationality 4#x02013;12 years of research methodology age at the time of investigation and had a lifetime medical history that fully met the DSM-IV-R criteria (APA 2000; Su et al. 2001) for ADHD.
The DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria had been previously translated into Chinese, and the reliability for the ADHD diagnosis was previously assessed (Su et al. 2001). The diagnoses of ADHD were derived from a structured diagnostic interview based on gender issues in jewish law essays Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E) (Ambrosini 2000), which was modified to assess DSM-IV-R criteria and incorporate parents#x02019; and teachers#x02019; reports of behavioral symptoms, clinical observation of behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Aman and Singh 1986), and tests of research methodology attention such as the Conners#x02019; Continuous Performance Test (Homack and Riccio 2006). The interviews were performed in our outpatient clinic and cover bi consultant, administered by raters (trained research assistants) to children, one of their parents, and their teachers. All the paper methodology, raters, from two involved pediatric clinics, have postgraduate degrees in gender law essays and responses psychology and thesis paper, had been trained to high levels of research paper on pharmacy interrater reliability. We computed #x003ba; coefficients of agreement between all the raters and three experienced board-certified child psychiatrists who listened to audio taped interviews made by the raters. Based on 120 interviews, the median #x003ba; was 0.87; #x003ba; was 0.95 for ADHD.
Children with identifiable perinatal insults, autism, Asperger syndrome, other pervasive developmental disorders (ICD-10 codes F84.0#x02013;F84.9, 308.0), and research methodology, mental retardation (ICD-10 codes F70#x02013;F79, 312#x02013;315) were excluded. The non-ADHD controls were randomly selected from computerized lists of outpatients admitted for acute upper respiratory infection at the same two pediatric medical clinics during the daytime and during the same study period. How To! By the pair-matched design, each ADHD case and control set had the same sex, the thesis methodology, same age (difference between birthdays within 6 months), and almost the same level of socioeconomic status (SES). The controls were given the same full diagnostic assessment as the career research paper on pharmacy, ADHD cases and screened only for the absence of ADHD without exclusion of any other diagnosis except for paper, the same exclusion criteria applied to cases. About America Culture! SES is measured by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), and thesis, PIR is the ratio of how to an eei family income to the poverty threshold for the year of the interview. Low SES was defined as having PIR values #x0003c; 1 in our analysis and high SES as having PIR #x0003e; 3. The others were regarded as middle SES. Thesis Paper Research! The study was approved by our institutional review boards and letter, complied with all applicable requirements of the research, United States. The parents of essay about culture all the children in this study provided written informed consent at enrollment. Blood samples (2 mL/child) were collected in heparinized syringes. Lead concentrations were measured by anodic stripping voltametry through a blood lead analysis instrument (3010B; ESA Laboratories, Inc., Chelmsford, MA, USA) after the blood samples were digested with an organic tissue solubilizer.
The limit of detection was 1.0 #x003bc;g/dL. No detectable values were given values of 0.70 (1.0 divided by the square root of 2). Lead values were calculated as the means of four analyses of each sample. Epidemiologic studies have shown that male sex, low SES, and young age are associated with a raised prevalence of ADHD. Moreover, its prevalence falls with age (Biederman and Faraone 2004; Doyle 2004; Scahill and Schwab-Stone 2000).
To address these important confounding factors, we employed a pair-match design on age, sex, and SES; thus, the methodology, stratified control subjects were at risk at the same sex, age, and marathi children, SES. In addition, we considered multiple covariates and potential confounders for the association of lead exposure and thesis research methodology, ADHD in our study. They were based on established predictors of child behavioral problems and those widely used in studies of pediatric lead exposure (Banerjee et al. Career! 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Linnet et al. Paper Methodology! 2003; Mick et al.
2002; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004; Swanson et al. 2007; Wasserman et al. 2001). The following variables were used: family history of research paper ADHD (ADHD in parents and siblings, diagnosed by psychiatrists, obtained from thesis research, clinical reports), household composition (normal: child lives with biological parents; single: child lives with only one parent; or recombined: child lives in remarried family), maternal tobacco use during pregnancy (at least one cigarette per day during the letter for sap bi consultant, last trimester), maternal drinking during pregnancy (at least two glasses per week during the thesis paper methodology, entire pregnancy), labor complications, cesarean delivery, perinatal distress [low birth weight and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as markers], parents#x02019; age at career research paper on pharmacy childbirth, and parents#x02019; education.
Because all the cases recruited were of paper methodology Chinese Han nationality, the marathi for school children, variable of ethnic origin could not be used in our analysis. These variables were obtained from clinical records or questionnaires completed by direct interview of the parents. Study factors were defined as binary variables or categorical variables. For example, maternal smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy were recorded as binary variables#x02014;that is, drinker or nondrinker, cigarette smoker or nonsmoker. We analyzed some continuous potential risk factors as categorical variables according to cut points suggested by methodology the literature. For example, low birth weight is typically defined as #x0003c; 2,500 g (St Sauver et al. 2004).
Maternal and paternal age were analyzed as three categories (St Sauver et al. 2004): #x0003c; 20 years, 20#x02013;30 years, and #x0003e; 30 years of age. Maternal and paternal education were analyzed as #x02264; 9 years of compulsory education, high school education (9#x02013;12 years), or some college or advanced training (#x02265; 12 years). The association between BLLs and ADHD was evaluated using the essays, Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data. We also performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with a binary outcome of thesis paper research methodology ADHD in relation to BLLs, adjusting for other potential confounding factors (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000). In the marathi for school children, regression model, BLLs were analyzed as an ordered categorical variable and recorded as three categories: #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL, and #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. We then performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise procedures based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates to paper research methodology, construct a final best-fit logistic regression models to identify predictors of risk for ADHD among known risk factors and gender issues law essays, BLLs. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for differing levels of exposure. All statistical tests were considered to research, be significant at french paper an alpha level of 0.05 on a two-tailed test and performed with the statistical software SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The analysis included 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD control subjects matched by age, sex, and SES.
There were 434 sets of paper research boys and 196 sets of write an eei girls. The average ages were 7.9 #x000b1; 2.1 years. The mean BLLs were 8.77 #x000b1; 3.89 #x003bc;g/dL in the ADHD group and 5.76 #x000b1; 3.39 #x003bc;g/dL in the control group. The ADHD group had higher BLLs ( p #x0003c; 0.05, see Table 1 ). There was no significant difference in BLLs between males and paper methodology, females. Figure 1 shows BLL distribution and cumulative distribution of ADHD children and essay about america, controls. Only 10.1% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas this percentage increased significantly to 24.4% in ADHD children. Paper Methodology! (#x003c7; 2 = 237, p #x0003c; 0.01). In addition, 49.8% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas of the ADHD cases, 74.7% had BLLS #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL (#x003c7; 2 = 116, p #x0003c; 0.01). Additional information in paper demographic and the distribution of risk factors are shown in thesis paper research methodology Table 2 . We performed a conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis with all variables (BLLs and all risk factors) simultaneously included in the same model to essay america, adjust for each other. We found that the ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs (OR = 5.19, p #x0003c; 0.01 for children with BLLs 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 7.15, p #x0003c; 0.01 for with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, using the sample with BLLs #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL as referent) and family history of ADHD (OR = 4.54, p #x0003c; 0.01, compared with the sample without familial ADHD history). The risk for ADHD decreased as the mother#x02019;s education level increased (OR = 0.69, p = 0.017, using the sample of #x02264; 9 years maternal education as referent). The analysis also found an association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy, but the thesis paper research, p- value is near the significant threshold (OR = 4.04, p = 0.047).
The remaining confounding variables in french watermarks our analysis were not associated with ADHD status ( Table 2 ). To eliminate multivariable interaction and multicollinearity, we then performed a backward stepwise logistic regression based on paper the maximum partial likelihood estimates. In the final best-fit model, the association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy was excluded, but ORs for essays, the associations between ADHD and family history of thesis paper ADHD, maternal education levels, and BLLs were largely unchanged from french watermarks, estimates obtained in the original model used in Table 2 ( Table 3 ). We also performed a conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis stratified by sex and age. As with the paper methodology, total sample, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs than the lower BLLs in all subdefinitions ( Table 4 ), which indicates that increased risk for ADHD associated with BLLs is not modified by age and sex. We examined the effect of BLLs in ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls with adjustment for french watermarks, most other known risk factors in Chinese children 4#x02013;12 years of age. We found ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to research methodology, lead.
The children with BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL had 4.1- to watermarks paper, 8.7-fold higher risk for ADHD. Even when their BLLs were under the recommended level but #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, the risk also showed a 3.5- to thesis, 7.0-fold increase. Family history of ADHD was another positive high-risk factor. About Culture! Decreased risk for ADHD was associated with higher maternal education. Lead may play important roles in thesis paper research methodology the etiology of ADHD.
Recently, Braun et al. (2006) analyzed data from a U.S population-based sample and concluded that prenatal tobacco exposure and cover, environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD; they found 4.1-fold increased odds of ADHD with increased BLLs. Our work confirmed this finding in the referred sample that relied on paper the DSM-IV-R criteria. In addition, Nigg et al. (2008) reported that low-level lead exposure was associated with formal clinical diagnostic ADHD by DSM-IV-R criteria in a community sample in the United States, where regulations have reduced the incidence of lead poisoning and about america culture, the current population average of lead levels is relatively lower. This is consistent with our finding that the risk of ADHD was associated with low lead exposures (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL) in research methodology Chinese children. Some studies documented varying behavioral effects of lead exposure in males and females (Burns et al. 1999; Ris et al. Watermarks Paper! 2004). However, in our study, sex and age did not modify the relationship between BLLs and ADHD. Further studies investigating how neurobehavioral outcome varies with sex and thesis paper research, age may be required. In our study, the absence of a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and gender law essays and responses, ADHD was unexpected, in thesis paper contrast to gender and responses, previous reports (Braun et al. 2006; Linnet et al.
2003; Swanson et al. 2007). The reason might be that, in China, few women smoke during pregnancy and throughout life, which limits the thesis paper, statistical power in detecting a significant difference. Another reason might be that smoking and drinking variables of the career paper, mother were recorded as a dichotomy in paper research methodology our study, and the threshold to essay about, define the variables may underreport in utero smoke and alcohol exposure. Paper Research! This potential misclassification might underestimate the true association between pregnancy smoking and ADHD. Our study found higher maternal education was associated with decreased risk for ADHD.
This result is consistent with previous work, which indicated that low maternal education, low SES, and single parenthood are important adverse factors for ADHD (Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004). Essay America Culture! Apart from environmental risk factors for ADHD, our current report indicated that children with a family history of ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. It is also consistent with previous work, which showed that ADHD is transmitted in families (Biederman and Faraone 2002, 2005; Millichap 2008). Although our study showed the thesis research, association between lead and ADHD, we cannot explain clearly the mechanism that underlies the relationship. Essay About Culture! As for the etiology of ADHD, dopamine system dysfunction has important effects (Biederman and Faraone 2002; Swanson et al. 2007). Paper Research Methodology! There is extensive evidence that lead alters midbrain/striatal dopamine functioning as well as gene expression in the striatum (Cory-Slechta 1995; Kala and marathi essays, Jadhav 1995; Szczerbak et al. 2007), so the thesis paper methodology, neurotoxic effect of lead on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system may be implicated in the pathway to ADHD. Lead exposure could represent a hidden major effect on bi consultant ADHD incidence via genotype by environmental interaction (Swanson et al.
2007). The strengths of this study are as follows: a ) Our sample size was the paper methodology, largest to date in case#x02013;control studies to investigate BLLs and ADHD. b ) The ADHD diagnosis was made through an about, extensive clinical evaluation based on the DSM-IV-R diagnostic instrument and performed by child and adolescent psychiatrists. c ) The investigators matched the cases and controls on thesis paper methodology potentially important aspects such as age, sex, or SES. This is important because lead levels are highest among younger children compared with adolescents, and ADHD is of higher prevalence among children of elementary and middle-school age. This study suggests that there is a link between ADHD and watermarks, BLLs, and the results reinforced findings from previous studies (Braun et al. Research! 2006; Nigg et al. 2008). If on further inquiry these associations are found to be causal, lead exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for this common psychiatric condition of childhood.
Considering that ADHD typically starts in early childhood and that lead poisoning is one of the how to write, most common and entirely preventable pediatric problems (AAP 2005; CDC 1991), strategies in public health must focus on practicing primary and secondary prevention of lead exposure in paper research methodology children. For example, clinicians should alert parents to potential adverse outcomes of lead associated with this disorder. In addition, routine screening for for sap, lead exposure may be needed so that if ADHD symptoms emerge, they can be managed at an early stage. Moreover, BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL also indicated a risk factor. Thesis Paper Methodology! This may suggest that the lower standard may effectively protect children from the how to write, harmful effects of research methodology lead, which is consistent with previous investigations (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003; Surkan et al.
2007). Some studies (Ruff et al. 1993; Tong et al. 1998) found an association between declining BLLs and improved cognitive test scores, independent of paper whether iron or chelation therapy was administered. However, other works (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003) indicated that the damage caused by thesis paper research methodology blood lead exposure is cover for sap bi consultant irreversible. Further epidemiologic studies and rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether chelation therapy or removal of possible lead exposure sources might help children with ADHD. This study has several limitations. First, temporality between high BLLs and ADHD could not be ascertained definitely in this case#x02013;control design. It is possible that hyperactive children ingest more lead rather than that lead causes hyperactivity.
Therefore, further studies with serial lead measurements, even from the antenatal to the postnatal period, and more continuous measures of ADHD symptoms or of specific underlying neurobehavioral domains may be required to document the temporal relationship between lead exposure and development of ADHD. Paper Research Methodology! Second, some might argue that concurrent blood lead tests are not an adequate biomarker of a child#x02019;s lifetime exposure. However, recent studies indicate that concurrent BLLs are a stronger predictor of lead-associated IQ decrements than blood lead measured during early childhood (Lanphear et al. 2005). Third, recall bias is one of the problems of the case#x02013;control study. For Sap! In this study, the main variable of paper methodology interest was the BLLs, which were objectively measured. However, other variables such as in utero tobacco and alcohol exposure may be susceptible to recall bias. Fourth, the cohort was not a random population sample, so potential selection biases cannot be fully ruled out. In addition, because all our sample was Chinese Han, no children living in watermarks paper foster families were included, and paper research methodology, none of the sample had health insurance, our results may not generalize to children with different socioeconomic or ethnic backgrounds. Finally, it is paper interesting that Nigg et al. Paper Research Methodology! (2008) found a significant relationship between combined-type ADHD and low-level lead exposure but not predominantly inattentive type and lead exposure. However, we were unable to do analogous analyses by subtype because of the constraints of the study matching scheme.
This hospital-based case#x02013;control study suggests a strong relationship exists between ADHD and lead exposure, even low-level lead exposure (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL BLL), in Chinese children. If this finding is confirmed in future studies, the potential to prevent ADHD by reducing childhood lead exposure should be considered.