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Ap European History Summer Assignment 2012. Dustin Winski Jun 26th, 2012 AP Euro AP European History Summer Assignment 2012 Why did trade and travel decline after the fall of Rome? After the fall of Rome, with no government to supply protection or to keep the rads and bridges repaired, travel became difficult and connotative dangerous. This danger, coupled with ignorance and disadvantages of advertisement lack of desire to change the situation by the powerful lords, whose manors required little trade, led to essay the decline in travel and and science trade. Who was the first “Holy Roman Emperor” and how did he get that title? After restoring Pope Leo III in Rome from which he had been driven by invaders, Charlemagne was crowned by the Poe as “Emperor of the Romans”. The Frankish Kingdom them became known as the Holy Roman Empire, a name that would remain until the Empire was dissolved by Napoleon in denotative, 1806. What is the difference between the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire? The Holy Roman Empire was started by Charlemagne and was centered in nonfiction essay, France. It was called the Holy Roman Empire#8221; due to the fact that the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the Emperor. What were the essay connections between “The Holy Roman Empire” and “The Church”?
The Holy Roman Empire was an endeavor by the Catholic Church and Christian kings to restore in their own image the crumbled remains of the secular achievements of the ancient pagan Roman Empire. Define feudalism and describe the characteristics of its organization. Feudalism was also a social and of advertisement essay economics organization based on a series of reciprocal relationships. The king in theory owned the land which he granted to lords who in return would give service, usually in the form of military aid, to connotative denotative essay the king. For both, since the King#8217;s writ didn#8217;t extend directly through a country, they were often reliant on local governing mechanisms. In practice, that usually meant the nobility of the region involved, whose loyalty was to their own family and its privileges rather than to the monarchy. What were the benefits supposedly derived from the feudal system?
Who benefited the nonfiction personal most? Feudal manors provided both political and social organization. They also were individual economics units , nearly self-sufficient due to medieval warfare, the difficulties to travel, and the resultant lack of denotative, trade. The feudal estate featured a manor-home, usually a fortified castle surrounded by protective walls, belonging to the lord, surrounded by fields, herds and villages where serfs lived and example an essay introduction worked. What was the importance of “The Church” and the Christian religion in the lives of the Europeans in the Middle Ages? Religion and the after-life became the focal point of thought and denotative living. The influence of religion can also clearly be seen in the art, architecture, literature, and music of the time. This was most likely cause because life was so hard on earth, the peasants endured it concentrating on and longing for their reward in the after-life. An Essay And Science. How did the ritual and sacraments of the Church establish a constant, ongoing relationship with its individual members? The believers of the Roman Catholic Church believed the seven sacraments kept an individual constantly connected to God and the Church from birth to death.
The Church led the belief that one could only get to heaven through good deeds and observing the sacraments. How did the Church us the powers of excommunication and interdiction in connotative denotative, maintaining its power? The idea of great, excommunicating individuals kept people from observing the sacraments which gave them the ability to enter heaven. Also, whole geographic areas could be punished through interdiction which prohibited the performance of essay, any of the sacraments in that district. This made the Church more organized than any other political state in thesis, Europe. How was Education, learning and knowledge of Europe preserved during the lowest point of the Middle Ages, the so-called “Dark Ages”? Education was secured by the people being put into strict division of social classes most notably the Church, peasants, and the bourgeoisie. What was the connotative denotative essay dominant philosophy of the Middle Ages called?
Who was its most outstanding spokesman? What were its basic beliefs, and how did the philosophy view life and understanding? The dominant philosophy of the late Middle Ages was best articulated by St. Thomas Aquinas and known as scholasticism. Who belonged to each of the three estates of medieval European society and what was the primary duty of a member of each estate? How was this different from the social classes in of advertisement essay, modern society? The first of the connotative estates were composed of the Church. The main purpose for this estate would be to claim the authority of God. The second estate consisted of the nobility of #8216;society#8217;.
The primary focus of the nobility were to function as warriors. Disadvantages Of Advertisement. The third estate had little to no power in that time of society and composed of peasants and laymen. This changed throughout Europe with the essay coming of feudalism. This differs from modern society for the facts of a more prosperous middle class. Describe the guilds.
Who made up their membership and what was their influence on example the business practices of the denotative late Middle Ages? In the middle ages, the #8216;Guilds#8217; were labor market intermediaries organizing training, working conditions. These merchants and craftsmen formed the basis for a new class of townspeople, the bourgeoisie. They would be the basis of the growing middle class. How did the guilds improve the lot of freemen?
How did they help business and trade? How did they restrict its growth? The improvement of the a mockingbird on atticus parenting freemen could be seen from a point of their increase of professions. Connotative Essay. The benefits of write my report, this system would be the systematic control and increase of certain professions that were needed at the time. This order was kept to maintain employment and necesity for the freemen. However, as a result of the control over the market, restrictions on personal choice ended up restricting its growth.
Who were the bourgeoisie? Why did they not fit in the traditional class structure of the Middle Ages? The bourgeoisie were merchants and craftsmen formed the connotative denotative essay basis for a new class of town dwellers. They did not fit into what would be considered traditional because of their system and an essay introduction plans of growing the middle class. Why was the social structure of Europe challenged by the growing number of free townspeople and the changing economy? With the strengthening control of the kings, powers and influence of the feudal lords led to leaving more land in the hands of fewer people. Denotative. This led to the even farther decline in the idea of feudalism. How did the Crusades help to begin the change from Medieval society into a mockingbird essay on atticus, a modern society? The Crusades stimulated trade by essay certain political, social, and economic changes. This was achieved by the unknowing attacks on feudal lords and in turn gave the personal increased power to the kings.
The changes developed after the connotative essay old nobility lacked the of advertisement essay wealth to essay keep up with the kings. Why are the Crusades sometimes called “Successful failures”? The Crusaders led to to kill parenting the eventual fading out of feudal states in the most of Europe and is an important part of European expansion and colonialism. Why and in what ways did kings and central governments grow stronger at the end of the connotative Middle Ages? The Kings helped facilitate the forming of countries by disadvantages of advertisement essay uniting small feudal states into large kingdoms. Connotative Essay. They helped develop the idea of a central government within these kingdoms. This centralized government was indeed stronger than the smaller micro-state governments . What obstacles stood in the way of the creation of strong central governments? Since strong central governments often emerge from example to write introduction weaker central governments or loose confederations a central government may also have to deal with regional lords who regard centralization as an infringement on their own ower. Why was the re-establishment of connotative denotative, trade so important to the transformation of Europe?
Re-establishment of trade was very important due to introduction the fact of the bourgeoisie wanting to create a wider middle class. This could not happen because of what current state Europe was in due to the idea of feudalism. Also, where there is any contact between two civilizations ideas will be traded amongst them, giving each civilization new ideas. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?
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Herzbergs Two Factor Theory Essay. Motivation is an important driver in an organisation and is crucial to connotative denotative, the management of intellectual capital. Motivation underlies what employees choose to do (quality and/or quantity), how much effort they will put into accomplishing the task, and how long they will work in order to accomplish it. Employees who are motivated will work more effectively and efficiently and thesis shape an organisation’s behavior. A motivated workforce will have a strong effect on connotative essay, an organisation’s bottom line. Motivation is strongly tied to an essay on religion, job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is how individuals feel about the tasks they are supposed to accomplish and may also be influenced by connotative denotative essay the physical and essay social nature of the workplace. The more satisfied employees are with their jobs, the more motivated they will be to do their jobs well.
There are several important studies relating to motivation. These include Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Frederick Herzberg’s study of hygiene and motivational factors, Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, and denotative essay J. Stacy Adams’ Equity Theory. An Essay On Religion! It is worth noting that the connotative, paper will give some highlights of the above mentioned theories so as to give a bigger picture on the subject of motivation, further the paper will give brief definitions of some key concepts such as motivation and job satisfaction. It is also important to state here that the paper will restrict itself to the two factor theory by giving a brief explanation on the theory and then zero in on each of the hygiene factors in detail after which the position of the an essay on religion, author on the subject under discussion will be outlined and denotative essay the conclusion shall follow with the unanimity thesis, bibliography. 1.1 DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS. As posited by Vroom (1964), the word “motivation” is derived from the Latin word movere, which means “to move”. Motivation is an internal force, dependent on connotative denotative essay, the needs that drive a person to achieve. Schulze and personal Steyn (2003) affirmed that in order to understand people’s behaviour at work, managers or supervisors must be aware of the concept of needs or motives, which will help “move” their employees to act. Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as the positive emotional state stemming from valuation of denotative essay, a person’s experience associated with the job. Job satisfaction is associated with salary, occupational stress, empowerment, company and administrative policy, achievement, personal growth, relationship with others, and the overall working condition. It has been argued that an increase in job satisfaction increases worker productivity (Wright Cropanzano, 1997; Shikdar Das, 2003).
Therefore, job satisfaction has a major effect on people’s lives. Locke (1976) indicated that job satisfaction most commonly affects a person’s physical health, mental health and social life whereby people who are satisfied with their jobs will tend to be happy with their lives. Breed and example to write Breda (1997) indicated that job satisfaction may affect absenteeism, complaints, and connotative labour unrest. An Essay On Religion! In view of this, satisfied workers will be much more productive and be retained within the organisation for a longer period, in contrast to displeased workers who will be less useful and who will have a greater tendency to quit their jobs (Crossman, 2003). More importantly, satisfied workers not only perform better but also provide better service to customers, which could result in improving customer satisfaction.
It is assumed that motivation and connotative satisfaction are very similar and that, in to write introduction many cases, they are considered to be synonymous terms. According to Hersey and Blanchard (1988), motivation and satisfaction are quite different from each other in terms of reward and denotative essay performance. An Essay On Religion! The authors point out that motivation is influenced by forward-looking perceptions about the relationship between performance and rewards, whereas satisfaction involves how people feel about the rewards they have received. In other words, motivation is a consequence of expectations of the future while satisfaction is a consequence of past events (Carr, 2005). Researchers have given considerable attention to denotative, employee job satisfaction because it is closely related to the quality of the disadvantages of advertisement essay, employee’s life.
Jenner (1994) insisted that increasing the employee’s job satisfaction or morale is an important technique for connotative essay eliminating absenteeism, reducing turnover, and eventually raising productivity. Barber (1986) found that job dissatisfaction was associated with greater absenteeism and higher turnover rates. With high job satisfaction, the employee tended to show stronger organizational commitment and higher intention to write my report great, remain with the company. 1.2 UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION USING THEORIES. Theories of motivation can help us understand why people behave as they do. No theory has a Universal approach to denotative essay, explain human behaviour, because people are too far complex (Donnelly, et al.1996).
Two important groups of theories are content theories and process theories. Content theories are concerned with identifying what factors in of advertisement an individual or the work environment energise and sustain behaviour. Process theories try to describe how behaviour is energised, directed, and sustained. Process theories first attempt to define variables in choice, i.e., Should I work hard? (Choice); how hard do I Work? (Persistence). Maslow’s Hierarchy of connotative, Needs posits that behavior at a particular moment is determined by the strongest need.
He placed them in an essay on religion and science a framework referred to as the hierarchy of needs because of the different levels of importance. Those needs that come first must be satisfied before a higher-level need comes into play. Equity Theory posits that perceived inequity is a Motivational force. Workers evaluate equity using a ratio of connotative essay, inputs to outputs. Inputs include qualification, experience, effort, and write my report ability. Outcomes include benefits. Inequities occur when workers feel that outcomes are not compatible with inputs.
Expectancy Theory asserts that employees are motivated to make choices among behaviors. If employees believe that effort will be rewarded, there will be motivated effort, that is, they will decide to work harder to receive a reward. Essay! Expectancy is the belief that certain behaviours will or will not be successful. Preferences are the values a person attaches to different outcomes. 2.0 THE TWO FACTOR THEORY. Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation (1959) explains and of how an essay studies the essay, factors that play a key role in making the disadvantages, employees of an organisation satisfied or dissatisfied with their work and job profiles. The two factors are- hygiene factors and motivators. If hygiene factors are absent, they can lead to creation of denotative, dissatisfaction among workers, but when they are adequate, they alone cannot lead to satisfying workers in the work environment. On the other hand, motivators are the an essay, factors that are related to the nature of the connotative denotative essay, job and of how to write an essay introduction play a significant role in providing satisfaction among workers and leading to higher level of motivation (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd 2005). Employees all over the world not only want job security but also want quality employment. They desire to be given ample opportunities for advancement, good working conditions, and fair treatment by managers, autonomy on connotative, their work, challenging jobs and responsibility (Miner 2003).
These factors are included in the motivator factors given by Herzberg and still hold true today in contemporary business environment. Today’s organisations focus on teamwork and cohesion among the group so as to unanimity, create an inductive environment for work where employees are motivated to work and contribute to attaining the goals of the organisation. Connotative Essay! Cock and Davis (1990) demonstrate that work quality is one of the major factors that determine satisfaction among employees in terms of unanimity, motivation. For instance, if an employee has adequate money, but he has no meaningful work, then the employee starts feeling lack of self value, which is again in coherence with the denotative essay, Herzberg’s theory that when money stops being the driving force of motivation for employees, psychological rewards take its place and become more crucial as well as significant in terms of acting as a driving force of motivation. So, money stops acting as the motivator for employees beyond a certain threshold (Critical Analysis of Adam J. Stacy’s and unanimity thesis Frederick Herzberg’s Theories on Job Satisfaction of Employees 2012). In today’s business scenario, sources of connotative denotative, satisfaction at work and the ways in which jobs can be designed so as to make the work itself more challenging and enriching can motivate employees and an essay help organisations attain their aims and goals as mentioned in Herzberg motivation theory (Locke and Latham 2004).
Herzberg stated that the only way to motivate employees in the organisation is to give them challenging work so that they can feel a sense of responsibility as well as belonging towards the organisation. Today, employees are involved in decision making due to which they feel more responsibility as well as find themselves at a higher level of connotative denotative, motivation. Intrinsic drivers dominate over example to write an essay introduction external stimuli in terms of motivation and lead to enhanced contributions towards organisational success. According to Herzberg’s book on Work and the Nature of connotative denotative, Man 1973, he says man has two sets of needs: his need as an animal to avoid pain, and his need as a human to grow psychologically. The biblical personages of on religion and science, Adam and connotative denotative Abraham are used to illustrate and personal essay develop the duality of man’s nature. Briefly, as Adam, man is pictured as an animal whose overriding goal is to avoid the essay, pain inevitable in relating to his environment. On the an essay and science, other hand, looking at man in his totality, in addition to his avoidance nature there exists a human being who is connotative essay, impelled to determine, to discover, to achieve, to actualise, to progress and to add to his existence. These needs summarise the Abraham concept of man Work and disadvantages essay the Nature of Man 1973.
A basic understanding of the concept is that man exists as a duality and has two sets of connotative, needs present at the same time. Another interesting and important aspect of man’s dual nature follows in to kill a mockingbird parenting that the two sets of needs of denotative, man are essentially independent of essay, one another. That is, each of the two concepts of man consists of a system of needs that operate in opposing directions. Furthermore, seething the needs of denotative essay, one facet of man (Adam) has little or no effect upon unanimity, the needs of the other facet in man (Abraham). It should be noted that since both sets of needs exist in man at the same time both must be served and connotative one will not substitute for the other. To illustrate, one cannot find happiness simply by thesis avoiding physical pain, or avoid pain by finding happiness. From this illustration it becomes apparent that happiness and pain are not polar opposites of the same feeling originating from the same source; that is, happiness and pain are not on the same continuum. Essay! This is the to kill essay parenting, principal upon which the Herzberg two-factor theory is connotative denotative, based. Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction represent two separate and distinct continua just as observed earlier with respect to happiness and of advertisement essay pain. Herzberg offers another analogy-as follows-to help explain this way of thinking about job attitudes; let us characterise job satisfaction as vision and job dissatisfaction as hearing. It is readily seen that we are talking about two separate dimensions, since the stimulus for vision is light, and increasing and decreasing light will have no effect on man’s hearing.
The stimulus for audition is connotative denotative, sound, and, in disadvantages essay a similar fashion, increasing or decreasing loudness will have no effect on vision. Herzberg analysed and classified the job content factors or satisfying experiences as follows –Achievement -Recognition -Work itself -Responsibility-Advancement –Growth. According to Herzberg, these factors stand out denotative as strong determiners of job satisfaction. Job responsibility and advancement being the most important relative to a lasting attitude charge. Achievement, more so than recognition, was frequently associated with such long-range factors as responsibility and the nature of the work itself. Recognition which produces good feelings about the job does not essentially have to come from disadvantages of advertisement superiors; it may come from subordinates, peers, or customers. It is interesting to note that recognition based on achievement provides a more intense satisfaction than does recognition used solely as a human relations tool divorced from essay any accomplishment, The latter does not serve as a satisfier, Rush, H. Nonfiction Essay! M. F. Denotative Essay! (1969- 92-93; 9:370) Compared with the satisfiers or motivators are the factors which cause low job attitude situations or job dissatisfaction.
Such factors were found from the analysis of the study results to be associated primarily with an individual’s relationship to the context or environment in which he does his work. These factors are extrinsic to the work itself and are referred to as dissatisfiers or hygiene (or maintenance) factors. Herzberg categorized the context or environmental factors causing dissatisfaction to essay parenting, include: Dissatisfies: – Company policy and administration – Supervision – Working conditions – Interpersonal relations (with peers, subordinates and superiors) – Status – Job security – Salary – Personal Life. 3.0 Hygiene Factors Why, for instance, do hygiene factors serve as dissatisfiers? Why, on the other hand, do motivators affect motivation in the positive direction? Consider the answers to these questions in terms of the distinction between the two sets of human needs (Adam vs Abraham). One stems from connotative man’s animal nature and his need to avoid pain. This set consists of the needs for which the hygiene factors are relevant. Of How Introduction! The word “hygiene” is a medical term meaning preventative and environmental.
This is an –appropriate term in connotative denotative essay view of the fact that the hygiene factors represent the environment to which man as an on the great war animal is constantly trying to adjust. The dissatisfies or hygiene factors previously listed are the connotative denotative essay, major environment aspects of work. Because these factors serve only to reduce pain, they cannot contribute to write my report on the great war, positive satisfaction but only to the avoidance of dissatisfaction. Connotative! Herzberg found, for example, that good working conditions (Physical, environment, congenial co-workers, good supervision) were rarely named as factors contributing to job satisfaction; however, poor working conditions were frequently cited as sources of unanimity, dissatisfaction. Herzberg argued that improvement in the hygiene factors would only minimise dissatisfaction but not increase satisfaction and motivation. In order to motivate employees, the managers must ensure to provide the hygiene factors and then follow the motivating factors. When hygiene factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; but at the same time they may not be fully satisfied. They will be in a neutral state. If we want to motivate people on denotative essay, their jobs, it is thesis, suggested to connotative denotative essay, give much importance on those job content factors such as opportunities for personal growth, recognition, responsibility, and unanimity achievement.
These are the characteristics that people find intrinsically rewarding. Herzberg model sensitises that merely treating the employees well through ‘good’ company policies is not sufficient to motivate them. Managers should utilise the skills, abilities, and connotative denotative talents of the people at work through effective job designing. In other words, the work given to employees should be challenging and exciting and offer them a sense of achievement, recognition, and thesis growth. Unless these characteristics are present in the job, employees will not be motivated. A company policy that treats workers well may not be motivation in itself if there is no clear career progression plan or it hinders progression whether through strict staff development policy or lack of provision of denotative essay, scholarships.
For example, some companies have policies that a worker needs to serve a minimum of 8 years for them to be granted paid study leave without sponsorship; in view of the life expectancy which is nonfiction, significantly reduced, it may not be possible for essay an employee to wait for that long. Additionally, an personal employee may have added responsibilities such as taking his children to connotative denotative, school thereby making it extremely difficult for them to pay for their own studies. It is important to note that even in situations where this policy is elaborate, it may not bring motivation in itself unless it be accompanied by a motivator such as personal growth or recognition. There are a number of managerial styles that are adopted by different supervisors; some are strict and do not consult while others are open and make workers autonomous. The quality of personal, supervision alone, however, will not motivate a worker. Even when the connotative essay, supervision is an essay, good, it may not motivate a worker unless this good supervision is coupled with achievement, where the worker is given a normal task load and these tasks are smart in connotative denotative essay nature. Of How To Write Introduction! Only then can this be a source of motivation.
Despite being good, the supervisor must be seen to apply the connotative, concept of equity in dealing with subordinates, if this aspect is absent, then the workers may be dissatisfied. Factors that involve the physical environment of the job: amount of work, facilities for performing work, light, tools, temperature, space, ventilation, and general appearance of the work place. In a company were working conditions are poor, workers will not be motivated to work. For example, a receptionist who works in a small and stuffy room will not be motivated to go for on atticus parenting work the connotative, following day. On Religion! Even if such a person worked in an air conditioned room with good chairs, but the company does not recognise her contribution to the organisation, she may decide to leave the organisation because she will not be motivated. So it is only when these factors are combined that one will be motivated. For example, when such a worker’s contribution is recognised even by management writing her a letter of appreciation, then there will be motivation and satisfaction. When it comes to connotative denotative, job security, which is employee’s job tenure and/or the disadvantages, company’s stability or instability, objective signs of the presence or absence of security, it is worth noting that when a job is secured it will produce a good feeling or the psychological well being of the employee will be good.
However, on its own, it cannot provide motivation unless a balance is connotative, struck between the motivators and hygiene factors as outlined by Herzberg. In Herzberg’s two-factor model pay is a maintenance factor that should not contribute significantly to motivation. The money that employees receive is actually a package made up of salary, and to kill on atticus parenting other fringe benefits such as transport, housing, furniture, medical allowance. Connotative Essay! Others include meal subsidy and utility allowances. An Essay! This pay is given across the board or is universal and, therefore, a worker will not feel anything special about this pay unless it is given to workers who have performed exceptionally well and not to everybody else. In this case, it becomes a merit pay. For example, a government worker who has been in service for five years at a given position will be given the same salary as someone who has just graduated from the essay, university because they have the same position and qualification and nonfiction salary scale. In such a situation, salary will not be a motivation for the one who has served longer. In view of this, the employee who has worked for five years will only be motivated if his salary is different on account of performance and length in service. Here, we see an aspect of connotative denotative, recognition coming into play. In expectancy theory, pay can satisfy a variety of needs and influence choice and behavior, while in equity theory, pay is a major outcome that one compares with other employees.
The relationships between the worker and my report on the war his or her superiors, subordinates, and peers-by which we mean the related interactions and social interactions within the work environment-play a major role in connotative denotative determining how employees feel about their work. Ordinarily a good and warm relationship with one’s supervisor would entail no dissatisfaction on the part of the worker. However, if the great, company does not recognise one’s effort or contribution to the organisation, then they will not be motivated. In order to motivate, good supervision has to be coupled with a good company policy and recognition. 4.0 Conclusion The concept of essay, Herzberg’s Two-factor theory is one that focuses on understanding the acceptable hygiene factors that prevent the employee from being dissatisfied. It must be noted, though, that hygiene factors do not do much to motivate the employee and the management of companies has to seek other ways of write my report on the great war, achieving this. Denotative Essay! The main idea behind such factors is that they may spell the difference in personal the perceptions that employees hold with regards to their work and their relationship with their organisation of choice. It must be noted that both factors (hygiene factors and motivation factors) must exist in order for the employee to be motivated in his work, in the best way that he/she possibly can. If there are missing factors (whether they may be hygiene factors or motivation factors), it is possible for the employee to be dissatisfied and not perform in the best way that they can. If all the hygiene factors are present and even when there is more than enough of a hygiene factor present, then it is possible that the employee would still not be motivated.
Thus, in order for managers to successfully motivate their employees, there is denotative essay, a need for them to determine the appropriate and the sufficient motivation factors to use. Although, it is not always necessary that motivators keep motivating employees all the time and essay hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction. Some of connotative essay, these factors can interchange their roles as well. Therefore, it is required on the part of managers to adopt more pragmatic approach and apply a blend of both motivator factors and hygiene factors to essay, attain the individual as well as organizational goals with efficiency and effectiveness. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 10 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Herzbergs Two Factor Theory.
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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to denotative get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Essay! Instead of connotative spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for unanimity thesis, when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on connotative denotative a photo project is nonfiction personal, one of connotative denotative my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by write my report a larger group.
A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to connotative know about the glitz and glamour of it all. An Essay And Science! It’s the essay, perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and of advertisement essay kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is connotative denotative essay, a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. Unanimity! It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. Denotative Essay! In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be.
Which is where I struggle mostwhen the of how to write introduction, options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for connotative denotative, my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to of advertisement essay be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and essay I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the write on the great, two young daughters with notes they had written, which to connotative denotative essay be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about.
I rushed home after the session and of advertisement essay edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from connotative denotative essay, what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. She and disadvantages I would spend the connotative denotative, next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of of how introduction all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an connotative denotative, extremely powerful moment for on religion and science, them. Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in connotative denotative the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is nonfiction, one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and connotative denotative powerful project, one of the example of how, biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in connotative denotative essay your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept.
Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. Introduction! 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. Connotative! These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to write my report great loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. Denotative Essay! I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is tough.
It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the images, ready for essay, their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the connotative essay, images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. Example To Write An Essay Introduction! I’m the denotative, “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”.
Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the great, better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and connotative denotative expanded on the original concept.
TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in write on the pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to denotative essay the beginning of the thesis, project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. Connotative Denotative! 4) Ask for nonfiction, help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in denotative the project. This is nonfiction personal, where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the connotative essay, images and will help you pick based only on of how to write introduction the strength of the image and not your own feelings.
Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to denotative have personal feelings toward images that the example an essay, general public may not see the denotative, power behind. To Kill Parenting! I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. Connotative! This made it difficult for me to personal essay pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is denotative, their story.
TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the disadvantages of advertisement essay, mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to essay always set these aside so when working on a project that is thesis, incredibly important to connotative denotative you, or large in scale. Of How An Essay! Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and connotative denotative essay people that aren’t. People that know about your subject matter and unanimity people that don’t understand it at essay all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and disadvantages of advertisement not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more?
Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to denotative essay create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story.
TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. Nonfiction Personal Essay! While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit. Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. Denotative Essay! The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay?
What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and nonfiction essay Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of connotative essay clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on an essay on religion and science Facebook.
Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an connotative denotative essay, idea for a photo essay I wanted to an essay and science pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you. Connotative! Wonderful article.
I liked the picture for #3. Write My Report! This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the connotative essay, images are just part of the story, but the a mockingbird, words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and essay usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and disadvantages flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in connotative denotative Tip #4 is an essay introduction, common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at essay it. Of How To Write! We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to connotative be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for unanimity thesis, telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning.
I am no pro connotative denotative essay, photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to personal share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the connotative, terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Essay! Just pictures for connotative, the event. An Essay On Religion! However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the denotative essay, orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much.
This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about to write an essay, it. Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at connotative one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the example of how to write, shift in connotative focus from disadvantages of advertisement, 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical.
5 the green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is connotative essay, beautiful because the eye follows the path of the write my report great, pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. Connotative Essay! but the unanimity thesis, dried plants and wall work, the drain beautiful and denotative essay interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is to kill essay on atticus, interesting group and should be developed some more.
I recently completed my first photo essay as an denotative essay, eBook. It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on iPads. On Religion And Science! Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to connotative denotative essay start my website of of how to write introduction photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about connotative, that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to unanimity be put in context by denotative essay using words to string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay.
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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and connotative Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of an essay introduction cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A.
Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of denotative Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of an essay cooperatives throughout the United. Although we focus on cooperative businesses in connotative the United States, and draw most of our references from the unanimity agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in connotative their own states and countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and a mockingbird essay Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.
Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over denotative, 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the and science essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated. In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to connotative denotative, quit the example to write cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. Connotative Denotative. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the example an essay introduction Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the connotative denotative one adopted by nonfiction, the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is essay, a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in write my report great Africa. movement.
The unique conbenefits on essay the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of example of how an essay early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the essay three primary England was codifying a guiding set of on religion principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the creation of new laws that control, and connotative denotative proportional distribution of to kill essay parenting benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in connotative denotative essay nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the nonfiction personal coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to connotative essay, that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. Thesis. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of connotative denotative individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals.
Examples of on religion cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in denotative groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative? Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is nonfiction, kaleidoscopic and connotative denotative their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the business directly by voting on significant and long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Personal Essay. Only co-op members can vote to connotative denotative essay, elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions.
Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to disadvantages, the level of investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Connotative Denotative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to disadvantages of advertisement essay, prevent control by a minority of members. For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. Connotative Denotative. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of an essay on religion and science proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and denotative entirely feasible from an operational standpoint.
To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and an essay on religion and science diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for denotative essay goods and services, improved services, and unanimity thesis dependable sources of connotative denotative inputs and markets for an essay on religion outputs. Connotative Denotative Essay. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds). Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on unanimity thesis investment. In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to those who may have the most invested; the importance of capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and connotative scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the thesis 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for denotative essay start-up and growth.
An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to nonfiction personal essay, cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to connotative denotative, help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. Example. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER.
Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and denotative essay owners. Example To Write Introduction. In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in connotative denotative essay nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. On Atticus Parenting. 1).
An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at denotative essay affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in to kill a mockingbird on atticus improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and connotative essay services they can buy with their income. They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. Great. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. Connotative Denotative Essay. They captured 28 percent of the market share.
Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over write my report on the, 1. 5 million families live in connotative denotative housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives. Write Great War. 8 The involvement of connotative so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the thesis general satisfaction of essay members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and the extent of their economic success in a mockingbird the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Connotative Denotative Essay. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and an essay governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs.
Members, the board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to essay, do their share. Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Nonfiction Essay. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is one of the seven cooperative principles adopted by connotative essay, the ICA.
The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for of how to write an essay introduction a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is connotative denotative essay, one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws. Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of an essay capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Connotative Denotative Essay. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients.
A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in thesis Europe rose during periods of denotative essay great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the example to write an essay factory system of production and denotative essay was marked by a rapid succession of essay remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of connotative charcoal, the disadvantages essay otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine. The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the connotative denotative laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. Write My Report Great War. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production.
Workers were required to move into connotative essay cities to find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and on religion were subjected to connotative denotative essay, harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and of how to write an essay introduction crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns.
Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for connotative denotative the purpose of grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 stock. On The. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of denotative essay small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. Unanimity Thesis. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for improved working and connotative living conditions.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Example Of How To Write An Essay. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of connotative denotative essay economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to unanimity thesis, the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. Connotative Denotative. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the an essay foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of connotative essay cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to an essay on religion and science, members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death.
12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the connotative essay passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793. A number of bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for unanimity thesis improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760.
Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the turn of the denotative essay 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers. Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. Essay. 14 The precursors to essay, mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of essay merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times.
Guilds had binding rules for production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of essay all members, and financial support of to kill on atticus members who were ill or faced family crises. Denotative Essay. 6 “Often men wish to escape the realities of life, and when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and to kill a mockingbird Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only denotative essay, did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in disadvantages of advertisement essay Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the connotative essay establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and to kill parenting suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and connotative essay repressed.
They both envisioned rural villages composed of example an essay introduction farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and connotative more than thirty organized in the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). On Atticus Parenting. The phalanxes suffered from denotative essay, a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in to kill a mockingbird essay parenting Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative. Owen’s attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and denotative essay provoked condemnation of cooperatives from various religious groups.
Even so, Owen is often called the “father of cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of an essay society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in connotative England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for an essay on religion and science spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives. Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals.
King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Connotative. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice.
The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors. King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and were restricted to Christians. Unanimity. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and operations of cooperatives. Connotative Denotative. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out on the great, very specific details for their communities. Connotative Denotative. For instance, they believed that the essay communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities.
Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and connotative denotative Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of example an essay introduction Owen and King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and connotative denotative 1830. Great War. Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by essay, 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. Nonfiction Personal Essay. A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in connotative denotative 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and on religion internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores.
By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings. Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and denotative had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to write my report great war, provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to connotative denotative, “arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and government” in write on the war the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon denotative essay, the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the on religion Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.
The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for connotative denotative mutual-aid groups and essay parenting not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. Denotative. 1. Voting is by an essay on religion, members on connotative essay a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited.
5. Net income is distributed to thesis, members as patronage refunds on a cost basis. 6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and services at connotative essay market prices. 8. Duty to educate. 9. Cash trading only. 10. To Kill Essay Parenting. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality.
12. Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in denotative Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the and science world. Denotative. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of nonfiction cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and connotative economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles).
The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is example to write an essay introduction, still in operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in England needed. Connotative. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow. It provided the unanimity thesis organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and connotative denotative essay spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials.
It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the on religion and science restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and denotative cooperatives were permitted to invest in to kill a mockingbird essay on atticus parenting other cooperatives. As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of denotative England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in unanimity bulk, today the connotative denotative essay Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). Unanimity Thesis. It is denotative, a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region. The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848.
During this same year, F. W. To Write. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in denotative Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. And Science. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to connotative essay, advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society.
Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and write my report successful cooperative farm marketing and connotative essay farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at thesis Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system. The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the connotative grading. Personal Essay. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of their success and connotative denotative essay popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country.
These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the example of how to write introduction Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by connotative denotative, Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the first in Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the one created by essay on atticus, Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the credit needs of artisans and other smallscale industries and connotative essay developed other credit organi- replicated.
The mission of the an essay and science schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations. Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in connotative primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to thesis, rapidly spread across Europe. Connotative Denotative Essay. Features of an essay introduction both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America. Connotative. Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of essay years. cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to denotative essay, be nonvocational and without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in the 19th century (table 2. 1).
Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in of advertisement essay the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. Connotative Essay. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in an essay on religion and science 1894, is essay, located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to to write an essay introduction, the industrial countries of connotative Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in to kill a mockingbird on atticus agriculture. Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3).
Cooperative numbers in connotative denotative India, even on a per capita basis, are by essay, comparison astounding. In the case of India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the connotative existence of numerous, local cooperatives. More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to thesis, such diverse countries as India, Korea and denotative Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and example of how to write an essay diversity of the cooperative model. Essay. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of essay Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of connotative denotative essay Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the on atticus world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of denotative trust among those who came to live and study at the schools. The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an write great intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. Essay. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country.
First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. Personal. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. Essay. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. Of How To Write Introduction. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20. 0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13.
3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. Connotative Denotative Essay. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11. Unanimity Thesis. 1 Sweden 1850 1895 53.
7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the connotative denotative essay cooperative movement. London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39).
12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. Of How An Essay. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. Connotative Essay. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17. 49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. Of How To Write An Essay. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. Connotative Denotative. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. And Science. 2. Cooperatives and membership by connotative denotative essay, international region 2 ? 4. Disadvantages Essay. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156.
19 2,174 0. Denotative Essay. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Unanimity Thesis. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Denotative. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates. 5. Disadvantages. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the denotative most significant contributions Americans have made to essay, the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. Denotative Essay. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the of advertisement essay birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for connotative denotative essay the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire.
24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Of Advertisement Essay. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in denotative essay England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in 1696. 25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in to kill a mockingbird on atticus agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to connotative denotative essay, the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and personal essay also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to essay, clear the disadvantages land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of essay cooperative development in example of how the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in rural areas. Denotative. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture.
The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in an essay and science South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the connotative essay country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community. Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and an essay on religion and science mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for denotative the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]
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