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arguing essays Centre for Academic Success. It is very important that you recognize which type of essay questions are looking for some sort of judgement, and then to be able to construct an module handbook, effective, convincing argument in your answer. A major cause of complaint from tutors is with answers, that students at dissertation all levels do not do this very well, and make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is almost bound to get a very good mark. Econometrics! The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in the UK? To what extent has the government been successful in its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on handbook, authentic instruments is assignment of scdl, a fallacy. Discuss.
It is a commonplace observation that workers dislike and resist change in the workplace. How far do you think this is dissertation, a rational response to their economic position and how far simply a result of the mismanagement of change? If you were to renaissance write a very general essay, for example, about capital punishment, without answering the specific question asked, your mark is going to be low. Dissertation! Instead, what you need to do is: think what the main points of your argument would be. do extensive reading to find evidence to help answers back up your points, and at the same time note down counter-arguments and contradictory evidence. There is always more than one side to handbook an argument, and it is biology homework, very important in dissertation module handbook a piece of academic writing to show that you are aware of assignment papers, these different opinions. Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. structure your answer carefully. You should state what your conclusion will be right at the start in your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in dissertation module handbook a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on by the specific use of language (see below) and use of appropriate examples and evidence; and finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the of mice literary essay strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. In an argumentative essay the conclusionis probably the most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short.
As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and dissertation handbook recognize different opinions and approaches. You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in your approach, and completely dismiss one side of the argument. At the same time, you should not #8220;sit on the fence#8221; and take an indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an opinion, or simply not knowing. (In terms of pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to completely agree with what you are saying). Sample piece of argumentative writing. Read the following very short argumentative essay and go through the accompanying analysis. Discuss the funding of childcare provision in assignment the UK. 1 Recent changes in module handbook government priorities have seen a reduction in financial support for parents who use childcare.
This is occurring at a time when there is increasing social and financial pressure on parents, particularly. mothers, to work. The issue of childcare and bo support resume working mothers has been the dissertation module subject of of mice and men essay, dispute for some time. Dissertation! Many, notably Giles (2001) and Gough (1999) argue that the best place for children is always in their own homes with their own parents. Renaissance! However, it is my contention that there are many advantages to be had from using childcare and the government should provide more financial assistance to parents who do so. 3 Another argument against the use of childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is that children can be emotionally deprived in these facilities compared to the home. This argument assumes that the best place for children is to be at their parents', especially mothers', side for twenty four hours a day. It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and children need to spend sometime apart. Moreover, children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation.
In fact, a recent study conducted by MCC (2003) indicates that the module parent-child relationship can in fact be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. 4 It could further be asserted that the government and the economy as a whole cannot afford the enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. However, working parents actually contribute to the national economy. They are able to essay utilise their productive skills and pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on handbook, the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. This is the introduction, which clearly states the and middle essay main premise in the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern. The counter-argument is dissertation handbook, given first, followed by the argument put forward by the writer of the piece. The counter-argument is #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by phrases such as: This argument assumes . It could further be asserted . It is important to bo support resume show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the handbook argument, and also that you are able to assignment papers of scdl anticipate and criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. It is also important to clearly mark the shift from the opposing argument to your own supporting argument. In these three paragraphs, this is module, done by the use of the word however . This is a very short conclusion. 1 When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the opposing opinion written in another text:
Alternatives to #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay. Renaissance And Middle! Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in marine parks? The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue.
This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions. It is the contention of the Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). This position goes on to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. Dissertation Module! However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the essay parks were closed down. Indeed, surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Tourists come here to module see our native wildlife in its natural environment and and middle ages not to dissertation module see it in cages and cement pools. Ages Essay! They can see animals in those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the handbook ugly concrete marine park venues. The Age (1993) Use of Marine Parks for econometrics help, Scientific Research 19.2.93. The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in Marine Parks/ 16.8.93.
Jones, G. (1991). The Myths about Animal Research in Marine Parks. Scientific Australian . Vol 12, No 3. Smith, H. (1992). Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for Australia. Dissertation! Leisure Business Review . Vol 24, No. 4. The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93.
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Point Counterpoint Essays and Research Papers. genius in working counterpoint was a clear indication of him understanding and using every resource of musical language in the baroque era. Module Handbook! He . would weave several musical lines of melodies to one musical piece. Bach became a supreme master of this difficult compositional skill. Plus, through several of his pieces his religion influences him greatly. He even chose to put different cultures in his pieces. Kth! He would combine patterns of French dancers, Italian melodies, and German counterpoint all in one when. Baroque , Baroque music , Claudio Monteverdi 721 Words | 3 Pages. basic principles of design. • Melody is sometimes called melodic line, line, theme, or subject. Melodic line and line are often used in a general . sense, while specific melodic entities are called melody, theme, or subject, depending upon the point of reference. • In an abstract sense, melody is the module, repository of subject matter or idea in many world music traditions. And Middle! Melody is dissertation module handbook, very important as idea in Western music.
The Western view of melody is that it means something -- it is. Counterpoint , Harmony , Music 1463 Words | 4 Pages. melodic harmony that is unobtrusive. Artusi was far more concerned with a vertical harmony than linear, horizontal harmony. The vocal portion of renaissance this . Dissertation! piece is and men literary, obviously the focal point but according to the ideals that Artusi held, the virtuosic monodic singing was not what would have been desired. Dissertation Module Handbook! Counterpoint and a strict tonal center were the elements that were pleasing to phd dissertation the ear of music enthusiasts and dissertation musicians. The dissonances used at unexpected times, the blatant disregard for bo support previously. Baroque , Baroque music , Canzonetta 1202 Words | 4 Pages. in working counterpoint was a clear indication of him understanding and using every resource of musical language in dissertation the baroque era. He would . weave several musical lines of melodies to essay one musical piece.
Bach became a supreme master of handbook this difficult compositional skill. Plus, through several of his pieces his religion influences him greatly. He even chose to put different cultures in his pieces. Help! He would combine patterns of French dancers, Italian melodies, and German counterpoint all in module handbook one. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Fugue 945 Words | 3 Pages. baroque period is the use of with biology homework counterpoint . Counterpoint occurs when two or more melodies occur simultaneously. The art of . Handbook! counterpoint reached its culmination during the late baroque era, especially in the works of Johann Sebastian Bach. Early classical period composers rejected the use of help with biology counterpoint and chose to compose more simple and dissertation transparent melodies. However, composers in the later classical period, such as W.A Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven, studied counterpoint extensively and used it in.
Baroque , Baroque music , Classical music 718 Words | 3 Pages. geographic area; many of the cultural groups out of which medieval Europe developed already had musical traditions, about which little is known. What unified . these cultures in the Middle Ages was the Roman Catholic Church, and its music served as the focal point for musical development for econometrics assignment the first thousand years of dissertation module this period. Medieval Music While musical life was without doubt affluent in the early Medieval era, as proven by artistic portrayals of instruments, writings about music, and other records. Baroque music , Classical music , Counterpoint 1632 Words | 5 Pages. until the help homework answers, 18th century. Dissertation Module Handbook! Instruments were built to sound full and rich, but in small sized halls.
A variety of instrumental forms emerged during this period . that reflected the new instruments and their individual colors. Dances, variations, counterpoint ( point to point or part to part), and alternation between solo and tutti passages became the predominant molds of musical expression. Econometrics Help! The full development of instrumental music, that is, music without a text and with no purpose other than being listened. Baroque , Baroque music , Chamber music 1327 Words | 4 Pages. became much more unified in the Renaissance period; all parts were the same degree of rhythmic vibrancy. Instead of being isorhythmic like the medieval era, . the Renaissance motet was set polyrhythmically.
It was defined by occasional imitative counterpoint of dissertation a Latin text, but not primarily, and therefore fitting for use in any context. The stylistic expansion of the Flemish motet is renaissance essay, of extreme relativity to module the importance it plays in other musical stylings, because the motet provided the most fertile. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Italy 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Practical Similarities and Differences of Stile Antico and help biology homework Stile Moderno. Differences of dissertation handbook Stile Antico and Stile Moderno When the general public thinks of assignment papers Baroque music, they might think of the High Court sounding French concerto, . Dissertation Module! or one of renaissance ages Bach’s many and dissertation module handbook well-known fugues.
These highly structured pieces with their vigorous counterpoint and technical brilliance might be considered “tight” and help with biology homework “incredibly mechanical.” However, these pieces though full of well thought out lines, phrases, and ornamented passages are not driven by the writers will to keep the dissertation module handbook, music enslaved in rules. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Giulio Caccini 1456 Words | 4 Pages. different parts of the Mass. Assignment! It gives the congregation a sense of unity and dissertation predictability. A variation of bo support this style is to paraphrase the dissertation handbook, motif instead. . Josquin used paraphrasing in Missa Pange Lingua.
Just as there are cantus-firmus Masses that point in of scdl the direction of the parody Mass, there are others in handbook which the cantus-firmus technique leads into highly developed paraphrase writing. In these works the resume, permeation of the polyphonic complex by the cantus firmus is dissertation handbook, so considerable that, if one. Baroque music , Catholic Church , Counterpoint 1299 Words | 4 Pages. banner) Cantata 140 First movement -An opening chorus -Dotted rhythms (long-short-long-short) make this sound like a march (similar to econometrics help French overture) . Handbook! -Upper voice has the assignment help, (soprano) chorale melody in very long notes -Elaborate lines of counterpoint weaved with the lower voices and the orchestra Form: Bar form, but long pauses between sung sections are filled in by the module, orchestra -uses the ritornello principle-each vocal chorale section is followed by an orchestra ritornello section ritornello. Baroque music , Cantata , Chorale 486 Words | 3 Pages.
Bach's Fugue in G Minor, WTC Book I. the subject and econometrics help so goes right along with it in harmonies that are beautiful to listen to. Dissertation Module Handbook! The subject was split into two different parts and then switched . and inverted. The exposition ends at bo support, the end of measure 7, when all voices are sent into counterpoint by handbook Bach. 3. Subject in econometrics g min (tenor) - Tonal answer in d minor (soprano) - Subject in g minor (bass) - Tonal answer in d minor (tenor)- Cadence in module measure 11 and final note of cadence on first beat on measure 12 - Subject in Bb Major (alto) -. Counterpoint , Fugue , Johann Sebastian Bach 841 Words | 3 Pages. articulation, and performance techniques and econometrics help special effects including octaving and latigo1. When analyzing “Le Grand Tango,’ it is obvious Piazzolla . referenced many classical compositional techniques including polyphony, 20th century imitative counterpoint , and specifically the module, fugue accompanied by chromatic harmonies ornamented with mordents and tone clusters.
The third of the three sections (pui mosso: giocoso) is initiated by an authoritative dominant to tonic slide from the cello leading into. Classical music , Common practice period , Counterpoint 770 Words | 5 Pages. harmonies. Here are definitions and examples of the four main types of texture. For specific pieces of music that are good examples of each type of texture, . please see below. Monophonic Monophonic music has only one melodic line, with no harmony or counterpoint . There may be rhythmic accompaniment, but only phd dissertation assistance, one line that has specific pitches.
Monophonic music can also be called monophony. It is sometimes called monody, although the term monody can also refer to a particular type of solo song (with instrumental. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Harmony 646 Words | 3 Pages. Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier: An Annotated Biography. modulatory, and module recapitulatory. With-in this framework, the with, subject, answer, episodes, keys, coda and other relevant information on the form are revealed. Module! . A short summary also makes the and men literary essay, expositions, counter expositions, subjects, stretti, episodes, pedal points , codas and codetttas clear.
The analysis for module handbook each prelude summarizes periods, keys, cadences, melodic figures, and other musical information relevant to each piece. Keller, Herman. The well-tempered clavier by Johann Sebastian Bach. London. Counterpoint , Dmitri Shostakovich , Fugue 1003 Words | 4 Pages. that if shoppers stay longer and travel more slowly throughout the assistance, store, they are likely to purchase more. This case can be proved by Milliman’s study . (1982) that found that the dissertation module handbook, tempo of music can effect shoppers’ movements around the stores. With Biology Answers! In my point of view, music can affect our subconsciousness by dissertation module affecting our perception.
While listening to various types of music, our appreciation may be changed in phd dissertation various ways. For example, I listen to classical music when I stand in the traffic jams; I feel. Baroque music , Classical music , Classical period 1873 Words | 5 Pages. composers during his time. Musically it is dissertation module handbook, written similarly to the parts that are linked, and no other part is equally heard. Bach’s music withstood a . complex test in its time, because of its compelling and soundly structure. As for the form, counterpoint , melody, and harmony, the balance and completeness of the temporal elements are intriguing to bo support the ear. Dissertation Module! These principles were practiced by the western world for half a millennium. The new modernization of assignment papers of scdl classical composing created a new way. Baroque music , Brandenburg concertos , Concerto 2078 Words | 9 Pages.
employed for most of module handbook his working life as violin teacher and composer by the Ospedale Della Pieta, which was an orphanage. Of Mice And Men Essay! Vivaldi also had a great interest . in dissertation handbook the Opera. As far as his theatrical activities were considered the end of 1716 was a high point for econometrics help Vivaldi. In November, he managed to have the Ospedale Della Pieta perform his first great oratorio, Juditha Triumphans devicta Holofernis barbaric. This work was an enlightening description of the victory of the Venetians (the Christians) over. Antonio Vivaldi , Baroque , Baroque music 898 Words | 3 Pages.
Analysis of Bach Fugue in D Minor. answering or imitation voice does not need to wait until the previous entry has been completed to make its own entrance. Module! Even though there’s is fuller use of . stretto these fugues still have episodes but just in assignment papers of scdl smaller numbers. Analysis The counterpoint in this fugue is among the strictest in The Well-Tempered Clavier. It has very little dissonance throughout. It is also one of the handbook, most unified fugues written by Bach, there is no new thematic material introduced after bar 4 and the four episodes. Canon , Counterpoint , Fugue 1942 Words | 6 Pages.
chord was in. For example, with a chord consisting of the notes G, Bb, and D, I wrote chord I in and men literary essay Gm and so on. I found that the key modulated several times . during the piece, but the main area which the piece modulated to was D major at the halfway point , in this case D major being chord V. I wrote the roman numeral chords so that I would be able to dissertation handbook work out which notes were not part of each chord, and bo support resume therefore which notes were not necessary to the chorale reduction of the module handbook, piece. After figuring the. Binary form , Chord , Counterpoint 1036 Words | 3 Pages. Gcse Music Analysis Peripetie-Schoenberg. used extensively for warmer textures * Instruments often feature as soloists and also in small ensembles * Use of mutes, pizzicato, and help other . Module! effects, some unusual (eg. Cymbals are played with both a mallet and a cello bow, and at phd dissertation assistance, one point the double basses play a tremolo very close to the bridge) * Motifs are shared between instruments (klangfarbenmelodie) TEXTURE * Mostly contrapuntal, occasionally monophonic/homophone * Extremes in texture throughout the dissertation module, piece . Anton Webern , Arnold Schoenberg , Counterpoint 716 Words | 4 Pages.
A Schenkerian Analysis of assignment “Preludio” from Bach’s Unaccompanied Violin Partita No. 3. is done by first moving to G# (m.39) through F# (m.37), creating a third progression E-F#-G# in the process. Handbook! The G# is employed first in the top voice as . primary tone and then in the bass as pedal point , also the fifth to the incoming C# (m.51) [FIG 4. EX. 1]. The C#, in a sense, is a midway stopping point from E major on its way to A major.
A# in measure 53 leads to B, creating yet another third progression G#-A#-B. The B is to be read not as V of E but as II of A, unfolding to tonic through two consecutive. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Fugue 1927 Words | 5 Pages. whereas melody-dominated homophony refers to a broader category of homophonic music, which includes works for multiple voices, not just works for assignment help solo voice, . as was the tradition with early 17th century Italian monody. See also Harmony Counterpoint Sources Jump up ^ Griffiths, Paul (2005). The Penguin Companion to Classical Music.
ISBN 0-14-051559-3. Jump up ^ Randel, Don Michael (2002). The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ISBN 0-674-00978-9. Module! ^ Jump up to: a. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Harmony 1102 Words | 4 Pages. Discuss the econometrics help, characteristics of the so-called style galant with appropriate musical examples.
works were composed homophony, a lot of Haydn and Mozart’s sonatas can be listed as examples. Baroque music was in polyphonic texture and . counterpoint (Owen, 1992). Compare to the polyphonic texture in Baroque, music was having less restrictions. For example, Scarlatti's Fugue in G minor “The Cat Fugue”, Kp.30 (L.499), there was strict rules about module handbook, counterpoint and voices imitation. But in Classical period, music was simpler. Assignment! Melody was focused, led by module one voice only, rather than many, which were. Baroque music , Classical music , Counterpoint 1264 Words | 9 Pages.
meaningless as it was, as critics charged, a cacophony of sounds with illegible lyrics. Such music is also seen to be “meaningless” because they are written . without purpose except for commercial purposes. With! However, such criticisms are often missing the point . Just because contemporary music is module, not written in praise of gods or kings does not mean that it is artistically meaningless. With Homework Answers! Contemporary music can be considered modern day anthems of social issues. Many composers and singers have successfully used. Canon , Contemporary classical music , Counterpoint 1273 Words | 4 Pages. John Corigliano - Music Research Paper. Music Research Paper Music after 1900 [pic] Artwork by Remedios Varo Twentieth century music has been under lots of changes since its starting . point . Inventions of electronic devices, using dissonance and silence, and creating new instruments have had a big impact on modern and postmodern music.
In this essay, I will analyze two of the handbook, twentieth century musical pieces and highlight what I like or dislike about papers of scdl, them. One of the dissertation handbook, most successful composers of past century is John Corigliano. Atonality , Cadence , Consonance and assignment dissonance 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast the module, Baroque Music and Jazz. in music history. The early baroque composers rejected the polyphony texture of the late Renaissance music and favored homophonic texture. Help With Homework! They also focused . on dissertation, harmony rather than the complexity of phd dissertation assistance melodic lines.
The growth of figured bass and counterpoint represents the development of harmony. However, by the late baroque period, polyphonic texture returned to favor. Famous Baroque composers: - Johann Sebastian Bach Popular work: Air on a G String - George Frideric Handel Popular. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Harmony 1859 Words | 7 Pages. “cut-throat” competition. Automation of one’s point of sale and inventory system puts you a step ahead in the game. It helps you . conduct business transactions with ease as you only have to press a few keys. Dissertation! It liberates you from countless paper works as computation of the day’s sale and and middle keeping track of module inventory are done automatically.
With these things in renaissance and middle mind, the proponents hopes that upon completion of this Proposed Point of Sale and module handbook Inventory System, will find it of great. Calculation , Computer , Receipt 1451 Words | 6 Pages. misplaced modifier, PIE, commas, i.e./e.g., entry points / strategies, active vs. passive verbs, and not using ‘you’ in assignment papers of scdl academic writing and dissertation module . more but what stood out to me the bo support, most was PIE. Every topic I learned in this class will be in use toward my major but mostly in future papers. This semester, I learned point illustration explanation (PIE) in my writing skills which will be valuable in my future college papers. The topic that stood to handbook me the most was point illustration explanation (PIE). PIE makes.
Dead Poets Society , Henry David Thoreau , Learning 1236 Words | 4 Pages. in life is nice and and men essay easy.” ?Mia lost her parents and brother. ?Mia has to make a decision between life and death. ?Mia got into a big car accident that put . Dissertation Handbook! her in a coma. Point of bo support View This book is told in the point of view of first person. Mia tells the story through her own eyes. The author also says “I” and “we”.
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? “The Tipping Point : How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference.” By Malcolm Gladwell. Papers Of Scdl! Malcolm Gladwell, the . author of The Tipping Point , explores the dissertation, phenomenon known as the tipping point . According to Gladwell the and men, tipping point is the moment at which an dissertation module handbook idea, trend, or social behavior crosses a threshold, tips, and spreads like wildfire. Biology Homework! In other words, the point when an idea, trend, or behavior becomes an dissertation module sensation to the world. Gladwell researches the behaviors. Battles of Lexington and Concord , Idea , Malcolm Gladwell 2120 Words | 5 Pages. idea by adopting it themselves and kth spreading the word. The attainment of the tipping point that transforms a phenomenon into an influential . trend usually requires the intervention of a number of influential types of people. In the disease epidemic model Gladwell introduced in Chapter 1, he demonstrated that many outbreaks could be traced back to a small group of infectors. Likewise, on the path toward the tipping point , many trends are ushered into popularity by small groups of dissertation handbook individuals Gladwell. Epidemic , Marketing , Product management 1782 Words | 6 Pages.
Woody Point Music Festival Case Study. ?Woody Point Festival Case Analysis Introduction With its inception in 2004, the renaissance and middle ages essay, Writers at Woody Point Festival have . become an ever increasingly popular annual literature festival for Newfoundland’s west coast. The festival has grown each year and has now reached the point where council believes a formal marketing strategy and plan is necessary for the festivals short and long term economic sustainability in the ever-increasingly competitive literature festival market. To create the module, marketing. Event planning , Festival , Festivals 2100 Words | 6 Pages.
Steve Reich - Electric Counterpoint GCSE Music Analysis. ?STRUCTURE ‘Electric Counterpoint ’ has an A-B-Coda style structure. HARMONY/TONALITY I think Reich, to a certain extent, uses tonal . ambiguity in ‘Electric Counterpoint ’ because the key which the piece is in is not always clear. Help! This creates a level of uncertainty for the listener and module requires them to process the piece and therefore ensures they listen to it better. Assistance Kth! Furthermore, at module, the very end of the piece, there is a long crescendo that leads to a final chord built on the two notes E and B. Bass guitar , Blues , Counterpoint 482 Words | 2 Pages. ? Title Freezing and Melting Point Objectives 1. To gain proficiency in constructing a graph and plotting data points . 2. . To determine the freezing points of a compound from the graph of decreasing temperature versus time. 3. To determine the melting points of a known and unknown compound. Introduction Physical changes are the bo support resume, changes in the physical properties of a substance (Moore, Stanitski Jurs, 2009). Freezing point is the fixed temperature at which a pure liquid converted into.
Chemistry , Gas , Intermolecular force 1331 Words | 7 Pages. ways to accomplish tedious task. The company needs an effective and accurate computerized point of sale system that will enable them to assure . their revenue and dissertation module will provide accurate and detailed sales reports. A Point of sale (POS) system is and men literary, where a retail transaction is completed. Module Handbook! It is the point at which a customer makes a payment to bo support resume a cashier in exchange for goods or services. The project ‘Computerized Point of Sale System’ will enable the company to have the control over handbook their transactions, and. Customer service , Information systems , Point of sale 1228 Words | 4 Pages.
Mixture Melting Points Abstraction Determining the melting point is bo support resume, very significant in order to identify an unknown. In . this experiment, measuring the melting point was done by using melting point apparatus. The melting point of the module handbook, unknown sample #10 was 111.5?C. There were two possible compounds which were dibenzoyl ethylene and o-Toluic acid because their melting points were 111.2?C and 109.8?C when each compound was mixed with the unknown. Therefore, the unknown #10 was dibenzoyl ethylene. Chemical compound , Chemical substance , Chemistry 930 Words | 3 Pages. Melting Point Determination Identity and Purity of Solid Organic Compounds Objectives • To introduce the assignment help, technique of dissertation module handbook melting . point determination. • To use the concept of melting points for papers identification and characterization of organic compounds. • Properly fill and use a capillary melting point tube. • Determine accurate melting point ranges for a wide variety of organic substances. Introduction The melting point of a solid can easily and accurately be determined.
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Sustainable Development in module Kazakhstan Essay. The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to essay develop its extensive petroleum reserves in dissertation module handbook the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for byproduct sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and and men waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at dissertation, a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to of mice and men essay the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of dissertation module Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and renaissance ages demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a lowvalue industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in dissertation handbook a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix.
Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to bo support resume 33 wt% mercury in dissertation handbook the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The research and resume development to module handbook deploy Kazakhstan recycled sulfur for secondary applications described in this paper is being conducted with support from the with biology homework answers International Science and handbook Technology Center (ISTC) and the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (DOE IPP). Since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, Kazakhstan, like the other newly independent states (NIS), has taken steps to rebuild its economy from the ground up. Unlike other small NIS however, Kazakhstan is fortunate to possess huge potential petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region adjacent to help biology homework the Caspian Sea. Opportunities to exploit these indigenous natural resources have attracted international investment capital (e.g., ChevronTexaco, ExxonMobil, Eni-Agip) enabling rapid construction and deployment of productive oil and gas wells. For example, ChevronTexaco and the National Kazakhstan company “KazMunayGas” have formed a partnership known as TengizChevroil (TCO), which is module handbook currently producing 13 million metric tons (284,000 bbl/d) of and middle oil per year and expects to reach 23 million metric tons per year by 2006. Figure 1. Map of Kazakhstan and module the surrounding.
Figure 2. North Caspian Sea (left) and Kashagan region (right) where Agip-KCO will conduct petroleum exploration. Agip-KCO has signed an agreement with the assignment help Kazakhstan government for development rights in the Kashagan oil fields and expects initial production of 22 million metric tons per year in 2008, increasing to as much as 60 million metric tons per year. The location of Kashagan and Tengiz oil fields in Kazakhstan can be seen in Figures 1 and 2. Kazakhstan oil and gas is rich in dissertation hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is removed as elemental sulfur during the production process. As a result, huge quantities of by-product sulfur are produced and stored in papers of scdl large stockpiles (see Figure 3). Kazakhstan based oil gas companies currently recover 2,000 to 3,000 metric tons per day of elemental sulfur from their product streams (approximately 500 tons of elemental sulfur is recovered for every 100,000 barrels of extracted petroleum in Kazakhstan) . In 2000, total world production of dissertation elemental sulfur was 57.4 million tons, including 1.4 million tons from renaissance essay, Kazakhstan . The current sulfur stockpile exceeds 8 million tons at TengizChevroil and is large enough to be seen from the Space Shuttle.
The Kazakhstan Ministry of Environment, Figure 3. Sulfur storage at module, the TengizChevroil concerned about the chronic build up of these facility “mountains of bo support resume sulfur” will impose fines for dissertation module, continued storage. Further, as petroleum production increases in of mice and men essay the coming years, sulfur recovery will rise proportionally. Agip-KCO expects recovery of sulfur will rise to 5,770 metric tons/day at module handbook, the Kashagan Field and TengizChevroil is planning an additional 2,400 ton/day facility to manage sulfur from the recovery of sour natural gas at the Tengiz field . Anticipating potential problems associated with this expected buildup of by-product sulfur, EniAgip, the operating partner in Agip-KCO, commissioned Battelle Memorial Institute to conduct a study to assistance kth assess potential applications for excess sulfur . Battelle identified a number of traditional markets for recycled sulfur in Europe and the U.S. including phosphate fertilizer (50%), sulfuric acid, detergents, and other chemicals, metal and fiber industries, paint manufacture, rubber products, paper and pharmaceuticals. Lack of local markets and the cost associated with transportation of the sulfur to distant markets make these options less attractive in Kazakhstan. The study focused therefore, on applications that would have commercial benefit to dissertation the local economy, e.g., use of sulfur based asphalt and concrete for paving, construction, and waste treatment. Sulfur can be used to supplement petroleum-based bitumen in bo support resume asphalt paving applications. As much as 50% by weight of the dissertation module asphalt binder in asphalt concrete can be replaced with elemental sulfur. This would allow Kazakhstan, Russia, and other former Soviet Union countries to easily extend the output of their.
Figure 4. Sulfur modified concrete roadway demonstration at Tengiz asphalt refineries and aid region-wide efforts to and men literary essay upgrade the highway infrastructure. Furthermore, the use of sulfur in asphalt concrete does not require any special additives and normal asphalt road paving equipment can continue to dissertation handbook be utilized as the temperature of the resume asphalt binder is normally kept above the melting point of sulfur. In addition to the use of sulfur in asphalt concrete, polymer-modified sulfur can be utilized as a 100% replacement of the Portland cement binder in concrete. The properties of polymer-modified concrete are comparable to Portland-based concrete. Polymer-modified concrete is already a specialty concrete in Canada and the United States and is recognized by the American Concrete Institute. In 2002, KK Interconnect (KKI), JSV, coordinated a large-scale demonstration project at Tengiz to install a 560m stretch of handbook roadway using a standard asphalt plant and 2000 tons of a sulfur concrete mixture (Figure 4). More recently, a sulfur extended asphalt demonstration was completed by the company Rockbinder in Atyrau, the oil capital of Kazakhstan. These demonstration projects have helped open the door to new opportunities for secondary enduse of sulfur within Kazakhstan and surrounding countries and identified areas for further engineering research and development. For example, large-scale production of phd dissertation sulfur polymer in Kazakhstan will require specialized equipment to precisely control mixture parameters. For optimal performance and safety, traditional asphalt paving equipment will need to be modified for reduction of odorous emissions.
While the current formulation of sulfur polymer has been successfully demonstrated, additional RD may reveal new formulations that reduce overall cost and improve performance. Elemental sulfur is dissertation module a thermoplastic material that can be melted at 119°C, mixed with aggregate and then cooled to form a solid product. The U.S. Bureau of Mines determined that it could be reacted with the addition of a small quantity of assistance kth organic modifiers to form a sulfur polymer cement (SPC) that has added strength and durability compared with elemental sulfur . When combined with aggregate, SPC can be used in place of conventional, hydraulic (e.g., portland) cement concrete for construction applications.
These include poured concrete footings, floors, walls, tanks, etc. and pre-cast concrete products such as road barriers and guard rails, railroad ties, curbs, blocks/walls, etc.) Additional potential applications include fabrication of synthetic aggregate to form roadbed underlayment and for use in forming artificial reefs at module, the oil recovery sites in the Caspian Sea. In these applications, the sulfur polymer is heated above the melt temperature, mixed with sand or stone aggregate, and then cooled to form concrete. SPC concrete has high compressive strength and is resistant to attack in essay harsh chemical environments so it is ideal for use in dissertation module handbook chemical production facilities. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement, SPC concretes do not require water for mixing and curing and thus are suitable for use in arid environments. Potential opportunities to use SPC for construction, paving, and chemical/industrial applications are beginning to emerge to help offset the need for econometrics assignment, low-cost building materials and infrastructure upgrades in Kazakhstan’s post-Soviet economy. Further implementation of construction applications for recycled sulfur in Kazakhstan is dissertation handbook one of the objectives of the biology answers current project.
Development of the capacity to produce viable secondary end-use products from the by-product sulfur will reduce the negative economic liability associated with safe storage and/or disposal of. the sulfur reserves, and generate a potential positive income as the handbook applications for SPC are exploited. The cost for producing and delivering these products will be minimized based on the availability of raw materials and local production. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification. Under support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has pioneered the and men use of SPC for environmental restoration and waste management applications including treatment of a wide range of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes . SPC can be used to simply physically encapsulate the waste (SPC microencapsulation) and dissertation module handbook has been demonstrated for treating radioactive and mixed waste contaminated ash, soil, sludge, and evaporator concentrates. In a previous effort sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, BNL established feasibility of using Kazakhstan sulfur for the production of sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and of mice literary its use for the encapsulation of waste .
Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) is module handbook a related process that chemically stabilizes and physically encapsulates the waste. The latter process was more recently developed to specifically treat elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil, sludge and debris. The resulting final waste form product is durable under long-term disposal conditions and successfully immobilizes contaminants from the environment. SPSS is a two-stage process. In the first stage, mercury and/or mercury-contaminated materials are reacted with the SPC and other reagents to form mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility. The stabilized mercury product is a dispersible powder that is then heated with SPC to form a homogeneous molten mixture. When cooled, the product is physically encapsulated in help a solid brick-like material. The final product is non-dispersible and retains mercury from escaping in the gas phase or through leaching in groundwater.
Previous Figure 5. Pilot-scale SPSS Process equipment installed at BNL research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to module 33 wt% mercury in homework answers the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for dissertation, leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). A pilot-scale SPSS process system is shown in Figure 5. Mercury Problems at Pavlodar. The Pavlodar Chemical Plant in eastern Kazakhstan was constructed by the Soviet Union beginning in the mid-1960s The large (10 square mile) complex employed 6500, including 500 engineers. Among other chemicals, chlorine and caustic soda were routinely produced by electrolysis of a salt solution in a mercury cathode cell. Typical of this production method, spills and losses of mercury to evaporation were common. Papers Of Scdl. One report estimates that the module handbook total quantity of mercury lost was in the neighborhood of bo support 3000 tons .
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, revenues from plant operations have declined drastically, and the plant is in financial and physical disrepair. Handbook. For example, large spills of toxic mercury used for the production of chlorine and alkali have gone without remediation due to lack of funds. And Middle. Remediation of mercury-contaminated soil at Pavlodar, in handbook collaboration with a related project supported by the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is one of the objectives of this proposed work. A vacuum-assisted thermal retort system will be used to remove and condense mercury from the soil beneath and biology homework around the plant (see companion paper at the REWAS conference). The residual elemental mercury that is collected will then be treated using SPSS. Under support from ISTC and DOE IPP for this newly funded project, a pilot-plant will be constructed at Pavlodar to produce SPC from Kazakhstan sulfur. The resulting SPC will be used to conduct various demonstration projects including the production of SPC-based concrete products and the treatment of residual mercury that has been removed from the soil beneath and around the Pavlodar Chemical Plant. Summary and Conclusions. Although faced with many of the handbook difficult problems shared by other former Soviet countries, Kazakhstan is fortunate to possess large reserves of petroleum that are just now being exploited. However, Kazakh oil and gas is assistance typically high in H2S that must be removed prior to sale on the open market.
The by-product sulfur currently has limited commercial pathways for handbook, recycling and re-use and is accumulating at a rapid rate. Over 8 million tons are already being stored and with new oil reserves scheduled to come on line within the assignment next several years, this quantity will continue to grow rapidly. If left unresolved, the potential environmental and economic liabilities associated with the stored sulfur will pose an increasing risk for the international oil gas oil companies operating in Kazakhstan. Module Handbook. However, with creative solutions such as described in this paper, a plan for assignment, sustainable development that balances the production of by-products with appropriate cost-abating recycling options can be realized. The authors would like to thank Mr. James Noble (US DOE), Mr. Andrew Hood, and Ms. Laura Schmidt-Williams (US Department of State) for their support of this project and Dr. Artur Akhmetov (Pavlodar Chemical Plant) for his assistance in providing logistical assistance. 1. Levine, R.M. and G.J.
Wallace, The Mineral Industries of the dissertation handbook Commonwealth of Independent States, 2000; USGS, 2001. 2. Ober, J.A. 2001. U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2001. Sulfur. U.S. Geological Service, Washington, DC. 3. Econometrics Assignment. Oil Gas Journal, December 23, 2002, page 30. 4. Beall, P.W., and J. M. Neff, Development of Sulfur Modified Concrete and Asphalt Program for Agip-KCO (Kazakhstan), Internal Report to Eni-Agip.
5. Sullivan, T.A., and W.C. McBee, Development and dissertation module handbook Testing of Superior Sulfur Concretes, Report of Investigations 8160, Bureau of Mines, U.S. With. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, 1976. 6. Kalb, P.D., and dissertation handbook P. Colombo, “Modified Sulfur Cement Solidification of Low-Level Wastes,” BNL-51923, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, October 1985. 7. Phd Dissertation Assistance Kth. Kalb, P.D., J.H. Heiser, and P. Colombo, “Modified Sulfur Cement Encapsulation of Mixed Waste Contaminated Incinerator Fly Ash,” Waste Management, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp.147-153, Pergammon Press, New York, 1991. 8. Dissertation Module Handbook. Kalb, P.D., L.W.
Milian, S.P. Phd Dissertation Assistance Kth. Yim, R.S. Dyer, and W.R. Michaud, “Treatability Study on the use of module handbook By-Product Sulfur in Kazakhstan for the Stabilization of Hazardous and Radioactive Wastes,” Proceedings of the bo support American Chemical Society Symposium on Emerging Technologies in module handbook Hazardous Waste Management IX, Pittsburgh, PA, Sept. 15-17, 1997. Renaissance Essay. 9. Colombo, P., P.D. Dissertation Handbook. Kalb, and J.H. Heiser, “Process for of mice essay, the Encapsulation and Stabilization of dissertation module handbook Radioactive Hazardous and Mixed Wastes,” U.S. Patent No.
5,678,234, Oct. 14, 1997. Phd Dissertation Assistance. 10. Kalb, P.D., D. Module. Melamed; B. Patel, M. Fuhrmann, “Treatment of mercury containing waste” U.S. Patent No.6,399,849, June 4, 2002. 11. Yanin E.P., S. Heaven S., and econometrics help M.A.
Ilyushchenko, “Mercury pollution in dissertation module handbook the environments of the chlor-alkal factory in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan,” Biogeochemistry and Gechemical Ecology: Selected Presentations of the 2nd. Russian School of Thought “Geochemical Ecology and the Biogeochemical Study of Taxons of the Biosphere”, January 25-29, 1999, Moscow. – Moscow: GEOKHI, 2001, p. 90-97. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Sustainable Development in Kazakhstan. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.
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Air Pollution: Essay on Air Pollution (8634 Words) Air is the most vital constituent of environment for dissertation the sustenance of life on earth. Air forms nearly 80% of man#8217;s daily intake by weight. In pure air, the proportion of different constituents like oxygen, nitrogen and renaissance essay, other gases is fixed and definite. Module? It may be noted that air cannot be pure because some gases like sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, emission from volcanoes and swamps, salt spray, pollens from plants etc., are continuously added to the air by natural processes. Thus, air is polluted when its natural composition is disturbed either by natural or by assignment man-made sources. 1. Classification of Air Pollutants. 2. Source of Air Pollution. 3. Important Air Pollutants. 4. Effects of Air Pollution. 5. Module? Consequences of Air Pollution.
6. Control of Air Pollution. Help? H. Perkins (1974) has defined air pollution as, #8220;the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants such as dust, fumes, gases, mist, smoke or vapours in quantities of characteristics and of duration such as to dissertation module handbook be injurious to living organisms and to property which reasonably interferes with comfortable enjoyment of life and property. According to assistance kth World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution is defined as limited to situation in which the outdoor ambient atmosphere contains materials in concentration which are harmful to handbook man and its environment. Bo Support Resume? In general sense, air pollution may be defined as the module, imbalance or disequilibrium in the quality of air due to introduction of foreign materials from natural or anthropogenic sources to the air so as to cause adverse effect to biological communities in general and man in particular. Resume? The nature, dimension and magnitude of air-pollution depend upon a number of factors such as source of pollutants, nature of pollutants, quantity of pollutants, residence time of the pollutants in atmosphere.
According to H.E. Hobbs (1980), the residence time of pollutants depend upon nature of the pollutants, their way of emission, meteorological factors and on sink mechanisms. Mainly there are two factors which contribute to the problem of module air pollution. These are population explosion and productivity, each rising 2 to phd dissertation kth 3 per cent every year. 1. Classification of Air Pollutants : Air pollutants are of two types: (1) Primary air pollutants; (2) Secondary air pollutants.
These are the harmful chemicals which directly enter into air due to natural events or human activities. For example, when carbon containing substance is burnt, it will release CO 2 and/or CO to atmosphere. Dissertation Module? These gases directly entering into papers, atmosphere influence the biosphere are termed as primary pollutants. It is seen that there are mainly five primary pollutants which contribute together more than 90% of global air pollution. These are namely, carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), oxides of module handbook sulphur (SO 2 ) hydrocarbons (HC), and particulates. Transportation accounts for more than 46% of the total pollutants produced per assignment, year and hence remains as the principal source of dissertation handbook air pollution. Carbon monoxide is the major individual air pollutant with a tonnage matching that of all other pollutants together. Different primary pollutants, their sources and amounts, released to and men literary essay air are given in table 7.2. These are the harmful chemicals produced in dissertation air due to chemical reaction in between two or more components i.e. the reaction in econometrics between primary air pollutant and some components of air. Usually the primary air pollutant suffers chemical changes in presence of H 2 O (v), O 2 (g) and ultraviolet radiation of sun to form secondary pollutants.
Some reactions showing conversion of primary pollutant to secondary pollutant are described below: Primary pollutant Reactant Secondary Pollution. Just like primary pollutants, the secondary pollutants have significant detrimental effects on animals, soil, vegetation#8217;s, crops and materials. The Principal sources of air pollution can either be natural or anthropogenic. The natural sources of air pollution are: (iii) Soil Erosion, (v) Evaporation of volatile organic matter, and. (vi) Bacterial decomposition products. (b) Anthropogenic Sources: (i) Automobile Exhaust: These contain carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen, ethane, ethylene, 3, 4- benzpyrine. Dissertation Module? These gases are due to incomplete combustion of petrol and diesel. Papers Of Scdl? (ii) Industrial Exhaust: The industries mainly Chemical Factories, Paper and Pulp, Sugar, Petroleum Refineries, Steel Plants etc. are the dissertation handbook, chief air polluting agents. The industrial exhaust contain gases like CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO, (iii) Release of organic substances : The processes like biological decomposition of organic matter, seepage from natural gas and oil fields, volatile emission from plants, sewage gas etc. And Men Literary Essay? are the causes for the release of organic substances like CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 6 H 5 NH 2 , C 2 H 4 etc. (iv) Release of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): The chlorofluorocarbons are released to the atmosphere from air conditioners, refineries, pre cooler systems of cold storage etc. (v) Photochemical oxidants: These are ozone and module handbook, peroxyacylnitrate (PAN) formed by certain photochemical reactions. (vi) Tobacco smokes; it is produced by cigarette and literary, bidis. (vii) Particulate Pollution: Solid and liquid aerosols suspended in atmosphere are referred as particulate matters. These arise from grinding of ores, spraying and soil erosion.
Aerosols are chemicals, which are released into module handbook, the air in the form of vapours. For example lead containing gasoline fumes from automobiles, constitute the assignment papers, chief source of lead contamination. (viii) Agricultural Chemicals: The agricultural chemicals like pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc. Dissertation Module? are also released into help, the air as pollutants. (ix) Explosives in War: A number of poisonous gases are released in the atmosphere during the explosions of sophisticated explosives in war. (x) Photochemical Smogs: When different gases like SO 2 , NO, N 2 O, NO 2 and un-burnt hydrocarbons are released into atmosphere, these form photochemical smog by combining with dust and moisture. (xi) Mining Activity: During mining activities i.e. Dissertation Handbook? crushing and grinding of ores, a lot of particulate matters are released to atmosphere. (xii) Release from fertiliser plants: Ammonia gas is released from ammonium fertilizer plants. (xiii) Emission from jets and aircrafts: A significant quantity of carbon monoxide gas and un-burnt hydrocarbons are released from jets and aircrafts. (xiv) Domestic burning: Domestic burning of coal, kerosene oil, cow dung cakes etc. releases CO 2 , CO, SO 2 , etc. Assignment Help? Pollutants are the various harmful chemicals present in the atmosphere in module concentrations that disturb the dynamic equilibrium in the atmosphere and bo support, thereby affects the dissertation module handbook, living organisms and their environment. These are released to the environment partly or completely by anthropogenic activities or natural processes. Some potent chemical pollutants, their sources, mechanism of action in environment, detrimental effects and their control measures are described below. Natural process like volcanic action, electrical discharge during storm or lightening, seed germination, marsh gas production etc. Phd Dissertation? release small quantity of Carbon monoxide to the atmosphere. Module Handbook? The significant contribution of carbon monoxide is from anthropogenic activities.
For example out of the annual emission of 350 million tonnes, human activities contribute 275 million tonnes and natural processes contribute only 75 million tonnes. Some important CO producing processes are: It contributes about 74% of CO through motor vehicles aircrafts, rail, roads etc. (ii) Agricultural burnings: These include forest fire, burning of crop residues, brush, weeds etc. (iii) Industrial processes: These are the third largest contributors of CO. Industries like iron, steel, paper, petroleum etc. release large quantity of CO to of mice literary the atmosphere. The release of CO to module the atmosphere is taking place in such a large scale that the concentration is renaissance supposed to module handbook be doubled in every five years. But the actual increase in ambient global CO concentrations is much less. Kth? The lowering of the concentration of CO is atmosphere may be due to: (i) The oxidation of CO to CO 2 in the atmosphere by atomic oxygen, hydroxyl radical, NO 2 , singlet O 2 etc. (ii) Some micro-organisms present in the soil help in the oxidation of CO to CO 2 . Module? (iii) Green plants also fix and metabolize CO with the help of chlorophyll in light or in dark, photosynthetically and with answers, non-photosynthetically. C. Module? Detrimental Effects: CO interferes with oxygen carrying function of hemoglobin by forming carboxy hemoglobin complex. (i) When carboxy haemoglobin (CO-Hb) content reaches 5% oxygen transport gets inhibited. (ii) When carboxyhaemoglobin (CO-Hb) level exceeds 5%, cardiac and help, pulmonary functions are also affected, specially with mycocardial interactions.
The poisonous effect of module handbook CO is due to the fact that it prevents the R.B.C., saturated with CO from absorbing oxygen and renaissance essay, carrying it into different parts of the body. Death is caused by asphyxiation. (iii) When CO concentration becomes 400-500 ppm, it leads to loss of fertility, premature birth, spontaneous abortion and deformed babies in pregnant women. Plants are insensitive to basal level of CO. However, prolonged exposure of plants to higher concentrations of CO causes hazards in plants. (i) CO inhibits nitrogen fixing ability of bacteria when these are exposed to CO level of 2000 ppm for 33-38 hours. (ii) CO level within 100 to 10000 ppm causes lead drop, premature aging, leaf curling, reduction of module leaf size, etc. (iii) CO also at higher concentration, inhibits cellular respirations in plants by assistance kth reacting with cytochrome oxidise. D. Control of Co-Emission: Extensive investigations suggest that about 74% of all the CO emission is from automobiles. So control efforts must be focused on automobile emission. The following approaches can be made to control automobile emission: 1. Modification of internal combustion engines are needed to reduce the quantity of CO during fuel combustion. 2. Dissertation Handbook? Development of exhaust system reactors which will complete the combustion without forming CO. 3. Development of substitute fuels for gasoline which will give low concentration of phd dissertation assistance CO on combustion. Handbook? 4. Development of pollution free power source as a substitute for internal combustion engine.
5. Use of catalytic converters in two compartments which help in preventing emission of exhaust gases into the air. Phd Dissertation Assistance Kth? Sulphur-dioxide is the second potent air pollutant as it accounts for 29% of the total weight of dissertation module handbook all pollutants. There are two sources of SO 2 — (1) Natural Source, and. (2) Anthropogenic source. Econometrics Help? Natural processes like volcanic eruption provide 67% of the S0 2 pollution which is distributed all over the globe. Anthropogenic source contribute about 33% of SO 2 pollution which is localised mainly in urban areas. The different man made activities are: (1) Fuel combustion (coal) account for 74%, (2) Industries account for 22%, (3) Transportation accounts for 2%. Specifically, burning of fossil fuels in thermal power plants, manufacture of sulphuric acid and fertilizers, smelting industries etc, account for 75% of dissertation module handbook total SO 2 emission while automobiles and refineries contribute to the rest 25%. The quantity of SO 2 in atmosphere is of mice very small as compared to its annual emission. This may be due to module its reaction in atmosphere. Actually there are four possible roots for the removal of SO 2 from environment: (i) It may undergo photo-chemical oxidation reaction with atmospheric oxygen.
(ii) It may undergo photochemical and bo support, chemical reaction with nitrogen oxide and/or hydrocarbon. (iii) It may undergo chemical reaction with moisture and become sulphuric acid or sulphurous acid. On further reaction with metals or their salts, these are converted into metal sulphates. (iv) It may undergo reaction with solid particles in the atmosphere. C. Dissertation Handbook? Detrimental effects of SO 2 : Sulphur dioxide is perhaps the of mice and men literary, most dangerous air pollutant affecting both living and non-living world. (1) It causes irritation to eye and respirating tract even at 2.5 ppm. (2) It causes swelling of nasal system and dissertation handbook, stimulates mucus secretion. (3) It causes lung cancer at high level. (4) It induces desquamation or peeling off of the of mice literary essay, surface epithelium in dissertation module the mucosa. (5) Presence of S0 2 in moisture and fog becomes more dangerous due to formation of H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 3 which are 5 to 20 time more irritating than SO 2 alone. (6) Its inhalation causes symptoms of bronchitis, emphysema and other lung diseases. Phd Dissertation Kth? (b) Effects on plants: (1) It affects plant growth and nutrient quality of products. (2) It kills leaf tissues causing leaf necrosis. (3) It causes chlorosis and dissertation handbook, dwarfing when the concentration exceeds 1 ppm. (4) Its chronic exposure to plants causes bleaching of plant pigments. (5) At high concentration, it decreases PH of leaf tissues of some plants increasing the sulphur content #8216;n plants. (6) It affects stomatal pores, stomatal frequency, cholorplast and bo support, transpiration through stomata. (c) Effect on non-living materials: (1) It attacks marble, limestone, roofing state, electrical contacts, textiles and dissertation module, buildings, (2) It reacts with leather reducing its strength and inducing it s disintegration. (3) The acid rain produced by the reaction of SO 2 corrodes metals, attacks fibres, and washes out basic material from soil. The reaction of H 2 SO 4 on marble is known as stone leprosy. (4) It affects durability in paint films. (5) SO 2 polluted air accelerates the corrosion rate of metals such as iron, zinc, copper etc. The oxides of sulphur can be reduced and controlled by the following methods: 1. Assistance? Removing sulphur from fuel before burning. 2. Using low content sulphur fuels. 3. Removing the dissertation handbook, sides of sulphur from fuel gases as soon as these are formed. 4. Bo Support Resume? Using non-sulphur containing fuels such as natural gases.
5. Using nuclear power to dissertation generate electricity from power plants. NO x exists as nitrous oxide (N 2 O), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen trioxide (N 2 O 3 ), nitrogen peroxide (NO 2 ) and nitrogen pentoxide (N 2 O s ). Amongst all these nitrogen oxides, nitrogen peroxide (NO 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) are the two main reagents causing air pollution. About 95% of NO x is econometrics assignment released to the atmosphere mainly as NO as remaining as NO 2 . Module Handbook? NO x is released to the atmosphere mainly through anthropogenic activities and bo support resume, partly through natural processes. Module? 1. Anthropogenic sources: Anthropogenic activities release about 5 x 10 7 tonnes of NO x every year. Some important activities include: 1. With? Combustion of coal, oil, natural gases and gasoline. 2. By-products of some chemical industries like HN0 3 am H 2 SO 4 . 3. Thermal power plants. 4. Supersonic aircraft exhaust. 5. Nuclear explosion. Module? 6. Manufacture of nylon intermediates.
2. Natural Sources: Natural processes release about bo support, 5 x 10 10 tonnes of NO x every year. Some natural processes include: 1. Bacterial action or microbial action on earth surface: Microorganisms reduce N 2 0 under anaerobic condition producing potent pollutants, NO and NO 2 . 2. Photo-chemical reaction in the atmosphere mediated by cosmic rays. 3. Volcanic eruption. B. Consequences of dissertation module NO x Accumulation: The accumulation of NO x in the environment causes varieties of bo support hazards such as acid rain, depletion of ozone layer, smog formation etc. NO x causes acid rain by reacting with atmospheric moisture giving acids like nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and nitrous acid (HNO 2 ) (b) Depletion of ozone layer: NO x released to the atmosphere moves up and reacts with ozone layer causing its depletion. Such a process allows the passage of UV radiation into earth surface.
The presence of excess quantity of NO and NO 2 induces smog formation and generates a number of harmful species like free radicals, PAN (Peroxy acetyl nitrate) etc. C. Module Handbook? Detrimental Effects of NO x on Living Organisms: The accumulation of NO x is toxic to of mice and men essay both plants and animals. The toxic action is attributed to their interference with the course of a number of biochemical reactions possibly through their modulating action over a number of cellular enzymes and production of a number of secondary pollutants like OH, HO 2 , O 3 , PAN etc. 1. Loss of photosynthetic activity. The threshold limit value (TLV) of NO and NO 2 for human beings are 25 and 5ppm respectively.
Although NO (Whose value is less) does a not cause major health hazard NO 2 causes serious health hazards. Some serious health hazards are: 1. Inflammation of lung tissues. 2. Respiratory diseases like lung cancer, pulmonary haemorrhage. 3. Destruction of oxygen transport efficiency of blood. In view of the detrimental and handbook, adverse effects of resume NO x on the entire living and non-living world, it is necessary to keep the level of NO x below the threshold value. Some important control measures are outlined as below: 1. To remove HO x from stack gases, one of the module handbook, approach is the chemical absorption process (H 2 SO 4 solution or alkaline shrubbing solution containing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) is papers used. 2. Dissertation Module? Catalytic converters should be used to control automotive emission of NO x . And Men Essay? Catalytic converter acts in two ways: (i) It decomposes HO x to nitrogen and oxygen in dissertation module presence of suitable catalyst. (ii) It reduces NO x to nitrogen in with presence of suitable catalyst and reducing agent. Dissertation? 3. NO x emitted from kth power plants (about 50-1000 ppm) can be reduced up to 10% by two stage combustion process. Module? (i) The fuel is fired at high temperature mixing with 90-95% of stoichiometric air. Of Mice And Men Literary Essay? (ii) Fuel burn out is completed at a relatively low temperature in excess of dissertation handbook air. 4. Public awareness should be created to educate the common man about the hazards of NO x . 5. Of Mice? Government should take stringent action against industries discharging higher quantity of NO x into environment than the level prescribed by pollution control board.
Some more common chemical pollutants, then source and detrimental effects are described as in the table given below: In addition to different gases, a series of hydrocarbons are released to the atmosphere either through natural processes or through human activities. These hydrocarbons sometimes behave like primary pollutants and some other times induce the formation of module handbook other potent secondary pollutants. With? Natural sources of hydrocarbon release into air includes emission from trees, liberation from anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in presence of bacteria, liberation from domesticated animals etc. The main hydrocarbon in natural sources is methane whose residence time in air is 3 to 7 years. Anthropogenic activities contributes nearly 20% of the hydrocarbon emitted to the atmosphere every year.
The major anthropogenic sources are: (i) automobile exhaust, (ii) industrial processes like processing, storage, transfer of products, (iii) incinerator and refuse burning, (iv) solvent , and. (v) burning of coal and wood etc. Global emissions of pollutant hydrocarbons is given in table 7.5. Handbook? Table 7.5 : Global Emission of Pollutant Hydrocarbons. The level of hydrocarbon in bo support atmosphere is usually reduced by several reactions and photo-chemical reactions. Being thermodynamically unstable, these are oxidised in module a series of steps to carbon dioxide. Besides, the hydrocarbons are also settled either by the action of gravity or by rain water. c. Detrimental effects of hydrocarbons: (a) Effect on human beings: (i) It has carcinogenic effects on lungs due to its swelling at resume higher concentration. (ii) Aromatic hydrocarbons causes irritation to muscus membrane. (iii) Hydrocarbons induce formation of PAH (peroxy acyl nitrate) which causes irritation of eyes, noses, throat etc. (iv) Excess of hydrocarbon causes blocking or respiratory tract. (v) Benzpyrene induces cancer. (vi) Methane at higher concentration causes narcotic effects. Dissertation? (vii) Black-lung disease of coal miners, pulmonary fibrosis of asbestos workers and employsema of assignment help urban peoples are due to particulate accummulation. (viii) The lodged particles in the lungs (3µ) can cause severe breathing trouble by physical blockage and irritation of lung capillaries. (b) Effects on plants: (i) Hydrocarbons retard the growth of plants. (ii) These along with ozone cause chlorosis. (iii) Ethylene hydrocarbons damage leaf tissues and flowering plants. (iv) Acetylene and propylene bring about early maturity of plants. (c) Effects on materials: (i) Hydrocarbons even at a very low concentration attack paper, rubber, synthetics etc. (ii) These attack long chain polymers losing tensile strength of polymers. (iii) These lower the elastic nature of plastics thereby making them more brittle. d. Control of Hydrocarbons: The level of hydrocarbons can be reduced by dissertation handbook controlling their emission from the literary, source.
The emission from automobile exhaust and industrial exhaust can be controlled through processes like incineration, absorption, adsorption, condensation etc. Particulates are the small solid particles and liquid droplets present in the atmosphere in fairly large numbers. The dimension of dissertation module particulates range from 0.0002 µ to 500 µwith life time varying from a few seconds to several months. The presence of these particulates in air causes serious environmental consequences. The release of particulates into atmosphere is both natural and anthropogenic.
The natural processes include volcanic eruption, blowing of dust and soil by wind, spraying of salt and other solid particles by the seas and oceans etc. The contributions from manmade activities are: fly ash from power plants, melters and mining operations, smokes from incomplete combustion processes etc. The incomplete combustion processes are fuel combustion from stationary sources (wood, coal, oil, natural gas etc.), industrial processes and other sources like forest fire, structural fires, agricultural burning etc. b. Types of particulates: The particulate matter may be inorganic particles or organic particles. The inorganic particles include metal oxides (e.g. CaO, Fe 3 O 4 , V 2 O s , CaCO 3 etc.), Metal halides (e.g. PbCl 2 , PbBr 2 , Pb BrCl etc.), salts (e.g. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , CaSO 4 etc.), fly ash asbestos particles etc.
The organic particles are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo (?-) pyrene, Chrysene, benzofluoranthene, soot etc. c. Detrimental effects: (a) Effects on human beings: (i) Asbestos particles cause lungs disorder. (ii) Lead containing particulates affect children#8217;s brain and interfere with the development and maturation of red blood cell. (iii) Particulates of less than 1 µ reach alveoli of lungs and damage lungs tissues. iv. Soluble aerosols get absorbed into blood from alveoli while the insoluble aerosols are carried to the lymphatic stream and get deposited in the pulmonary, lymphatic depot point or lymp glands. (b) Effects on plants: (i) The deposition of biology homework answers particulates on soil makes the soil unsuitable for plant growth. (ii) Deposition of particulate on leaves prevents CO 2 absorption and hence decreases the rate of handbook photosynthesis. (iii) Particulates deposited on plant leaves block the stomata of plants and thus inhibiting the rate of transpiration from the soil. (iv) In case of some plants which are sensitive to traces of toxic metals, their enzyme activity is disturbed in presence of particulates containing trace elements. (c) Effects on materials: (i) Particulate fumes and mists react directly with painted surfaces and and middle essay, cause cracks on it. (ii) Particulates induce corrosion of metals. Dissertation? (iii) Particulates accumulate on the soil surface causing soil erosion. (iv) Particles including fumes, dust, soot, mists and bo support resume, aerosols can bring about severe damage to buildings, sculpture and monuments. (d) Effect of dissertation module handbook solar radiation: (i) Particulates reduce visibility by absortion and assignment papers, scattering of solar radiation. (ii) Particulates disturb the delicate heat balance of the atmosphere. (iii) Particulates compensate the climatic effects due to handbook increased CO 2 concentration. With? (iv) Particulates influence the module handbook, climate through the formation of clouds, rains and resume, snow, by acting as nuclei upon module handbook, which water condensation can take place. d. Biology Homework? Control of particulate emission: The quantity of particulates in the air can be minimised by the following techniques: (i) By using gravity settling chamber. (ii) By using cyclone collector. Handbook? (iii) By using cyclonic separators and phd dissertation kth, trajectory separators. Handbook? (iv) By using filters and scrubbers. (v) By using electrostatic precipitators. Some air pollutants, their sources and detrimental effects are outlined in table 7.7. Table 7.7: Some Chemical Pollutants, Their Sources and Detrimental Effects. The important effects of air pollution are as follows: 1. Atmospheric particles, due to resume fuel combustion for industrial and module handbook, household heating purposes, can scatter and absorb sunlight and of scdl, thus reduce visibility.
2. Increased level of CO 2 causes greenhouse effect. 3. Chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides cause ozone layer depletion and ozone hole. 4. The effect of particulate matter includes corrosion of metals, erosion and soiling of buildings, sculptures and painted surfaces and soiling of clothing and draperies, damages of electric equipment#8217;s etc. 5. The toxic effects of particulate matter on animals and human beings can be classified as: (i) Intrinsic toxicity due to chemical or physical properties. For example, CO can combine with hemoglobin and reduce its oxygen carrying capacity. Since CO has greater affinity than oxygen to occupy the co-ordination position of oxyhaemoglobin, it can remove oxygen even at handbook low partial pressure. Of Mice Literary Essay? Interference with clearance mechanism in handbook the respiratory tracts. Renaissance Essay? For example, chronic bronchitis and emphysema have also been found to be caused by dissertation SO 2 . Toxicity due to absorbed toxic substances. Assignment Help? For example, lead particles from vehicle exhaust, in higher dose, can kill outright but in lower dose shortens life span and causes deterioration of dissertation nervous system.
6. The oxides of phd dissertation assistance kth sulphur and nitrogen combine with water vapours of the atmosphere and cause acid rain. 7. Benzpyrenes play an important role in higher cancer rates in urban areas even at a very lower concentration. Dissertation? 8. The small solid particles can serve as carrier for resume microorganisms and other infective agents and thereby spreading diseases. Dissertation? The accumulation of pollutants in air causes a number of disasters to the living world. Some important consequences of econometrics help air pollution are as follows: Ozone layer present in the stratosphere strongly absorbs UV radiation of 220-203 nm and thereby protects life on dissertation handbook, earth from severe radiation damage.
But due to continuous and non- interrupted release of chloroflurocarbons, oxides of nitrogen etc. by the civilised world, the ozone layer is constantly depleted. The reaction is help with biology homework answers medicated through a number of free radicals like CI + , CIO + , + OH etc. and a number of portent species like (O, NO, SO 2 NO 2 etc.) The mechanisms of some important reactions causing ozone depletion are given below. (i) Depletion through CFCs: Each CFC is capable of destroying 1 lakh of 0 3 molecules in chain reactions. It is also calculated that 1 kg of CFC can deplete 3.5 tonnes of ozone. (ii) Depletion through MO (Nitric oxide) Since residence time of NO in atmosphere is longer, it is a potent agent causing depletion. (iii) Depletion through N0 2 (nitrogen peroxide) (iv) Depletion through Cl 2 gas: (v) Depletion through nascent oxygen: (vi) Depletion through + OH (Hydroxyl radical) (vii) Depletion through SO 2. (viii) Depletion through N 2 O (Nitrous oxide) Due to the depletion of ozone layer, the harmful solar radiations easily penetrate into the environment and cause the following detrimental effects: In the early sixties (1963) scientists have reported a large hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica where ozone level dropped by 30 per cent. The ozone hole covers an area as large as USA. CFCs were considered to module handbook be prime suspect for causing ozone depletion. It was also established that one molecule of CFC is capable of assignment destroying 3 lakh ozone molecules. Subsequently a similar hole was discovered over the thickly populated northern hemisphere.
A study by NASA scientists (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA) revealed that the area of ozone over dissertation, northern hemisphere decreased by with biology homework 3 per cent between 1969 and 1986. The overall reduction in the O 3 layer is now estimated to be about 8 per cent. Under the auspicies of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 34 countries have signed an agreement at Montreal, Canada, in 1986 called #8220;Montreal Protocol#8221;. The scientists have agreed to reduce the production and module handbook, use of CFCs upto 50 per help with, cent by the year 1999. In a second meeting at Helsinki held in 1989, it was agreed upon a total phaseout of CFCs by 2000 A.D. Effects of Ozone Depletion: Due to the depletion of ozone layer in the stratosphere, the harmful UV radiation will reach the surface of earth causing mass destruction. Some of the harmful effects of UV-radiation may be outlined as below: 1. UV-radiation can cause skin burns, melanoma skin cancer, leukemia, breast cancer, lung cancer, photo keratitis, cataracts etc. 2. UV-radiation may damage the genetic material, DMA leading to dissertation module handbook mutation. 3. UV-radiation injures plant proteins and causes depletion of chlorophylls and mutations. 4. The depletion of ozone layer will induce eye cancer in cattle.
5. Papers Of Scdl? The depletion of ozone layer leads to the loss of various plants from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. 6. It will reduce the crop productivity. 7. It will bring about significant changes in the climate. 8. Due to depletion of module handbook ozone layer, UV-radiation may cause Green House effect changing the global energy. Protection of ozone layer: By protecting the ozone layer of the stratosphere, we can protect the human beings, all plants and with homework answers, animals, eco-system and finally biosphere from handbook destruction. Some protective and controlling measures of ozone layer depletion may be outlined as given below: 1. Help Biology Homework? The production and dissertation handbook, use of CFCs should be banned and their substitutes should be found out.
2. The use of plastic foam has to be boycotted. 3. The use of CFCs in help aerosol, spray cans, egg crates etc. should be banned and available substitutes be used. 4. Suitable procedures should be adopted to recapture the dissertation, CFCs released from the phd dissertation assistance kth, air-conditioner and refrigerator servicing units. 5. Stringent international and national laws are to be promulgated to see that ozone layer remains intact without destruction. Mow the scientists are trying to phase out CFCs by injecting different alkanes (ethane, propane, etc.) into Antarctica Atmosphere. These alkanes are capable of capturing the chlorine radicals, responsible for ozone depletion obtained from CFCs. (i) It causes skin cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, eye cataracts etc. (ii) It causes damage of the genetic materials like DHA and RNA leading to mutations. (iii) It inhibits the dissertation module handbook, protein synthesis and causes the depletion of chlorophyll in plants. (iv) It induces eye cancer in of mice and men literary cattle. (v) It reduces the crop productivity. The green house is that body which allows short wavelength solar radiation to pass through it but does not allow the long wavelength infrared radiation to escape.
Due to rapid and unplanned industrialization the gases like CO 2 , chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), ozone (O 3 )/etc. Module Handbook? accumulate in the atmosphere. The layer of econometrics assignment these gases behave like wall of a green house and dissertation module, transmit short wave solar radiations but does not allow the longer wavelength heat radiation (infrared) to with biology answers be reflected back into outer space. That is green house are transparent to solar radiation but not to heat radiation. Thus, the green house effect may be defined as the progressive warming up of the atmosphere at the surface of earth due to blanketing of infrared radiation from the earth#8217;s surface by the green house gases. (G.H. gases) + hv (Solar radiation) > (G.H. gases) + hv (solar radiation) (G.H. gases) + hv 1 (infrared) > (G.H.gases) + The green house effect is based on principle of infrared absorption characteristic of gases. AH the green house gases are infrared sensitive.
It is seen that higher the concentration of green house gases, higher will be the magnitude of IR-radiation trapped and re-emitted back to module earth#8217;s surface increasing the mean global temperature. The contribution of different gases inducing green house effect is of mice literary as follows: The intensity of the dissertation module handbook, effect increases in presence of dust, aerosols, etc. The green house effect was for the first time suggested by J. Fourier (1827). This effect is also known as Global Warming or Carbon dioxide enrichment or atmospheric effect. The green house effect was initially essential for colder climates to phd dissertation kth grow few plants in winter, which require higher temperature for their growth and dissertation handbook, survival. But, now-a-days, it is seen that enrichment of green house inducing gases in biology homework answers the atmosphere also cause global warming because their concentration is dissertation module far above the normal. The fundamental principles underlying green house effect are: (i) Absorption of infrared radiation by the green house inducing gases, (ii) Re-emission back toward the earth surface which results in heat trap and increases the mean global temperature. Renaissance And Middle Ages Essay? Sources of green house gases: Some major sources of green house inducing gases may be described as given below: (i) CO 2 gas is released into the atmosphere by module the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gases etc.), industrial activities, thermal power stations, automobiles, aircrafts, etc. (ii) CFCs and halons are released during the operation of coolants and refrigerant, burning of plastic foam products and from spray cans. (iii) Methane (CH 4 ) gas is released from domestic waste and sewage. (iv) Reduction of ground cover and deforestation indirectly enrich CO 2 gas in the atmosphere. And Middle Ages? (v) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is released to the atmosphere due to dissertation handbook forest Fire, burning of grassland and papers, natural oil and bio-decomposition of nitrogenous fertilisers. (vi) The concentration of ozone in the atmosphere increases due to dissertation the formation of photo-chemical smog.
Effect of Green House Gases on Climate Change: A number of predictions have been made about the change in global climate due to green house effect. Some of these may be outlined as given below: 1. It is reported that between 1960 and help, 1986, the average global level of CO 2 has increased by 26 per cent (from 275 ppm to 346 ppm. and this level may reach upto 550 ppm by the end of next century). Such an module increase in CO 2 concentration will lead to an average increase in of mice literary global temperature by 1.5°C to dissertation handbook 4.5°C. Warming will be more pronounced in polar region than in the equatorial regions. 2. Increase in temperature in the poles will result in the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps and assignment papers of scdl, raising of the level of sea water by about 1.5 metres. 3. Increase in temperature will evaporate terrestrial water content leading to shortage of drinking water. 4. Increase in temperature changes the rainfall pattern. 5. The snowing period will be reduced as a result of which the handbook, rate of decomposition of organic matter will increase. Effect on Agriculture: Global warming has significant impact on agricultural productivity. Some of these effects are discussed as given below.
1. Global warming will decrease in cereal production of the world due to reduction of soil moisture. However, the productivity may increase in the polar region. 2. The changes in climatic conditions may shift the cropping pattern. 3. An increase in temperature will increase the rate of development of insect pests. Effect on Human Health: Global warming has significant effect on human health and human diseases: 1. It may favour spreading of help with answers diseases like malaria and filaria.
2. It may favour the breeding and growth of insect vectors. 3. It may favour the spreading of insect vectors from one latitude and altitude to other, thereby extending the handbook, boundaries of the diseases. Control of econometrics assignment help Green House Effect: In order to reduce the concentration of different green house gases including gases in the atmosphere and to cope with green house effect, the following strategies should be adopted : 1. Reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels drastically, 2. Increase of the module, efficiency of internal combustion engines used in automobiles so that the pollutants in the exhaust will be reduced. 3. Use of scrubbers to remove CO 2 from the emissions of coal burning power plants and industries. 4. Methanol as a substitute to be used in transport sector. 5. Use of biogas for phd dissertation kth domestic purposes, as conventional energy. 6. Use of unleaded petrol in vehicle. 7. Banning of the use of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs). 8. Banning of deforestation. 9. Developing greeneries by undertaking massive afforestation programmes.
Smog is dissertation a combination of two words smoke and fog. The word smog was for the first time suggested by H. A. Econometrics Assignment Help? Vocus in 1905 but first came into limelight in Belgium in 1930 as smoky fog. In 1952, the smog became a deadly pollutant killing few thousands in London. Smoke is dissertation handbook produced as a result of the with biology answers, incomplete combustion of module fuels. The smoke contains various gases and suspended particulate matter. In addition, another substance responsible for smog formation is dust. Dust is nothing but small particle of solid matter that can be carried in suspension.
Dusts are produced from of mice literary forest fires, automobile exhaust, industrial combustion process, soil blowing by module wind, ocean spray, mining areas, etc. Dust combines with smoke and later with fog to produce #8216;smog#8217;, which appears in the form of cloudy layer in the atmosphere. A thick cloud of smog is produced where smoke instead of escaping, the area to outer atmosphere stays nearer to the surface due to temperature inversion. Econometrics Help? The smog is caused either due to the presence of oxidising pollutants or due to reducing pollutants. If the smog is caused due to handbook oxidising pollutants, it is known as oxidising smog and if it is caused due to reducing pollutants, it is known as reducing smog. Besides, the smog can also be classified according to its pollutant content or nature of the reactions shown by the pollutants or the source from which the pollutants are generated etc. Let us discuss various types of smogs and their characteristics: 1. Sulphurous Smog: It is a mixture of assignment fog, smoke and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas.
This type of smog was marked in London in 1952 where the dissertation, smog prevailed for five days killing few thousands. The pollution was caused due to sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and smoke during temperature inversion. The effects were more severe in morning hours and became deadly after sunrise because of photochemical oxidation. The smog caused bronchitis, pneumonia, respiratory distress, and help with answers, eye diseases. Since it is a mixture of reducing pollutants, it is also known as reducing smog. 2. Los Angeles Smog: Such type of smog was recorded at Los Angeles in 1944 and thereafter it#8217;s known as Los Angeles smog. Dissertation? It is a type of photo-chemical smog. The smog contains different compounds at different times of a day. In the morning, when nitric oxide (MO) is discharged from automobile exhausts build up and react with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) which is a yellowish brown gas with pungent and chocking odour. Since MO 2 gas produces a characteristic brown haze, the cities where this type of smog predominates, are called brown air cities.
As the sun rises, the UV-rays cause a rapid conversion of NO 2 to MO and nascent oxygen atom. The peak is obtained in- between 10 A.M., and 4.00 P.M. The nascent oxygen atoms react with oxygen molecules of help with homework air to give Ozone (O 3 ), the concentration of which is maximum at around 10 A.M. The other highly reactive chemical forms are hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxy radicals (OH) etc. Dissertation Module? The presence of renaissance and middle essay oxides of nitrogen in the environment induces the formation of other potent species like ozone (O 3 ), hydrogen. Peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxyl radical (HO + ), carbony radical (R CO + ), acetly peroxy radical (CH 3 COOO) + etc. The smog brings about a disaster in the living world possibly through the species like ozone, H 2 O 2 , hydroxyl radicals ( + OH), acetyl peroxy radicals, peroxy acyl nitrate (PAN), hydroperoxy radical etc.
The accumulation of oxides of nitrogen in the environment induces the formation of module handbook other potent species as per the given mechanism. NO 2 hv (traction) > NO + O. R- CO + + O 2 >R-CO O- O + (Acyl peroxy radical) R- CO – O –O + + NO 2 > R- COO – NO 2 (Peroxy acyI nitrate) The formation of assignment smog is highly destructive and module handbook, influences both the physiological and econometrics assignment help, metabolic activities of living organisms#8217; some important effects of smog are discussed as given below: 1. The presence of ozone, PANs and aldehydes in smog lead to eye irritation and affects respiratory tracts and throat. 2. The presence of NO 2 in smog causes nose and eye irritation and chronic diseases in lungs and heart. Module Handbook? 3. The presence of biology homework answers PANs in module smog causes extensive agricultural and forestry damage, such as damage to help with biology answers leave and stomatal tissues. 4. Module Handbook? PANs cause dizziness and headache in bo support resume man. 5. Smog includes early maturity of plants and hence induces senescence and reduces rate of photosynthesis. Dissertation? 6. Smog damages metals, paper, rubber and fabrics.
7. The particulate matters in smog induce lung cancer. 8. Ozone decolourises the paintings. The following are the methods to control smog: 1. The production of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and hydro-carbon should be controlled which checks the production of ozone and help with homework answers, PANs. 2. The process like incineration, absorption, adsorption and condensation should be employed to reduce the different harmful constituents of smog such as oxide of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbon, carbon-monoxide, dust etc. Dissertation Handbook? Now-a-days, one of the assistance kth, major consequences of environmental pollution is the acid rain. It has become serious threat to water bodies like ponds, rivers, lakes and reservoirs and also to the terrestrial eco-systems like grasslands and forests. Module? Acid rain may be defined as any precipitation such as rain, fog, mist or snow etc. which is more acidic than the normal i.e. having a lower pH than that of normal rain water. Normal rain water means rainfall in absence of any major pollutants in renaissance and middle ages air. Dissertation Module Handbook? The normal rain water is also slightly acidic (pH approximately 5.6) because the basal level of bo support resume CO 2 gas present in dissertation the air can also be solubilised in rain water giving carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), weak acid. However, when the help biology answers, atmospheric air is highly polluted containing the major pollutants like oxides of module handbook sulphur and nitrogen and halogen radicals, these pollutants react with water vapours or rain droplets to form different types of strong acids like sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydrochloric acid (HC1) which have grave environmental impact. Hence, acid rain means the biology answers, presence of excessive strong acids in rain water which lowers the pH of water from normal.
The term acid rain was first referred by Robert Angus in 1872. It has become a serious problem in most of the industrialised countries like U.S.A., U.K., Germany, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Canada, etc. In India, it is also known that acid rain is destroying the greatest monument Taj Mahal in Agra. Module Handbook? Here, the acid rain is caused due to Mathura Oil Refinery, an industry discharging a number of phd dissertation assistance kth poisonous gases into the atmosphere. Acid rain is due to the presence of various pollutants like oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur and halogen radicals or molecules in the atmosphere. These pollutants are discharged into dissertation, the atmosphere by resume several natural processes and human activities. Natural phenomena like volcanic eruptions, forest fires, lightening, burning of fossil fuel, decomposition of organic matters etc release large quantities of these pollutants into the atmosphere. Human activities like burning of fuels, automobile exhausts, industries and smelting plants, thermal power plants, petroleum refineries etc. release large quantities of these pollutants into the atmosphere. After the release of the dissertation, pollutants (oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and halogens) into the atmosphere, these can travel thousands of kilometres. The longer these stay in homework answers the atmosphere, the more likely these are to be oxidized into acids. The conversion of the dissertation, pollutants into resume, their corresponding acids are shown in module the.
Equations given below: (a) Formation of Nitrogenous acids: (b) Formation of Sulphuric acid: (c) Formation of Hydrochloric acid: (d) Formation of carbon acid: All these acids with naturally occurring carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) form acid rain with rain water and pH falls to 4,0, at times the pH can also fall to 2.0. The concentration of these acids as well as the econometrics assignment, quantity of water in which the acids are dissolved determines the pH of rain water. Heavy rains are usually less acidic as there is module handbook relatively more water. Assignment? On the other hand, fogs and mists are more acidic as the acid molecules are dissolved in relatively little water. Acid rains create complex problems and their imports are far reaching. Some major impacts of acid rain on the eco-system are discussed below: 1. Acid rain increases the soil acidity affecting land flora and fauna. 2. It causes acidification of aquatic bodies which leads to the killing of aquatic plants and animals.
The increase in handbook acidity also affects the metabolism, growth and with homework, development of aquatic organisms. 3. Handbook? It induces senescence of plants thereby reducing the productivity of the eco-system. 4. It leaches various metals such as aluminum, zinc, copper, manganese, cadmium, lead etc. from the essay, soil into handbook, aquatic bodies. When the concentration of these metals (in soluble form) increases beyond the safe limit, it affects development and leads to the death of many aquatic organisms in general and fishes in particular. 5. It corrodes buildings, monuments, statues, bridges, fences, railings etc. 6. Acid rain affected plants and animals are easily attacked by pathogens. 7. Diseases caused by bacteria and pathogens can be spread by bo support acid rain water. 8. Acid rain may cause respiratory and skin diseases.
Some important air pollution disasters are given in Table 7.8. Acid rain can only be controlled by managing the source of pollution. Several control methods are adopted to manage acid rain. Some important control measures are as discussed below: 1. The aquatic bodies and farmlands should be periodically limed to neutralise the acidity due to acid rain. 2. Dissertation Handbook? The fuels, devoid of sulphur or having low sulphur amount should be used to minimise the quantity of bo support resume sulphur dioxide gas in the atmosphere. 3. The leakage of chlorine or its discharge should be stopped. 4. The vehicular exhaust should be minimised by using control valves in dissertation module handbook the outlet of the exhaust pipeline of the automobiles. 5. The scrubbers should be used to bo support reduce the emission of module handbook SO 2 during coal burning. Help Biology Answers? 6. SO 2 gas released is sprayed with water containing lime which precipitates SO 2 as calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ). 7. General public awareness should be created regarding the ill effects of environmental pollution and consequences of acid rain.
In view of the above detrimental impacts of air pollution on mankind, plants and vegetation, we have to adopt some control measures in order to module reduce the renaissance, level of dissertation module air pollutants in environment. Some important control measures are as follows: (i) Pollution from domestic fire should be controlled to and men the house holder#8217;s use. Alternative methods of the fuels like smokeless chullah should be used in order to increase the fuel efficiency and reduce the emission of solid particulates. (ii) Welled air house with high chimneys and scattered dwellings can reduce the dissertation module handbook, problem of air pollution. Ages? (iii) As the plants absorb mainly air polluting gases like CO 2 , there should be massive afforestation programme in industrial areas and big cities. (iv) Setting of air quality standard for module protection of environment and human health is assignment highly essential. Ventilation and air-conditioning should be introduced. (v) Particulate emissions should be controlled in a gravity settling chamber, cyclone collector, cyclonic separator, filter, scrubbers and handbook, electrostatic precipitator. Papers? (vi) More and more flyovers, bridges, bylanes, footpaths for pedestrians, steamers and ferry launches and other modes of navigational metropolitans public transport systems should be developed with a view to minimize the usage of individual auto vehicles and thereby smoke emissions. This will ultimately lead to ecological and environmental preservation. (vii) More and dissertation module handbook, more diesel multiple unit trains (DMU Trains) should be introduced in town area so that the people#8217;s dependency on the individual and public road transport may be minimized. (viii) Environmental education and assignment papers of scdl, awareness programmes need to be institutionalized by incorporating these in the essential activities of educational institutions. Module? (ix) Use of econometrics assignment unleaded petrol and diesel should be made compulsory. (x) Adequate legislation (Air Act) should be enacted to compel to module control air pollution.
Severe punishment should be specified to the defaulters. (xi) The use and production of CFCs should be banned with suitable substitute in order to check air pollution. (xii) The fuels devoid of econometrics sulphur or having low quantity of sulphur should be used to minimize the amount of sulphur dioxide gas in the atmosphere thereby reducing acid rain. (xiii) The production of Nitrogen Oxide (NO x ) and hydrocarbons should be controlled which will minimize the generation of ozone and PANs thereby declining smog formation. (xiv) The vehicular exhaust should be minimised by using control valves in the outlets of the exhaust pipeline of the module, automobile. Air quality shows a combination of the physical and chemical characteristics which makes air, an important resource for better existence of all living organisms including man. Bo Support? The physical characteristics are described by factors like temperature, density, moisture content and air movement in the troposphere. Dissertation Module Handbook? The chemical characteristics include the concentration of different gases and pollutants. Mainly the natural processes are responsible in of mice and men literary essay altering the physical characteristics whereas changes in module handbook chemical characteristics are due to anthropogenic activities.
The emissions from automobiles, industries, agricultural processes etc. Help? add a number of obnoxious gases which adversely affect the air quality and render it unfit for dissertation handbook living organisms on earth. It is, therefore, necessary to know to what extent the pollutant present in air can result in a situation in which the latter can be termed as polluted. The Pollution (Prevention and Control) Boards, of different countries have fixed standards for ambient air quality (in India under Air Act 1981) beyond which an renaissance and middle ages essay ambient air can be considered as polluted. In India, the Air Act 1981 prescribes emission standards for many industries. Dissertation Handbook? Thus, air quality standards is help answers a limit on the amounts of a given pollutant permitted in module the air around us and help answers, emission standard signifies the maximum amount of pollutants those can discharged from a specific point source. Till recently, limited, attention has been focused on vehicular pollution control in India.
The environment (Protection) Act, 1986 puts the responsibility of laying standards for vehicular emission to the Central and State pollution Control Boards so that standards can be incorporated in motor vehicle Acts and Rules. The ambient air quality standards of different primary pollutants are shown in Table 7.9. The governments of many countries have their legal standards for ambient air quality. The purpose of these standards is to reduce the pollutants to a certain level which would avoid undesirable effects. The prescribed standards may vary slightly from module handbook country to country depending upon their meteorological and geographical features and the population density. The air quality standards for bo support resume United States of America are given in Table 7.10. and 7.11.
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control essay gun ( Kan. J.L. Pub. Pol'y , Winter 1995, at dissertation handbook, 17) Clayton E. Cramer. The historical record provides compelling evidence that racism underlies gun control laws #151; and not in any subtle way. Throughout much of bo support, American history, governments openly stated that gun control laws were useful for keeping blacks and Hispanics in their place and for quieting the racial fears of whites. Racist arms laws predate the establishment of the United States.
This is not surprising. Dissertation Module Handbook? Blacks in the New World were often slaves, and revolts against slave owners often degenerated into less selective forms of racial warfare. The perception that free blacks were sympathetic to assignment papers, the plight of handbook, their enslaved brothers and the dangerous example that blacks could actually handle freedom often led New World governments to disarm all blacks, both slave and free. Starting in kth, 1751, the French Black Code required Louisiana colonists to stop any blacks and, if necessary, beat any black carrying any potential weapon, such as a cane. (1) If a black refused to module, stop on demand and was on horseback, the colonist was authorized to shoot to kill. (2) In Louisiana, the fear of Indian attack and the importance of hunting to the colonial economy necessitated that slaves sometimes possess firearms. The colonists had to balance their fear of the literary essay Indians against their fear of their slaves. As a result, French Louisiana passed laws that allowed slaves and free blacks to possess firearms only dissertation module handbook under very controlled conditions. (3) Similarly, in the sixteenth century the phd dissertation assistance colony of New Spain, terrified of black slave revolts, prohibited all blacks, free and slave, from carrying arms. (4) Often the relationship between racism and gun control was direct and module handbook, obvious.
On other occasions the connection was more complex. One example of a complex relationship between economic struggle, slavery, and with homework, possession of arms can be found in seventeenth-century Virginia. The aristocratic power structure of colonial Virginia confronted a political challenge from lower class whites. These poor whites resented how the men who controlled the government used that power to concentrate wealth into a small number of hands. These wealthy feeders at the government trough would have disarmed poor whites, but the threat of both Indian and pirate attack made this impractical; all white men were armed and had to be armed. (5) Instead of dissertation, empowering poor whites, blacks, who had occupied a poorly defined status between indentured servant and slave, were reduced to assignment of scdl, hereditary chattel slavery.
In this way poor whites could be economically advantaged without the module upper class having to help homework answers, give up its privileges. (6) In the Haitian Revolution of the 1790s, the slave population successfully threw off their French masters. As the Revolution degenerated into a race war, existing fears increased in the French Louisiana colony and among whites in the American slave states. Module? (7) When the first U.S. Econometrics Assignment? official arrived in New Orleans in 1803 to take charge of the new American possession, the planters sought to have the existing free black militia disarmed and otherwise exclude free blacks from positions in module, which they were required to bear arms. This exclusion included such nonmilitary functions as slave-catching crews. Renaissance And Middle? (8) The New Orleans city government also stopped whites from teaching fencing to free blacks, and then, when free blacks sought to teach fencing, the city similarly prohibited their efforts as well. Dissertation Module? (9) Restrictions on slave possession of arms in the North American English colonies go back a very long way as well. Arms restrictions on free blacks in slave states, while present, at of mice and men essay, least allowed free blacks to obtain a license to dissertation, possess a gun in their homes, or with good reason, to even carry a gun. Of Scdl? Whites were not similarly restricted. Arms restrictions on free blacks increased dramatically after Nat Turner's Rebellion in 1831 caused the South to become increasingly irrational in its fears. (10) In response to Turners Rebellion, the module handbook Virginia Legislature made it illegal for free blacks to keep or carry any firelock of phd dissertation assistance kth, any kind, any military weapon, or any powder or lead. Dissertation? (11) In addition, the existing law under which free blacks were occasionally licensed to possess or carry arms was repealed, thus making arms possession completely illegal for free blacks. (12) But even before this action by the Virginia Legislature, in renaissance and middle ages essay, the aftermath of Turner's Rebellion, the discovery that a free black family possessed lead shot for use as scale weights, but did not have powder or a weapon in which to fire it, was considered sufficient reason for a frenzied mob to discuss summary execution of the owner. (13) The fear of armed blacks had become so extreme that dogs were considered weapons.
Maryland prohibited free blacks from owning dogs without a license and authorized any white to kill an unlicensed dog owned by a free black. (14) Mississippi went further and prohibited any ownership of a dog by a black person, without even a provision for licensed ownership. (15) Provisions in the 1834 Tennessee Constitution further reveal whites' increasing fear of armed blacks. Article XI, Section 26 of the 1796 Tennessee Constitution read: That the freemen of this State have a right to keep and to module handbook, bear arms for their common defence. (16) The 1834 constitution was revised to: That the free white men of this State have a right to with homework, keep and to bear arms for their common defence. Dissertation Module Handbook? (17) It is not clear what else could have motivated this change other than Turner's bloody insurrection. The year before the new constitution was adopted, the Tennessee Supreme Court had recognized the right to bear arms as an individual guarantee, but there is no evidence that this decision caused the change. (18) Other court decisions during the antebellum period were unambiguous about the importance of assignment, race. In State v. Huntly, the North Carolina Supreme Court recognized that the North Carolina Constitution guaranteed a right to carry arms, as long as such arms were carried in a manner not likely to frighten people. Handbook? (19) The following year the North Carolina Supreme Court decided State v. Newsom.
The full significance of the Newsom decision would not be apparent until after the Civil War and passage of the Fourteenth Amendment. An 1840 statute provided: That if any free negro, mulatto, or free person of color, shall wear or carry about his or her person, or keep in his or her house, any shot gun, musket, rifle, pistol, sword, dagger or bowie-knife, unless he or she shall have obtained a licence therefor from the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions of his or her county, within one year preceding the wearing, keeping or carrying thereof, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may be indicted therefor. (20) Elijah Newsom, a free person of color, was indicted under the Statute in Cumberland County in June of 1843 for carrying a shotgun without a license #151; at the very time the North Carolina Supreme Court was deciding Huntly . (21) A jury convicted Newsom, but the trial judge directed a not guilty verdict, and the state appealed to the North Carolina Supreme Court. (22) Newsom's attorney argued that the Statute, which required free blacks to obtain a license to keep and bear arms, violated both the and middle ages Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the North Carolina Constitution's similar guarantee. (23) The North Carolina Supreme Court refused to handbook, accept that the Second Amendment was a limitation on state laws. The court, however, also had to deal with the econometrics help problem of dissertation module handbook, its own state constitutional guarantees, which had been used in deciding the Huntly decision the year before. Article seventeen of the 1776 North Carolina Constitution declared: That the people have a right to renaissance and middle ages essay, bear arms, for the defence of the State; and, as standing armies, in time of dissertation module handbook, peace, are dangerous to assistance kth, liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. (24) The Newsom court asserted that: We cannot see that the act of 1840 is in conflict with it. . Dissertation Module Handbook? . . Biology Homework? The defendant is not indicted for carrying arms in defence of the State, nor does the dissertation module act of 1840 prohibit him from so doing. Of Mice Essay? (25) But in dissertation handbook, Huntly , the court had acknowledged that the seemingly restrictive language for the defence of the State included an individual right. (26) The Newsom court then attempted to justify the necessity of this law: Its only object is to preserve the peace and safety of the community from being disturbed by an indiscriminate use, on ordinary occasions, by free men of color, of fire arms or other arms of an offensive character. Assistance? Self preservation is the first law of nations, as it is handbook of individuals. (27)
The North Carolina Supreme Court also sought to of mice and men essay, repudiate the idea that North Carolina's Bill of Rights protected free blacks by pointing out that it excluded free blacks from voting. Therefore, the module handbook court reasoned, free blacks were not citizens. But unlike a number of other state constitutions that limit the right to keep and of mice literary, bear arms to citizens , (28) Article seventeen of the North Carolina Bill of Rights guaranteed this right to the people (29) #151; and try as hard as they might, it was difficult to argue that a free person of color, in the words of the court, was not one of the people. It is one of the great ironies that, in handbook, much the same way that the North Carolina Supreme Court recognized a right to bear arms in 1843 #151; then a year later declared that free blacks were not included #151; the Georgia Supreme Court did likewise before the close of the decade. The Georgia Supreme Court found in Nunn v. State that a statute prohibiting the assignment help sale of concealable handguns, sword-canes, and daggers violated the Second Amendment: The right of the whole people, old and young, men, women and boys, and not militia only, to keep and bear arms of every description, and not such merely as are used by the militia , shall not be infringed , curtailed, or broken in upon, in the smallest degree; and handbook, all this for the important end to be attained: the assignment of scdl rearing up and qualifying a well-regulated militia, so vitally necessary to the security of a free State. Our opinion is, that any law, State or Federal, is repugnant to the Constitution, and void, which contravenes this right , originally belonging to our forefathers, trampled under foot by dissertation module handbook Charles I. and his two wicked sons and successors, reestablished by the revolution of assignment papers of scdl, 1688, conveyed to handbook, this land of liberty by the colonists, and finally incorporated conspicuously in our own Magna Charta! And Lexington, Concord, Camden, River Raisin, Sandusky, and the laurel-crowned field of New Orleans, plead eloquently for this interpretation! (30)
Finally, after this paean to liberty #151; in a state where much of the ages essay population remained enslaved and forbidden by law to possess arms of any sort #151; the court defined the valid limits of laws restricting the bearing of arms: We are of the opinion, then, that so far as the act of 1837 seeks to suppress the practice of carrying certain weapons secretly , that it is valid, inasmuch as it does not deprive the citizen of his natural right of self-defence, or of his constitutional right to keep and bear arms. But that so much of it, as contains a prohibition against handbook, bearing arms openly , is in econometrics assignment help, conflict with the Constitution, and void . . Dissertation Module? . . (31) Citizen? Within a single page, the with homework answers court had gone from right of the whole people, old and young, men, women and boys to the much more narrow right of a citizen. The motivation for this sudden narrowing of the right #151; that blacks were not citizens #151; appeared two years later. Cooper and Worsham v. Mayor of dissertation module, Savannah was not principally a right to keep and assignment papers, bear arms case. In 1839, the city of Savannah, Georgia, in dissertation handbook, an admitted effort to renaissance ages essay, prevent the increase of free persons of color in our city, had established a one hundred dollar per year tax on free blacks moving into Savannah from other parts of Georgia. Samuel Cooper and Hamilton Worsham, two free persons of color, were convicted of failing to pay the tax and handbook, were jailed. And Middle Essay? (32) On appeal, counsel for Cooper and Worsham argued that the ordinance establishing the tax was deficient in a number of technical areas. (33) Of most interest to us is counsel's assertion that [i]n Georgia, free persons of color have constitutional rights. . . Module? . Resume? (34) Cooper and Worsham's counsel argued that these included the right to writ of module handbook, habeas corpus, the resume right to own real estate, the module right to be subject to taxation, and the right to sue and of mice essay, be sued. Their counsel cited a number of precedents under Georgia law in defense of their position. (35) Justice Warner delivered the court's opinion.
One portion of the dissertation module handbook opinion shows the fundamental relationship between citizenship, arms, and elections, and with biology, why gun control laws were an essential part of defining blacks as non-citizens: Free persons of dissertation, color have never been recognized here as citizens; they are not entitled to bear arms, vote for members of the legislature, or to hold any civil office. (36) The Georgia Supreme Court did agree that the kth ordinance jailing Cooper and Worsham for nonpayment was illegal and module, ordered their release, (37) but the comments of the court make it clear that their brave words in Nunn v. State about the right of the people really only meant white people. (38) Finally, in the infamous Dred Scott decision, the U.S. Supreme Court showed that it shared this understanding that citizenship excluded blacks and explained the relationship between citizenship and help with biology, the carrying of arms: It would give to persons of the dissertation module handbook negro race, who were recognized as citizens in any one State of the Union, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, singly or in of mice and men literary, companies, without pass or passport, and without obstruction, to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased at every hour of the day or night without molestation, unless they committed some violation of law for which a white man would be punished; and it would give them the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to module, hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to help with answers, keep and carry arms wherever they went . And all of handbook, this would be done in and middle essay, the face of the subject race of the same color, both free and slaves, inevitably producing discontent and insubordination among them, and endangering the peace and safety of the State. (39) While settled parts of the South were in great fear of dissertation module, armed blacks, concerns about Indian attack often forced relaxation of these rules on the frontier. The 1798 Kentucky Comprehensive Act allowed slaves and free blacks on frontier plantations to keep and use guns, powder, shot, and weapons, offensive and defensive. Of Mice Literary Essay? (40) Unlike whites, however, free blacks and slaves were required to have a license to carry weapons. (41)
Blacks needed to carry arms for self-defense not only against criminal attacks that any person, white or black, might worry about, but they also needed arms for protection against the additional hazard of being kidnapped and dissertation module handbook, sold into slavery. (42) A number of states, including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, passed laws specifically to prohibit kidnapping of of mice and men essay, free blacks. Dissertation Module? These states were concerned that the Federal Fugitive Slave Laws would be used as cover for econometrics help re-enslavement. Dissertation Handbook? (43) The end of slavery in 1865 did not eliminate the problems of racist gun control laws. The various Black Codes adopted after the Civil War required blacks to obtain a license before carrying or possessing firearms or bowie knives. These Codes are sufficiently well-known that any reasonably complete history of the Reconstruction period mentions them. Help With Answers? These restrictive gun laws played a part in provoking Republican efforts to get the Fourteenth Amendment passed. (44) Republicans in Congress apparently believed that it would be difficult for night riders to provoke terror in freedmen who were returning fire. It appears that the dissertation module handbook Fourteenth Amendments requirement to treat blacks and whites equally before the resume law led to the adoption of restrictive firearms laws in the South that were equal in the letter of the law, but unequally enforced.
It is clear that the vagrancy statutes adopted in 1866, the same year the arms control laws were adopted, were intended to be used against blacks, even though the language was race-neutral. (45) The former states of the Confederacy, many of which had recognized the right to carry arms openly before the Civil War, developed a greater willingness to qualify that right after the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment. One especially absurd example of how far a state was willing to go to qualify the module handbook right to bear arms, and one that includes strong evidence of the racist intentions behind gun control laws, is a decision made in Texas. In 1859 in Cockrum v. State, the Texas Supreme Court recognized that there was a right to carry defensive arms and that this right was protected under both the Second Amendment and Section Thirteen of the Texas Bill of Rights. (46) The outer limit of the state's authority (in this case, attempting to discourage the carrying of bowie knives) was that it could provide an enhanced penalty for manslaughters committed with bowie knives, but could not prohibit their being carried. (47) Yet, by 1872 in of mice and men literary essay, English v. State, the dissertation module handbook Texas Supreme Court denied that there was any right to carry any weapon for individual self-defense under either the phd dissertation state or federal constitutions. (48) Rather than explaining or justifying why the dissertation module handbook Cockrum decision was no longer valid, the court merely explained that the issue of the right to bear arms was not fairly before the court in Cockrum . (49) What caused the dramatic change?
The following excerpt from the assignment of scdl English decision reveals how racism permeated legal thinking: We will not say to module handbook, what extent the early customs and help with biology answers, habits of the dissertation module handbook people of this state should be respected and accommodated, where they may come in conflict with the ideas of intelligent and well-meaning legislators. A portion of our system of econometrics assignment help, laws, as well as our public morality, is derived from a people the most peculiar perhaps of any other in the history and derivation of its own system . Spain, at dissertation handbook, different periods of the renaissance and middle essay world, was dominated over by the Carthagenians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Snovi, the Allani, the module handbook Visigoths, and Arabs; and to this day there are found in literary essay, the Spanish codes traces of the laws and customs of each of these nations blended together in a system by no means to be compared with the sound philosophy and pure morality of the common law. (50) Throughout the South during the dissertation module handbook post-war period, the literary existing precedents that recognized a right to openly carry arms under state constitutional provisions and the Second Amendment were being narrowly construed or simply ignored. Module? (51) The apparent goal of the gun control and vagrancy laws was to intimidate the freedmen into an economically subservient position. Renaissance And Middle? By making the freedmen defenseless, employers could be more confident that intimidation would keep their hired hands in line. Nor was the intent that led to these laws lost on judges in the North. In 1920, the Ohio Supreme Court upheld the conviction of a Mexican for carrying a concealed handgun #151; while he was asleep in his own bed. Handbook? (52) Justice Wanamaker's scathing dissent criticized the precedents cited by help with biology the majority in defense of this absurdity: I desire to give some special attention to module handbook, some of the econometrics assignment authorities cited, supreme court decisions from Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Kentucky, and handbook, one or two inferior court decisions from bo support New York, which are given in support of the doctrines upheld by module this court. The southern states have very largely furnished the precedents. Papers? It is only necessary to observe that the race issue there has extremely intensified a decisive purpose to entirely disarm the negro, and this policy is evident upon reading the opinions . Module? (53) There are other examples of remarkable honesty from the state supreme courts on this subject.
The finest is help with probably Florida Supreme Court Justice Buford's concurring opinion in Watson v. Stone. In Watson , a conviction for carrying a handgun without a permit was overturned because the handgun was in dissertation module handbook, the glove compartment of a car. (54) Justice Buford wrote: I know something of the of mice and men essay history of dissertation module, this legislation. The original Act of 1893 was passed when there was a great influx of negro laborers in this State drawn here for the purpose of working in turpentine and lumber camps. The same condition existed when the Act was amended in 1901 and the Act was passed for the purpose of literary essay, disarming the handbook negro laborers and to thereby reduce the unlawful homicides that were prevalent in turpentine and saw-mill camps and to phd dissertation assistance, give the module handbook white citizens in econometrics, sparsely settled areas a better feeling of security. The statute was never intended to be applied to the white population and in practice has never been so applied. (55) There is a shortage of such forthright statements of racist intent behind modern gun control laws. But has the racist intent disappeared, or simply been recast into a more acceptable form? Robert Sherrill, at one time a correspondent for The Nation and a supporter of restrictive gun control laws, argued in his book The Saturday Night Special that fear of dissertation module handbook, armed blacks was the major provocation of the resume Gun Control Act of 1968. Dissertation Module Handbook? He argues:
The Gun Control Act of econometrics, 1968 was passed not to control guns to but control blacks, and inasmuch as a majority of Congress did not want to do the former but were ashamed to dissertation, show that their goal was the latter, the result was that they did neither. Indeed, this law, the first gun-control law passed by Congress in resume, thirty years, was one of the dissertation module grand jokes of our time. (56) Sherrill failed to provide smoking gun evidence for of mice and men essay his claim, but there is no shortage of evidence of the level of fear that gripped white America in handbook, the late 1960s. The California Legislature adopted a major new arms law in 1967, for the first time prohibiting the literary essay open carrying of firearms in cities. (57) This law easily passed after the Black Panthers demonstrated against it #151; by walking into module, the Assembly Chamber carrying pistols, rifles, [and] at bo support resume, least one sawed-off shotgun. Module? (58) This demonstration of course pushed the law through, in spite of significant opposition from conservative Republicans such as State Senator John G. Schmitz. (59) Another piece of evidence that corroborates Sherrills belief that both liberals and conservatives intended the Gun Control Act of 1968 as race control more than gun control has recently been found. There are strong similarities between the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the 1938 weapons law adopted by Nazi Germany. Assistance Kth? (60) This similarity is no coincidence; one of the principal authors of the Gun Control Act of 1968 was Senator Thomas Dodd of Connecticut. After World War II, Dodd was assistant to handbook, the chief prosecutor at biology, the Nuremberg war crime trials. (61) Shortly before the Gun Control Act of 1968 was written, Dodd asked the Library of Congress to translate the 1938 German weapons law into English. Module? Dodd supplied the German text. (62) Dodd was not a Nazi; he had a reputation as an aggressive federal prosecutor of civil rights violations. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that any sort of American Holocaust was intended.
Nonetheless, it would not be surprising if Dodd found it convenient to adapt a law that had already proven its efficacy at disarming a minority group. Today is not 1968. When proponents of restrictive gun control insist that their motivations are color-blind, there is a possibility that they are telling the truth. Nonetheless, there are some rather interesting questions that should be asked today. The most obvious is, Why should a police chief or sheriff have any discretion in issuing a concealed handgun permit?
Here in California even the state legislature's research arm #151; hardly a nest of phd dissertation assistance, pro-gunners #151; has admitted that the module vast majority of econometrics, permits to carry concealed handguns in California are issued to white males. (63) Even if overt racism is not an issue, an official may simply have more empathy with an applicant of a similar cultural background and consequently more closely relate to the applicant's concerns. As my wife pointedly reminded a police official when we applied for concealed weapon permits, If more police chiefs were women, a lot more women would get permits, and would be able to defend themselves from rapists. The warrantless searches of private residences for guns in Chicago housing projects in early 1994 is another reminder of how racism and gun control remain intertwined. (If there are white people living in these projects, they are remarkably invisible in news media coverage). While these warrantless searches were finally blocked by a judge, the popular press was remarkably neutral in its coverage of the dissertation module Clinton administrations advocacy of resume, such an obvious violation of the Fourth Amendments protections against unreasonable searches. President Clinton, after his warrantless search policy was struck down, explained his goals: Finally, we're going to work with residents in high-crime areas to permit the full range of searches that the Constitution does allow in module handbook, common areas, in vacant apartments, and in circumstances where residents are in immediate danger. We'll encourage more weapons frisks of suspicious persons, and we'll ask tenant associations to put clauses in their leases allowing searches when crime conditions make it necessary. Econometrics? (64) The frisks of module, suspicious persons are a longstanding tradition used against black Americans.
Requiring housing project tenants to give up their constitutional protections against warrantless searches is astounding. Can you imagine the reaction if tenants were required to give up their right to free speech when crime conditions make it necessary? It is hard to imagine the government attempting something similar in a white suburb #151; at least until the courts first find it constitutional in a black ghetto. The case might be made that the government attempted to make the tenants safe by unconstitutional means #151; that the assignment intentions were good even if the methods were wrong. But even for the special case of housing projects, there are profound inconsistencies in module, the policy. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Henry Cisneros in a press conference on assignment, February 4, 1994, attempted to justify the warrantless searches as protecting the tenants of these crime-ridden projects. Cisneros, however, admitted that [c]rime statistics . . . show that public housing residents are not to blame for the reign of terror. (65) A large majority of those arrested in housing projects were nonresidents. Handbook? (66) It is therefore all the more amazing that the residents , who would presumably have much to fear from these armed nonresident criminals, are the ones that the Clinton administration seeks to disarm. If we examine these Clinton administration policies as a pragmatic response to crime, we must ask: why disarm the likely victims of the essay criminals?
But if we consider these inexplicable policies as the latest symptom of racist attitudes about violence, then these policies make much more sense. Gun control advocates today are not so foolish as to dissertation module, promote openly racist laws, but it is help with answers important to consider the relevance of racist gun control laws of the past. My concern is that past motivations for disarming blacks are really not so different from the module handbook motivations behind disarming law-abiding citizens today. In the last century, the rhetoric in help, support of such laws was that they (i.e., blacks) were too violent and too untrustworthy to module, be allowed weapons. Today, the same elitist rhetoric regards law-abiding Americans the same way, as children in bo support, need of guidance from the dissertation module handbook government. While never openly admitted, one of the goals of disarming blacks was to make them more willing to accept various forms of economic oppression, such as the sharecropping system, in which free blacks were kept in an economic state not dramatically superior to slavery. Even today, with open racism unacceptable in the mainstream of American politics, gun control still looks suspiciously concerned with issues of phd dissertation, race.
The Crime Bill of 1994, passed after a bruising fight in dissertation, Congress, was opposed by an unlikely coalition in the House: most Republicans, some conservative Democrats, and many black Democrats. The primary concern of the assignment papers first two factions appears to have been the assault weapon ban. Black Democrats were concerned that the death penalty provisions would disproportionately affect blacks. The assault weapon ban provisions of the Crime Bill certainly reflected a widespread fear of dissertation handbook, armed inner-city blacks. Much of biology, its rhetoric was devoted to the dangers of these guns in the hands of gang members and other code phrases for module poor blacks. But as a number of careful studies have found, assault weapons are seldomly misused criminally. (67) A Wall Street Journal editorial chided Congress for passage of a ban that, under the most charitable assumptions, would reduce murder and other violent crimes by assignment a tiny fraction of 1%. (68) The Trenton, New Jersey assistant chief of police testified before Congress that his officers were more likely to confront an module handbook escaped tiger than a criminal with an assault weapon. (69) Crime control was not the motivation for renaissance ages essay the assault weapon ban. Supporters of the ban continually emphasized that hunting rifles would not be affected by the ban. Dissertation Module Handbook? Was this a subtle way of saying that the sort of guns owned by white Americans would not be affected? Hunting is a heavily rural activity in America, and not surprisingly, black hunters are relatively rare. Similarly, an argument advanced by bo support resume some pro-ban members of the Congress (notably Senator Campbell of Colorado) was that the handbook law would only affect new manufacturing #151; existing owners could keep their guns.
If the effect of a similar 1986 ban on new machine gun manufacturing is any indication, the net effect of such an assault weapon ban will be to dramatically increase the price of existing weapons. A price increase further removes assault weapons from the of mice literary financial reach of the dissertation poor, who are disproportionately black. What are the policy implications of restrictive gun control today? Increasingly, they are not aimed just at black people, or at the poor, but at the middle class. The forces that push for assignment help gun control are heavily (though not exclusively) allied with political factions that are committed to dramatic increases in taxation on the middle class. While it would be hyperbole to compare higher taxes on dissertation module handbook, the middle class to renaissance and middle, the suffering and deprivation of sharecropping or slavery, the analogy of disarming those whom you wish to economically disadvantage has a certain worrisome validity to module handbook, it. Another point to consider is that under the American legal system certain classifications of governmental discrimination are considered constitutionally suspect, and these suspect classifications are subject to a strong presumption of invalidity ( e.g ., a law that made distinctions based on race, even if the ages distinction was nominally race-neutral in its effect). (70) These classifications are suspect because there is a long history of governmental discrimination based on them, and because laws based on these classifications often impinge on fundamental rights. Module? (71) In much the same way, gun control historically has been a tool of racism and associated with racist attitudes about black violence. Similarly, many gun control laws impinge on that most fundamental of rights: self-defense. Racism is so intimately tied to the history of and middle, gun control in America that we should regard gun control aimed at law-abiding people as a suspect idea and require that the courts use the same demanding standards when reviewing the constitutionality of a gun control law that they use with respect to a law that discriminates based on dissertation module, race. Throughout the kth history of the United States, our courts have often avoided directly answering questions about the constitutional limits of module handbook, gun control.
As we have seen, this was sometimes done by insisting that the right of the people didn't include black people. Another strategy popular in the slave states was to claim that as long as openly carrying a firearm was legal, then the state could prohibit or regulate concealed carrying of a firearm. Yet another strategy was to dispute what arms were protected. The New York courts upheld the Sullivan Act, which licensed the possession of handguns at renaissance ages essay, home, on the basis that handguns were not a constitutionally protected arm #151; unlike a rifle or a shotgun. Such decisions have usually insisted that only arms of the soldier are protected by the Second Amendment, or the state constitutions equivalent provision. In United States v. Cruikshank (a decision that emasculated the Ku Klux Klan Act), the module U.S.
Supreme Court decided that the Second Amendment is a limitation on the federal government only, not on the state governments. (72) This argument has been accepted by with biology homework most (but not all) state supreme courts. (73) These sorts of module handbook, question-begging approaches will not be available to the U.S. Supreme Court in the cases that will come before it shortly. The assault weapon ban in the 1994 Crime Bill prohibits new manufacture of renaissance and middle essay, a category of weapons that is more clearly protected by original intent and existing precedents than any other category of dissertation module handbook, common privately owned arm: arms with a primarily military function and appearance. Unlike Morton Groves handgun ban, (74) or California's Roberti-Roos Assault Weapons Control Act, (75) this law is federal, not state. Fourteenth Amendment incorporation is phd dissertation assistance not necessary for the Crime Bills ban to be contrary to the Second Amendment. Similarly, the Administrations gun control policies with respect to handbook, public housing will create differential treatment between whites and blacks, simply because blacks are so overwhelmingly the residents of urban public housing projects. Will the Supreme Court apply the same reasoning to the Second Amendment that they have with the First Amendment? Or will they continue a tradition of winking at the Second Amendment because the underlying policy of gun control is based on racist assumptions? 1. Thomas N. Ingersoll, Free Blacks in a Slave Society: New Orleans, 1718-1812 , 48 Wm.
Mary Q. 173, 178-79 (1991). 3. Daniel H. Usner, Jr., Indians, Settlers, Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy: The Lower Mississippi Valley Before 1783, 165, 187 (1992). 4. Michael C. Meyer William L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History 216 (4th ed. Resume? 1991). 5. Edmund S. Morgan, Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox , in Colonial America: Essays in Politics and Social Development 280 (Stanley N. Katz et al. eds., 4th ed. 1993) 7. Dissertation Module Handbook? Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the Making of America 81 (3rd ed. 1987).
8. Ingersoll, supra note 1, at 198-200. 10. Stanley Elkins, Slavery 220 (3rd ed. 1976). 11. Nat Turner 115 (Eric Foner ed., 1971). 13. Phd Dissertation Assistance? Harriet Jacobs [Linda Brant], Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861), in The Classic Slave Narratives 333, 395-96 (Henry Louis Gates, Jr. ed., 1987). 14. Theodore Brantner Wilson, The Black Codes of the South 30 (1965).
16. Module Handbook? 6 The Federal and assignment papers, State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and module, Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming The United States of America, 3424 (Francis Newton Thorpe, ed., 1909) [hereinafter The Federal and assistance, State Constitutions]. 17. Id . at 3428 (emphasis added). 18. Simpson v. Module Handbook? State, 13 Tenn. 292, 295 (5 Yer.) (1833).
19. State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 20. State v. Renaissance And Middle? Newsom, 27 N.C. Dissertation Module? 203, 203 note (5 Ired.) (1844). 24. 5 The Federal and State Constitutions, supra note 16, at 2788. 25.
State v. Bo Support Resume? Newsom, 27 N.C. 203, 206 (5 Ired.) (1844). 26. State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 27. Dissertation Module? Newsom , 27 N.C. at 206. 28. 1 The Federal and State Constitutions, supra note 16, at 538 (1818 Connecticut, Art.
I, Sec. Bo Support Resume? 17); 3 Id . at 1275 (1792 Kentucky, Art. XII, Sec. 23) and at 1290 (1799, Art. IX, Sec. 23); 3 Id . at 1648 (1819 Maine, Art. I, Sec. Module Handbook? 16); 4 Id . at 2034 (1817 Mississippi, Art. I, Sec. 23); 5 Id . at 3101 (1790 Pennsylvania, Art.
IX, Sec. 21, but see 5 Id . at 3083, 1776 Constitution, That the people have a right to bear arms. . . .); 6 Id . at 3543 (1836 Republic of Texas Declaration of Rights, Sec. 14) and at 3548 (1845 Texas Constitution, Art. I, Sec. 13). 30.
Nunn v. Literary Essay? State, 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846). 32. Cooper v. Module? Mayor of Savannah, 4 Ga. 68, 68 (1848). 38. Help? 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846) (upholding the right to bear arms). 39. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S.
393, 417 (19 How.) (1857) (emphasis added). 40. Juliet E. K. Walker, Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier 21 (1983) (quoting the statute). Module Handbook? This is an inspiring biography of assignment, a slave who, through hard work moonlighting in the production of handbook, saltpeter and and men essay, land surveying, saved enough money to buy his wife, himself, and eventually all of dissertation, his children and grandchildren out of slavery #151; while fighting against oppressive laws and vigorous racism. Most impressive of all, is that he did it without ever learning to biology answers, read or write. 42. Dissertation? See id . at 73 (describing precautions free black families took to protect themselves from kidnappers).
43. Stephen Middleton, The Black Laws in econometrics assignment, the Old Northwest: A Documentary History, 27-32, 227-40, 309-14, 353-7, 403-4 (1993) (quoting statutes from Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin). 44. Michael Les Benedict, The Fruits of Victory: Alternatives to Restoring the Union, 1865-1877, 87 (1975) (quoting Louisiana statute); Francis L. Broderick, Reconstruction and the American Negro, 1865-1900, 36-37 (1969); Dan T. Carter, When The War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865-1867, 219-21 (1985) (describing confiscation of arms from blacks after the Civil War); Eric Foner, Reconstruction 258-9 (1988). 45. See Foner, supra note 44, at 198-201. 46.
24 Tex. 394, 401-02 (1859). 48. 35 Tex. 473, 476-77, 478 (1872). 49. Id . at module handbook, 476 (citing Cochrane [sic.] v. The State, 24 Tex. 394.) 50. Id . at help answers, 479-80 (emphasis added). 52.
State v. Nieto, 130 N.E. 663, 663, 665 (1920). 53. Dissertation? Id . at 669 (emphasis added). 54. 4 So. 2d 700, 702-03 (1941). 56. Robert Sherrill, The Saturday Night Special 280 (1973). 57. Assembly Office of Research, Smoking Gun: The Case For Concealed Weapon Permit Reform, 6 (1986).
58. Capitol Is Invaded , Sacramento Bee, May 2, 1967, A1, A10. 59. Bill Barring Loaded Weapons In Public Clears Senate 29-7 , Sacramento Bee, July 27, 1967, A6. 60. Jim Simkin Aaron Zelman, Gun Control: Gateway to Tyranny 83 (1992) (providing the full text in phd dissertation, German and English of the various weapons laws and regulations adopted by the Weimar Republic and the Nazis from 1928 to 1938 and comparing them to the Gun Control Act of 1968).
61. Sherrill, supra note 56, at 67. 62. Jews for the Preservation of dissertation module handbook, Firearms Ownership, The War on Gun Ownership Still Goes On! , Guns Ammo, May 1993, at 30-31. 63.
Assembly Office of Research, supra note 57, at 5. 64. The President's Radio Address of Apr. 16, 1994, 30 Weekly Comp. Pres. Doc. 823 (Apr. 16, 1994). 65.
The Vice President, Secretary Henry Cisneros, Secretary Lloyd Bentsen, Attorney General Janet Reno and Director of Drug Policy Lee Brown, Press Briefing (Feb. 4, 1994) (transcript available from the White House Office of the Press Secretary). 67. Ages Essay? Gary Kleck, Point Blank: Guns and dissertation handbook, Violence in America 75 (1991). 68. What Is an Assault Weapon? , Wall St. J., Aug. 25, 1994, at A12. 70. Thomas G. Walker, Suspect Classifications , in Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States 848 (Kermit L. Hall et al. eds., 1992). 72.
92 U.S. Econometrics Assignment Help? 542, 553 (1875). 73. See generally Clayton E. Cramer, For The Defense of Themselves And The State: The Original Intent Judicial Interpretation of the Right To Keep And Bear Arms 221-67 (1994) (surveying a number of state court decisions where gun restrictions were reviewed). 74.
Morton Grove, Ill., Ordinance 81-11 (June 8, 1981). 75. Cal. Penal Code §§ 12275-90 (West 1992 Supp. 1994).
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Essay on DNA Replication | Genetics. In this essay we will discuss about:- 1. Definition of handbook, DNA Replication 2. Mechanism of renaissance and middle ages essay, DNA Replication 3. Evidences for Semi-Conservative DNA Replication 4. Models for Replication of Prokaryotic DNA. Essay # Definition of DNA Replication : DNA replicates by “unzipping” along the two strands, breaking the hydrogen bonds which link the pairs of nucleotides. Each half then serves as a template for handbook nucleotides available in the cells which are joined together by DNA polymerase. The nucleotides are guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine.
DNA replication or DNA synthesis is the process of copying a double-stranded DNA molecule. This process is important in all known forms of life and the general mechanisms of of mice and men, DNA replication are the same in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The process by which a DNA molecule makes its identical copies is referred to handbook as DNA replication. Homework Answers. In other words, it is the process of duplicating the dissertation DNA to make two identical copies. The main points related to DNA replication are briefly presented below. 1. Time of Replication: The process of DNA replication takes place during cell division. The DNA replication takes place during S sub stage of interphase.
In prokaryotes, DNA replication is initiated before the end of the cell cycle. Assignment Help. Eukaryotic cells can only initiate DNA replication at module handbook, the beginning of S phase. 2. Replication Site: In humans and other eukaryotes, replication occurs in renaissance and middle ages the cell nucleus, whereas in prokaryotes it occurs in the cytoplasm. Prokaryotes have only one active replication site, but eukaryotes have many. The existing DNA is used as a template for the synthesis of new DNA strands. It is possible that during replication on dissertation, strand of DNA can replicate continuously and the other discontinuously or in renaissance and middle essay piece. Dissertation. The continuously replicating strand is known as leading strand and the discontinuously replicating strand is assignment help, known as lagging strand. When one strand of DNA replicates continuously and other discontinuously, it is called semi-discontinuous replication. Dissertation Module. Earlier it was thought that DNA replicates discontinuously. But now it is believed that DNA replication is semi-discontinuous.
Short segments of nucleotides are synthesized in the lagging strand of homework answers, DNA as a result of dissertation module handbook, discontinuous replication. These are called Okazaki after the name of essay, discoverer. Okazaki fragments are about 1,500 bases in length in dissertation handbook prokaryotes, and 150 bases in essay eukaryotes. 4. Enzymes Involved: The process of DNA replication takes place under the control of DNA polymerase. Dissertation Module. In other words, the process is catalized by and men literary, the polymerase enzyme. In eukaryotes, four types of polymerase enzymes, viz. alpha, delta, gamma and epsilon are used. DNA Polymerase alpha and delta replicate the DNA.
The alpha is associated with initiation, and delta extends the nascent strands. DNA polymerase epsilon and beta are used for repair. DNA polymerase gamma is used for replication of module handbook, mitochondrial DNA. In prokaryotes [E. coli], there are three major DNA polymerases: DNA polymerase I, II and III. DNA poly I is found in the highest concentration of all DNA polymerases; it is involved in DNA repair and assists with primary DNA replication.
DNA poly II is exclusively involved in repair. Help With Biology Homework. DNA poly III is the major DNA polymerase. All DNA polymerases add to the 3? OH of the existing polynucleotide. Currently, six families of polymerases (A, B, C. D, X, Y) have been discovered. At least four different types of DNA polymerases are involved in the replication of DNA in animal cells (POLA, POLG, POLD and POLE). 5. Direction of Replication: The synthesis of one new strand takes place in 5-3 and that of other in opposite (3-5) direction. The replication may take place either in one direction or in both the directions from the point of origin. Dissertation Module Handbook. When replication proceeds in one direction only, it is called unidirectional replication. When the replication proceeds in both the directions, it is called bidirectional replication.
6. Replication Type: Based on the direction, the and middle replication may be unidirectional or bidirectional. On the basis of continuity, the replication may be continuous or discontinuous. 7. Dissertation Module. Origin of Replication: The point of initiation of DNA replication is known as origin. The progress of replication process is measured from the point of origin. 8. Rate of Replication: In prokaryotic cells the rate of assistance kth, replication is 500 bases per second. In eukaryotic cells the rate of replication- is 50 bases per second. Eukaryotes have 100 to 3,000 times more DNA than prokaryotes.
9. Replication Models: There are three models which explain the accurate replication of DNA. Module Handbook. These are: (i) dispersive replication, (ii) conservative replication, and (iii) semiconservative replication (Fig. 17.1). These are explained as follows: According to this model of replication the two strands of parental DNA break at several points resulting in several pieces of DNA. Of Scdl. Each piece replicates and pieces are reunited randomly, resulting in formation of two copies of module handbook, DNA from single copy. The new DNA molecules are hybrids which have new and DNA in patches (Fig. 17.2). This method of DNA replication is not accepted as it could not be proved experimentally. (ii) Conservative Replication:
According to this model of DNA replication two DNA molecules are formed from econometrics assignment help, parental DNA. One copy has both parental strands and the other contains both newly synthesized strands (Fig. 17.2). This method is also not accepted as there is no experimental proof in support of this model. (iii) Semiconservative Replication: This model of DNA replication was proposed by Watson and Crick. According to this model of DNA replication, both strands of parental DNA separate from module, each other. Each old strand synthesizes a new strand.
Thus each of the two resulting DNA molecules has one parental and one new strand (Fig. 17.3). Phd Dissertation Assistance Kth. This model of DNA replication is dissertation handbook, universally accepted because there are several evidences in support of this mode. Essay # Mechanism of DNA Replication : The semi-conservative model (mechanism) of DNA replication consists of and men literary, six important steps, viz: (2) Binding of RNA primase, (4) Removal of primers, (5) Termination, and.
These are briefly discussed as follows: The first major step in the process of DNA, replication is the breaking of dissertation module, hydrogen bonds between bases of the two anti-parallel strands. The unwinding of the two strands is the starting point. The splitting happens in places of the chains which are rich in A-T. That is because there are only two bonds between Adenine and resume Thymine, whereas there are three hydrogen bonds between Cytosine and Guanine. Module Handbook. The Helicase enzyme splits the two strands.
The initiation point where the splitting starts is called “origin of replication”. The structure that is created is known as “Replication Fork”. 2. Binding of RNA Primase: Synthesis of RNA primer is essential for phd dissertation assistance kth initiation of DNA replication. RNA primer is dissertation, synthesized by DNA template near the origin with the help of RNA Primase.
RNA Primase can attract RNA nucleotides which bind to the DNA nucleotides of the 3?-5? strand due to phd dissertation kth the hydrogen bonds between the bases. RNA nucleotides are the primers (starters) for the binding of DNA nucleotides. The elongation proceeds in dissertation handbook both directions, viz. 5?-3? and 3?-5? template. The 3?-5? proceeding daughter strand that uses a 5?-3? template— is called leading strand because DNA Polymerase ‘a’ can “read” the template and ages continuously add nucleotides. The 3?-5? template cannot be “read” by DNA Polymerase a. The replication of this template is complicated and the new strand is called lagging strand. In the module handbook lagging strand the RNA Primase adds more RNA Primers.
DNA polymerase a reads the template and help with homework lengthens the bubbles. The gap between two RNA primers is called “Okazaki” Fragments. The RNA Primers are necessary for DNA Polymerase a to bind Nucleotides to the 3? end of handbook, them. Of Mice And Men Essay. The daughter strand is elongated with the binding of more DNA nucleotides. 4. Removal of Primers: The RNA Primers are removed or degraded by dissertation module handbook, DNA polymerase I. This enzyme also catalyzes the synthesis of short DNA segments to replace the primers. The gaps are filled with the action of DNA Polymerase which adds complementary nucleotides to the gaps.
The DNA Ligase enzyme adds phosphate in the remaining gaps of the phosphate-sugar backbone. Each new double helix is and middle ages, consisted of one old and module one new chain. This is called semi-conservative replication. The termination takes place when the assignment papers of scdl DNA Polymerase reaches to an end of the strands. In other words, it is the separation of replicated linear DNA. After removal of the RNA primer, it is not possible for the DNA Polymerase to seal the gap because there is no primer. Hence, the end of the parental strand where the last primer binds is not replicated. These ends of linear (chromosomal) DNA consist of noncoding DNA that contains repeat sequences and are called telomeres.
A part of the telomere is removed in every cycle of DNA Replication. The DNA replication is module handbook, not completed without DNA repair. The possible errors caused during the and men essay DNA replication are repaired by DNA repair mechanism. Enzymes like nucleases remove the wrong nucleotides and the DNA Polymerase fills the gaps. Similar processes also happen during the steps of module handbook, DNA Replication of prokaryotes though there are some differences. Essay # Evidences for Semi-Conservative DNA Replication : Various experiments have demonstrated the semi-conservative mode of DNA replication.
Now it is universally accepted that DNA replicates in a semi-conservative manner. There are three important experiments which support that DNA replication is semi-conservative. (1) Meselson and Stahl experiment, (2) Cairns experiment, and. (3) Taylor’s experiment. These are briefly discussed as follows: 1. Meselson and Stahl Experiment  : Meselson and Stahl conducted their experiment with common bacteria of human intestine i.e. Escherichia coli. They used heavy isotope of nitrogen for labelling DNA.
The bacteria were grown on culture medium containing heavy isotope of Nitrogen [N15] for 14 generations (30 minutes per assistance kth generation) to replace the normal nitrogen [N14] of E. coli with heavy nitrogen. Then the handbook bacteria were transferred to normal nitrogen medium. The density of DNA was determined after one, two and three generations. Principle Involved. It is possible to detect minute differences in assignment papers density through density gradient centrifugation.
District bands are formed in centrifuge tube for different density DNA. He also conducted his experiment with human intestine bacteria E. coli. He used heavy isotope of hydrogen [H3] for labelling of DNA. It replaces thymine of DNA with tritiated thymidine. The chromosome of E. coli was used to prepare slides. Slides were coated with photographic emulsion or film and stored in dark place. The tritiated thymidine emits particle in dark due to its radioactive decay. These particles expose the film. These films are then developed and interpreted. If the exposure is light on the autoradiograph, it suggests labelling of one strand of DNA, which indicates semi- conservative replication. Results and handbook Conclusion:
Cairns observed light film exposure in kth the chromosome slides of E. coli, which demonstrated that DNA replication is semi-conservative. Taylor conducted his experiment with root tip cells of Viciafaba plant. He treated root tips of Viciafaba with radioactive thymidine to label the DNA. Then root tips were grown in normal medium. The treated root tips will produce hybrid cells containing normal and labelled chromosomes in subsequent generation cell division when grown on normal medium.
The DNA replication is associated with chromosome replication. The above results demonstrated semi-conservative mode of chromosome replication in dissertation handbook Viciafaba. Essay # Models for phd dissertation assistance Replication of Prokaryotic DNA : In prokaryotes (bacteria and viruses), the DNA is circular. Hence, replication of DNA in these organisms differs from that of eukaryotes, where DNA is linear. Several models of replication of circular DNA have been suggested. There are two most commonly known models of circular DNA replication, viz: (1) Cairns Model, and. (2) Rolling circle model. These are briefly discussed as follows: 1. Cairns model of DNA Replication : This model of DNA replication in handbook prokaryotes was proposed by Cairns in assignment help 1963.It explains the mechanism of DNA replication in double stranded circular DNA of bacteria. According to this model the DNA replication consists of module, following important steps.
The double stranded circular DNA starts unwinding or separation at a specific point called origin. Two growing points are established. As the growing points move apart, unwinding of the bo support DNA double strand takes place. This unwinding creates torque since the parental DNA strands cannot unwind freely. (ii) Initiation of dissertation handbook, Replication: At the point of origin, bidirectional replication is initiated. Both strands of DNA are replicated.
This leads to further unwinding of DNA double strand, resulting in formation of torque. The torque leads to super twisting of DNA strand. As a result of super twisting, one of the strand is cut (nicked) which makes the parental strand to bo support resume rotate freely. The cut is made by a swiveling protein, which relieves the strain. (iv) Sealing of Broken Points: The breaks are sealed by swiveling protein and thus the replication is over. Dissertation Module. The replication process continues in bo support resume this way.
Cairns type replication has been demonstrated in the bacteria E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, in several viral and module handbook plasmid chromosomes and in DNA synthesis of mitochondria and chloroplasts. 2. Of Mice Essay. Rolling Circle Model of DNA Replication : This model of circular DNA replication was proposed in handbook 1968. This model explains mechanism of DNA replication in single stranded circular DNA of viruses, e.g. ?X174, and the transfer of E. Assistance Kth. coli sex factor (plasmid). The ?X174 chromosome consists of a single stranded DNA ring (Positive Strand). This model is most widely accepted. The mechanism of replication consists of following important steps: (i) Synthesis of New Strand: First the chromosome becomes double stranded by synthesis of a negative strand. The original strand is positive.
The negative strand is synthesized in module handbook side of parental positive strand. The negative or inner strand remains a close circle and the positive strand is nicked at a specific site by endonuclease enzyme. And Men. This enzyme recognizes a particular sequence at this point. Thus a. Module Handbook. linear strand with 3?- and 5?-ends is created. The original positive strand comes out in the form of a tail of a single linear strand as a consequence of rolling circle. The 5?-end of the broken strand becomes attached to the plasma membrane of the host bacterium. Such replicating phage DNA is commonly found associated with bacterial membranes. The unbroken parental strand rolls and unwinds as synthesis proceeds, leaving a ‘tail’ which is attached to the membrane. (iv) Synthesis of New Strand: The synthesis of new strand takes place along the parental strand at the tail end in a 3-5 direction.
The 3?-end serves as a primer for the synthesis of a new DNA strand under the catalytic action of DNA polymerase. The unbroken strand is used as the template for this purpose, and a complementary strand is synthesized. Thus the parental molecule itself is used as a primer for papers initiating replication. New DNA is also synthesized in the tail region in discontinuous segments in the 5-3 direction. This synthesis is presumably preceded by the synthesis of an RNA primer under the dissertation catalytic action of RNA polymerase.
The tail is cut-off by a specific endonuclease into phd dissertation assistance kth a unit length progeny rod. Now the tail is cut-off into a linear segment by dissertation, endonuclease. The linear segment becomes circular by joining two ends with the help of ligage enzyme. Thus a new circular molecule is formed which can become new rolling circle and replicate further. Genetic information is preserved in the single stranded template ring which remains circular and serves as an endless template. There is no swiveling problem or creation of torque in the rolling circle model. As the strands unwind the 3?-end is free to rotate on the unbroken strand. The growing point itself thus serves as a swivel.
Evidence for the rolling circle model has been obtained from the replication of several viruses (M13, P2, T4, ?), replication resulting in transfer of and middle, genetic material during mating of bacteria, and the special DNA synthesis during oogenesis in Xenopus. Welcome to dissertation handbook BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: