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antigone essay topic The Best Free Resource for Outstanding Essay and Paper Topics, Thesis Statements and Important Quotes. Antigone Thesis Statements and Important Quotes. Below you will find five outstanding thesis statements for Antigone by Sophocles that can be used as essay starters or paper topics. All five incorporate at least one of the themes in cover letter usaid Antigone and are broad enough so that it will be easy to find textual support, yet narrow enough to provide a focused clear thesis statement. These thesis statements offer a short summary of essay, Antigone by Sophocles in terms of different elements that could be important in an essay. You are, of course, free to add your own analysis and understanding of the plot or themes to them for usaid your essay. Resume Cpol. Using the essay topics below in conjunction with the list of important quotes from Antigone at usaid the bottom of the page, you should have no trouble connecting with the essay text and writing an excellent essay. Letter Usaid. Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #1: Agency Versus Inaction in essay scene Antigone. Ismene and Antigone vary greatly in their respective attributes, Ismene is breathtakingly beautiful, while Antigone is plain; Antigone is brave while Ismene is frightened. Usaid. The core difference between the two of them lies in Antigone’s willingness to create change and Ismene’s hope that she can make it through life without creating waves.
This difference manifests itself most brilliantly in the burial of letter for academic, Polynices. Antigone is willing to risk anything to have her brother buried with honor, while Ismene worries solely for the safety of her sister. This behavior continues throughout the cover letter novel, with Ismene acceding to Creon’s demands, and Antigone taking brave but stupid risks. In the end of the play, Antigone even takes her life in her own terms. What can be said about the desire to make life happen, the ability to club essay not sit idly by? Does Sophocles seem to advocate this position, despite the death of Antigone? Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #2: The Function of the Chorus in Antigone.
For most plays, the letter role of the Chorus involves a small number of people, usually between 7-12, who make commentary on resume cpol the unfolding events and usaid serve as foreshadowers to the action to come. They are usually apart from the action, yet also apart from the audience; they function best as an uninvolved narrator. Expository Vs. Narrative Essay. However, in Antigone, the letter chorus breaks most literary conventions. Instead of being portrayed as a group of people, the chorus is merely one person, who aligns himself with the audience. He quite frequently refers to language newspaper intermediate the audience and himself as the collective “we” and by doing so, makes the audience a part of his chorus. Why is this important?
What feelings towards the play are created when the audience takes on the role of the cover letter usaid chorus? Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #3: Antigone and Sisterhood. The rivalry between Ismene and Antigone is strong, because both girls are similar in intermediate age with very contrasting personalities. Antigone is decisive, moody, brave and impulsive, while Ismene is beautiful, timid and beautiful. The two are set up as classic “good girl” and “bad girl” stereotypes, with Antigone eventually tying Ismene to a tree, and stealing her sister’s makeup and other items to make herself more attractive to Haemon. However, despite this fierce rivalry between the letter two sisters, when Creon is threatening Ismene with death and imprisonment if she does not stop her attempts to bury her brother, Ismene is german language, quick to jump to cover letter her defense, stating that if Creon locks Antigone up, Ismene will simply take over and die alongside her for their treason.
What can be said about the juxtaposition of their past relationship and Ismene’s sudden willingness to die for Antigone? Is their rivalry perhaps less fierce than expected because of their bond of sisterhood? Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #4: The Individual Versus the essay State in Antigone. The role of the individual in Antigone is very important. Obviously, Antigone herself is a strong individual character, who is not willing to allow her brother to cover letter usaid be dishonored, no matter what the cost is to expository essay her own body. Creon is also a strong character, and while he knows the law and is convinced that he must follow it, he has sympathetic feelings for Antigone and usaid tries to get her out of trouble. In which ways are Creon and Antigone both destroyed by the power of the law? How do they try to chinese essay get around the laws that have been set down by Creon, and in letter usaid which ways do they fail at that attempt? What is the meaning behind their failures? Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #5: Tragedy in Antigone.
As the reader progresses through Antigone, it becomes obvious by the plot twists that the play is cmm operator, a tragedy at heart. However, to cover letter make the nature of the play even more clear, the Chorus appears halfway through the production to tell the expository essay audience that the tragedy has begun. This statement proves the inevitability of the coming tragic events, and usaid takes the pressure off of the characters to attempt to stop such things from occurring. This list of important quotations from Antigone by Sophocles will help you work with the letter for academic essay essay topics and thesis statements above by allowing you to support your claims. All of the important quotes from Antigone listed here correspond, at least in some way, to the paper topics above and by themselves can give you great ideas for an essay by offering quotes and cover explanations about other themes, symbols, imagery, and resume cpol motifs than those already mentioned and explained. Aside from the thesis statements for Antigone above, these quotes alone can act as essay questions or study questions as they are all relevant to the text in an important way.
All quotes contain page numbers as well. Look at the bottom of the page to identify which edition of the usaid text by Sophocles they are referring to. “I didn#039;t say yes. I can say no to anything I say vile, and breakfast club scene I don#039;t have to count the cost. Cover. But because you said yes, all that you can do, for all your crown and resume cpol your trappings, and your guards—all that your can do is to have me killed.” (18) “My nails are broken, my fingers are bleeding, my arms are covered with the letter usaid welts left by the paws of your guards—but I am a queen!” (19) “If Haemon reaches the point where he stops growing pale with fear when I grow pale, stops thinking that I must have been killed in essay an accident when I am five minutes late, stops feeling that he is alone on earth when I laugh and he doesn#039;t know why—if he too has to learn to say yes to everything—why, no, then, no! I do not love Haemon!” (14) “As for those three red-faced card players—they are the guards. One smells of garlic, another of beer; but they#039;re not a bad lot. They have wives they are afraid of, kids who are afraid of cover, them; they#039;re bothered by the little day-to- day worries that beset us all.
At the same time—they are policemen: eternally innocent, no matter what crimes are committed; eternally indifferent, for nothing that happens can matter to them. They are quite prepared to arrest anybody at all, including Creon himself, should the order be given by a new leader.” (17) “Every kind of cover letter for academic essay, stillness. The hush when the executioner#039;s ax goes up at the end of the last act. The unbreathable silence when, at the beginning of the play, the cover letter usaid two lovers, their hearts bared, their bodies naked, stand for the first time face to resume cpol face in the darkened room, afraid to stir. Cover Usaid. The silence inside you when the roaring crowd acclaims the winner—so that you think of a film without a sound track, mouths agape and no sound coming out of language intermediate, them, a clamor that is not more than picture; and you, the victor, already vanquished, alone in the desert of your silence. That is tragedy.” (9) #8220;I#039;m simply powerless to act against this city#039;s law.#8221; (11) #8220;I intend to give my brother burial. I#039;ll be glad to die in the attempt, if it#039;s a crime, then it#039;s a crime that God commands.#8221; (7) #8220;Isn#039;t a man#039;s right to burial decreed by divine justice? I don#039;t consider your pronouncements so important that they can just.overrule the unwritten laws of heaven.#8221;(12) #8220;These signs portend evil for Thebes; and the trouble stems from your policy. Cover Letter Usaid. Why?
Because our altars are polluted by flesh brought be dogs and birds, picking from Polynices#039; corpse. Small wonder that the gods won#039;t accept our sacrifices.#8221; (18) Source: Sophocles, Antigone. Resume Cpol. New York: Ivan R. Dee, 1998.
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The result was immediate. He got three good job offers from top agencies in cover letter usaid Kenya. He’s currently a creative partner at Scanad in cover letter for academic Nairobi. Simone Fortunini modeled his impressive resume after Google Analytics. An Amazon online marketing manager, Fortunini created a resume that actually looks like a Google Analytics page. Fortunini tells us that since his work involves online marketing and advertising campaigns, Google Analytics is a basic tool that those in his industry work with. Cover Letter. He wanted to create a resume illustrating his understanding in online marketing, graphic design abilities, and HTML skills. Chinese. “My intent with this project is showing both sides of my professionality in usaid digital: a good technological understanding and an online marketing knowledge,” Fortunini says. “Trying to resume cpol analyze my professional path like a ‘web site performance’ has been hard, but helpful to cover letter usaid get an objective point of good chinese essay view about current achievements and future goals.” Under his “Experience” section, you can click on the different positions he’s held on the left-hand side, which will then allow you to usaid see more details about the projects he’s worked on and the skills he developed in each position. Kelly Weihs created a resume made to look like a Wild West wanted poster. Weihs‘s resume stands out from the crowd thanks to its vintage, historical look. “I wanted to have fun creating a resume that was different from everyone else,” she says. “I love historically inspired design.
For me, it’s just a lot of fun to look to the past for ideas.” She applied to her current place of expository essay employment using this resume, and immediately saw results. “My current employer quite liked the resume,” she says. After helping his friend design this resume, Rick Mundon now sells resume formats online. Mundon created this resume for his friend, but received so much feedback from usaid, his design that he decided to launch The Whole Orange, a creative design company that does design work and creates creative resumes, business, and web sites for job hunters. Language Newspaper. He tells us that even if resumes are creative, they still need to be job-specific: “You’re not out there to get any job.” He says that employers need to be able to usaid find your past work experiences immediately. Mundon also created this resume for Jeffrey James to show that he’s in the music industry. “This particular resume did get him the job [he wanted],” Mundon says. “[A resume’s] design is newspaper intermediate, much more important than how ‘pretty’ it is; the overall goal is to cover usaid get these people a job.
If the most beautiful resume doesn’t get our client an interview, then it’s worthless.” This resume was designed for his career in music. “With Jefferey’s r esume, I wanted the essay viewer to cover letter know he’s in the music business, know that he works hard, showcase his image in resume cpol a creative way, and most importantly, display his experience,” says Mundon. Craig Stapley wanted to letter usaid showcase his personality. “I really wanted to create a resume that was different,” says Stapley when asked about his inspiration. “Something that was memorable when it came across a desk, which was perhaps littered with resumes that all looked the breakfast scene same. A resume can be so much more than a biographical ‘humdrum’ of skill-sets, education, and accomplishments.” Stapley’s resume landed him a job as creative director at iFit Fitness Technology, one of the usaid world’s largest fitness companies. Good Essay. “I love where I am, who I work with, and what I do,” he says. Aaron Sachs’ resume was inspired by Google+. Letter. Sachs merged social media with an infographic and arrived at this resume. Resume Cpol. “I created this right around the time that Google+ came out,” he says. “I wanted to marry the idea of an cover infographic with the way that I was seeing my social information displayed in expository essay Google+. I took my job history, Klout score, LinkedIn recommendations, and letter usaid, education and wanted them to appear in resume cpol a form that was familiar to people.” The resume was good for his career, and it also earned him a lot of letter usaid attention outside of his profession. “This was something that was more as a side-project. As I’m now in IT, the type of expository vs. narrative infographic resume I created, especially in the South, doesn’t do a whole lot of good for IT hiring managers.
However, I did have quite a bit of comments outside of the job market about it.” Elliot Hasse created this resume before infographics became popular. Hasse didn’t know whether his creative resume would be well-received, or completely rejected by potential employers. “I designed it back in college [a few] years ago to try and cover usaid, stand out from everyone else applying for cmm operator graphic design jobs,” he says. “It was kind of a risk because it was before the infographics got popular.” But Hasse’s worries were premature. “I got a lot of immediate attention [from my resume] and it continued to spread across the Internet. Overall I got a lot of job offers and interest from employers, and cover letter usaid, I would say it’s even a great success.” We would say so, too. Hass now works as an art director at intermediate Factory Design Labs in Denver, Colorado. Lara Wineman applied for a job in the scrapbooking industry, and wanted to present a resume that matched. Wineman tells us she created this resume when she applied for letter usaid a position at a company in the scrapbooking industry, and it was “tailored with that look and feel.” The pink stationery both contrasted and complimented the vintage typewriter print. Lara wasn’t offered the resume cpol job, but she wasn’t too disappointed. The resume has earned her a lot of cover usaid attention on Flickr. “I wasn’t actively looking for employment at german language intermediate the time,” she says. “I just came across the job announcement one day for the company and thought I’d try applying to cover letter see what would happen.” Michael Anderson designed this resume to convey as much information as possible. Anderson‘s resume was born out of an epiphany. Expository. “It occurred to me one day that a resume is just tagged temporal data, and that if I treated it as such, I could convey loads more information,” he says. The resume is a creative and more colorful take on a standard display of data. “I have had a few job offers, but I only letter really took one, as a graphic design chair at a small school in Pennsylvania, and shot portfolio photos for letter students from cover usaid, a few programs,” Anderson says. Essay. Michael is now working in his family’s business, but his resume still draws a lot of attention online.
Riccardo Sabatini wanted to breathe life into the traditional CV. Sabatini is an Italian graphic designer born and raised in Italy. He is usaid, currently based in Florence and focuses on digital art and typography. Sabatini created his resume in cmm operator response to letter usaid a question. “Why [does] the curriculum [vitae] have to be displayed in an ugly and vs. narrative essay, boring version?” he asked. “Especially if your work is to make things nice and [viewers] curious.” He designed several versions of this resume in multiple colors while maintaining the same brand, and it gained him a lot of attention on usaid the internet. “More than I expected,” he says. “And not just from the ones I’ve sent [to employers], but also from cover letter for academic, people [who have] seen it on my portfolio and found it interesting.” Liagi Ann Jezreel Ramilo wanted to show that she loves to doodle. Liagi Ann Jezreel Ramilo. Ramilo is currently a senior graphic designer and tells us that she wanted to show in her resume that she’s always loved to doodle, as long as she has a ballpen and cover letter, paper, “whether it’s a ticket, a tissue paper, or any kind of paper as long as [she] can write on it.” “I posted it my deviantart account to showcase my design, and I was surprised when I received lots of messages in my personal email and even in my Facebook account from people around the world telling me that they saw my creative resume and how they liked it,” she says. Letter. This candy bar resume went viral on Reddit, and got its creator a marketing job. This sweet resume, from a marketing professional named Nicholas, hit the first page of Reddit after a friend posted it.
According to the original poster, Nick got the letter usaid job he was applying for. Each bar cost about $2 to german custom produce, and it’s a Nestle crunch bar, in case you were wondering. Animator and programmer Robby Leonardi built a spectacular interactive game. Leonardi, who has had past jobs at AOL and letter usaid, Industry Next and now works at Fox News, built a side scrolling interactive resume reminiscent of games like Mario. A series of levels run through his skills, qualifications, and experience. Philippe Dubost built a full-blown Amazon page for himself. Dubost’s page, which you can view here, went viral and racked up 1.5 million views over the course of his job search, and eventually got him 150 job offers and finally a job as a tech product manager at rapidly growing New York startup Birchbox. The instantly recognizable format and the depth of detail (there’s everything from product dimensions to reviews from past employers) helped make it a hit and german, get him exactly the kind of job he’d hoped for. A Google-themed resume got Eric Gandhi an interview with the letter search giant. Gandhi is a young Georgia Tech graduate and fan of Google who modeled his resume after the Google’s iconic style and search results.
It worked pretty well, getting him an interview with the for academic famously selective company. It ended up being for a marketing rather than a design job, which wasn’t a great fit, but the creative resume still helped land interviews elsewhere. Gandhi is now a product designer at Magento in Los Angeles. You can find his personal site here. Now for a great example of a traditional resume: 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. An Uber driver once made his wife ride in his trunk while he worked, CEO reveals. Apple Inc slashing iPhone 6S orders because of weak demand: Credit Suisse. Cover Letter. Goldman Sachs forced Valeant’s CEO to sell 1.3 million of his shares on Thursday. People in essay Sweden are hiding cash in their microwaves because of a fascinating — and terrifying — economic experiment. Metro#039;s $4.5-billion takeover of usaid Jean Coutu creates Quebec mega-firm.
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VBA Error Handling – A Complete Guide. “Abort, Retry, Fail?” – MS-DOS error message circa 1986. If you are looking for a particular topic on VBA Error Handing then check out the table of contents below(if it’s not visible click on the post header). If you are new to cover VBA Error Handling , then you can read the post from start to finish as it is laid out in logical order. This allows us to handle the error. (Only useful if you need to check a specific error occurred.)
Error Handling refers to code that is written to handle errors which occur when your application is running. These errors are normally caused by cover letter something outside your control like a missing file, database being unavailable, data being invalid etc. If we think an error is cover letter, likely to occur at some point, it is good practice to language intermediate write specific code to cover letter handle the error if it occurs and deal with it. For all other errors we use generic code to deal with them. This is where the VBA error handling statement comes into play. Resume Cpol. They allow our application to deal gracefully with any errors we weren’t expecting. To understand error handling we must first understand the cover letter, different types of chinese essay errors in VBA. There are three types of errors in VBA. We use error handling to deal with runtime errors. Let’s have a look at each of these error types so that it is clear what a runtime error is. If you have used VBA for any length of time you will have seen a syntax error.
When you type a line and cover, press return, VBA will evaluate the syntax and if it is not correct it will display an error message. For example if you type If and forget the Then keyword, VBA will display the following error message. Note: You can turn off the Syntax error dialog by going to Tools-Options and checking off “Auto Syntax Check”. The line will still appear red if there is an error but the dialog will not appear. Compilation errors occur over more than one line. The syntax is correct on a single line but is incorrect when all the project code is taken into account. Examples of compilation errors are:
If statement without corresponding End If statement For without Next Select without End Select Calling a Sub or Function that does not exist Calling a Sub or Function with the wrong parameters Giving a Sub or Function the good chinese essay, same name as a module Variables not declared( Option Explicit must be present at the top of the letter, module) To find compilation errors, we use Debug-Compile VBA Project from the Visual Basic menu. When you select Debug-Compile , VBA displays the first error it comes across. When this error is fixed, you can run Compile again and VBA will then find the next error. Debug-Compile will also include syntax errors in it’s search which is very useful. If there are no errors left and you run Debug-Compile , it may appear that nothing happened. However, “Compile” will be grayed out in good, the Debug menu. This means your application has no compilation errors at the current time. Debug-Compile finds compilation(project wide) errors. It will also find syntax errors. It finds one error each time you use it.
When there are no compilation errors left the Compile option will appear grayed out in the menu. You should always use Debug-Compile before you run your code. This ensures that your code has no compilation errors when you run it. If you do not run Debug-Compile then VBA may find compile errors when it runs. Letter. These should not be confused with Runtime errors. Runtime errors occur when your application is running. They are normally outside of your control but can be caused by errors in your code. For example, imagine your application reads from an external workbook. If this file gets deleted then VBA will display an error when your code tries to open it. Other examples of runtime errors are.
a database not being available the user entering invalid data a cell containing text instead of essay a number. As we have seen, the purpose of error handling is to deal with runtime errors when they occur. Expected Versus Unexpected Errors. When we think a runtime error could occur we put code in place to handle it. For example, we would normally put code in place to deal with a file not being found. The following code checks if the file exists before it tries to open it. Letter Usaid. If the file does not exist then a user friendly message is displayed and the code exits the sub. If we don’t have specific code to letter essay handle an letter usaid, error it is considered an unexpected error.
We use the VBA error handling statements to handle the unexpected errors. Runtime Errors that are not VBA Errors. Before we look at the VBA Handling there is one type of error we must mention. Some runtime errors are not considered errors by resume cpol VBA but only by the user. Let me explain this with an example.
Imagine you have an application that requires you to add the values in the variables a and b. Let’s say you mistakenly use an cover, asterisk instead of the plus sign. These errors cannot be dealt with using error handling as they obviously won’t generate any error. You can deal with these errors using Unit Testing and Assertions. Cmm Operator. I have an letter usaid, in-depth post about using VBA assertions – see How to Make Your Code BulletProof. As we have seen there are two ways to resume cpol treat runtime errors. Expected errors – write specific code to handle them. Unexpected errors – use VBA error handling statements to handle them. The VBA On Error statement is used for usaid error handling.
This statement performs some action when an error occurs during runtime. There are four different ways to use this statement. On Error Goto 0 – the good chinese, code stops at the line with the error and displays a message. On Error Resume Next – the code moves to cover next line. Cmm Operator. No error message is displayed. On Error Goto [label] – the code moves to a specific line or label. No error message is displayed. This is the one we use for letter usaid error handling.
On Error Goto -1 – clears the letter essay, current error. This is the default behavior of VBA. In other words, if you don’t use On Error then this is the cover, behavior you will see. When an cover letter essay, error occurs, VBA stops on the line with the error and displays the error message. The application requires user intervention with the code before it can continue. This could be fixing the error or restarting the application. In this scenario no error handling takes place. If you select End then the cover letter usaid, application simply stops. If you select Debug the application stops on the error line as the screenshot below shows. This behavior is unsuitable for an application that you are given to a user. These errors look unprofessional and they make the application look unstable.
An error like this is essentially the application crashing. The user cannot continue on without restarting the application. They may not use it at resume cpol, all until you fix the error for cover usaid them. By using On Error Goto [label] we can give the user a more controlled error message. It also prevents the application stopping. We can get the application to perform in a predefined manner. Using On Error Resume Next tells VBA to ignore the error and continue on. There are specific occasions when this is breakfast essay scene, useful. Most of the time you should avoid using it. If we add Resume Next to our example Sub then VBA will ignore the divide by letter usaid zero error.
It is not a good idea to do this. If you ignore the error, then the behavior can be unpredictable. The error can affect the application in multiple ways.You could end up with invalid data. The problem is that you aren’t aware that something went wrong because you have suppressed the error. In the code above, we continue on if there is an resume cpol, error.
Then in letter, the next line we check the value of the Outlook variable. Resume. If there has been an error then the value of this variable will be set to Nothing . This is an example of when Resume could be useful. The point is cover letter, that even though we use Resume we are still checking for the error. The vast majority of the time you will not need to use Resume . This is how we use Error Handling in good, VBA. It is the equivalent of the Try and Catch functionality you see in languages such as C# and Java.
When an error occurs you send the error to a specific label. It is normally at the bottom of the sub. VBA jumps to the eh label because we specified this in the On Error Goto line. Note 1: The label we use in letter, the On…Goto statement, must be in club, the current Sub/Function. If not you will get a compilation error. Note 2: When an error occurs when using On Error Goto [label] , the cover usaid, error handling returns to the default behaviour i.e. Essay. The code will stop on cover letter usaid, the line with the error and display the error message. See the next section for more information about this. This statement is different than the expository vs. narrative, other three. Cover Usaid. It is used to clear the current error rather than setting a particular behaviour.
When an error occurs using On Error Goto [label] , the error handling behaviour returns to the default behaviour i.e. “On Error Goto 0”. That means that if another error occurs the breakfast club, code will stop on the current line. This behaviour only applies to cover the current sub. Once we exit the cmm operator resume, sub, the error will be cleared automatically. Take a look at cover letter usaid, the code below. Essay. The first error will cause the code to jump to the eh label. The second error will stop on the line with the usaid, 1034 error. If we add further error handling it will not work as the error trap has not been cleared. In the code below we have added the line. after we catch the first error.
This has no effect as the cmm operator, error has not been cleared. In other words the cover usaid, code will stop on the line with the error and display the message. In the code below we add this line and the second error will now cause the code to jump to the eh_other label. Note 2: The Err Object has a member Clear . Language Newspaper Intermediate. Using Clear clears the text and numbers in the Err object, but it does NOT reset the error. As we have seen, VBA will do one of three things when an error occurs. Stop and display the error.
Ignore the error and continue on. Jump to a specific line. When an letter, error occurs you can view details of the error using the newspaper, Err object. When an runtime error occurs, VBA automatically fills the Err object with details. The Err.Number is the ID number of the error e.g. the letter usaid, error number for “Type Mismatch” is 13. The only time you really need this is if you are checking that a specific error occurred and this is only necessary on rare occasions. The Err.Source property seems like a great idea but it does not work for a VBA error.
The source will return the project name, which hardly narrows down where the error occurred. However, if you create an error using Err.Raise you can set the source yourself and this can be very useful. The Erl function is used to return the line number where the error occurs. It often causes confusion. In the following code, Erl will return zero. If we change the Sub above to have line number it will now print out 20.
When you are finished working on a project and hand it over to the user it can be useful to add line numbers at cmm operator, this point. If you use the cover letter usaid, error handling strategy in the last section of cover letter this post, then VBA will report the cover letter, line where the error occurred. Err.Raise allows us to resume cpol create errors. Cover Letter. We can use it to create custom errors for our application which is very useful. It is the equivalent of the Throw statement in JavaC#. The format is as follows.
Let’s look at a simple example. Imagine we want to ensure that a cell has an entry that has a length of 5 characters. Club. We could have a specific message for letter this. Err.Clear is used to clear the chinese essay, text and numbers from the Err.Object. In other words, it clears the description and number. It is rare that you will need to use it but let’s have a look at an example where you might. In the code below we are counting the number of errors that will occur. To keep it simple we are generating an error for each odd number. We check the cover usaid, error number each time we go through the loop. If the breakfast club essay scene, number does not equal zero then an error has occurred. Once we count the cover usaid, error we need to set the error number back to zero so it is ready to check for the next error.
Logging means writing information from your application when it is running. When an error occurs you can write the details to a text file so you have a record of the error. The code below shows a very simple logging procedure. Below is an example of logging. How you implement logging really depends on breakfast scene, the nature of the application and how useful it will be. This section covers some of the other Error Handling tools that VBA has. These items are considered obsolete but I have included them as they may exist in legacy code. The Error Function is used to print the error description from a given error number. It is included in VBA for backward compatibilty and is not needed because you can use the Err.Description instead. Below are some examples. The Error statement allows you to simulate an error.
It is included in VBA for backward compatibility. Cover Usaid. You should use Err.Raise instead. In the following code we simulate a “Divide by zero” error. With all the different options you may be confused about how to use error handling in VBA. In this section, I’m going to show you how to german implement a simple error handling strategy that you can use in all your applications. This is letter usaid, a simple overview of resume cpol our strategy. Place the cover letter, On Error Goto Label line at resume cpol, the start of our topmost sub. Place the error handling Label at cover, the end of our topmost sub.
If an expected error occurs then handle it and continue. If the application cannot continue then use Err.Raise to jump to breakfast club essay scene the error handling label. If an unexpected error occurs the cover usaid, code will automatically jump to cmm operator the error handling label. The following code shows a simple implementation of this strategy. We don’t need to add error handling code to every sub. If an error occurs then VBA exits the application gracefully. A Complete Error Handling Strategy. The strategy above has one drawback.
It doesn’t tell you where the error occurred. VBA doesn’t fill Err.Source with anything useful so we have to do this ourselves. In this section I am going to introduce a more complete error strategy. I have written two subs that perform all the heavy lifting so all you have to do is add them to your project. The purpose of cover letter usaid this strategy is to provide you with the Stack* and expository vs. narrative, line number when an error exists. *The Stack is the cover usaid, list of resume cpol sub/functions that were currently in use when the error occurred. This is our strategy.
Place error handling in all the subs. Letter. When an error occurs, the error handler adds details to the error and raises it again. When the error reaches the topmost sub it is german intermediate, displayed. The only cover letter usaid messy part to this is formatting the resume, strings correctly. I have written two subs that handle this, so it is taken care of for you. These are the two helper subs. An Example of using this strategy. Here is a simple coding that use these subs. In this strategy, we don’t place any code in the topmost sub.
We only usaid call subs from cover letter, it. If your project has line numbers the cover letter, result will include the line number of the error. Error Handling is used to handle errors that occur when your application is cmm operator, running. You write specific code to handle expected errors. You use the VBA error handling statement On Error Goto [label] to send VBA to a label when an unexpected error occurs. Letter. You can get details of the error from Err.Description . You can create your own error using Err.Raise . Using one On Error statement in the top most sub will catch all errors in subs that are called from expository essay, here. If you want to record the name of the Sub with the error, you can update the error and letter usaid, rethrow it. You can use a log to club essay scene record information about the application as it is running. If you want to read about more VBA topics you can view a complete list of my posts here. I also have a free eBook(see below) which you will find useful if you are new to VBA.
If you are serious about mastering VBA then you may want to check out The Excel VBA Handbook. Please feel free to subscribe to my newsletter and get exclusive VBA content that you cannot find here on the blog, as well as free access to my eBook, How to Ace the 21 Most Common Questions in VBA which is full of examples you can use in your own code. I learned a lot in cover, a couple of weeks, I’m very grateful, best regards! You’re welcome Victor. Hi Paul, this is a very useful and vs. narrative essay, informative post. As one who did not employ any error handling in usaid, my VBA and simply discarded hours of work when it did function as expected – that is until I undertook you VBa training course.
The error routine in this post is excellent and for one will employ it for future VBA procedures. Club. Thanks very much – much appreciated. You’re welcome John. Glad you found it useful. Nice post and a solid dose of knowledge again.
Now my question is on the part with the logging procedure. I’ve noticed things that were unknown to me like: Open sFilename For Append As #filenumber. After searching the web resources, it seemes to me, that they are similar to cover letter thing I do with these statements (they are just examples, so don’t try to resume seek any bigger logic there): Dim fso as New FileSytsemObject.
Dim report as TextStream. Set report = fs.CreateTextFile(“kermitlogisticsreportslog_rotation.txt”) report.WriteLine(‘something stupid here’) ok, so am I right, that these things can basically do the letter, same? Are there any reasons why someone should prefer one method over the other – maybe it depends on a situation? FileSystemObject is an external library where as the other commands are part of german language newspaper VBA. Letter. They do perform the same tasks. Which one you use depends on your own preferences and letter, possibly the situation at cover letter, hand. Thanks Paul, explained with nice examples and in cover for academic essay, a simple terms anyone can understand. Help and useful.
Thanks for the detailed writeup, Paul; I have bookmarked this site. In the example on raising errors, the error is cover, raised in an IF block, following which is german language intermediate, code demarcated by the comment “continue on if cell has valid data.” I don’t see why the code won’t continue on if the cell has INvalid data — will the Error.Raise statement effectively exit the cover, function? Thanks for your comment. The Err.Raise statement generates an error. When we use “On Error Goto [Label]” the Err.Raise will go searching for letter for academic essay the Label. I’ve updated the cover usaid, code to include the “On Error Goto” and label to letter for academic essay make the example clearer. Hi Paul, thanks for your post! I’m tryng to letter usaid handle error raised in a Sub that is called with the breakfast essay, “Application.Run” statement and usaid, that is located on language newspaper intermediate, an external workbook than the caller sub. I write a sample code of letter this: [ The caller sub in resume cpol, Module1 in File1.xls ] On Error GoTo EH. ‘Call ExternalSub ‘(This line is temporarly commented out) ‘(some lines to letter usaid handle error) ‘[Called sub in resume, Module1 in File2.xls] On Error GoTo 0 ‘(that means no error handling in this sub)
Err.Raise 600, “Description of custom error” The result is that the error handler of the Main_Sub is ignored, so the letter, running code breaks on the “Err.Raise 600, …” line inside the ExternalSub. If, instead, I write the german language newspaper intermediate, ExternalSub in a module the same File1.xls of the Main_Sub (and, to call it from the cover letter, Main_Sub, I comment out the Application.Run line and uncomment the “Call ExternalSub” line), the error is correctly handled by the Main_Sub and the code runs after the EH label. Could you, please, confirm that the error handling hierarchy fails because I try to use it across macros that are located in resume cpol, different workbooks? Thanks in advance.
The error handling will not work across workbooks. When you call external subs they are running from within the other workbook process and not as part of the current one. You can think of them as different applications. How do we identify and uncheck missing objects in runtime via code? It should be the same code for Excel except for using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject instead of ActiveDocument.VBProject.
First of all, I’ll take this opportunity to thank you for your excellent posts. I’ve learned a lot from them! Using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject gives me the cover letter usaid, error “Method ‘VBProject’ of object ‘_workbook’ Failed. This error can be taken care of by providing some permission for german newspaper intermediate Macros. But that would have to be per cover letter usaid, user setting. Is there way to use your error-handling pattern without having to change this setting so each user does not have to change this setting.
The user has to set permissions for the Macros for security reasons. If you could set them with code then by definition they would be unnecessary. However, these permissions need to letter for academic essay be only set once by letter usaid the user. The best you can do is check for cmm operator that particular error number. If the error occurs then display instructions on usaid, how to cmm operator set the permissions. Well, Paul, your site is definitely my favorite pub. I come back every time I can and letter usaid, I stay until I fall under the cmm operator, desk #128521; Thank so much for all the stuff you post and gratulate for the top quality of didactic. Thank Curzio, Glad you like it. You bring us to the Eldorado…
Question: what is your opinion about the concept below, is it good/bad/usable, should I change something? Description: this seems to works for my purpose, even though of course it means that most of times processes goes on after an error has been raised. Cover. These 2 procedures are actually the resume cpol, simplified version. In my apps I then have a module named dp (as keyword for debug.print) dedicated to the log of cover usaid every start, end, error and values for every Sub/Function/Property to the immediate and to a text file. I wrote it before you brought me to the Watch and Local windows, as well the debug.assert method (again I’m deeply grateful). Finally the result is very handy and I would like to keep it in addition with Watch/Local/Assert: I run a process and then I look in the Log File for errors and values. Good. After development the usaid, log file can help debugging if other users reports some issues. In the sub testErrorHandling errors are not expected, whereas in the sub testCatchError they are and handled automatically or with user interaction. I tried to add a On Error GoTo -1 (excluded in resume cpol, code as comment), but then it runs in to cover letter usaid a error loop (20 Resume without error) Private Sub testErrorHandling() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling.
Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Private Sub testCatchError() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Dim xPath As String. Dim xDirectory As String. Dim xErr As Integer. xPath = ThisWorkbook.Path .PathSeparator “vbLogFolder” xDirectory = Dir(xPath, vbDirectory)
If xErr = 68 Then. Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Thanks and kind regards. I’m not 100 percent clear on your concept but I will cover a few points that you raised. Logging is a great idea and is part of most professional software applications. Logging to the Immediate Window can be useful but it is limited because using the debug tools are better to german newspaper fix the problem. The best use of Logging is usaid, when we give the application to a user. We can log both errors, warnings and information to a text file. If there is an error we can look in essay, the log file to see what occurred. Using Resume Next to handle a general error is not a good idea. Once an error has occurred your application is invalid and it may result in further errors or incorrect data.
The only time you should use Resume Next is when you know the cover usaid, error will not affect the rest of the breakfast club, code. In other words, the error is one that you expected may happen and know how to handle it. I hope this helps. Thanks Paul, this helps a lot. I have some improvements to do… #128578;
I’ve been trying your code for the complete error handling but I just can’t get it to work properly. Going through it line by letter line, it runs fine until the “Err.Raise” in the “RaiseError” helper sub, which simply displays the error and gives the resume cpol, options of debugging or ending. I assume that it’s intended to have raised the error in the higher level sub, which would then handled by its “On Error Goto EH” command, but it seems like it simply raises it within the helper function and stops the letter, code right then and resume cpol, there instead. I’ve tried this in Excel 2003 and 2016 and it’s the same thing. Cover Usaid. Is there something I’m missing here? How does the error raising go on to the resume cpol, higher level sub instead of just showing the error when Err.Raise is called in the helper sub?
Please ignore my earlier comment about code not working. I just realized the usaid, problem – when testing, I was running the actual sub with the error instead of the topmost. . . German Language Newspaper. . . . . . . . . Wow, I can’t believe how long it took me to realize that. Thank you for the excellent tutorial by the way, this methodology really works great! Thank’s Peter. Glad you like it. I typically use error handling as you describe where I have an error handler in my main function and most subs’s messages get caught there. However, I run into trouble when I need to cover turn on Resume Next for the sake of checking for nothing, because my ErrorHandler is german, now out of scope. What’s the solution for that? I have a simple example below. On Error GoTo ErrorHandler.
On Error Resume Next. Set objFile = objFSO.OpenTextFile(fileLocation fileName, 1) On Error GoTo ErrorHandler ‘ Fails to cover usaid compile, out of scope. If objFile Is Nothing Then. Call Err.Raise(2009, , “Out File doesn’t exist.”) You can use the Dir function to check if a file exists. It won’t find other file errors though.
Superb Post. got a clear idea on how to handle errors and types of errors in VBA… thanks Paul.