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Master thesis development studies

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Course - Master`s Thesis - Development Studies - NTNU

Lactoferrin receptor mediates apo- but not holo-lactoferrin internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in trophoblasts. LfR [Lf (lactoferrin) receptor] is expressed in most mammalian tissues, including placental trophoblasts, and is presumed to thesis studies mediate the essay penasco, internalization of Lf. However, the physiological significance of thesis development, trophoblast LfR is not understood. Using the CT (cytotrophoblast) cell model BeWo, we demonstrated that transfection with LfR siRNA (small interfering RNA) significantly decreased apo- but not holo-Lf uptake compared with mock-transfected controls and essays that apo- but not holo-Lf significantly increased MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2 activity. As Lf functionality is related to the presence (holo-Lf) or absence (apo-Lf) of thesis studies, iron within the Lf molecule, our results suggest that apo-Lf may play a role in cellular invasion. Moreover, we detected LfR (?105 kDa) in association with the plasma membrane, and ligand blotting confirmed that Lf binds to a LfR of ?105 kDa. Essay Edge Law? Apo-Lf treatment significantly increased LfR abundance at master studies the plasma membrane and internalization probably occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis through early and essay on men and women are different recycling endosomes, as LfR was co-localized with EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1) and studies TfR (transferrin receptor) using confocal microscopy, and hypertonic medium (0.4 M sucrose) significantly inhibited apo-Lf internalization. In summary, our data demonstrate that apo- but not holo-Lf is internalized by LfR and essay on puerto penasco suggest that, following internalization via LfR, apo-Lf plays a role in CT invasiveness by inducing MMP-2 activity.

Moreover, LfR facilitates apo-Lf uptake specifically through clathrin-mediated endocytosis into master thesis development early endosomes and potentially into a recycling pathway. Taken together, our data provide a new dimension in understanding ligand-dependant function that may be directly related to the ability of LfR to selectively internalize apo- but not holo-Lf. BeWo cell endocytosis lactoferrin lactoferrin receptor matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) The presence of a LfR [Lf (lactoferrin) receptor] was first identified in human small intestine [1]. It presumably facilitates the uptake of term, its protein ligand Lf, which is thesis development studies present in milk and mucosal secretions [2].

Therefore, kinetic studies on LfR have primarily been conducted in small intestine [3–6] and spread cultured enterocytes [7]. We have previously cloned the LfR gene (GenBank® accession number NM_017625) [3] and determined that the intestinal LfR is an ?110 kDa trimeric (?37 kDa subunits), glycosylated protein [7]. However, LfR is also expressed in thesis development studies non-intestinal tissues, such as heart, liver, spleen, thymus and skeletal muscle [3,8,9]. Recently, we detected LfR expression in mouse placenta associated with trophoblast cells [8], suggesting that LfR plays a role in this highly specialized cell type. Trophoblasts are divided into two subtypes; CTs (cytotrophoblasts) and STs (syncytiotrophoblasts), which are both maintained throughout pregnancy. The primary function of CTs is invasion into the uterine epithelium to secure successful implantation [10], whereas STs further implantation progression by establishing the nutrient and gas exchange barrier (maternal–fetal interface) and secreting hormones such as progesterone which are essential for successful pregnancy maintenance [11]. The invasive capacity of essay penasco, CTs relies on development studies the secretion of MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases), which function to degrade the surrounding ECM (extracellular matrix). Several disorders of pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion, are believed to in relate to ineffective CT proliferation, migration and invasion into the uterine endothelium [10]. Lf has been attributed with multifunctional properties, including increased cell proliferation [12–16] and changes in master cell morphology through activation of MMP transcription [17].

The pleuripotency of Lf may reflect the dramatic conformational change associated with iron binding and release [18,19] as holo-Lf (iron saturated Lf) and essay edge law apo-Lf (iron free Lf) are known to master thesis adopt “closed” and “open” forms respectively [18,20]. Acoa Codependency Paper Term? For example, holo-Lf increases but apo-Lf decreases cell proliferation in human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) [14] and while apo-Lf stimulates microvessel proliferation in master development rats, holo-Lf is ineffective [21]. Currently, the mechanisms through which apo- and macbeth holo-Lf exert their differential functions are unknown. Herein, we hypothesized that the opposing functionality of apo- and holo-Lf reflects differences in cellular internalization mechanisms mediated via LfR. In order to address this, we utilized the human placental CT cell line BeWo and master thesis development determined: (1) the effects of apo- and holo-Lf on in MMP-2 activity, the major MMP in trophoblasts; (2) the ability of the master, LfR to facilitate apo- and holo-Lf uptake and internalization; and (3) the subsequent intracellular compartmentalization of LfR following Lf uptake. We also determined that apo- but not holo-Lf stimulates MMP-2 activity, that apo-Lf is essay on men and women internalized by LfR in a clathrin-mediated process and that internalized LfR associates with the early endosome/recycling compartment. Studies? This suggests that functional differences between apo- and holo-Lf are probably related to acoa term divergent uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanisms and provides a functional role for development studies, LfR in trophoblasts. BeWo cells were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (CCL-98, Rockville, MD).

Cells were maintained in complete medium containing F12 Nutrient Mixture (Ham) (Life Technologies), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Gemini Bio-Products), 1.5 g/l sodium bicarbonate, 10 ?g/ml streptomycin and 10 units/ml penicillin (Sigma) at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO 2 until 90% confluent. For experiments, cells were sub-cultured at a ratio of 1:3 and acoa codependency cultured until confluent. Lf was isolated from human milk as previously described with slight modifications [22]. Casein was precipitated from development, pooled human milk with 0.06 M CaCl 2 , pH 4.6, for macbeth essays notes, 1 h at room temperature (25 °C) with constant stirring and centrifuged at 8600 g for 20 min at 4 °C. Master? The whey fraction was collected, centrifuged at 8600 g for 20 min at 4 °C and essay and women then mixed with heparin–Sepharose Fast Flow resin (GE Health-Amersham Biosciences) overnight at 4 °C. Studies? The whey/resin mixture was centrifuged at 800 g for 5 min at 4 °C, the supernatant discarded and the remaining resin was packed on to a column and washed several times with wash buffer 1 (50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 8.0). To remove non-specific proteins, the column was rinsed with 5 bed volumes of elution buffer 1 (0.05 M Tris/HCl, 0.3 M NaCl, pH 8.0).

Next, Lf was eluted with 5 bed volumes of elution buffer 2 (0.05 M Tris/HCl, 1.0 M NaCl, pH 8.0) and fractions were collected. Lf-containing fractions were identified following Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining of macbeth essays notes, SDS/PAGE (12%) gels. Samples were pooled and concentrated in YM-50 centrifugation tubes (Millipore Centriplus, Fisher Scientific) at 3000 g for thesis studies, 90 min at 4 °C. The protein concentration of purified Lf was determined spectrophotometrically ( A 280 ) as previously established [23]. Apo-Lf was prepared as previously described [24]. Holo-Lf was prepared with FeSO 4 (Lf/Fe, 1:2 molar ratio) in sodium bicarbonate (Fe/HCO 3 , 1:1 molar ratio) for 1 h at room temperature (25 °C). Unincorporated Fe was removed with YM-50 microcentrifuge tubes at 12000 g at 4 °C and spread of islam stored at development ?20 °C. Fe saturation was determined spectrophotometrically by the A 460 / 280 ratio (22) [25].

To determine effects of apo- and holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity, cells were seeded in essay edge law 24-well plates in complete medium until cells were 90–95% confluent. Cells were rinsed twice with 1?PBS and then incubated with apo- or holo-Lf (50 ?g/ml) in F12 medium plus 2% FBS (fetal bovine serum) for 4 h. Conditioned medium was collected after 24 h and concentrated to one third of the master development, original volume using YM-50 microcentrifugation tubes (Millipore Centriplus) at of islam in europe essay 5000 g for 20 min at 4 °C. Protein concentration of conditioned media was determined using the Bradford assay (Bio-Rad) and proteins (20 ?g) were electrophoresed by master development SDS/PAGE (7.5% gel containing 1 mg/ml gelatin). Following electrophoresis, the gels were washed twice in 2.5% Triton X-100 in PBS for essays notes, 15 min to master thesis studies remove SDS and incubated in wash buffer 2 (50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, 10 mM NaCl, 50 mM CaCl 2 ) overnight at essay on puerto penasco 37 °C. Gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue for 2 h and destained with 10% acetic acid and 40% methanol in water. Absence of stain (representative of proteolytic degradation) reflects MMP-2 enzymatic activity.

The relative densities of bands were quantified using the master development studies, Chemi-doc Gel Quantification System (BioRad). Apo- and holo-Lf were labelled with 125 I (GE Health-Amersham Biosciences) by the Iodogen method [26]. Excess free iodine was removed with a PD-10 desalting column (GE Health-Amersham Biosciences). Spread Of Islam Essay? To determine Lf uptake, cells were cultured in 24-well dishes in growth medium until confluent. Development? Cells were incubated with 125 I-labelled apo- or holo-Lf (10000–100000 c.p.m.) in essay on men and women SFM (serum-free medium) for 1 h at 37 °C. Medium was collected, cells were rinsed once with rinse buffer (0.5 M NaCl, pH 3.0) and pooled with the medium. Master Development Studies? Cells were washed three times with PBS, solubilized with 0.1 M NaOH and radioactivity was quantified in both medium and solubilized cells in a gamma counter. Affinity purification and validation of LfR antibody. LfR peptide (SSSPSLPRSCKEIKDE-Cys) was produced (Genemed Synthesis, South San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.) and conjugated (2 mg) to an affinity-purification column (Sulfolink purification kit; Pierce Biotechnology).

LfR antibody was purified from and contrast, rabbit antiserum according to the manufacturer's instructions. Development? To demonstrate antibody specificity, affinity-purified LfR antibody (1 ?g/ml) was pre-incubated with LfR peptide (1 mg/ml) in 5% (w/v) non-fat milk in PBS-T (PBS, 0.1% Tween) for paper, 2 h at room temperature (25 °C) prior to immunoblotting of cell lysate as described below. Ligand binding and immunoblotting. Confluent cells were lysed in homogenization buffer [20 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 1 mM EGTA, 1?complete protease inhibitor (Roche Diagnostics)], sonicated three times for 10 s, centrifuged at 3300 g for 15 min at 4 °C and the post-nuclear supernatant was collected. Protein concentration of the thesis development, supernatant was determined by the Bradford method and cell lysates (50–100 ?g protein) were resolved by electrophoresis. Essays In? To determine Lf binding, cell proteins were resolved by non-reducing SDS/PAGE at 80 V for 4 h and transferred on to nitrocellulose membrane. Membranes were incubated with 5% BSA in PBS-T for 1 h at room temperature (25 °C) to block non-specific binding. Membranes were incubated overnight with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf, blots were rinsed twice with PBS-T and bound ligand was visualized by autoradiography. For immunoblotting, cell extracts were elecrophoresed by studies SDS/PAGE (10% gel, 200 V for 1 h) under reducing conditions and membranes were incubated with LfR antibody for 1 h. And Contrast Essays? Membranes were washed in master thesis development studies PBS-T and primary antibody was detected with donkey anti-rabbit IgG-HRP (IgG-horseradish peroxidase; GE Health-Amersham Biosciences) in essay edge law 5% (w/v) nonfat milk in PBS-T.

Membranes were washed in PBS-T for thesis development, 30 min, visualized with Super Femto Detection Chemiluminescence Reagent (Pierce Biotechnology) and exposed to essay on men are different autoradiography film. Relative band density was quantified using the master thesis development studies, Chemi-doc Gel Quantification System (Bio-Rad). Transient transfection with LfR siRNA (small interfering RNA) Cells were seeded on to 24-well or 6-well plates and essays cultured until 50% confluent, then transfected with 80 pmol of LfR siRNA (Ambion) in thesis studies Lipofectamine™ 2000 (Invitrogen) for notes, 24 h according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cells treated with Lipofectamine™ 2000 alone were used as mock-transfected controls. After 24 h, cells were incubated with 125 I-labelled apo- or holo-Lf in SFM at 37 °C. Lf uptake was measured after 30 min as described above. To verify LfR suppression, transfected cells were scraped into 25 ?l of homogenization buffer (20 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 1 mM EGTA, 1?complete protease inhibitor) and immunoblotted as described above. Biotin-labelling of master thesis development studies, cell surface proteins.

To determine LfR abundance at the plasma membrane, cells were seeded on and contrast essays in to 100-mm-diameter dishes and cultured until confluent. Cells were rinsed with PBS and studies the cell surface was biotinylated with sulfo- N -hydroxysuccinimido-biotin (0.5 mg/ml; EZ-Link Sulfo-NHSS-Biotin; Pierce) at 4 °C for 1 h. Cells were rinsed with ice-cold 0.2 M glycine buffer, pH 5.0, and then with cold PBS to remove unbound biotin. Cells were lysed with lysis buffer [50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.4, 2 mM EDTA, 2 mM EGTA, 1?protease inhibitor (Roche Diagnostics)], sonicated (three 10 s bursts) and centrifuged at 100000 g for 20 min at and contrast essays in 4 °C. Thesis Development? The supernatant was discarded and the pellet was resuspended in lysis buffer with 0.2% SDS and incubated at 60 °C for 5 min. As the essay on men and women are different, samples cooled, 1% Triton X-100 was added, the samples were re-sonicated and studies centrifuged at 100000 g for 20 min at 4 °C to pellet any insoluble material. The supernatant was collected and essays in incubated with 300 ?l of master thesis development studies, slurry (1:1) of immobilized avidin beads (UltraLink Immunobilized Monomeric Avidin; Pierce) for essay penasco, 1 h at room temperature (25 °C) with constant rotation. To collect proteins bound to the resin, the samples were centrifuged at 2300 g for 1 min. Development? The supernatant was discarded and the beads were rinsed with PBS and centrifuged for essay edge law, 1 min at 2300 g . To elute biotinylated proteins, an master, equal volume of Laemmli sample buffer (Bio-Rad) containing 2-mercaptoethanol (5%) was added and spread of islam essay incubated at 90 °C for 5 min.

The samples were centrifuged at 2300 g for thesis development studies, 1 min and biotinylated proteins were resolved by SDS/PAGE and immunoblotted for LfR as described above. Determination of GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchoring by Pi-PLC (phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C) cleavage. To determine if LfR is a GPI-anchored protein, cells were seeded on to 24-well plates and pretreated with Pi-PLC (1 unit/ml; Invitrogen) in SFM for 1 h at 37 °C to cleave GPI-anchored proteins. To verify the effects of Pi-PLC on LfR abundance at the plasma membrane, cell surface proteins were biotinylated and immunoblotted for LfR as described above. To determine the effects of and contrast, Pi-PLC on Lf uptake, cells were rinsed with PBS, fresh SFM was added and cells were incubated with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf at thesis studies 37 °C and uptake was measured after 1 h as described above. To illustrate the efficacy of the acoa codependency paper, enzyme, spent medium was collected and concentrated to thesis development one third of the original volume using YM-50 microcentrifugation tubes (Millipore Centriplus) at 5000 g for 20 min at 4 °C and immunoblotted for spread of islam in europe, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), a known GPI-anchored protein. To inhibit endocytosis, cells were seeded on to 24-well plates and treated with hypertonic medium (0.4 M sucrose). Cells were pre-treated in hypertonic medium for 30 min and incubated with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf in SFM at development studies 37 °C in the presence of 0.4 M sucrose and uptake was measured after 60 min. Lf uptake was measured as described above.

To determine if de novo LfR protein synthesis is required for Lf uptake, cells were seeded on to 12- or 24-well plates until confluent and pretreated with cycloheximide (Cyhex, 10 ?g/ml, Sigma) in SFM for 6 h at 37 °C. And Women Are Different? Cells were either collected for SDS/PAGE analysis or incubated with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf in the presence of Cyhex at 37 °C and Lf uptake was measured over 7 h. To determine the subcellular localization of LfR, cells were seeded on to glass coverslips, cultured for 3–4 days in growth medium and incubated with apo-Lf (where indicated, 200 ?g/ml) in master thesis development studies SFM for up to essay 1 h at 37 °C. Thesis Studies? After treatment, cells were rinsed with PBS and spread in europe fixed with 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde for master development, 10 min and essay edge law permeabilized with 0.2% Triton X-100 in PBS for studies, 5 min. Acoa Term? To eliminate non-specific binding, cells were incubated in blocking buffer (5% goat serum in PBS) for 30 min followed by incubation with affinity-purified LfR antibody (0.8 ?g/ml) in PBS containing 5% goat serum, 1% BSA and 0.2% Triton X-100 for 1 h. Cells were rinsed with PBS and LfR was detected with Alexa 488-conjugated-anti-rabbit IgG (1 ?g/ml; Molecular Probes) in PBS containing 0.2% Triton X-100 and 1% BSA for 20 min. Co-localization of LfR with specific subcellular markers was determined following incubation with antibodies for master thesis development, clathrin (1:500, Abcam); EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1; 1:500, Abcam), TfR (transferrin receptor, localizes to acoa codependency recycling endosomes, 1 ?g/ml; Zymed Laboratories); LAMP1 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1; 1:200, Abcam); M6PR (mannose 6-phosphate receptor, localizes to late endosomes; 1:500, Abcam) and development studies detected with Alexa 568-conjugated-anti-mouse IgG (1 ?g/ml; Molecular Probes). After several rinses, coverslips were mounted with ProLong Gold (Molecular Probes) and codependency paper sealed with nail polish. Immunofluorescence imaging was performed using an Olympus BX50WI microscope with UPlanApo ?100 magnification under an oil-immersion lens [NA (numerical aperture), 1.00], and thesis digital images were captured using the essay on puerto, Bio-Rad Radiance 2100 confocal system with LaserSharp2000 software, version 4.1 (Bio-Rad). Results are presented as means±S.D. of triplicate samples from 2–3 separate experiments. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t test or one-way ANOVA (Prism Graph Pad) and master studies significance was set at P 0.05.

Active form of MMP-2 is essays increased by apo- but not holo-Lf. Secretion of MMP-2 plays a key role in CT invasion, thus we determined effects of Lf and Lf conformation on MMP-2 activity in BeWo cells. Using gelatin zymography, our data demonstrated that apo-Lf significantly increased (20%) MMP-2 activity compared to untreated cells (Figure 1). In contrast, we observed no effect of holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity, suggesting a differential effect of Lf conformation on master cellular invasivity of CTs. Representative zymogram (upper panel) of culture medium collected from cells treated with either apo- or holo-Lf. Essay On Puerto Penasco? Equal amounts of protein (20 ?g) were electrophoresed through polyacrylamide gels containing gelatin and stained with Coomassie blue. MMP-2 activity was detected as clear bands (digested gelatin) on a blue background.

MMP-2 activity was significantly increased in cells treated with apo-Lf as compared with untreated (control) and holo-Lf treated cells (lower panel). Data shown represent MMP-2 activity as a percentage of untreated control cells (mean±S.D.) for master thesis development, two independent experiments ( n =4). * P 0.05. LfR facilitates uptake of apo- but not holo-Lf. To determine if LfR mediates apo- and/or holo-Lf uptake, uptake studies using 125 I-labelled Lf were performed. Our data demonstrated that BeWo cells internalized 9-fold more apo-Lf compared with holo-Lf (Figure 2). Using affinity-purified LfR antibody, we confirmed that BeWo cells expressed LfR, as specifically immunoreactive proteins were detected at essay edge law ?35 and ?105 kDa in BeWo cells (Figure 3). Ligand binding plays a critical role in receptor function, and ligand binding established that radiolabelled apo-Lf bound to master thesis development studies two LfR proteins at ?75 and ?105 kDa (Figure 3), but not to in the 35 kDa protein. Thesis Development? We speculate that the 35, 75 and 105 kDa moieties represent LfR monomers, homo-dimers and -trimers, respectively. The ability of LfR to spread of islam in europe essay internalize apo-Lf is dependent on its cellular localization and development studies we showed that the 105 kDa LfR was localized to the plasma membrane using cell surface biotinylation followed by spread essay immunoblotting (Figure 4A). In contrast to what was reported for the intestinal LfR [3], trophoblast LfR does not appear to be GPI-anchored as demonstrated by internalization of Lf following GPI-anchored protein cleavage with Pi-PLC (Figure 4B).

Confirmation of Pi-PLC cleavage was verified as Pi-PLC increased ALP abundance in spent medium compared to untreated cells (Figure 4C). Confluent cells were treated with 125 I-labelled apo- or 125 I-labelled holo-Lf and Lf uptake was determined. Representative graph of thesis development studies, uptake after 1 h illustrates that significantly less holo-Lf was internalized when compared to apo-Lf. Data shown represent mean Lf uptake (Lf uptake/mg protein)±S.D. from and contrast, two independent experiments ( n =4). * P 0.001. Representative immunoblot ( A and B ) and development studies ligand blot ( C ) of cell lysate proteins. Proteins (50 ?g) were resolved by SDS/PAGE and essays immunoblotted with LfR antibody ( A ; LfR Ab, 1 ?g/ml) or pre-absorbed with excess Lf antigen ( B ; LfR Ab+peptide) for 1 h. The LfR antibody detected specific proteins at ?105 and ?35 kDa ( A ) which were both completely eliminated following pre-absorption with LfR peptide ( B ). ( C ) Cell lysate (100 ?g) was resolved under non-reducing and non-denaturing conditions, and incubated with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf. Master Development? Detection of ligand binding to and contrast essays proteins at 105 and development studies 75 kDa was observed. Confluent cells were treated with Pi-PLC and surface expression and Lf uptake was assessed. ( A ) A representative LfR immunoblot of biotinylated cell surface proteins documents the presence of and contrast essays in, LfR on the plasma membrane after Pi-PLC treatment. ( B ) Cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins with Pi-PLC did not significantly reduce 125 I-labelled apo-Lf uptake in BeWo cells.

Data represent mean Lf uptake/mg protein±S.D. for development, two independent experiments ( n =4). ( C ) Representative immunoblot of macbeth essays, ALP antibody from total spent medium following Pi-PLC treatment, validating enzyme activity. In order to determine a role for master development, LfR in Lf uptake, LfR expression was attenuated in essay edge law cells transfected with LfR siRNA (Figure 5A). We demonstrated that reduced LfR abundance resulted in significantly lower apo-Lf uptake (30%) compared with mock-transfected controls (Figure 5B). Thesis Studies? In contrast, holo-Lf uptake was not significantly reduced (10%), suggesting that internalization of holo-Lf in BeWo cells is not predominantly LfR-mediated. Are Different? Due to our finding of limited LfR-mediated holo-Lf uptake and lack of an effect of development, holo-Lf on acoa codependency paper MMP-2 activity, we subsequently focused on effects of apo-Lf on the intracellular trafficking of LfR. ( A ) Representative LfR immunoblot of total protein illustrating significant attenuation of LfR compared to mock-transfected cells. ( B ) Lf uptake was measured using 125 I-labelled apo- or 125 I-labelled holo-Lf in thesis studies cells transfected with LfR siRNA or mock-transfected controls. Data represent the means±S.D. ( n =2–3) of triplicate experiments. * P 0.05, ** P 0.01, as analysed by Student's t test. LfR internalization is a clathrin-dependent process and potentially follows a recycling pattern. As our data clearly demonstrated that apo-Lf is internalized via LfR, we then determined the mechanisms responsible for internalization of in europe, apo-Lf via LfR.

CTs were treated with apo-Lf and LfR protein abundance on the plasma membrane was assessed following cell surface biotinylation. We noted that treatment with apo-Lf resulted in a rapid (10 min) and significant increase in cell surface-associated LfR (Figure 6A), independent of changes in total LfR abundance (Figure 6B). This suggests that apo-Lf may signal the recruitment of master thesis, LfR to the plasma membrane or that perhaps Lf binding to LfR transiently interferes with its internalization. Confluent cells were treated with or without apo-Lf and essay edge law LfR surface expression was assessed. ( A ) Representative immunoblot of crude membrane proteins from cells treated with apo-Lf or untreated and detected with LfR antibody. Representative graph illustrates that LfR abundance significantly increased with apo-Lf treatment compared to untreated cells with no effect on master studies the total amount of LfR protein expression ( B ). * P 0.001, as analysed by in Student's t test. Master Studies? ?-actin was used as a loading control. Of Islam Essay? Data represent means±S.D. ( n =3) of 3 independent experiments. Multiple pathways for thesis studies, internalization of plasma membrane proteins have been characterized. To identify the essay are different, mechanism responsible for master development, LfR internalization, CTs were treated with hypertonic medium (0.4 M sucrose) to inhibit clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which resulted in on puerto penasco a robust inhibition of apo-Lf internalization (40%) compared with untreated cells, with values of 2.4±0.25 and 5.7±0.42 pmol/mg protein±S.D. for treated and control cells respectively; n=5–8 per studies group, * P 0.001. To confirm the paper, mechanism by which LfR is master thesis endocytosed, we used confocal microscopy to identify the subcellular compartments within which LfR resides. Essays? As indicated in Figures 7(A) and 7(B), LfR and clathrin co-localized and thesis development studies were largely associated with the plasma membrane, as illustrated by macbeth essays yellow pixilation in master development the merged images (Figure 7C).

As internalization is ligand-stimulated, cells were treated with apo-Lf, and indirect immunofluorescence was used to visualize specific sub-cellular compartments within which LfR was associated. Following ligand stimulation, we demonstrated partial co-localization of acoa codependency paper term, LfR and the early endosome marker EEA1 in master thesis vesicular/endosomal-like structures (Figures 7D–7F). As co-localization between EEA1 and LfR was not exclusive, we sought to examine other sub-cellular compartments containing LfR. Essay Edge Law? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is one mechanism cells utilize to control cell surface receptor abundance and master thesis studies turnover via recycling. To investigate whether LfR trafficking from the plasma membrane potentially includes endocytic recycling, we used the essay are different, indirect immunofluorescence of master thesis studies, TfR as a marker for recycling endosomes. We showed partial co-localization of LfR and macbeth essays TfR within distinct internalized vesicles in cells following ligand stimulation (Figures 7G–7I).

No co-localization between LfR and M6PR (a late endosome marker) and minimal co-localization with LAMP1 (a lysosome marker) was detected (results not shown). These results indicate that, in response to master thesis development studies apo-Lf stimulation, LfR is essays in internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and consequently enters a distinct intracellular endocytotic pathway. Confocal microscopy identifying specific sub-cellular compartments associated with LfR. Cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde and imaged for LfR (green) and sub-cellular markers (red); clathrin ( A and C ), EEA1 ( D and F ) and TfR ( G and I ). Clathrin ( A ) and LfR ( B ) were co-localized (yellow, C ) and thesis stained in a plasma membrane-like pattern in cells. Following apo-Lf treatment, partial co-localization with the early endosomal marker EEA1 ( D ) and LfR ( E ) was detected (yellow, F ) and treatment of cells with apo-Lf clearly resulted in vesicularization of LfR.

Furthermore, co-localization with the recycling endosome marker TfR ( G ) and LfR ( H ) was detected (yellow, I ) following treatment of cells with apo-Lf. Finally, to determine if increased abundance of LfR at the plasma membrane in response to apo-Lf stimulation reflects changes in intracellular LfR recycling, we blocked de novo protein synthesis with Cyhex and measured apo-Lf uptake. Inhibition of new receptor synthesis did not diminish apo-Lf uptake, indicating that LfR is recycled. Macbeth? In fact, apo-Lf uptake was significantly higher in Cyhex treated cells (Figure 8A), suggesting that apo-Lf enhances LfR recycling. Master Studies? Moreover, our data indicated that CT-derived LfR is a relatively long-lived protein (Figure 8B), as abundant LfR remained detectable after 7 h of Cyhex treatment and that de novo protein synthesis may play a minor role in sustaining total and surface receptor abundance. Confluent cells were pre-treated with Cyhex and uptake of 125 I-labelled apo-Lf and essay edge law LfR abundance was assessed compared with untreated cells. ( A ) Apo-Lf uptake from cells significantly increased in the presence of cycloheximide (Lf+Cyhex) after 3 h compared with untreated cells (Lf). Data represent means±S.D. for two independent experiments ( n =3–4), and * P 0.05 compared with untreated cells, as analysed by Student's t test. Thesis Development Studies? ( B ) Representative immunoblot of total protein extract isolated from cells pre-treated with Cyhex then incubated with apo-Lf for 3 and 7 h compared with untreated cells. The immunoblot demonstrates that Cyhex did not affect LfR abundance. ?-Actin was used as a loading control. CTs are specialized cells in the placenta that are initially responsible for invasion into and contrast essays the uterine endothelium, assuring optimal fetal development [10]. Our previous detection of LfR along the maternal and fetal interface in the placenta implicates LfR in CT function [8,9,27].

The aim of the development studies, present study was to explore the essay edge law, function of Lf in the placenta as mediated via LfRs using a CT cell model. Master Thesis Development? While primarily regarded as a component of milk [2], Lf is also found in essay on men and women are different decidua (9–95 ?g/g), amniotic fluid (2–37 ?g/g) and chorion (2–26 ?g/g) [28], and is secreted directly from uterine epithelia [29,30]. Master Thesis Studies? This suggests that Lf secreted from the on men and women are different, uterine endothelium may regulate CT function in a paracrine manner. Master Studies? Results from this study documented an enhancing effect of apo- but not holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity in CTs, suggesting a regulatory role for apo-Lf in CT invasivity as this process is dependent upon essays notes the secretion and activation of MMPs. There is precedence for effects of Lf on MMP regulation as over-expression of master thesis development studies, Lf activates MMP-1 expression through binding to AP-1 promoter elements and through stimulation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase)-dependant pathway in mouse fibroblasts and human COS-1 cells [17]. Essays? We speculate that apo-Lf may similarly regulate the transcription of MMP-2 via AP-1 promoter elements which are present in the MMP-2 gene [31]. Master Studies? In support of the macbeth notes, concept of Lf acting as a transcription factor, a nuclear localization signal within the N-terminal region of the Lf molecule (amino acids 1–5) has been previously identified [32], and Lf binds to DNA [33,34]. Alternatively, the induction of master, MMP-2 via apo-Lf could be through the p38 MAPK pathway as p38 activation is and women required for the up-regulation of MMP-2 protein expression [31]. Master Development Studies? The ability of Lf to activate p38 MAPK has been previously shown in acoa codependency paper term other cell types [16,35], providing support for a direct role of apo-Lf on CT invasivity.

The effect of apo- but not holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity probably reflects that distinct functions are associated with either apo- or holo-Lf. In contrast to master development studies reports in rat hepatocytes [36], CTs bound and internalized both apo- and holo-Lf. However, in CTs, apo-Lf was internalized more avidly than holo-Lf, suggesting preferential uptake mechanisms specific to apo-Lf which may reflect the on men, requirement of this molecule for CT-specific functions such as invasivity, while precise Lf-dependant functions in master hepatocytes remain unknown. Gene attenuation of essay edge law, LfR conclusively determined that LfR primarily facilitates apo-Lf uptake in CTs. Recently, distinct Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) binding motifs were found within the Lf molecule [37], which have been postulated to thesis studies determine ligand binding and receptor interactions.

It is possible that iron-saturation, which alters Lf conformation, may result in LfR inaccessibility to these binding motifs. While this is macbeth not to development imply that holo-Lf binding and uptake does not elicit cellular events, it does not appear that these effects are mediated via LfR internalization in CTs. Possibly, holo-Lf internalization is not a prerequisite to stimulate cellular events at the plasma membrane as suggested by macbeth essays other investigators [15,35]. As apo-Lf was preferentially taken up by LfR, we sought to characterize the placental LfR more extensively. It has previously been reported that intestinal LfR is a GPI-anchored protein [3]. Contrary to this observation, we determined that, in master thesis development CTs, the spread, LfR receptor is not a GPI-anchored protein and is in fact internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis following ligand binding. Our observations in master thesis development studies trophoblasts are consistent with previous reports in essay edge law other cell types such as hepatocytes, where inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by hypertonic medium [38] significantly reduced Lf internalization.

We speculate that differences in Lf uptake between intestinal and thesis development CT LfR may reflect differences in cellular function, as CTs are a semi-pleuripotent and on puerto penasco invasive cell type, whereas enterocytes are terminally differentiated polarized cells involved in vectorial nutrient transport. Studies? Our determination that LfR is internalized via a clathrin-dependent mechanism may provide insight into LfR structure, as receptors utilizing clathrin-mediated endocytosis require a cytoplasmic, tyrosine-based sorting signal for interaction with adaptor proteins, such as AP2 [39]. And Women Are Different? To identify potential AP2-interacting motifs within the LfR sequence we used a proteomics server ( and indeed two tyrosine-sorting motifs were identified at amino acids 120–123 and 129–142. This further suggests that a portion of LfR protein does reside intracellularly and that one or more of these motifs may functionally interact with AP2 to master thesis studies facilitate LfR internalization. LfRs have been identified in various cell-types and penasco reports have determined a molecular mass of ?110 kDa [8]. Recently, Tsuji et al. [40] examined the structure of master thesis studies, human LfR in greater detail and determined that it is an acoa codependency term, 105.5 kDa oligomeric protein made up of three 35.5 kDa subunits, similar to thesis studies what we observed in trophoblasts. Interestingly, while we detected both the monomeric (35 kDa) and trimeric (105 kDa) forms of essays notes, LfR under reducing conditions, the abundance of the trimer was always greater that the monomer.

For some reason, we were unable to extensively reduce the trimeric form to monomers even when using dithiothreitol and iodoacetic acid (V. Lopez, unpublished observations). Interestingly, we did not detect the dimeric form of LfR under reducing conditions, which is similar to thesis development studies the findings of Tsuji et al. [40]. We further demonstrated that apo-Lf binds to both dimeric and trimeric LfR multimers, which agrees with previously published reports demonstrating that human LfR forms a homo-trimer [7,40] as a result of subunit oligomerization [9]. We speculate that the essay edge law, trimeric form is an unusually stabilized form, mediated by several intracellular disulfide bonds and possibly also hydrophobic interactions, whereas the dimeric form is development less stable and can be reduced to the monomeric form. In contrast, a 45 kDa calcium-dependent LfR has been reported in rat hepatocytes [41]; however, it is unknown how this LfR relates specifically to Lf function as rats do not express Lf. It is well established that cell signalling and cellular homoeostasis are altered by and contrast essays in increasing or decreasing cell surface receptor abundance [42]. As LfR abundance at the plasma membrane did not require de novo synthesis, our data suggest that recycling of LfR to and from the plasma membrane occurs. Endocytic recycling requires internalization of cell surface receptors and thesis studies their ligands within clathrin coated pits [43], with the interaction between transferrin and TfR being the classic example of notes, this process [44]. Studies? Receptor recycling is penasco one strategy by which cells maintain a mobilizable receptor pool to master quickly traffic to the cell surface in response to physiological stimuli, to allow cells to essay on men and women are different redistribute cell-surface molecules to specific cell locations or compartments undergoing a physiological activity [45].

We speculate that Lf may either stimulate the recruitment of development, LfR to the plasma membrane, or that perhaps Lf binding to the receptor results in transient accumulation of LfR prior to internalization via clathrin-mediated mechanisms. We propose that CTs may require Lf/LfR internalization to rapidly facilitate implantation, allowing for optimal embryo-fetal development. On Men And Women? Further studies are needed to address this issue. Collectively, the results from this study demonstrated a specific role for apo-Lf but not holo-Lf in master thesis development studies regulating MMP-2 activity and thus potentially endothelial invasion in CTs. Importantly, we have determined that apo- but not holo-Lf is internalized via LfR, which occurs through a clathrin-dependent pathway in essay and women CTs suggesting a mechanistic and functional difference between apo- and holo-Lf. These results may help to explain the pleuripotent and master thesis cell-specific functions which have been associated with Lf.

The authors would like to express their gratitude to Dr. Essay On Men And Women Are Different? Lisa L. Gough for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by NIH grant number HD-043240. Abbreviations: ALP, alkaline phosphatase; apo-Lf, iron free lactoferrin; CT, cytotrophoblast; Cyhex, cycloheximide; EEA, early endosomal antigen; GPI, glycosylphosphatidylinositol; holo-Lf, iron saturated lactoferrin; LAMP, lysosome-associated membrane protein; Lf, lactoferrin; LfR, Lf receptor; M6PR, mannose 6-phosphate receptor; MAPK, mitogen activated protein kinase; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; Pi-PLC, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C; siRNA, small interfering RNA; SFM, serum-free medium; ST, syncytiotrophoblast; TfR, transferrin receptor.

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an essay on development studies a hero You know what I always liked about Batman and on puerto Iron Man over the rest of the master thesis development studies superheroes? The fact that they are (relatively) normal guys. Essay Edge Law. They don’t need any special powers to fit into the same category as Spiderman, Superman, or Wonder Woman. Heroes can be, and usually are, real people . And that’s exactly what we’re going to focus on when writing a hero essay–who your real-life hero is and why. Thesis Development. Before we get started on how to and women are different make your hero essay awesome, we first must answer the question what is studies a hero essay? Put simply, a hero essay is one in which you describe someone you look up to or admire. And Contrast Essays. This could be a family member, teacher, community leader, friend, celebrity, or even a random stranger who did a kind deed.

When writing about whoever you end up choosing, keep in mind that the thesis hero essay is essays not just describing what the master thesis development studies person is like. You need to expand on certain qualities that you admire in the person, and why you admire those qualities. Unlike Professor X, your reader can’t read your mind, so you have to make those connections in your writing. To bring your hero to life on essay the page, it also helps to master thesis development studies have examples or anecdotes of those qualities. Now let’s get into the technical side of essay writing a hero essay. For the development studies purposes of my examples, I’m going to use one of the heroes I mentioned above–Batman! The first thing you want to do is choose your hero. Obviously, for me, it’s Batman. For you, choose someone who you can write a whole essay on. Essay. You don’t want to wind up halfway through your essay with nothing left to say–which brings me to the next step.

To ensure that you have a fully fleshed out essay, it’s best to development studies make an spread of islam outline. This way you’ll know in which order to write your details, and you’ll know that your essay will be fully developed by the time you’re done writing it. Every essay–and, thus, every essay outline–should have at least three things: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Hero essays are no different. Master Thesis Development Studies. Your hero essay introduction should include three main components: A hook : The hook is the first sentence or two of your introduction and is what grabs your reader’s attention. Essay Edge Law. Whether this is master a quote, anecdote or statistic, be sure your hook draws readers in essay edge law, and leaves them wanting more. Master Studies. A little bit of background : Your hero essay will probably be about someone you know (though it doesn’t have to be). Macbeth Notes. Therefore, your reader probably won’t know who the person is–and even if they do, include some background information anyway. This could mean a brief description of your relationship to the person, or any details–such as their occupation, hobbies, etc.–that are relevant to setting up your essay. Your thesis statement : The thesis statement is where the introduction all comes together. It’s what explains exactly what you’re writing about and provides a brief preview of your essay to master development the reader.

My introduction might look something like this: The city of Gotham is one of the most crime-ridden places in the country, not because of petty crimes, but because of true criminal masterminds. And Contrast. But one man has dedicated his life to ridding the master thesis studies streets of evildoers, making the city safe for acoa codependency paper term, its citizens–Batman. Batman is a hero to thesis studies not just me, but to an entire city because of acoa his timeliness in responding to master thesis development studies danger, his unwavering sense of justice, and his awesome gadgets. Essay Edge Law. You probably noticed that I included three different qualities in master development studies, my thesis statement (timeliness, justice and essay edge law awesome gadgets), which would make my hero essay a 5-paragraph essay. However, yours, unless specified by your instructor, can be more or fewer than five paragraphs. The key is to write a complete story that clearly depicts your hero. No matter how many paragraphs are in the body sections of your hero essay, each paragraph should have at least three elements:

A topic sentence: Your topic sentence lets the reader know what the main idea of the paragraph is. Thesis Development Studies. Support for the topic sentence: For a hero essay, your support will usually come in the form of one or more anecdotes. These serve as examples to back up your point. A good transition to the next paragraph: Transitions are important because they make your writing flow. Avoid starting paragraphs with “First,” “Second,” “Finally,” “Next,” “Another reason I like this person,” or similar language. Phrases like these make your writing sound immature and clunky. Putting a good transition at the end of your paragraphs enables you to go right into the next paragraph and avoid all those useless words. I’m only going to essay show you my first body paragraph, but I think you’ll get the master thesis development studies point. Batman may cut it close sometimes, but he manages to save most people just in time. When the Joker threw Batman’s love interest, Rachel, off of a building, Batman jumped after her and protected her as they fell, which saved her life.

Batman also saved Commissioner Gordon who was attacked by gangster Alberto Holliday while escorting Holliday’s rival, Sal Maroni, to jail. Of course Batman can’t possibly save everyone on time–he’s just one man. Essay Edge Law. But because of his clear sense of justice, he tries to save as many people as possible. At last we come to the conclusion. This does not have to be as long as your body paragraphs. It needs only two important things: A brief summary of what you wrote about: Don’t simply restate your thesis statement. You’ve gone into a fair amount of detail since then, and master development studies you want the summary to reflect that. A closing statement : This should give your hero essay a sense of closure.

Think about why your hero is macbeth notes important and why you or other people want to studies emulate this person. Here’s what my conclusion would look like: Batman has saved countless lives–including Rachel, Commissioner Gordon, and many citizens of Gotham–and in in, many cases just in time. Because of his commitment to master thesis justice, he refuses to kill or harm anyone, including his nemeses, and commits acts of selflessness without pay or other incentives. Macbeth. In addition to his incredible personal qualities, he also has amazing gadgets, like boomerangs, the Batmobile, and smoke bombs, to help him achieve justice on the streets of Gotham. Perhaps if more people were this moral and selfless (and had the master development studies right tools for the job), the whole world could stop evildoers in their tracks, just like Batman. Tips to acoa codependency paper Make Your Hero Essay Super. Now that you have the basics down, it’s time for a couple helpful hints on master development how to go from an okay hero essay to a great one.

Pick a person people might not expect . Your instructor has probably read a dozen or more hero essays by notes, the time he or she gets to yours. One way to make yours stand out is to choose to write about someone unexpected. This could be a younger sibling that has overcome adversity or the homeless man who helped push cars up a hill in thesis development, a snowstorm. On the same note, pick qualities that people might not expect . Codependency Term. If you don’t have any unexpected people to write about, or you just simply don’t want to, another option is thesis studies writing about unexpected qualities. Most people can look up to someone for on puerto, their kindness, generosity, intelligence, or even fame. But writing about development studies, someone’s creativity, courage, determined spirit, or optimism in extreme misfortune can be a fresh take on codependency paper a common essay theme. These are just two ways to make your hero essay more nuanced. A little bit of complexity and master thesis out-of-the-box thinking in your writing will take it to and contrast essays the next level. Just think about it this way, it’s better to have a Dark Knight essay (nuanced and complex) than an Adam West Batman essay (simple and a little corny). Image by marvelousRoland via flickr.

Image via I hope that I’ve given you enough to get those creative juices flowing. If you finish your hero essay and you still don’t think it’s up to par, send it over to one of the Kibin editors. They’ll help you make it great. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.

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essay existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre 1946. Written: Lecture given in 1946. Source: Existentialism from Dostoyevsky to Sartre , ed. Walter Kaufman, Meridian Publishing Company, 1989; First Published: World Publishing Company in 1956;

Translator: Philip Mairet; Copyright: reproduced under the “Fair Use” provisions; HTML Markup: by Andy Blunden 1998; proofed and corrected February 2005. My purpose here is to offer a defence of existentialism against several reproaches that have been laid against it. First, it has been reproached as an studies, invitation to people to dwell in quietism of despair. For if every way to a solution is barred, one would have to macbeth notes, regard any action in master development, this world as entirely ineffective, and one would arrive finally at a contemplative philosophy. Moreover, since contemplation is a luxury, this would be only another bourgeois philosophy.

This is, especially, the reproach made by the Communists. From another quarter we are reproached for having underlined all that is ignominious in the human situation, for depicting what is mean, sordid or base to the neglect of certain things that possess charm and beauty and belong to the brighter side of human nature: for example, according to on puerto penasco, the Catholic critic, Mlle. Mercier, we forget how an studies, infant smiles. Both from this side and from the other we are also reproached for leaving out of account the solidarity of mankind and considering man in isolation. And this, say the notes, Communists, is because we base our doctrine upon pure subjectivity – upon the Cartesian “I think”: which is the moment in which solitary man attains to himself; a position from which it is thesis development, impossible to regain solidarity with other men who exist outside of the self. The ego cannot reach them through the acoa term, cogito . From the Christian side, we are reproached as people who deny the reality and seriousness of human affairs. For since we ignore the commandments of master, God and are different, all values prescribed as eternal, nothing remains but what is strictly voluntary. Studies? Everyone can do what he likes, and will be incapable, from and contrast essays in, such a point of view, of condemning either the point of view or the master studies, action of anyone else. It is to these various reproaches that I shall endeavour to reply today; that is why I have entitled this brief exposition “Existentialism is a Humanism.” Many may be surprised at the mention of humanism in this connection, but we shall try to see in what sense we understand it. In any case, we can begin by saying that existentialism, in essay edge law, our sense of the master thesis, word, is a doctrine that does render human life possible; a doctrine, also, which affirms that every truth and every action imply both an environment and a human subjectivity. The essential charge laid against us is, of acoa, course, that of over-emphasis upon the evil side of human life.

I have lately been told of a lady who, whenever she lets slip a vulgar expression in thesis studies, a moment of nervousness, excuses herself by essays exclaiming, “I believe I am becoming an thesis development, existentialist.” So it appears that ugliness is essay on puerto penasco, being identified with existentialism. That is why some people say we are “naturalistic,” and if we are, it is strange to see how much we scandalise and horrify them, for no one seems to be much frightened or humiliated nowadays by what is master studies, properly called naturalism. Those who can quite well keep down a novel by Zola such as La Terre are sickened as soon as they read an existentialist novel. Of Islam In Europe? Those who appeal to the wisdom of the people – which is a sad wisdom – find ours sadder still. And yet, what could be more disillusioned than such sayings as “Charity begins at home” or “Promote a rogue and he’ll sue you for studies damage, knock him down and he’ll do you homage”? We all know how many common sayings can be quoted to essay, this effect, and they all mean much the same – that you must not oppose the powers that be; that you must not fight against studies, superior force; must not meddle in matters that are above your station.

Or that any action not in accordance with some tradition is acoa, mere romanticism; or that any undertaking which has not the thesis, support of proven experience is foredoomed to frustration; and that since experience has shown men to be invariably inclined to evil, there must be firm rules to restrain them, otherwise we shall have anarchy. Essays? It is, however, the people who are forever mouthing these dismal proverbs and, whenever they are told of some more or less repulsive action, say “How like human nature!” – it is master thesis development studies, these very people, always harping upon realism, who complain that existentialism is too gloomy a view of things. Indeed their excessive protests make me suspect that what is annoying them is not so much our pessimism, but, much more likely, our optimism. In Europe? For at bottom, what is alarming in the doctrine that I am about to try to explain to you is – is master studies, it not? – that it confronts man with a possibility of choice. To verify this, let us review the whole question upon the strictly philosophic level. What, then, is this that we call existentialism?

Most of those who are making use of this word would be highly confused if required to explain its meaning. For since it has become fashionable, people cheerfully declare that this musician or that painter is “existentialist.” A columnist in Clartes signs himself “The Existentialist,” and, indeed, the word is now so loosely applied to paper term, so many things that it no longer means anything at all. It would appear that, for the lack of any novel doctrine such as that of surrealism, all those who are eager to join in the latest scandal or movement now seize upon this philosophy in thesis development, which, however, they can find nothing to their purpose. Macbeth Notes? For in truth this is master development studies, of all teachings the least scandalous and the most austere: it is intended strictly for technicians and philosophers. All the same, it can easily be defined.

The question is only complicated because there are two kinds of existentialists. And Contrast Essays? There are, on the one hand, the Christians, amongst whom I shall name Jaspers and thesis studies, Gabriel Marcel, both professed Catholics; and on essay edge law, the other the existential atheists, amongst whom we must place Heidegger as well as the French existentialists and myself. What they have in common is simply the fact that they believe that existence comes before essence – or, if you will, that we must begin from the subjective. What exactly do we mean by that? If one considers an article of manufacture as, for example, a book or a paper-knife – one sees that it has been made by an artisan who had a conception of it; and he has paid attention, equally, to the conception of a paper-knife and to development studies, the pre-existent technique of production which is a part of that conception and essay on men, is, at bottom, a formula. Thus the paper-knife is at the same time an article producible in master thesis studies, a certain manner and macbeth essays notes, one which, on the other hand, serves a definite purpose, for one cannot suppose that a man would produce a paper-knife without knowing what it was for. Let us say, then, of the paperknife that its essence – that is to master thesis development studies, say the sum of the formulae and the qualities which made its production and its definition possible – precedes its existence. The presence of acoa paper term, such-and-such a paper-knife or book is master, thus determined before my eyes. Spread Essay? Here, then, we are viewing the world from a technical standpoint, and we can say that production precedes existence. When we think of God as the creator, we are thinking of thesis development studies, him, most of the time, as a supernal artisan. Codependency? Whatever doctrine we may be considering, whether it be a doctrine like that of Descartes, or of Leibnitz himself, we always imply that the will follows, more or less, from the understanding or at least accompanies it, so that when God creates he knows precisely what he is creating.

Thus, the conception of man in the mind of God is comparable to that of the paper-knife in the mind of the artisan: God makes man according to a procedure and a conception, exactly as the artisan manufactures a paper-knife, following a definition and a formula. Thus each individual man is the realisation of a certain conception which dwells in the divine understanding. In the philosophic atheism of the eighteenth century, the master thesis studies, notion of God is suppressed, but not, for all that, the idea that essence is prior to existence; something of macbeth essays notes, that idea we still find everywhere, in Diderot, in Voltaire and thesis, even in Kant. Man possesses a human nature; that “human nature,” which is the conception of human being, is found in every man; which means that each man is codependency paper term, a particular example of a universal conception, the conception of Man. In Kant, this universality goes so far that the wild man of the woods, man in the state of master thesis development studies, nature and notes, the bourgeois are all contained in master thesis studies, the same definition and have the same fundamental qualities. Here again, the essence of essay on men, man precedes that historic existence which we confront in experience. Atheistic existentialism, of which I am a representative, declares with greater consistency that if God does not exist there is at least one being whose existence comes before its essence, a being which exists before it can be defined by any conception of it. That being is man or, as Heidegger has it, the human reality.

What do we mean by saying that existence precedes essence? We mean that man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world – and defines himself afterwards. If man as the existentialist sees him is not definable, it is master thesis development studies, because to begin with he is nothing. He will not be anything until later, and then he will be what he makes of himself. Thus, there is no human nature, because there is no God to have a conception of it.

Man simply is. Not that he is simply what he conceives himself to be, but he is what he wills, and as he conceives himself after already existing – as he wills to be after that leap towards existence. Man is nothing else but that which he makes of himself. That is the acoa paper, first principle of thesis development studies, existentialism. And this is what people call its “subjectivity,” using the word as a reproach against us. But what do we mean to say by this, but that man is of a greater dignity than a stone or a table?

For we mean to say that man primarily exists – that man is, before all else, something which propels itself towards a future and is aware that it is doing so. Man is, indeed, a project which possesses a subjective life, instead of being a kind of moss, or a fungus or a cauliflower. Before that projection of the self nothing exists; not even in the heaven of on men, intelligence: man will only attain existence when he is what he purposes to be. Not, however, what he may wish to be. For what we usually understand by wishing or willing is thesis development studies, a conscious decision taken – much more often than not – after we have made ourselves what we are. I may wish to join a party, to on men are different, write a book or to master thesis, marry – but in essay, such a case what is usually called my will is probably a manifestation of a prior and more spontaneous decision. If, however, it is master development studies, true that existence is prior to essence, man is responsible for spread of islam in europe what he is. Thus, the master studies, first effect of existentialism is that it puts every man in possession of himself as he is, and places the entire responsibility for essay on puerto penasco his existence squarely upon master thesis studies his own shoulders.

And, when we say that man is responsible for himself, we do not mean that he is responsible only for his own individuality, but that he is responsible for on puerto all men. The word “subjectivism” is to be understood in thesis development, two senses, and acoa codependency paper, our adversaries play upon only one of them. Subjectivism means, on the one hand, the master thesis, freedom of the essay, individual subject and, on the other, that man cannot pass beyond human subjectivity. Thesis Development? It is the latter which is the deeper meaning of essays notes, existentialism. When we say that man chooses himself, we do mean that every one of us must choose himself; but by that we also mean that in choosing for himself he chooses for thesis studies all men. Acoa Paper Term? For in master development studies, effect, of and contrast in, all the actions a man may take in order to master thesis development studies, create himself as he wills to be, there is not one which is not creative, at the same time, of an image of man such as he believes he ought to be. Acoa Codependency? To choose between this or that is at the same time to affirm the master thesis development, value of that which is essay edge law, chosen; for we are unable ever to choose the master development studies, worse. What we choose is paper, always the better; and nothing can be better for us unless it is better for all. If, moreover, existence precedes essence and studies, we will to exist at the same time as we fashion our image, that image is valid for all and for the entire epoch in which we find ourselves.

Our responsibility is thus much greater than we had supposed, for it concerns mankind as a whole. If I am a worker, for instance, I may choose to join a Christian rather than a Communist trade union. And if, by that membership, I choose to paper, signify that resignation is, after all, the attitude that best becomes a man, that man’s kingdom is not upon this earth, I do not commit myself alone to that view. Development Studies? Resignation is my will for everyone, and codependency term, my action is, in consequence, a commitment on behalf of all mankind. Or if, to master thesis development studies, take a more personal case, I decide to penasco, marry and to have children, even though this decision proceeds simply from my situation, from my passion or my desire, I am thereby committing not only myself, but humanity as a whole, to the practice of master thesis development studies, monogamy. Essay Edge Law? I am thus responsible for myself and for all men, and I am creating a certain image of master, man as I would have him to be. In Europe? In fashioning myself I fashion man. This may enable us to understand what is meant by such terms – perhaps a little grandiloquent – as anguish, abandonment and master development studies, despair. As you will soon see, it is very simple. Notes? First, what do we mean by anguish? – The existentialist frankly states that man is in anguish. His meaning is as follows: When a man commits himself to anything, fully realising that he is not only thesis development, choosing what he will be, but is thereby at the same time a legislator deciding for the whole of mankind – in such a moment a man cannot escape from the sense of essay edge law, complete and profound responsibility.

There are many, indeed, who show no such anxiety. But we affirm that they are merely disguising their anguish or are in studies, flight from it. Certainly, many people think that in what they are doing they commit no one but themselves to anything: and if you ask them, “What would happen if everyone did so?” they shrug their shoulders and essay edge law, reply, “Everyone does not do so.” But in truth, one ought always to ask oneself what would happen if everyone did as one is doing; nor can one escape from master development, that disturbing thought except by a kind of self-deception. The man who lies in self-excuse, by saying “Everyone will not do it” must be ill at acoa codependency, ease in his conscience, for the act of thesis development, lying implies the codependency paper term, universal value which it denies. Master Thesis Development? By its very disguise his anguish reveals itself. This is the anguish that Kierkegaard called “the anguish of Abraham.” You know the story: An angel commanded Abraham to sacrifice his son; and essay, obedience was obligatory, if it really was an thesis studies, angel who had appeared and said, “Thou, Abraham, shalt sacrifice thy son.” But anyone in such a case would wonder, first, whether it was indeed an angel and secondly, whether I am really Abraham. And Contrast? Where are the proofs?

A certain mad woman who suffered from hallucinations said that people were telephoning to her, and giving her orders. Studies? The doctor asked, “But who is it that speaks to and contrast essays in, you?” She replied: “He says it is God.” And what, indeed, could prove to her that it was God? If an angel appears to me, what is the proof that it is an master thesis development, angel; or, if I hear voices, who can prove that they proceed from essay edge law, heaven and not from hell, or from my own subconsciousness or some pathological condition? Who can prove that they are really addressed to me? Who, then, can prove that I am the proper person to impose, by my own choice, my conception of master development, man upon mankind? I shall never find any proof whatever; there will be no sign to convince me of essay, it. If a voice speaks to me, it is master development, still I myself who must decide whether the essays, voice is or is not that of an angel. If I regard a certain course of action as good, it is only I who choose to say that it is good and not bad. There is nothing to show that I am Abraham: nevertheless I also am obliged at every instant to perform actions which are examples. Everything happens to every man as though the whole human race had its eyes fixed upon what he is doing and regulated its conduct accordingly. So every man ought to say, “Am I really a man who has the right to master thesis development, act in such a manner that humanity regulates itself by acoa paper what I do.” If a man does not say that, he is dissembling his anguish.

Clearly, the anguish with which we are concerned here is not one that could lead to master thesis studies, quietism or inaction. It is anguish pure and simple, of the kind well known to all those who have borne responsibilities. Notes? When, for instance, a military leader takes upon himself the responsibility for an attack and sends a number of men to their death, he chooses to do it and at bottom he alone chooses. No doubt under a higher command, but its orders, which are more general, require interpretation by him and upon that interpretation depends the life of master, ten, fourteen or twenty men. In making the essay, decision, he cannot but feel a certain anguish. All leaders know that anguish. It does not prevent their acting, on the contrary it is the very condition of their action, for the action presupposes that there is a plurality of development, possibilities, and in choosing one of these, they realize that it has value only essay edge law, because it is chosen. Now it is anguish of thesis studies, that kind which existentialism describes, and moreover, as we shall see, makes explicit through direct responsibility towards other men who are concerned. On Puerto Penasco? Far from being a screen which could separate us from action, it is a condition of development studies, action itself.

And when we speak of “abandonment” – a favorite word of Heidegger – we only essay penasco, mean to say that God does not exist, and that it is necessary to thesis studies, draw the consequences of his absence right to the end. On Puerto Penasco? The existentialist is strongly opposed to a certain type of thesis development, secular moralism which seeks to suppress God at the least possible expense. Towards 1880, when the French professors endeavoured to formulate a secular morality, they said something like this: God is a useless and costly hypothesis, so we will do without it. However, if we are to have morality, a society and a law-abiding world, it is essential that certain values should be taken seriously; they must have an a priori existence ascribed to them. It must be considered obligatory a priori to be honest, not to lie, not to in, beat one’s wife, to bring up children and so forth; so we are going to do a little work on this subject, which will enable us to show that these values exist all the same, inscribed in an intelligible heaven although, of course, there is no God. In other words – and this is, I believe, the purport of all that we in thesis development studies, France call radicalism – nothing will be changed if God does not exist; we shall rediscover the same norms of honesty, progress and humanity, and we shall have disposed of God as an macbeth essays notes, out-of-date hypothesis which will die away quietly of itself. The existentialist, on the contrary, finds it extremely embarrassing that God does not exist, for there disappears with Him all possibility of finding values in an intelligible heaven. Master Thesis Studies? There can no longer be any good a priori , since there is and contrast in, no infinite and master studies, perfect consciousness to think it. It is nowhere written that “the good” exists, that one must be honest or must not lie, since we are now upon the plane where there are only men. Dostoevsky once wrote: “If God did not exist, everything would be permitted”; and that, for existentialism, is the starting point.

Everything is indeed permitted if God does not exist, and spread of islam in europe essay, man is in consequence forlorn, for he cannot find anything to depend upon either within or outside himself. He discovers forthwith, that he is without excuse. Thesis? For if indeed existence precedes essence, one will never be able to explain one’s action by in europe reference to a given and specific human nature; in other words, there is no determinism – man is free, man is freedom. Thesis Development? Nor, on the other hand, if God does not exist, are we provided with any values or commands that could legitimise our behaviour. Thus we have neither behind us, nor before us in a luminous realm of values, any means of justification or excuse. Essay On Puerto Penasco? – We are left alone, without excuse.

That is master studies, what I mean when I say that man is condemned to be free. Condemned, because he did not create himself, yet is nevertheless at liberty, and from the moment that he is thrown into this world he is responsible for essay everything he does. The existentialist does not believe in the power of passion. He will never regard a grand passion as a destructive torrent upon which a man is swept into certain actions as by fate, and master thesis studies, which, therefore, is an excuse for them. He thinks that man is responsible for his passion. Essay Edge Law? Neither will an existentialist think that a man can find help through some sign being vouchsafed upon earth for master studies his orientation: for he thinks that the notes, man himself interprets the sign as he chooses. He thinks that every man, without any support or help whatever, is master thesis studies, condemned at every instant to invent man. As Ponge has written in essay edge law, a very fine article, “Man is the master development, future of man.” That is exactly true.

Only, if one took this to mean that the future is laid up in Heaven, that God knows what it is, it would be false, for then it would no longer even be a future. If, however, it means that, whatever man may now appear to be, there is a future to be fashioned, a virgin future that awaits him – then it is a true saying. But in the present one is and contrast essays in, forsaken. As an example by which you may the better understand this state of abandonment, I will refer to the case of a pupil of mine, who sought me out in the following circumstances. His father was quarrelling with his mother and was also inclined to be a “collaborator”; his elder brother had been killed in master thesis, the German offensive of spread, 1940 and studies, this young man, with a sentiment somewhat primitive but generous, burned to avenge him. His mother was living alone with him, deeply afflicted by the semi-treason of his father and by the death of her eldest son, and her one consolation was in this young man. But he, at essay on puerto, this moment, had the choice between going to England to join the Free French Forces or of staying near his mother and helping her to live. Master Thesis? He fully realised that this woman lived only for him and that his disappearance – or perhaps his death – would plunge her into despair. He also realised that, concretely and in fact, every action he performed on his mother’s behalf would be sure of effect in the sense of aiding her to live, whereas anything he did in order to essay edge law, go and fight would be an ambiguous action which might vanish like water into sand and serve no purpose. For instance, to studies, set out for England he would have to wait indefinitely in a Spanish camp on the way through Spain; or, on of islam in europe, arriving in England or in Algiers he might be put into master, an office to fill up forms.

Consequently, he found himself confronted by two very different modes of action; the one concrete, immediate, but directed towards only one individual; and the other an action addressed to an end infinitely greater, a national collectivity, but for that very reason ambiguous – and it might be frustrated on spread in europe essay, the way. At the thesis development, same time, he was hesitating between two kinds of morality; on the one side the morality of sympathy, of spread essay, personal devotion and, on the other side, a morality of wider scope but of more debatable validity. He had to master development studies, choose between those two. What could help him to choose? Could the Christian doctrine?

No. Christian doctrine says: Act with charity, love your neighbour, deny yourself for others, choose the way which is hardest, and so forth. But which is the harder road? To whom does one owe the more brotherly love, the patriot or the mother? Which is the more useful aim, the general one of fighting in and for the whole community, or the precise aim of helping one particular person to live? Who can give an answer to that a priori ? No one. Nor is it given in any ethical scripture. The Kantian ethic says, Never regard another as a means, but always as an end. Very well; if I remain with my mother, I shall be regarding her as the end and not as a means: but by the same token I am in danger of treating as means those who are fighting on my behalf; and the converse is also true, that if I go to essay edge law, the aid of the studies, combatants I shall be treating them as the end at on puerto, the risk of treating my mother as a means. If values are uncertain, if they are still too abstract to determine the particular, concrete case under consideration, nothing remains but to trust in our instincts. That is what this young man tried to do; and when I saw him he said, “In the end, it is thesis development, feeling that counts; the direction in which it is really pushing me is the one I ought to choose.

If I feel that I love my mother enough to sacrifice everything else for her – my will to essay edge law, be avenged, all my longings for action and master thesis development studies, adventure then I stay with her. If, on spread of islam essay, the contrary, I feel that my love for her is not enough, I go.” But how does one estimate the strength of a feeling? The value of his feeling for master thesis development his mother was determined precisely by the fact that he was standing by her. On Men And Women Are Different? I may say that I love a certain friend enough to sacrifice such or such a sum of thesis development studies, money for him, but I cannot prove that unless I have done it. I may say, “I love my mother enough to remain with her,” if actually I have remained with her. I can only estimate the strength of macbeth notes, this affection if I have performed an action by which it is defined and ratified. But if I then appeal to this affection to master development studies, justify my action, I find myself drawn into a vicious circle. Moreover, as Gide has very well said, a sentiment which is play-acting and one which is vital are two things that are hardly distinguishable one from another. To decide that I love my mother by staying beside her, and to play a comedy the upshot of which is essays, that I do so – these are nearly the same thing.

In other words, feeling is formed by the deeds that one does; therefore I cannot consult it as a guide to action. And that is to say that I can neither seek within myself for an authentic impulse to action, nor can I expect, from some ethic, formulae that will enable me to act. You may say that the youth did, at least, go to development, a professor to ask for advice. But if you seek counsel – from a priest, for example you have selected that priest; and at bottom you already knew, more or less, what he would advise. In other words, to choose an adviser is on men and women, nevertheless to commit oneself by that choice. If you are a Christian, you will say, consult a priest; but there are collaborationists, priests who are resisters and priests who wait for the tide to turn: which will you choose? Had this young man chosen a priest of the resistance, or one of the collaboration, he would have decided beforehand the kind of advice he was to receive.

Similarly, in coming to me, he knew what advice I should give him, and I had but one reply to make. You are free, therefore choose, that is to say, invent. No rule of general morality can show you what you ought to do: no signs are vouchsafed in this world. The Catholics will reply, “Oh, but they are!” Very well; still, it is I myself, in every case, who have to interpret the signs. Master Thesis Studies? While I was imprisoned, I made the acquaintance of acoa codependency term, a somewhat remarkable man, a Jesuit, who had become a member of master, that order in the following manner. In his life he had suffered a succession of acoa codependency paper, rather severe setbacks.

His father had died when he was a child, leaving him in poverty, and he had been awarded a free scholarship in a religious institution, where he had been made continually to master, feel that he was accepted for charity’s sake, and, in consequence, he had been denied several of those distinctions and honours which gratify children. Later, about the age of essays notes, eighteen, he came to grief in a sentimental affair; and finally, at twenty-two – this was a trifle in thesis development, itself, but it was the last drop that overflowed his cup – he failed in essays notes, his military examination. This young man, then, could regard himself as a total failure: it was a sign – but a sign of what? He might have taken refuge in bitterness or despair. But he took it – very cleverly for him – as a sign that he was not intended for secular success, and master thesis studies, that only the attainments of religion, those of essay edge law, sanctity and of faith, were accessible to him. He interpreted his record as a message from God, and became a member of the Order. Who can doubt but that this decision as to the meaning of the sign was his, and thesis development, his alone? One could have drawn quite different conclusions from such a series of spread of islam essay, reverses – as, for example, that he had better become a carpenter or a revolutionary. For the thesis development, decipherment of the sign, however, he bears the entire responsibility.

That is macbeth essays, what “abandonment” implies, that we ourselves decide our being. And with this abandonment goes anguish. As for “despair,” the meaning of this expression is extremely simple. It merely means that we limit ourselves to a reliance upon that which is within our wills, or within the sum of the probabilities which render our action feasible. Whenever one wills anything, there are always these elements of probability. If I am counting upon master thesis a visit from essays, a friend, who may be coming by train or by master development tram, I presuppose that the train will arrive at the appointed time, or that the macbeth essays, tram will not be derailed. I remain in the realm of possibilities; but one does not rely upon any possibilities beyond those that are strictly concerned in one’s action. Beyond the studies, point at which the possibilities under consideration cease to acoa term, affect my action, I ought to disinterest myself. For there is no God and no prevenient design, which can adapt the world and all its possibilities to my will.

When Descartes said, “Conquer yourself rather than the world,” what he meant was, at bottom, the same – that we should act without hope. Marxists, to whom I have said this, have answered: “Your action is development, limited, obviously, by your death; but you can rely upon the help of others. That is, you can count both upon what the essay edge law, others are doing to help you elsewhere, as in thesis development, China and in Russia, and upon what they will do later, after your death, to essay edge law, take up your action and carry it forward to its final accomplishment which will be the revolution. Thesis Development Studies? Moreover you must rely upon this; not to macbeth essays, do so is immoral.” To this I rejoin, first, that I shall always count upon my comrades-in-arms in the struggle, in so far as they are committed, as I am, to a definite, common cause; and in the unity of a party or a group which I can more or less control – that is, in which I am enrolled as a militant and whose movements at thesis, every moment are known to me. In that respect, to rely upon the unity and the will of the party is exactly like my reckoning that the train will run to time or that the tram will not be derailed. But I cannot count upon men whom I do not know, I cannot base my confidence upon human goodness or upon man’s interest in the good of society, seeing that man is free and that there is no human nature which I can take as foundational. I do not know where the Russian revolution will lead. I can admire it and take it as an example in so far as it is evident, today, that the proletariat plays a part in essay on puerto, Russia which it has attained in no other nation. But I cannot affirm that this will necessarily lead to the triumph of the proletariat: I must confine myself to master studies, what I can see. Nor can I be sure that comrades-in-arms will take up my work after my death and on men and women, carry it to the maximum perfection, seeing that those men are free agents and will freely decide, tomorrow, what man is then to be. Tomorrow, after my death, some men may decide to establish Fascism, and the others may be so cowardly or so slack as to let them do so.

If so, Fascism will then be the truth of man, and development, so much the worse for us. In reality, things will be such as men have decided they shall be. Does that mean that I should abandon myself to quietism? No. First I ought to commit myself and then act my commitment, according to the time-honoured formula that “one need not hope in order to essay, undertake one’s work.” Nor does this mean that I should not belong to a party, but only that I should be without illusion and that I should do what I can. For instance, if I ask myself “Will the social ideal as such, ever become a reality?” I cannot tell, I only know that whatever may be in my power to make it so, I shall do; beyond that, I can count upon nothing.

Quietism is the attitude of people who say, “let others do what I cannot do.” The doctrine I am presenting before you is precisely the opposite of this, since it declares that there is master thesis, no reality except in essays, action. It goes further, indeed, and adds, “Man is master development studies, nothing else but what he purposes, he exists only in so far as he realises himself, he is therefore nothing else but the sum of his actions, nothing else but what his life is.” Hence we can well understand why some people are horrified by essay edge law our teaching. For many have but one resource to master thesis development, sustain them in their misery, and that is to think, “Circumstances have been against me, I was worthy to be something much better than I have been. In Europe? I admit I have never had a great love or a great friendship; but that is because I never met a man or a woman who were worthy of it; if I have not written any very good books, it is because I had not the master thesis, leisure to are different, do so; or, if I have had no children to whom I could devote myself it is because I did not find the man I could have lived with. So there remains within me a wide range of abilities, inclinations and potentialities, unused but perfectly viable, which endow me with a worthiness that could never be inferred from the mere history of my actions.” But in reality and for the existentialist, there is no love apart from the deeds of love; no potentiality of love other than that which is manifested in loving; there is no genius other than that which is expressed in works of art. The genius of studies, Proust is the totality of the works of Proust; the genius of Racine is the series of his tragedies, outside of which there is nothing.

Why should we attribute to Racine the capacity to on puerto penasco, write yet another tragedy when that is precisely what he did not write? In life, a man commits himself, draws his own portrait and there is nothing but that portrait. No doubt this thought may seem comfortless to one who has not made a success of his life. On the development, other hand, it puts everyone in acoa, a position to understand that reality alone is reliable; that dreams, expectations and hopes serve to define a man only studies, as deceptive dreams, abortive hopes, expectations unfulfilled; that is to say, they define him negatively, not positively. Nevertheless, when one says, “You are nothing else but what you live,” it does not imply that an artist is to be judged solely by and contrast essays in his works of master, art, for a thousand other things contribute no less to his definition as a man. What we mean to say is that a man is no other than a series of undertakings, that he is the notes, sum, the organisation, the set of master studies, relations that constitute these undertakings. In the on puerto penasco, light of all this, what people reproach us with is not, after all, our pessimism, but the sternness of our optimism. If people condemn our works of fiction, in which we describe characters that are base, weak, cowardly and sometimes even frankly evil, it is not only because those characters are base, weak, cowardly or evil.

For suppose that, like Zola, we showed that the behaviour of these characters was caused by their heredity, or by the action of thesis studies, their environment upon essay edge law them, or by determining factors, psychic or organic. People would be reassured, they would say, “You see, that is what we are like, no one can do anything about it.” But the existentialist, when he portrays a coward, shows him as responsible for his cowardice. He is master thesis studies, not like that on essay on puerto, account of a cowardly heart or lungs or cerebrum, he has not become like that through his physiological organism; he is like that because he has made himself into a coward by actions. There is no such thing as a cowardly temperament. There are nervous temperaments; there is what is called impoverished blood, and there are also rich temperaments. But the man whose blood is poor is master thesis development studies, not a coward for all that, for what produces cowardice is the act of giving up or giving way; and a temperament is not an action. A coward is essay, defined by the deed that he has done.

What people feel obscurely, and with horror, is that the master studies, coward as we present him is essay edge law, guilty of being a coward. What people would prefer would be to be born either a coward or a hero. One of the charges most often laid against the Chemins de la Liberté is something like this: “But, after all, these people being so base, how can you make them into studies, heroes?” That objection is really rather comic, for it implies that people are born heroes: and that is, at bottom, what such people would like to think. If you are born cowards, you can be quite content, you can do nothing about it and you will be cowards all your lives whatever you do; and if you are born heroes you can again be quite content; you will be heroes all your lives eating and drinking heroically. Whereas the essay edge law, existentialist says that the coward makes himself cowardly, the hero makes himself heroic; and that there is always a possibility for the coward to master thesis development, give up cowardice and for the hero to stop being a hero. What counts is the total commitment, and it is not by a particular case or particular action that you are committed altogether.

We have now, I think, dealt with a certain number of the essays, reproaches against existentialism. Thesis? You have seen that it cannot be regarded as a philosophy of quietism since it defines man by his action; nor as a pessimistic description of man, for no doctrine is more optimistic, the destiny of man is placed within himself. Nor is it an attempt to discourage man from action since it tells him that there is and contrast, no hope except in his action, and that the one thing which permits him to have life is the deed. Upon this level therefore, what we are considering is an ethic of action and self-commitment. Development? However, we are still reproached, upon these few data, for confining man within his individual subjectivity.

There again people badly misunderstand us. Our point of departure is, indeed, the and contrast in, subjectivity of the individual, and thesis development, that for strictly philosophic reasons. Of Islam? It is not because we are bourgeois, but because we seek to base our teaching upon development studies the truth, and not upon a collection of essays notes, fine theories, full of hope but lacking real foundations. And at the point of departure there cannot be any other truth than this, I think, therefore I am , which is the absolute truth of consciousness as it attains to itself. Every theory which begins with man, outside of master thesis development, this moment of self-attainment, is a theory which thereby suppresses the truth, for outside of the Cartesian cogito , all objects are no more than probable, and any doctrine of probabilities which is essay edge law, not attached to a truth will crumble into nothing. In order to define the probable one must possess the true. Before there can be any truth whatever, then, there must be an absolute truth, and there is such a truth which is simple, easily attained and within the reach of everybody; it consists in one’s immediate sense of one’s self.

In the second place, this theory alone is thesis, compatible with the dignity of man, it is the only one which does not make man into an object. All kinds of materialism lead one to macbeth essays notes, treat every man including oneself as an thesis, object – that is, as a set of pre-determined reactions, in no way different from the and contrast essays in, patterns of qualities and phenomena which constitute a table, or a chair or a stone. Our aim is precisely to establish the human kingdom as a pattern of values in distinction from the master studies, material world. But the subjectivity which we thus postulate as the standard of truth is no narrowly individual subjectivism, for essay edge law as we have demonstrated, it is not only one’s own self that one discovers in the cogito , but those of others too. Contrary to thesis development studies, the philosophy of essays, Descartes, contrary to that of Kant, when we say “I think” we are attaining to ourselves in the presence of the master, other, and we are just as certain of the other as we are of paper term, ourselves. Thus the thesis development, man who discovers himself directly in the cogito also discovers all the others, and discovers them as the condition of his own existence. He recognises that he cannot be anything (in the sense in which one says one is spiritual, or that one is wicked or jealous) unless others recognise him as such.

I cannot obtain any truth whatsoever about myself, except through the mediation of and contrast in, another. The other is indispensable to my existence, and equally so to any knowledge I can have of myself. Under these conditions, the intimate discovery of myself is at the same time the revelation of the other as a freedom which confronts mine, and which cannot think or will without doing so either for or against me. Thus, at once, we find ourselves in a world which is, let us say, that of “inter-subjectivity”. It is in this world that man has to studies, decide what he is and what others are. Furthermore, although it is impossible to find in each and every man a universal essence that can be called human nature, there is nevertheless a human universality of condition . It is not by chance that the thinkers of today are so much more ready to speak of the condition than of the essay edge law, nature of man. By his condition they understand, with more or less clarity, all the limitations which a priori define man’s fundamental situation in the universe.

His historical situations are variable: man may be born a slave in a pagan society or may be a feudal baron, or a proletarian. But what never vary are the necessities of being in the world, of having to labor and to die there. Development? These limitations are neither subjective nor objective, or rather there is essay on men, both a subjective and thesis studies, an objective aspect of them. Objective, because we meet with them everywhere and they are everywhere recognisable: and subjective because they are lived and are nothing if man does not live them – if, that is to say, he does not freely determine himself and essay on puerto penasco, his existence in relation to them. And, diverse though man’s purpose may be, at least none of them is wholly foreign to me, since every human purpose presents itself as an attempt either to surpass these limitations, or to widen them, or else to deny or to accommodate oneself to them. Consequently every purpose, however individual it may be, is of universal value. Every purpose, even that of a Chinese, an Indian or a Negro, can be understood by a European.

To say it can be understood, means that the European of 1945 may be striving out of development studies, a certain situation towards the essay edge law, same limitations in the same way, and that he may reconceive in himself the master studies, purpose of the Chinese, of the Indian or the acoa codependency term, African. In every purpose there is universality, in this sense that every purpose is comprehensible to every man. Not that this or that purpose defines man for ever, but that it may be entertained again and again. There is always some way of understanding an idiot, a child, a primitive man or a foreigner if one has sufficient information. Studies? In this sense we may say that there is a human universality, but it is not something given; it is being perpetually made.

I make this universality in choosing myself; I also make it by acoa codependency paper understanding the purpose of any other man, of whatever epoch. This absoluteness of the act of choice does not alter the relativity of each epoch. What is at the very heart and center of existentialism, is the absolute character of the free commitment, by which every man realises himself in realising a type of thesis development, humanity – a commitment always understandable, to no matter whom in no matter what epoch – and its bearing upon the relativity of the cultural pattern which may result from such absolute commitment. In? One must observe equally the development studies, relativity of Cartesianism and the absolute character of the Cartesian commitment. In this sense you may say, if you like, that every one of us makes the absolute by breathing, by eating, by sleeping or by behaving in any fashion whatsoever. There is on puerto, no difference between free being – being as self-committal, as existence choosing its essence – and absolute being.

And there is no difference whatever between being as an master development, absolute, temporarily localised that is, localised in history – and universally intelligible being. This does not completely refute the charge of subjectivism. Indeed that objection appears in several other forms, of which the first is as follows. People say to us, “Then it does not matter what you do,” and they say this in various ways. First they tax us with anarchy; then they say, “You cannot judge others, for there is no reason for preferring one purpose to another”; finally, they may say, “Everything being merely voluntary in essay edge law, this choice of yours, you give away with one hand what you pretend to thesis, gain with the codependency paper term, other.” These three are not very serious objections. As to the first, to say that it does not matter what you choose is master, not correct. In one sense choice is possible, but what is not possible is not to essays notes, choose. I can always choose, but I must know that if I do not choose, that is thesis development studies, still a choice. This, although it may appear merely formal, is are different, of great importance as a limit to fantasy and caprice. For, when I confront a real situation – for example, that I am a sexual being, able to have relations with a being of the other sex and master studies, able to have children – I am obliged to choose my attitude to essay, it, and in every respect I bear the responsibility of the thesis, choice which, in essay edge law, committing myself, also commits the whole of humanity.

Even if my choice is determined by no a priori value whatever, it can have nothing to do with caprice: and if anyone thinks that this is only Gide’s theory of the acte gratuit over again, he has failed to see the enormous difference between this theory and that of thesis, Gide. Gide does not know what a situation is, his “act” is one of pure caprice. In our view, on the contrary, man finds himself in an organised situation in which he is himself involved: his choice involves mankind in its entirety, and macbeth essays, he cannot avoid choosing. Either he must remain single, or he must marry without having children, or he must marry and have children. In any case, and master thesis development, whichever he may choose, it is impossible for him, in essay on men are different, respect of master development studies, this situation, not to take complete responsibility. Doubtless he chooses without reference to any pre-established value, but it is unjust to tax him with caprice. Rather let us say that the moral choice is comparable to acoa paper term, the construction of master thesis development studies, a work of art. But here I must at once digress to make it quite clear that we are not propounding an aesthetic morality, for our adversaries are disingenuous enough to reproach us even with that.

I mention the work of essay, art only by way of comparison. That being understood, does anyone reproach an artist, when he paints a picture, for not following rules established a priori . Does one ever ask what is the picture that he ought to paint? As everyone knows, there is thesis studies, no pre-defined picture for him to make; the artist applies himself to the composition of a picture, and the picture that ought to be made is precisely that which he will have made. Codependency Paper Term? As everyone knows, there are no aesthetic values a priori , but there are values which will appear in thesis development, due course in the coherence of the picture, in the relation between the will to essay edge law, create and the finished work. No one can tell what the painting of tomorrow will be like; one cannot judge a painting until it is development, done. What has that to do with morality? We are in macbeth essays notes, the same creative situation.

We never speak of master thesis, a work of art as irresponsible; when we are discussing a canvas by Picasso, we understand very well that the composition became what it is at the time when he was painting it, and that his works are part and parcel of his entire life. It is the same upon the plane of morality. There is on puerto, this in common between art and morality, that in both we have to thesis development, do with creation and acoa codependency term, invention. Development Studies? We cannot decide a priori what it is that should be done. I think it was made sufficiently clear to you in the case of that student who came to see me, that to whatever ethical system he might appeal, the Kantian or any other, he could find no sort of on men and women, guidance whatever; he was obliged to invent the law for himself. Certainly we cannot say that this man, in choosing to remain with his mother – that is, in taking sentiment, personal devotion and concrete charity as his moral foundations – would be making an irresponsible choice, nor could we do so if he preferred the studies, sacrifice of going away to England. Man makes himself; he is not found ready-made; he makes himself by the choice of his morality, and he cannot but choose a morality, such is the pressure of circumstances upon him. We define man only in relation to of islam essay, his commitments; it is therefore absurd to master development, reproach us for irresponsibility in our choice. In the second place, people say to us, “You are unable to judge others.” This is true in one sense and false in another. It is true in this sense, that whenever a man chooses his purpose and essays notes, his commitment in all clearness and in all sincerity, whatever that purpose may be, it is impossible for him to master development studies, prefer another.

It is and women are different, true in the sense that we do not believe in progress. Progress implies amelioration; but man is always the same, facing a situation which is master thesis development, always changing, and choice remains always a choice in the situation. The moral problem has not changed since the time when it was a choice between slavery and anti-slavery – from the time of the war of Secession, for essays example, until the present moment when one chooses between the M.R.P. Thesis Studies? [ Mouvement Republicain Poputaire ] and the Communists. We can judge, nevertheless, for, as I have said, one chooses in view of others, and in view of others one chooses himself. One can judge, first – and essay on men are different, perhaps this is not a judgment of master, value, but it is a logical judgment – that in certain cases choice is founded upon an error, and in others upon the truth. One can judge a man by saying that he deceives himself. Since we have defined the situation of essays, man as one of free choice, without excuse and without help, any man who takes refuge behind the excuse of his passions, or by inventing some deterministic doctrine, is master studies, a self-deceiver. One may object: “But why should he not choose to deceive himself?” I reply that it is not for and women are different me to judge him morally, but I define his self-deception as an error. Here one cannot avoid pronouncing a judgment of truth.

The self-deception is evidently a falsehood, because it is a dissimulation of man’s complete liberty of commitment. Upon this same level, I say that it is also a self-deception if I choose to declare that certain values are incumbent upon me; I am in contradiction with myself if I will these values and at the same time say that they impose themselves upon master development me. If anyone says to me, “And what if I wish to of islam essay, deceive myself?” I answer, “There is no reason why you should not, but I declare that you are doing so, and master thesis development studies, that the attitude of strict consistency alone is that of good faith.” Furthermore, I can pronounce a moral judgment. Essay Edge Law? For I declare that freedom, in respect of concrete circumstances, can have no other end and aim but itself; and when once a man has seen that values depend upon himself, in that state of forsakenness he can will only one thing, and that is freedom as the master studies, foundation of all values. That does not mean that he wills it in the abstract: it simply means that the actions of men of good faith have, as their ultimate significance, the quest of freedom itself as such. A man who belongs to some communist or revolutionary society wills certain concrete ends, which imply the will to freedom, but that freedom is macbeth essays notes, willed in community. We will freedom for freedom’s sake, in and through particular circumstances. And in thus willing freedom, we discover that it depends entirely upon the freedom of others and that the freedom of studies, others depends upon essay edge law our own. Obviously, freedom as the definition of a man does not depend upon master studies others, but as soon as there is a commitment, I am obliged to will the liberty of others at the same time as my own.

I cannot make liberty my aim unless I make that of others equally my aim. Consequently, when I recognise, as entirely authentic, that man is a being whose existence precedes his essence, and that he is a free being who cannot, in any circumstances, but will his freedom, at codependency paper term, the same time I realize that I cannot not will the freedom of others. Thus, in the name of that will to freedom which is implied in freedom itself, I can form judgments upon those who seek to hide from themselves the wholly voluntary nature of their existence and its complete freedom. Master Thesis Development Studies? Those who hide from this total freedom, in and contrast in, a guise of development, solemnity or with deterministic excuses, I shall call cowards. Others, who try to show that their existence is necessary, when it is merely an accident of the appearance of the human race on earth – I shall call scum. But neither cowards nor scum can be identified except upon the plane of strict authenticity.

Thus, although the content of morality is variable, a certain form of codependency, this morality is universal. Kant declared that freedom is a will both to itself and to the freedom of others. Agreed: but he thinks that the formal and master development studies, the universal suffice for the constitution of a morality. We think, on essay edge law, the contrary, that principles that are too abstract break down when we come to defining action. To take once again the case of that student; by what authority, in the name of what golden rule of morality, do you think he could have decided, in perfect peace of mind, either to abandon his mother or to remain with her? There are no means of judging. The content is master thesis development, always concrete, and therefore unpredictable; it has always to be invented. The one thing that counts, is to on men and women, know whether the invention is made in the name of master, freedom. Let us, for essay example, examine the two following cases, and master thesis studies, you will see how far they are similar in spite of and contrast, their difference.

Let us take The Mill on the Floss . Studies? We find here a certain young woman, Maggie Tulliver, who is an incarnation of the value of acoa, passion and is aware of master thesis development, it. She is in love with a young man, Stephen, who is engaged to another, an insignificant young woman. This Maggie Tulliver, instead of essays notes, heedlessly seeking her own happiness, chooses in the name of human solidarity to sacrifice herself and to give up the man she loves. On the thesis development studies, other hand, La Sanseverina in Stendhal’s Chartreuse de Parme , believing that it is passion which endows man with his real value, would have declared that a grand passion justifies its sacrifices, and macbeth essays notes, must be preferred to the banality of such conjugal love as would unite Stephen to the little goose he was engaged to marry. It is the latter that she would have chosen to sacrifice in realising her own happiness, and, as Stendhal shows, she would also sacrifice herself upon the plane of passion if life made that demand upon thesis development her. Here we are facing two clearly opposed moralities; but I claim that they are equivalent, seeing that in both cases the overruling aim is freedom. Essay On Men Are Different? You can imagine two attitudes exactly similar in studies, effect, in that one girl might prefer, in essays, resignation, to give up her lover while the other preferred, in fulfilment of sexual desire, to development, ignore the macbeth essays notes, prior engagement of the man she loved; and, externally, these two cases might appear the master studies, same as the two we have just cited, while being in fact entirely different.

The attitude of La Sanseverina is much nearer to that of Maggie Tulliver than to one of careless greed. Thus, you see, the second objection is at once true and false. One can choose anything, but only if it is upon the plane of macbeth essays, free commitment. The third objection, stated by development studies saying, “You take with one hand what you give with the other,” means, at on puerto, bottom, “your values are not serious, since you choose them yourselves.” To that I can only say that I am very sorry that it should be so; but if I have excluded God the thesis, Father, there must be somebody to invent values. We have to take things as they are. And moreover, to essays, say that we invent values means neither more nor less than this; that there is no sense in life a priori . Life is nothing until it is lived; but it is yours to make sense of, and thesis studies, the value of it is nothing else but the sense that you choose.

Therefore, you can see that there is a possibility of creating a human community. I have been reproached for suggesting that existentialism is a form of humanism: people have said to me, “But you have written in your Nausée that the humanists are wrong, you have even ridiculed a certain type of humanism, why do you now go back upon that?” In reality, the word humanism has two very different meanings. One may understand by humanism a theory which upholds man as the end-in-itself and essay on puerto penasco, as the supreme value. Humanism in this sense appears, for instance, in Cocteau’s story Round the World in 80 Hours , in which one of the characters declares, because he is flying over mountains in an airplane, “Man is master thesis development, magnificent!” This signifies that although I personally have not built aeroplanes, I have the benefit of those particular inventions and that I personally, being a man, can consider myself responsible for, and honoured by, achievements that are peculiar to some men. It is to assume that we can ascribe value to man according to the most distinguished deeds of certain men. That kind of humanism is absurd, for only the dog or the horse would be in essay on puerto, a position to pronounce a general judgment upon man and declare that he is thesis development, magnificent, which they have never been such fools as to do – at least, not as far as I know. But neither is it admissible that a man should pronounce judgment upon Man. Existentialism dispenses with any judgment of this sort: an existentialist will never take man as the end, since man is still to be determined. And we have no right to believe that humanity is something to which we could set up a cult, after the manner of Auguste Comte. The cult of humanity ends in Comtian humanism, shut-in upon itself, and – this must be said – in Fascism.

We do not want a humanism like that. But there is acoa paper, another sense of the word, of which the fundamental meaning is this: Man is development, all the time outside of essay edge law, himself: it is in projecting and master thesis development, losing himself beyond himself that he makes man to exist; and, on the other hand, it is by essay on men and women pursuing transcendent aims that he himself is able to exist. Since man is thus self-surpassing, and can grasp objects only in relation to his self-surpassing, he is himself the heart and center of development studies, his transcendence. There is no other universe except the human universe, the universe of human subjectivity. This relation of codependency, transcendence as constitutive of man (not in the sense that God is transcendent, but in development studies, the sense of self-surpassing) with subjectivity (in such a sense that man is not shut up in essay, himself but forever present in master thesis studies, a human universe) – it is this that we call existential humanism. This is humanism, because we remind man that there is no legislator but himself; that he himself, thus abandoned, must decide for essay are different himself; also because we show that it is not by turning back upon himself, but always by thesis studies seeking, beyond himself, an aim which is one of liberation or of some particular realisation, that man can realize himself as truly human. You can see from spread of islam essay, these few reflections that nothing could be more unjust than the objections people raise against us. Existentialism is nothing else but an attempt to master studies, draw the essay edge law, full conclusions from a consistently atheistic position.

Its intention is not in the least that of plunging men into master, despair. And if by despair one means as the Christians do – any attitude of essay edge law, unbelief, the despair of the existentialists is something different. Existentialism is not atheist in the sense that it would exhaust itself in development, demonstrations of the non-existence of God. It declares, rather, that even if God existed that would make no difference from its point of essay edge law, view. Master Thesis? Not that we believe God does exist, but we think that the real problem is essay on men, not that of His existence; what man needs is to find himself again and to understand that nothing can save him from master development studies, himself, not even a valid proof of the existence of God.

In this sense existentialism is optimistic. It is a doctrine of action, and it is only by self-deception, by codependency paper term confining their own despair with ours that Christians can describe us as without hope.

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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and master thesis studies, discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in essay on puerto penasco the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and thesis studies, with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word.

On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. And Contrast Essays. The running head is master thesis studies, a short title that appears at the top of pages of in, published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and studies, spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the macbeth essays header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number.

Use the master thesis development toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of in europe essay, method, results, and discussion.

(Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the studies most difficult to essay edge law, write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and master thesis, critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out essay edge law broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the development studies end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to essay penasco, sleep by thesis development, beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph!

Try to draw your reader in macbeth notes by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Master Thesis Development. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Spread In Europe Essay. Although you won’t go into the details of development, your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by essay edge law, stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next.

Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and master thesis development studies, think about how you want to transition between ideas.

When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of of islam in europe essay, everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Thesis Development. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to of islam in europe, my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in master development your reference section.

Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the in europe other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of master thesis development, psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an essay APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Master. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in of islam such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections.

If the master design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in penasco which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and master, SD for of islam in europe, age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence.

How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in master development studies a psychological statistics and on men, research methods course at studies, a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Macbeth Essays. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the master studies paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.

If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. Essay Edge Law. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to development, 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. In. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an thesis development Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to essay and women are different, remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .”

(labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the studies eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Essays. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere?

If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. Development Studies. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for essay, descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Thesis Development Studies. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to acoa paper, report results in APA style. A t-test, for thesis development, example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test).

For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and essay edge law, 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. Master. For correlations, be sure to codependency term, report the master thesis r 2 value as an assessment of the spread essay strength of the master development studies finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. Spread In Europe. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the development studies same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.

It may be useful to essay edge law, include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. Thesis Development. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in spread in europe essay the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold)

The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and master thesis development studies, place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think?

Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to essay edge law, explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of thesis studies, other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions.

Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of essays in, research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted.

What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to thesis, run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of on puerto, your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. Master Thesis Development. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold)

Provide an essay edge law alphabetical listing of the thesis studies references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and essay, is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the thesis development studies APA manual for how to format references correctly. Acoa Codependency Paper Term. Examples of references to journal articles start on development p. 198 of the manual, and essays in, examples of references to books and master thesis studies, book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for essay edge law, electronic sources (see pp.

187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the master thesis first letter of the notes first word of the master thesis studies article title is acoa codependency, capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the development studies journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and spread of islam, mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the master thesis studies first letter of the essays first word of master thesis, both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. In Europe Essay. G. (1985). Intergroup relations.

In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth.

There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. Studies. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and are different, table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Development. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV.

Underneath the figure provide a label and macbeth essays, brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and master thesis development, the DV. Notes. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and master thesis development studies, publication date. On Men Are Different. You should use the master following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by essay on men and women, the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons.

If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is master thesis studies, cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the spread essay term used to describe material that is master thesis, cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to essay edge law, the ideas of thesis development studies, Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in macbeth essays your. papers; in master other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. Acoa Paper. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for thesis studies, the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in essay on puerto the reference list at the end of your paper.

Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .