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MIS Laboratory – Resources for Tech Faculty and Students MIS Laboratory – Resources for Tech Faculty and Students. Software, curriculum, career, contest, and news resources. Hosted by Randy Guthrie, PhD – Microsoft Technical Evangelist. How to Get a Job At Microsoft Part II: Writing an Awesome Resume. by Randy Guthrie Microsoft Academic Developer Evangelist. Over the proof, past few months I visited nine college campuses, attended three conferences and tabata research paper conducted a hand-full of dissertation, job interviews, and in the process I’ve seen scores of resumes. One thing I’ve been impressed with is how awful most of essay, them are. Dissertation! I realize that I am probably jaded by karl popper falsification essays my experience as a career coach and service at a community career center, but still I find it amazing that something that is so critical for getting a job is so poorly understood; particularly by those who need jobs the most ie: students seeking internships and new college graduates. The good news is that if you do even a moderately good job of writing your resume you have a pretty good chance of standing out from proof dissertation, your competitors.
I’ve put off writing this post because it is a daunting task trying to write general guidance that will be useful to most readers, and contrast essay academic I’ve struggled how to proof dissertation, do this briefly, but I’ve given up and apologize in research paper, advance for dissertation the length of censorship essays, this post and hope most will find something useful in the next few thousand or so words. Dissertation! Let me state that I recognize that there are many ways to write a great resume, and this is just one of those ways, but since this way has always worked so far for the folks I’ve helped, that’s what I’m sticking with. I also recognize that a resume is on my resume very personal, and you need to be comfortable with how it looks, so deviation from this guidance is fine (and necessary) since everyone is dissertation different and some situations will need to be handled differently than shown below. Protocol Research Paper! If you have questions about a specific type of situation ASK IN A COMMENT TO THIS POST and I promise I will answer in an additional comment or even a follow-up post. Your questions will make this post even more valuable to everyone that reads it. First, some useful links: Resume Workshop Video : This is an animated PowerPoint presentation with my audio commentary that covers the content of this post and proof more Interviewing Workshop Video: This is an animated PowerPoint presentation with audio commentary on how to essay campus, prepare for a behavioral interview MIS Laboratory Student Page: lots of useful career links.
Now let’s dig in. GENERAL FORMATTING PAGE LENGTH. One Page Please! Most managers will only look at your resume for dissertation 15-20 seconds before deciding whether to keep reading or put your resume in what I call “The Big Pile”. If you haven’t hooked the reader by then, you’ve lost the essay in college, first round to someone who can tell their story succinctly. Dissertation! Two or three-page resumes do not increase your chances that the tabata protocol research paper, reader will find something interesting, it actually makes it less likely they will find (by scanning) something that they care about.
So try to keep it to a page. I’ve never seen someone other than a college professor who needed more than one page to proof dissertation, land an interview. White Paper Standard Fonts Unless you are a graphic artist, using colored paper, odd shapes fancy type fonts are not going to on my resume, make the kind of impression that gets an proof dissertation interview. Superficial attempts to using studies in nursing, differentiate yourself can backfire, because the reader may assume you are childish, unprofessional, or don’t have any meaningful content. Use the same type face throughout, but you can use different sizes and italics to make it easier to scan. Proof! Don’t go smaller than 11 pt font or larger than13 pt font for the main text. The examples that follow will show when larger and smaller fonts are appropriate.
There are two approaches that I like to use. The first is using case studies useful if you don’t have a lot of proof, relevant experience and you are trying to fill space. While one of the contrast academic, examples show the hyperlink in blue, do not use colored ink when printing a paper copy of proof dissertation, your resume. Of course if you provide an electronic copy of your resume, live hyperlinks can be useful and save the reader time if not used excessively. Your name and contact information should be grouped together. I personally don’t like having a person’s name on the left and essays the contact information on dissertation, the right. In the example my name is 28pt and on my resume contact info is 11pt. You can go as low as nine point, but if space is an dissertation option use the on my resume, two line format on proof, the right.
Two additional pieces of advice: (1) use only one phone number, and make sure it is one where you can get a message (change the recorded greeting if necessary so as to project a professional image) and (2) avoid cryptic or childish e-mail addresses, and contrast academic use only one of proof, those as well. Some career advisors will tell you not to on my resume, put a career or employment objective statement. My advice is to use one. My reason is simple: I debriefed a recruiter from a major aerospace company after a job fair and dissertation he told me that he put any resume he received without a [clear] objective statement in research, the trash, because his HR department would not know where to route it. So my advice is to use one and dissertation make it count.
Here’s how: Your objective statement should say in using, under ten words the proof dissertation, kind of job you are looking for. For example: “Seeking a senior-level account executive position in the Pharmaceutical industry”. Do not use airy, empty, and vague statements that don’t say anything such as “seeking a challenging position with a leading company where my skills and strengths can be utilized”. You would be amazed at how many people think that is what you are supposed to paper, write. I saw a resume written just this week that had an objective statement that said “To play a significant role in an organization that aspires to proof, be extraordinary”. These kinds of statements don’t help and can actually delay the on my resume, reader from learning anything of value about you. But What If I’m Qualified for More Than One Kind of Job? If you are going to a career fair, then you should probably take several (three or four or even five) versions of your resume.
Most job fairs will list the companies and the jobs they are recruiting for in advance so if you are prepared, then you can know how many versions you should take. For example, you can have different resumes that focus on proof dissertation, web development, database, or application development, information security, or telecommunications. If you are applying to essays, a specific company, then you tailor the proof, objective statement (actually the entire resume) for that specific job. If you are applying for using studies research an internship or job right out of dissertation, college, your education is your biggest selling point, so it needs to go before any previous work experience. Since most recruiters will know what school they are recruiting from, and name of the compare contrast essay academic, school is less important and the college major / minor and date of completion. Once you’ve graduated and are on the street, then where you went to school is more important than the major. Here is dissertation how I would handle both situations: In these examples, I put the degree major first, because that is the first thing a recruiter will care about. I also put my my recent (and most impressive!) degree first.
Notice I don’t put GPA. There are two reasons: 1) it clutters up the page with less-important information, and contrast essay writing 2) unless you graduated with a 4.0, most people won’t think there is much difference between a 3.5 and proof dissertation a 3.8. On Ragging! If your GPA is less than a 3.6, it probably doesn’t differentiate you from others, so leave it off unless an employer requires it. If your GPA is under 3.0, then I don’t have to explain why you would leave it off. If you graduated with honors, and it says so on proof dissertation, your transcript, then by all means mention it as in the first example. If you college doesn’t award honors, do not make it up, even if your 3.9 GPA would have gotten you honors at a college that awards them. If you need to put a GPA in, then I would put it just to the right of the university name. What should I put if I have not graduated yet? This is one of essays, my favorite resume techniques. The minute you start attending school you can put that you are working on proof dissertation, a degree, and post your anticipated graduation date. The cool part is that you format it just like these examples, but word the graduation date a little differently like the “PhD degree” in the example, and put the graduation date in the future!
No one is going to be fooled by this, so don’t worry about looking like you are trying to get away with something, but what it does do is make your resume subtly look complete. Plus it does answer the music censorship essays, question about what you might be good at. What about proof other school accomplishments? Where should they go? Great question! If you were the valedictorian, ASB president, or president of a club, then I would list up to three (but probably not more) bullet points underneath the senior project or thesis (if you mentioned one) or university name (if you didn’t). These should be quantified accomplishments in on ragging campus, the form I describe in the next section. If you have more than two or three years of work experience in the field you are applying for, then your experience is more important to a potential employer than your education, so once you' are no longer a new college grad, your education goes at the bottom of your resume and this section goes right under the objective.
Why? Because it will be of most interest to the reader and you want it read during those first precious 20 seconds. Now there are lots of different ideas floating around about proof how you should format this section; the most common is to put the date on compare essay, the left. The fact is that the date is the least important piece of information relating you your employment history. Far more important is what you did, and then for whom you did it. When you did it is last. The order that I recommend you present the facts about proof each job is: Job Title Company Name Employment duration One sentence job description Two - Four Quantified Accomplishments.
Most of the campus, resumes I have seen (and written early in my career) were based on an old formula of dissertation, describing the job in terms of the in college, formal job description. The problem with this approach that it doesn’t differentiate the proof dissertation, writer from everyone else applying for the job. Can you imagine how hard it would be to research, pick someone to dissertation, interview for a bookkeeping job if every experienced bookkeeper that applied only karl falsification listed their job duties? Every resume would say almost the exact same thing ! To avoid this problem, and to dissertation, really make you shine, we write the work experience section so that we focus on quantified accomplishments . This example shows my recommended format, and includes three quantified accomplishment statements. An accomplishment is “quantified” when you describe it in terms of some quantity.
I like to try to get two numbers in each accomplishment if possible. Numbers make your claims more credible, and if you have some kind of big numbers, it can really make a good impression. Don’t over research sell; let the numbers speak for you. Proof Dissertation! If you can describe an accomplishment in a single line, that is fantastic. In fact, leaving some information out simply begs the reader to want to know more.
If you get invited for an interview, you can bet you’ll be asked about essay on ragging campus these accomplishments, and how can you go wrong talking about something you did that was great? Don’t forget to proof dissertation, mention awards and recognitions like Employee of the month three times” or “Top Producer in music censorship, 2008”. Notice also that I have my job title in proof dissertation, bold and in a larger font. Tabata Research Paper! I do that so that it is easier for the reader to visually scan. Notice also that the company name is in italics. That helps set the different facts apart. I have each fact separated by more than a couple of spaces so that each stands out. Now a bit more about job titles. Proof! Sometime you might have an “official” job title that is on ragging campus so vague, or even wrong based on proof, what you do. For example, I had three lateral job changes at an aerospace company that did not change my payroll classification, so my managers never bothered to tabata, updated my “requisition” to reflect the changes in my job title. Proof Dissertation! So if you were to on my resume, call the HR department and ask what my job title was, they would use the proof dissertation, title I was hired at, not the one from the last job I held!
So on my resume, you can bet I use the title from the last job I was assigned to, not my “official” job title. The moral of the using case studies, story is proof dissertation that if your “real” job title is too vague, or even deceptive, do not be afraid to put a more accurate, clear job title on the resume . Example: if you had an internship in compare contrast academic, a finance department, and your “official” title was “Intern”, do not be afraid to use “Intern-Finance Department”. I try to avoid this section if possible. It’s much better to dissertation, talk about the tools and skills you know in your accomplishments statements. But if you learned how to do something in music censorship, class, but haven’t used it on the job, and the job you are applying for wants candidates who have this skill, you need to use this section.
But be careful. Proof! Here are some recommendations: Do not list skills and knowledge that almost everyone has. Compare Contrast Academic Writing! The most common offender here is that you know Microsoft Office. As a recent college graduate, we assume you learned the basic programs. Stating it here does not differentiate you. Avoid huge long lists using every acronym you can think of ie: ASP.net, C#, C++, PHP, etc. Proof Dissertation! Remember you are targeting each resume for a particular job, so only list the things a potential employer cares about. Huge list casts doubt on which of those you really know. When I see a big list I seriously doubt that the author really has working knowledge of all those technologies and his/her credibility really starts to slip.
Be accurate in describing your knowledge. At Microsoft, if someone says he/she knows something, 9 times out of 10 we’ll make them prove it in an interview. Essay On Ragging Campus! If you say you know C++, you can bet you’ll be ask to proof dissertation, write a bubble sort or something like that in C++ on essay on ragging in college, a white board during an interview. If its been 5 years since that Java class and you’ve not written a single line of code since then, don’t say you know Java. Remember, your resume is dissertation just supposed to get you invited for an interview, not get you a job offer. Essay In College Campus! That is what the interview is proof dissertation for. Keep your resume simple and focused on a single job. Keep it to a single page. Catch-all, general-purpose resumes DO NOT WORK. You can send out hundreds of these and on ragging you will never get a single response (I know â€“ I tried it when I was young and inexperienced). On the proof dissertation, other hand, you can send out on my resume, ten, customized, targeted resumes using the dissertation, approach outlined here and may get three, five, or even eight responses.
This technique works if you have actually have sometime to offer an employer. Essays! Your resume is a personal statement of who you are from a particular point of proof, view. You’ll get all kinds of advice about how to do your resume, but you don’t have to music censorship, do exactly as everyone tells you. If you feel like you know better, then go with your gut feeling. Lastly, check out the additional (and more detailed) examples and guidance at the links at dissertation, the top.
There really is on ragging campus some good information there that I’ve gleaned from years of coaching students and others to dissertation, get high-tech jobs in a competitive job market. And finally, PROOF READ everything many, many times, and have others look at your resume as well. (career center people are invaluable for this). Good luck and popper good job hunting! [Note: an dissertation earlier version of this post mysterious lost most of its content, hence this repost] I don’t think the one page resume works in the IT industry if you are experience. I tried that once after reading an tabata protocol article like this and dissertation was summarily eviscerated by a recruiter for ruining my resume. The few times I’ve been on the market, my three page resume (4 with references) easily landed me interviews. Of course, I put the tabata protocol paper, vital information on the front page in dissertation, a summary section. Working with a recruiter is essay a different situation.
The recruiter wanted every fact he could get his hands on. He was then going to be the hiring company’s filter. Proof Dissertation! He would look at a job, and then market those parts of your resume that was a good fit. On My Resume! Had you attempted to dissertation, get an interview with those companies yourself with your long resume, there is a chance they would have quit reading it before they got to the parts they cared about. It is certain that the parts they cared about could have fit on a single page, and that is the using studies in nursing, goal. The trick of course is proof trying to studies research, guess from the job listing what a company will consider to be your relevant experience. My son-in-law recently completed a job search, and proof I helped with his resume. His recruiter commented that my son-in-law’s [one page] resume was the first he had ever seen that he didn’t feel like it needed fixing.
So while I think there are situation where the use of a longer resume is justified (like college professor jobs), I still believe that an individual applying for jobs is well served by a customized, targeted single-page resume. I am a graduate in the Manufacture Engineering field from two colleges and the same degree. One is a 2yr and the other is a 4yr. The problem I am having is on my resume that there is proof never an opening for Entry Level Positions. All the jobs that are available and have gotten in the past are ones that are looking for a candidate with 5-10 years of experience.
Since I really only have 2 years, my resume is about 3-4 pages long in hopes that I can sell myself for the 8 years I do not have. Plus about 95% of the time I get calls for possible jobs through recruiters. (Since this is how Industrial jobs are filled) Other jobs that I have on my resume are car mechanic places that show I am mechanical incline and essays can be more than an office employee. Every person that has read my resume does not believe that I should eliminate any mechanical experiences that I have. What should I do in this case, and should both colleges remain on proof, the resume?? Do you have any full resume examples? I was also wondering if you had any resume templates available for entry-level jobs. Case Studies In Nursing! I am trying to get either an internship of entry-level part-time job in the marketing field. One of the proof dissertation, things you haven’t addressed with experienced workers is how to handle contract work (which Microsoft apparently believes in for project work.) I know you don’t handle experienced workers so I am probably barking up the wrong tree. In any event, the way I see it, as a contractor I work for myself and karl subcontract my services.
Initially I would list every project I worked on dissertation, (that sometimes last a week), but realized that this isn’t the way you do it if you work as a full-time consultant. So, now I just list the highlights of these projects under my consulting job. Of course recruiters get mad since they want to see every one listed out. I now looked at music, your video and its all clear. I still plan to keep to 1 page. Hi Randy. this blog is pretty impressive, liked it! I have a question to you. I'm willing to apply for a microsoft full time position in their software development and i'm confused whether to submit a one page resume or a multi page one after reading your blog. Can you give me your suggestions? If applying for proof dissertation a Microsoft marketing internship would it be better to use their CV or would it be more appealing to upload a multimedia resume such as a power point presentation or create a website marketing myself?
To be honest, our recruiters only have so much time to give to any one resume (like 20 seconds), and campus one of the tests of fitness is if a candidate can highlight their strengths concisely on a single page. I have seen some great resumes that struggled to dissertation, fill half a page because every word was gold. In my opinion, a PowerPoint presentation or web page misses the point. One of my favorite examples is that you don't catch a fish by throwing your entire tackle box in the river, you catch a fish by knowing what one fly or lure to use out of all the stuff in music, your tackle box. Highlight the proof, stuff you have done demonstrates your passion for software development by what you did outside of tabata protocol research paper, class or work assignments. Highlight your leadership (active or passive).
Highlight the differentiators that relate to the job you area applying for. Put the things that Microsoft will care the most about proof dissertation early in your resume rather than later. Use as few a words as possible. Don't make long lists of protocol, computer programs you have used a few times hoping that the key word search will select you. Proof! We're smarter than that. Highlight awards and recognition you have received. One of the hottest differentiators right now are apps. We'll talk to anyone that has published apps in the Windows Store or Windows Phone Marketplace, or iOS or Android stores, particularly if you've had a bunch of downloads or made some real money from them.
That kind of karl popper, third-party evidence is very compelling to Microsoft recruiters. I would like to proof, know what you feel the essay academic writing, best way to put open source contributions on proof dissertation, your resume is. I can't decide whether I should write it in detail similar to a job, or as a bullet point in a personal projects section. @Karan, Great question. Karl Falsification Essays! You are definitely thinking about this in the right way. Dissertation! My feeling is that you can go either way, depending on tabata protocol research, the scope of the contribution. Job History for a big contribution, personal project for a smaller contribution. Dissertation! Using the job history approach, I would use the title Contributer or something similar, and the company as the open source application and the date from the karl popper essays, first contribution to proof dissertation, the most recent. Then the bullets would be either feature names and number of on my resume, lines of proof dissertation, code, or if it is a major feature, then the case in nursing research, bullets would detail your contribution ie: lines of dissertation, code, rating or other quality measure, number of users of the feature, etc. Hello mam.
I went through your article. I am presently pursuing my B.Tech in Computer Science And Engineering . What do I need to censorship essays, do to proof, get a Job at Microsoft?It will be a pleasure to have a live chat with you mam/ @Subham Soni: Start at http://www.microsoft.com/careers and then select the Student or Recent Grad link. Then read about the various jobs and how to protocol, apply for them. Proof! Good luck! I like the one page idea and want to convert to essay academic writing, it.
The problem is, I want to change industries (out of mortgages into tech, data, SAS sales) but I have had 9 different positions in the last 13 years, due to company closures, career advancement into management, and banking legislative changes. I know it is critical that I list how my skill-set and accomplishments will translate to proof dissertation, the new industry/position, but how do I handle not having the room to academic, list all of my positions without leaving gaps and raising suspicion that I am leaving something out? I'm not sure how to check back on this post, so if you could be so kind to forward your response to dissertation, me at [email protected], I would greatly appreciate it. On My Resume! This article was very well written and you are clearly an expert so I look forward to any suggestions or advice you can offer. @Joe Saylor This is dissertation a case where a cover letter may be necessary to assure the hiring organization that you are not a job-hopper by explaining the protocol research paper, reasons. The goal for you is to show thoughtful career trajectory where each step reflects personal growth. Dissertation! What I would experiment is to think of yourself (for purposes of approaching your resume design) as a consultant with multiple clients over certain period of time. Music Essays! So you cluster by proof role since I would expect you did more or less the same thing for a couple of different companies.
I might even omit the protocol, company name in the first line, and mention multiple companies in the description section. Again, I've never done a resume in exactly this way, but hopefully my sort of dissertation, thinking out loud will show you how to approach this. Contrast Essay Academic Writing! It might be simpler to just go with two pages and to limit your earlier jobs to one or two lines. A two-page resume isn't all that bad. Proof Dissertation! It is using studies definitely better than doing something overly weird or awkward. When we are applying for interships of companies like microsoft or google,being a second year student of proof, IT what should our resume should contain? Hello, Thank you for taking the time to write this article, it has been a great help to me as I'm restructuring my resume.
When where should I add references? Randy, I have a bunch of personal projects which I work on and off, all close to my heart, and I work on music, them because I really really love programming. That of course means some of dissertation, them are not finished, but they are there. Should I then include the github links to them? Randy, should I include personal projects – not academic – on resume too? Impressive and useful post! Should resume include a scanned picture of the writer? and Should the writer include the projects for which he's not having a certificate and are self made (made only in on my resume, a hobby practice)? Thank you for your reply. @Umar: My advice about personal projects is to start a business, even if not formally or officially, but list your personal projects as an employee of your own company.
Avoid a pretentious title like CEO or President and use something like Founder and Lead Developer. @ChristNolan: I wouldn't include a picture unless you are applying for a position as a model or acting talent; in that case your agency can advise. As I advised @Umar above, assume you work for your own company, and list a non-pretentious title and showcase projects (not all of them) as appropriate for the position you are applying for. Make sure though that you quantify your accomplishments ie: lines of code, special features, downloads and proof dissertation ratings (if an app), etc. @Sean: don't add references unless you are specifically asked, and most companies are moving away from them due to privacy laws and the fact that you aren't going to provide references unless they are good anyway. I just re-read this post now six year later, and I agree with almost all of it except that now I think a longer resume is more acceptable ie: if you need two pages go ahead and using case spill over onto another page but do try to keep it as short as possible and don't use the extra page as an proof excuse to put every fact about yourself that you can possibly think of. Only go onto a second page if you have gold to put on it. On My Resume! And get an outside opinion to confirm what you think is gold really is. How do I get a Microsoft Word 2013 Resume Builder or Template. Hi Randy, Thank you for your advices, A friend recommended a video you had, but it is dissertation no available.
Do you know where can I find the video? I really appreciate your thought process and having it explained properly, thank you! The best and most eye catching resumes let you stand out from the crowd. Likewise, I'd love to see those videos that aren't presently working! I'm presently in the process of applying for a job for Microsoft and I'm quite fresh from in college campus, school. Proof! This article more than any other so far has been useful, and I'm quite eager to see those links. Music Essays! Thanks for your time!
I really found the dissertation, detail with which you have explained resume making very useful. I am currently a junior without any work experience and looking to tabata protocol research paper, apply for a good summer internship where I get a good learning scope in dissertation, the fields of Programming and on my resume algorithms. As a person with no prior industry experience what do you think my resume should mostly focus on? @Joe Saylor: I think when you have a complicated situation, you either group your experience and list companies and proof dissertation time frames, or list the companies and just go with a longer resume. On My Resume! The secret here is to handle the explanation in a cover letter. Proof Dissertation! If you are submitting online, and they don't have a place for a cover letter, then just make the first page of your resume your cover letter and then follow with your resume below.
BTW, the resume workshop video links are fixed. The video hoster I used went out of music censorship, business so I had to migrate. Cheers, and good luck! – Randy. @Ismael, @Ryno, @Sneha: Thanks for the heads up! I moved the videos to another hosting site and updated the dissertation, links. You should be good to censorship, go! – Randy. I also have a new blog post on how to proof, add student projects to your resume: blogs.msdn.com/…/how-to-add-a-student-project-to-your-resume.aspx. Cheers! – Randy. Randy, should we include any academic publications (conference papers for example) in the resume?
Yes, if the publications directly relate to the job you are applying to. Karl! Publications should absolutely be included in a curriculum vitae (a special kind of resume for professors and researchers), or for any job where publication will be part of the job. If you are applying for dissertation a job in industry where your skills are what they are looking for, I would leave out the publications. Research! – Randy.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out proof, a piece of tabata protocol yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to proof, your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for essay campus, an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to proof, make sure it’s polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of case research styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. Proof? Designing your own is on ragging, easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Proof Dissertation? Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for on my resume, Loft Resumes, draws attention to proof, your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate.
This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of protocol research his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and proof dissertation frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Case In Nursing? Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out.
A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in proof industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at on my resume, the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the proof dissertation, person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline.
Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of popper falsification essays fonts, etc.) gives your work an proof extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to on my resume, show off your abilities). Proof Dissertation? Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over protocol and over proof again — on on my resume, letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Dissertation? Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and on my resume whittles down the information to only the dissertation, basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. Popper Falsification Essays? This example by S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. Dissertation? When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to essay in college, opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts.
Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Proof? Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and music complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is proof, important, or the compare contrast writing, job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into proof your resume. It doesn’t have to be the essay in college campus, center of dissertation attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes?
Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to on my resume, give your application a polished, pulled-together look.
If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. Proof Dissertation? If you do format your resume in tabata protocol paper any unusual shape, just make sure all the proof, text is readable. You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and paper bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on proof, his resume. Give the essay in college, hiring manager something to zero in on.
Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. Proof Dissertation? For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to on ragging, networking platforms like LinkedIn.
Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and dissertation make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of using studies research effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the dissertation, information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Essays? Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to proof, extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to on my resume, separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and proof a word cloud to protocol, creatively represent the proof, breadth of his skills and experience. Similar in function to using case studies research, the word cloud above, various sizes of proof dissertation circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in tabata protocol paper various areas, such as management and design. The size of the dissertation, circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to find out more about you. Including a link to compare academic writing, your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt.
If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to proof, do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at using case studies in nursing, a glance. Dissertation? For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about case studies in nursing research, innovative ways to present your information. Dissertation? Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Karl Essays? Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to proof dissertation, showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from karl falsification S1M.
The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. Proof Dissertation? This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of campus using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to dissertation, make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to protocol research paper, demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and proof dissertation include more information than the on my resume, limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. Proof? This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and essay on ragging campus short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.
As if to proof dissertation, say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the academic writing, box. This sample resume from dissertation Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. Essays? There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. Proof? For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to compare academic writing, add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes.
The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to proof, get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to popper essays, display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the proof, essentials — enough to get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of tabata protocol research white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to proof, achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and compare contrast academic clear headings for each section. Need to proof, keep your resume fairly conservative?
A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of your resume to music essays, make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to dissertation, navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on karl popper falsification, the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume.
But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Dissertation? Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Popper Falsification? Janie is proof, a freelance writer and graphic designer and on my resume the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in proof dissertation art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. 50 Unique and Engaging About Us Pages to Inspire You. These Are Some of The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8. Graphic Design From Around the World: Spanish Design.
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essay paper pcitures Young children drawing: the significance of the proof context. College of Ripon and York. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Leeds, 13-15 September 2001. The role of using in nursing drawing in children's learning is frequently misunderstood. Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the opportunity to proof, draw is often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon 'mark making leading to karl popper essays, writing' rather than communication and creativity. Yet drawing is one of the dissertation many languages which children use to falsification essays, 'talk' about their world, both to dissertation, themselves and to others (Dyson, 1993, Gallas, 1994, Kress, 1997, Pahl, 1999, Lindqvist, 2001). Essay? Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences (Malchiodi, 1998 Matthews, 1994, 1999).
This paper uses data, collected as part of proof dissertation a longitudinal research project about music censorship, young children and drawing across settings, to illustrate the importance of the context, physical, social and cultural, in which drawing takes place. The hypotheses will be explored that the context in which a child draws: has an impact upon both the frequency with which the child draws and the number of proof dissertation drawings produced; has an impact upon what he/she perceives to be appropriate to draw; is populated by significant others whose belief systems, both generally and in relation to drawing, impact upon the belief systems of the child. Implications for early childhood education will be drawn. The role of drawing in children's development. Until relatively recently the study of children's drawings has reflected a 'top down' approach which takes the pursuit of karl popper falsification realistic representation as its goal and a stage theory which has been generalised from the work of Luquet (1927), Piaget (Inhelder Piaget, 1958), and Kellogg (1970) as its model of development (Matthews, 1992:26, 1999:84). This approach, reflected in the National Curriculum programme of study for Art (DES, 1991), has cast the young child in an outdated deficit role which does not reflect the view held by early years educators of children as 'able learners, powerful thinkers, feeling human beings' (Nutbrown, 1996, xv). Also damaging to some extent, for the understanding of the proof role of drawing in young children's learning, has been the exchange of the word 'drawing' for 'mark making' in educare settings (Athey, 1990, Nutbrown, 1994).
The term, in censorship essays, emphasising the importance of children's earliest marks for writing development, can give the dissertation message that pictorial representation is inferior to essays, the more important role that the reading and writing of proof symbols has been given within the National Curriculum and within society in general. Popper Falsification Essays? This is a narrow view of literacy, which once again does little to reflect the young child's holistic abilities. Bronfenbrenner's (1979) seminal ecological model of proof dissertation human development gives insights into how young children are situated as learners by the societies in which they are nurtured and educated. His model is supported by studies of young children in home/ pre-school and school settings (Tizard and Hughes, 1984; Trevarthen, 1995; Schaffer, 1992) which have shown children to on my resume, be. '. skilful in negotiating a diverse repertoire of relationships, actively contributing to the process of dissertation their own development and using case studies research, recognising that their status and dissertation, power as social actors varies between contexts and cultures.' (Woodhead, Faulkner Littleton, 1998:1) These studies have concentrated upon the relationships between children and their 'significant others'. Influenced by Vygotsky (1962, 1967), the key foci have been language and to a lesser extent play.
Little is using case studies, known, however, about the proof dissertation impact upon a child's use of drawing of firstly the different settings of karl essays home and pre-school or school, and proof, secondly the roles taken by 'significant' others in 'formal' and 'informal' learning contexts, particularly over any length of time. The influence of context on young children's drawing development. This paper takes a sociocultural approach to the study of young children's drawings. Karl Popper Falsification Essays? It recognises that: the child is a co-constructor of meaning and an active player in his or her world. culture acts as mediator between the child and his/ her environment. the role of adults and more able peers/ siblings is significant in proof dissertation, 'scaffolding' learning.
the role of the peer group is significant in a young child's learning. language, play, objects, artefacts, and the meanings attributed to them, are mediating tools within and across cultures in children's learning. (Bruner, 1996; Vygotsky, 1962, 1967; Rogoff, 1990; Wertsch, 1985) Drawing is seen to have originated from tabata protocol research paper, children's physical action (Matthews, 1994; 1999) and play (Vygotsky, 1995). Matthews (1999) explores young children's intentional actions in making drawings of their own body movements and the sounds and movements of objects around them. He calls these 'action representations'. In common with Athey (1990) he describes development as 'an interaction between what is unfolding in dissertation, the child and what is available within the environment' (Matthews, 1994).
Athey concentrates on censorship essays, drawing as a reflection of children's inner schematic representations, the developing organisational or conceptual systems by which they make sense of diverse aspects of life. Proof? Matthews, however, sees children's drawings 'located within a family of karl popper falsification expressive and symbolic actions used fluently by children between 3 and 4 years of age' (1999:49). He draws attention to the interrelationship of a range of conceptual interests and emotional concerns, which are reflected within children's 'artistic' representations. Referencing the work of Trevarthen (1980, 1995) he suggests that 'the basis for the expression of emotion and the representation of objects and events form within an interpersonal arena between caregiver and infant' (1999:17). Dissertation? It is within this interpersonal relationship that the child acquires 'skills in viewing, handling and visually tracking objects, plus the tabata protocol expressive and dissertation, representational possibilities these might have. ' (1999:18). For Vygotsky there is a close relationship between play and art and 'the entire process through which children develop cultural awareness'. 'Vygotsky (1995) argues that children's creativity in its original form is syncretistic creativity, which means that the using in nursing research individual arts have yet to be separated and specialised.
Children do not differentiate between poetry and prose, narration and drama. Children draw pictures and proof dissertation, tell a story at the same time; they act a role and create their lines as they go along. Case Studies In Nursing? Children rarely spend a long time completing each creation, but produce something in an instant, focusing all their emotions on what they are doing at proof, that moment in time.' (Lindqvist, 2001:8) Play is seen by research paper, Lindqvist to create meaning. She argues that it is a 'dynamic meeting between the dissertation child's inner life (emotions and thoughts) and its external world' and as such should not be interpreted as a 'realistic presentation of a certain action' but as reflecting reality 'on a deeper level'. Both play and art, in enabling the child to falsification essays, create an proof, imaginary or fictitious situation, are seen to enable the child to move towards 'disembedded from action' thinking, towards abstractions from the here and now (Lindqvist, 2001).
Building upon the work of research Wells (1986) and proof dissertation, Bruner (1996) the term 'meaning making' is used extensively when considering the child as a learner from a sociocultural perspective. Dyson (1993) sees a symbol, be it a word, picture or dance, existing because of a 'human intention to infuse some tangible form - a sound, a mark, a movement - with meaning and, thereby, to comment on or take action in on my resume, the social world'. Symbol making is, for proof Dyson, 'the essence of being human' and protocol research paper, drawing, as a symbolic system, is one of the ways humans liberate themselves 'from the here and now'. Geertz (1983) argues that people who share a culture share similar ways of infusing meaning into sounds (language), movement (dance), and lines (drawings), among other media. Children, by using symbols, join with others who share the same 'imaginative universe' or 'worlds of possibility'. Dyson illuminates the way drawing is helped by the critical role of talk and gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving a graphic voice to an intention' (Dyson, 1993:24). She draws attention to Vygotsky's description of drawing as a kind of 'graphic speech' (Dyson, 1982). Drawing as narrative in young children's development. If speech is seen to be internalised as thought (Vygotsky, 1978) can we assume that 'graphic speech' has its own internal visual narrative? Gallas (1994:xv) takes the view that children's personal narratives, formed in an attempt to order and explain the world from all aspects of dissertation their experience, 'are often part of the silent language that embodies thinking'.
She takes 'an expanded view' of children's narratives, not confining them to the spoken or written word, but including the stories they tell from on my resume, early childhood 'in dramatic play, in their drawings and paintings, in proof dissertation, movement and spontaneous song.' In putting forward her view of the young child as a powerful meaning maker, Gallas draws attention to protocol research, adults within school settings not enabling young children to make use of proof their 'enormous number of innate tools for acquiring knowledge' (xv) or their different modes of representation which might be visually, verbally or kinaesthetically based. '. Children do not naturally limit the forms that their expressions take. Because adult communication relies so heavily on spoken and written language, however, schools necessarily reflect that orientation and channel children's narratives into a very narrow realm of popper expressions, in proof, effect limiting rather than broadening the child's expressive capabilities.' (Gallas, 1994:xv) Because of years spent with adults less flexible in essay on ragging in college campus, thinking and communication she feels that most children 'lose their natural gifts for narrative expression.' (xvi). There is a lack of dissertation recognition by most adults of the power of drawing in serving a narrative function for children by externalising their experiences, thoughts and feelings through visual images. Malchiodi (1998) gives drawing a dual role as a narrative form, enabling children to express their individual stories through a developmentally appropriate form of communication and providing a focus for karl popper talking about their drawings. Given the emphasis on reading and writing within the proof dissertation statutory curriculum, the innovative work of Kress (1997) on young children's meaning making has importantly drawn attention to the need for a broader view of literacy, which includes both the reading and making of visual signs. On My Resume? He argues that children are bombarded with a variety of proof dissertation stimuli both static (pictures, signs, posters) and moving (T.V., video, computer imagery). They are learning to decode the meaning of these images, alongside the more experienced users of popper essays these semiotics, within the communities in which they are reared. Kress's thesis is that 'children act multi-modally, both in the things they use, the dissertation objects they make, and in essay on ragging in college campus, the engagement of their bodies; there is no separation of body and mind' (ibid.: 97).
He draws on detailed observations of his own young children engaged in multi-model representations using: found materials to make 'models' household furniture and dissertation, objects mingled with toys to make 'worlds' in which to contrast essay academic, act out dissertation, involved narratives in play. mark-making media such as felt tips and on my resume, paint to proof dissertation, 'draw' elaborate versions of case studies in nursing research their understanding of the world around them. He calls these 'the energetic, interested, intentional action of children in their effects on their world' (114). He argues that: 'It is essential that . children are encouraged . in their fundamental disposition towards multi-modal forms of text and proof, meaning making. . Compare Contrast Essay Academic? Above all there will need to be particular emphasis on developing their awareness about the dynamic interaction between the various modes, and their awareness that all modes are constantly changing in their interaction with other modes; and through the proof sign maker's use.' (154) Pahl (1999) uses Kress's thesis to music essays, study children's meaning making in nursery education and notes that the objects children made in the nursery settings often have a 'fluid quality'. Children create layers of narrative as they represent and re-represent versions of stories in their play. Proof? A shopping basket made from a cereal packet and strips of card for role-play in on my resume, the nursery might be transformed into dissertation, a carrycot for on my resume a doll when the model was taken home. She argued that children had more opportunities to utilise fluidity in their meaning making at home where objects could be freely transformed from one function to another without the watchful gaze of an adult. She sees these 'lines of enquiry' offering scope for children to explore the gap between 'me' and 'not me' using the models they make as 'transactional objects'. Proof Dissertation? The models children carry from tabata paper, nursery to home offer them opportunities to explore the inner workings of their minds through the outer material representations of their thinking shaped in particular ways by the environments in which they try to proof, record their understanding of the censorship essays world. Drawing is seen by Kress and Pahl to be one of the many languages which children use to 'talk' about their world in informal settings, both to themselves and to proof dissertation, others.
Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences and on my resume, tell complex stories (Malchiodi, 1998, Matthews, 1994, 1999). Egan has drawn attention to the story form as a cultural universal which 'reflects a basic and powerful form in proof, which we make sense of the world and experience.'(1989:2) Given the emphasis on a traditional view of literacy and narrative within the statutory English curriculum, it is not surprising that oral storying and protocol research paper, story writing have received far more attention within research than storying through drawing. Exploring the young child's use of drawing from a socio-cultural perspective allows the impact upon the young child's drawing behaviours of the views and beliefs of older and more significant others across both home and pre-school settings to dissertation, be highlighted. It also emphasises how the falsification essays young child, operating at profound levels both cognitively and emotionally, uses narrative across modes of representation which include drawing. Short introduction to project. This paper draws on data collected as part of a three year, longitudinal research project 'Young Children Drawing at Home, Pre-school and School: the influence of the socio-cultural context'. Evidence was collected for one month, at the beginning of the proof school year to compile case studies of music censorship essays seven children's use of drawing across home, pre-school and school settings. It was a longitudinal study that took place over a three-year period. Two key research instruments were used for dissertation data collection: Booklets of each child's drawings collected by the significant adults in each setting. Semi-structured interviews with significant adults and with the children.
In addition contextual information was gathered via photographs/ digital images taken in the home and pre-school/ school contexts and, during the first phase of the project, observations of the children in their settings. Protocol Research? The function of the detailed contextual data was to capture the 'situated' nature of the drawing episodes and outcomes. The evidence was collected from September 1998 until November 2001 during a period of continuing change in the UK for all involved in both pre- and proof, primary schooling. Essays? Government strategies introduced during this period included, for example, statutory baseline assessment, the Literacy Hour and proof, the daily numeracy lesson. The following detailed exemplar, drawn from the study, concentrates upon the experiences of one child and shows how he begins to use drawings as a narrative form to 'talk' to himself and to popper essays, others and by doing so constructs new meanings. His drawings reflect versions of meaning making from the socio-cultural context in proof, which he constructs his narratives and particularly reflect the influence of TV and video culture. There is evidence that the cultural assumptions about compare, drawing in the child's home and pre-school/ school contexts affect what he draws, how he draws and proof, how often he draws. Yet the child demonstrates a unique drawing style and an exploration through line of essay campus intensely personal responses to experiences. In doing so he participates in the making of his culture (Kress, 1997) and shows himself to be an able and powerful storyteller. Phase 1: Luke aged three, drawing at home. At just turned three Luke was the proof dissertation youngest child in the sample.
He lived in an inner city council house during phase one of the in college campus project and moved to private housing prior to phase two. He had one younger brother. Luke attended a Family Centre three days a week. The drawings Luke completed at proof dissertation, home revealed a fertile imagination and tabata protocol, a preoccupation with 'scary' things. His drawing 'A crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs' (Figure 1) reflects a fascination with crocodiles. This preoccupation also emerged in the narratives he wove into his solitary play episodes at home. His mother described him frantically 'rowing' a baby bath with coat hangers across the dissertation living room floor with cushions strategically positioned as stepping stones trying to karl falsification, avoid an imaginary crocodile. With great speed the same coat hangers were transformed from fishing rods to oars as Luke's imaginative play script changed. The element of scariness was a regular part of mum's interactions with the boys, part of what she called 'our silly time' when they sang and danced together. 'We've a song about crocodiles from Pontins when I was a kid - Never Smile at proof dissertation, a Crocodile' . The second drawing from this period reflected Luke's interest in music censorship essays, imagery from the television screen.
His mother explained his habitual response to an advertisement for fruit pastilles which featured a strawberry eating a little boy (Figure 2) 'When he watches you can see him backing away from the proof telly.' The television and videos were a big part of Luke's mother's day and she enjoyed watching children's programmes with the children, often referring to characters from them in conversation and building them into play with the children. Luke used a 'megasketcher' to draw with as he didn't have access to popper essays, paper and pens all the proof time. Censorship Essays? He spent a lot of time recording and erasing continuous rotations, drawing quickly and proof, with great energy. Paper, pens and scissors were reserved for when his younger brother was asleep and essays, were used at proof dissertation, the kitchen table. Luke was fascinated by scissors and systematically cut paper into compare writing, strips, turned each strip at a right angle and cut it into a smaller strip until he was left with tiny pieces of paper. Sometimes he made a mark on the paper as a prop for his cutting action. His mother commented ' He's forever making squiggles with the pen, then cutting them out and then making shapes with the cuttings. He'll cut out something not trying to make the shape, then he'll see it fall down and he'll say 'Oh look, I've made a triangle.' He'll pretend he made it properly.' Luke's mother drew with or for him and described how when she tried to proof, draw the teletubbies for him he insisted on the detail being a correct representation: 'I did La La and he said 'La La's head doesn't go like that.' You have got get the right colour, the right shade.' Phases 1 and 2: Luke aged three and four, drawing at the Family Centre.
During both phase one and phase two of the project there were strong messages given by staff at the Family Centre, to protocol research, both Luke and his mother, about the importance of drawing people. The key workers within the proof dissertation Family Centre were aware of the need for a broad range of activities, for compare contrast essay writing child choice and of the need for proof young children to be involved in exploration and self-expression. Their conversations generally extended individual children's interests. However the messages given by 'Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education' (SCAA, 1996), gave further emphasis to a tendency within the Family Centre for key workers to channel children towards emergent and adult recognisable mark making. The nursery manager felt there was pressure from paper, parents for dissertation key workers to protocol research paper, be able to dissertation, explain how drawing led to formal learning i.e. writing. The practice within the setting of including drawing within the term 'mark making' allowed drawing a valid place within the curriculum, but seemed to be devaluing drawing as an activity in its own right. It was being interpreted as a stage which children moved away from, as they became literate. The Family Centre manager commented 'When they (key workers) hear mark making, it doesn't matter how many times you go through it, they still think writing. That's there at the back of the music essays mind all the time. That's not to proof, say that if a child did a row of circles they wouldn't be impressed by that, but only karl, because it's starting to look like letters.'
One of the ways in which the Family Centre gave messages about the purpose of drawing was by proof dissertation, its inclusion within the child's developmental record, as part of a progression from horizontal and vertical marks through figure drawing and onto early writing. This check list of competencies, shared with parents at progress meetings, seemed to dominate the key workers drawing agenda, influencing their approach and discussions with children about the possible content of their drawings. Luke's mother, during the first phase of the project, was considered by the Family Centre to paper, be pushing Luke to write before he was ready. Proof Dissertation? They told her that they felt he was missing out drawing figures, a stage considered important by the staff and accepted as coming before writing. The drawings collected whilst Luke was at the Family Centre were mostly completed during the afternoon session. On Ragging Campus? The routine at the Family Centre was for the morning to be spent in 'free flow', with free choice of activities and rooms being allocated to dissertation, a particular type of protocol activity e.g. large construction. For the afternoon sessions the children were allocated to a base under the proof dissertation supervision of their key worker. This was a more pressured time for music essays the key workers when they were more likely to proof dissertation, 'set up' a directed art activity which was often linked to a half-termly theme. On Ragging Campus? The afternoons were seen by one key worker as being 'when you get time to do your display work, you know, the pictures you want the children to do.' It was also a time when they would update their developmental records and for Luke this meant a concentration on figure drawing. Both 'Mam' (Figure 3, phase one) and 'My Mummy' (Figure 4, phase two) were adult initiated drawings and reflected the setting and key worker's expectations of what a child of Luke's age should be drawing. 'Mam' was drawn following the key worker's modelling of dissertation a similar figure, and during the completion of 'My Mummy' Luke was shown where to put the eyes and nose, but did decide to put the hair on on my resume, himself.
Luke's key worker commented 'We haven't the time to give them one-to-one experience and then perhaps there's something in the profile - is able to draw a face - and you think I haven't seen him do that, so you sit with him and proof dissertation, say. shall we see what we can do?' She gave suggestions to the children that would support their achievement of drawing competencies as set out in the developmental record saying - 'oh look you could do a circle for the face, two eyes, a nose and a mouth see if you can do that'. Luke's key worker admitted difficulty in interacting with a child who was drawing and karl falsification essays, 'fell back' on suggesting that the child drew a face or drew his/ her mother. 'I do it, yes, because I'm stumped to know how I can help them.' Luke had a different key worker during phase two of the project who also used her understanding of proof stages in drawing development to compare contrast essay academic, underpin her decisions about intervening when children were drawing. 'Normally with drawings it is proof dissertation, just scribbles on the paper. It moves onto circular movements and dots and then they will start drawing pictures and saying, 'that is mummy'. . We might not be able to recognise it but they will start saying what it is and then you will start seeing pictures of a head with arms and legs, and using case research, then they will start putting in the eyes and things.' She acknowledged that some children had difficulty in drawing people but that she encouraged them to have a go when she judged they were ready. 'I normally ask, start encouraging them to do that (draw mummy) when they say they have done a picture of their mummy or daddy. It might not look like that, but that is when I'll draw one and say 'can you do that', when they are ready to do it.' At three years old Luke was very reliant on the presence of proof his key worker as he was a tentative, nervous participant in Family Centre activities and sought the one-to-one conversations he had with his mother in the home context.
His preferred activities were cutting paper, dough and watching videos. Among his peers at the Family Centre he was unusual in music essays, his ability to dissertation, remain captivated by video and television imagery. 'He absolutely loves television. He is the one child who will sit there and be actually enthralled by it. He talks about what he watches on the television and video in detail - Jurassic park and an animal video.' His key worker at the Family Centre commented on his ability to enter into tabata paper, long monologues about home events with adults. 'His speech is dissertation, very very good, very forward for his age. Using Case In Nursing Research? He can be very talkative and uses a lot of language that is older for him, a lot of adult words.' Perhaps influenced by children in the setting, he gained the attention of his key worker by involving her in his 'tea party' role play. She recorded his comments made whilst at play 'Would you like a piece of my chocolate cake. You can only have a little piece because I'm only dissertation, chopping it into little bits.' The reoccurring play script of the tea party was also a means by compare contrast essay, which Luke could use clay or dough to satisfy his preoccupation with cutting into proof, smaller and smaller strips. At the Family Centre Luke's key workers noted that he rarely chose to draw. 'Our house' (Figure 5, phase one) was completed without adult presence and music censorship, although the drawing is named, its content can only proof dissertation, be debated.
It may reflect the action and business of the home context, but it could also be the case that it was named following completion, in response to an adult enquiry. It had much in common with the images drawn with the Megasketcher in the home context. Luke's representation of on my resume 'Dr. Jekyll when he turned into proof dissertation, a nasty monster' (Figure 6, phase one) was completed in response to protocol research, an adult's request for him to draw. It reflects both Luke's continued use of dissertation drawing to explore and represent his fears and the influence upon him of essay video or television images. Proof Dissertation? His choice of campus topic followed discussion with the key worker about what the content of the drawing would be.
Phase 2: Luke aged four, drawing at dissertation, home. At home Luke's mother continued to limit Luke's access to paper and Luke still preferred to link drawing with cutting. Because his younger brother no longer slept during the day drawing was now limited to when mum could sit with the children and supervise. She commented 'They sometimes see it (on plastic shelving) and say 'can we draw' or 'can we paint' and I'll say 'not now' or 'maybe later'. Paint at nursery ' out of sight, out of music censorship essays mind.' In response to dissertation, Family Centre suggestions, Luke's mother encouraged him to popper falsification essays, draw people but felt she wasn't getting anywhere. 'He won't draw people. Very very rarely draws people.' 'Just colours in a shape, he'll do a circle and colour it in, then a triangle and colour it in.' Mum felt Luke got really frustrated because he couldn't make his drawings like the images he visualised. 'He'll draw a car, then he gets really frustrated because it isn't how he sees a car, and scribbles it out.' Still trying to support Luke in developing his drawing ability she asked him to copy pictures. 'When you see a picture, and you say to him 'Can you draw a picture of a whatever', he'll try and draw it. Because it doesn't look exactly like a pig, he'll say it's rubbish, and if it is the proof mega sketch, the zipper goes down and he won't even have it on.' Luke's mother gave examples of Luke's critical remarks about both her and his younger brother's drawings. Case? 'That doesn't look nowt like a house. That doesn't look nowt like a cat, where's its tail?' The drawings collected during phase two by Luke's mother reflect her attempts to support his drawing and have probably mostly been instigated by her. 'Pumpkin' (Figure 7) is a shared effort between Luke and proof, his mother as is his attempt to draw around one of the leaves collected on the way home from the Family Centre (Figure 8). The drawing of his brother, given to him as a birthday card (Figure 9) is the only evidence of essay campus Luke drawing freely on paper, but was still probably completed at his mother's request.
Phase 2: Luke aged four, meaning making through role-play. In contrast to Luke's frustration in relation to drawing, Luke's mother and key worker told of his increasing use of role play to act out both real life experiences and re-enact video scripts. His mother gave examples of both his fascination for tape measures - 'as soon as he sees it (a tape measure) it's gone, its disappeared, its clipped onto his trousers and proof dissertation, he's a workman'- and his preoccupation with the karl falsification role of the doctor. The latter followed a recent, quite traumatic, visit with his asthmatic brother to hospital. Luke also assumed the role of key worker, both at home and at the Family Centre, turning his book around when reading it to show to others. At the Family Centre his favourite book was 'Funny Bones' which fitted into proof, his love/ hate relationship with frightening images.
His mother commented 'He likes being scared, not too scared obviously, but he loves making people jump. In College? He loves being jumped upon proof, as long as he knows it is going to happen.' At home Luke's mother built up Luke's sense of drama and atmosphere 'the night before Halloween there was a film 'Hocus Pocus' with witches, and on my resume, it is a bit scary. But what we did was we turned all the proof lights off, and essay in college, put the pumpkin on top of the TV and proof, lit it. ' The influence of time spent watching videos in the home context was very marked. His mother said 'When its on. he just sits and watches it but afterwards he will do like pretending that he is in that film, or that character. Nine times out of using studies research ten he's always the baddy.' His mother discussed how he used familiar objects to support a role. 'He had the radio cassette and the microphone on his lap, a little karaoke thing, and that's what he does, his character Woody, in film, because they are all moving house, and proof dissertation, he is in charge and he's telling them to get a moving buddy, a partner, so they won't get lost, and Luke is music, sat there copying it word for word. Even though it weren't on that day, he were like 'get them moving, everybody get one.' When watching a video Luke found the toys he had that were associated with that particular video. His mother said shopping had to include a visit to his favourite shop, the proof Disney Shop. The practitioners in the family centre also acknowledged that the case studies research biggest influence on proof, Luke's play seemed to be videos, watched repeatedly in the home context. 'He will be playing something else but he will always go back to Jurassic Park.' At the Family Centre Luke used construction to support his play and using in nursing, often 'set up' the play scenario and then invited others to join him. As the oldest child in the nursery, and with the proof departure of the case studies in nursing older children to proof dissertation, school, Luke had obviously grown in confidence and was now a leader, particularly in role-play.
He had strong ideas about how the 'story' should be re-enacted. Campus? His key worker commented 'Some children will come over and stay for dissertation a little bit, but then if they don't do what he wants them to do, he says they are messing it up.' Luke complained to his mother about them not wanting to play 'Jurassic Park' 'You just can't get them to do what you want. Tabata Research? they want to go and play Mums and proof dissertation, Dads.' On one occasion, when asked by his key worker what they were playing, Luke replied 'We are being chased by monsters, dinosaurs and ghosts'. This was a recurring play theme, which in the Family Centre involved escaping from frightening situations and it was followed through in the home context when other children were invited to essay academic, play in the garden. One of his favourite games, introduced by Luke to neighbourhood friends, was 'stampede'. This again had been watched on proof, video and was explained by his mother 'It is a load of tabata protocol paper animals chasing them.' 'The film starts off as a board game, but real things happen, like spiders come out and proof dissertation, lions, oh it's really good and compare writing, then there's a big, huge stampede. His mother commented that broadening his circle of friendships was causing Luke to ask questions. She gave the following examples of his search for meaning and understanding 'Where do you go if you die? What if you are good, what if you are bad? He thinks that you have to be old and have 'twisted neck' before you die.' 'When Hannah said her brother was in the graveyard 'What's he doing playing in there then?' 'He died' 'Children don't die' and they are arguing about it.' Phase 2: Luke aged four, moving towards formal writing.
Although Luke had not regularly and voluntarily drawn people, as a four year old at proof dissertation, the Family Centre he spent a short period of time each day as part of a small group of children preparing for statutory schooling the following September. All the key workers took turns in leading these sessions, which involved the children in working with numbers in addition to the stories and singing they had when they were younger. The children were expected during these short sessions to 'fit in' with what the adults were doing and 'sit down and respond when spoken to'. The key worker commented that there would, during the coming year, be more concentration on preparing Luke to enter school and that this would include writing his name. Taking advice from the Family Centre staff, Luke's mother provided materials to support Luke in learning to write. 'We've got this learning to write thing and its like mazes when you've got to on my resume, go a certain way, and he's fantastic with them. He loves doing them, going through the gaps and doing squiggles.' Writing numbers was, however, not always seen so positively by Luke. '. Proof? He recognises a load of numbers and letters, but as for writing them down. I think from my view of in nursing research him, because it doesn't actually look how it's drawn, he can get really angry. Proof? Luke's mother was proud of the fact that Luke recognised and could write his name, but she admitted that 'he gets really anxious and upset that he can't do it right.' Phase 3: Luke aged five, drawing at home. It was very obvious from the protocol paper beginning of phase three of the project that Luke was now drawing and writing a lot. Cupboards had recently been built in the dining room at home, which stored the children's toys, games and paper.
Luke's mother felt this had influenced their choice of proof dissertation activity. 'With everything being put away I don't know if its out of sight out of mind.' There was an emphasis in the home on working at the table, either drawing or writing. The scissors and the Mega-sketcher were no longer readily available and although the boys were able to get their own paper from the shelf, pens were kept in the mother's bedside cabinet and she therefore again limited drawing. Although mum had said Luke wasn't cutting any more and chose to write and karl popper, draw, Luke said he was not allowed to cut at home any more. It would seem that Luke's mother felt his preoccupation with scissors was not helping him to master the use of a pencil. Luke was now happy to draw. Mum thought this was because he was happy with the way drawings turned out. 'I think he can draw something now and recognise it. Like he's done, and we say oh look that's really good and we'd know what it is before he tells us.' There was a huge change in dissertation, Luke's ability to represent images in a way that he found satisfying and which allowed him to use them to communicate with others.
The main difference would seem to on my resume, have been his increased physical maturity, which was supported by the regular practice he was getting in dissertation, using a pencil. The drawing ' Sea snails' (Figure 10) demonstrates Luke's ability to interpret a topic of interest in popper, a satisfying way because of his developing drawing skills. Proof? It includes not only the spiral and zig-zag shapes but also the numerical symbol '4' which Luke had recently learnt to 'do properly'. At age five, Luke seemed to have made a huge leap in music essays, his physical development. He was much more physically daring, as long as he was in control, and had a range of new accomplishments enjoying climbing trees and jumping down stairs.
His mother had represented the city at gymnastics when younger and was keen that the children were involved in physical activity. Luke therefore belonged to a gymnastics club and went swimming once a week. Other new skills included using bubbly gum to proof, blow bubbles, whistling, clicking his fingers and tying his shoelaces. Luke had transferred from the music censorship Family Centre to a Catholic primary school. Proof? Towards the on ragging in college campus end of his time at the Family Centre staff thought that at times he was over confident and dominated the younger children and proof, his mother certainly thought he had changed. 'He's harder. Essay Academic? He's not as sensitive and he's more rough'. Proof Dissertation? 'He can get upset and wound up, but physically he's got a lot stronger and he can take it and he gets really mad with him (Dad) when they're wrestling and stuff and he'll really go for him.' Luke still liked to draw individual pictures. These now obviously represented internal and meaningful visual images for him and he seemed to music censorship, be attracted to drawing as a way of capturing stages of a story. 'Lots of little pictures' (Figure 11) was completed towards the end of proof his time at the Family Centre. 'Luke had a fantastic story to tell with it' . When Luke reviewed this drawing a year later he said immediately 'That's a story' but at that point was unable to tabata research, retell it and simply commented on separate images. A wonderful 'Holiday Diary' (Figure 12), completed by Luke's mother with his help at the beginning of the dissertation reception year, records the salient features of his holiday experiences and shows how, probably unknowingly, his mother is helping him to bring together drawing and story. 'Arranged cut outs' (Figure 13) is a collaboration between Luke and his mother but with Luke in control. Drawing and essay campus, cutting out proof dissertation, allows Luke to control the paper final effect on the page because they can all be named, renamed, or discarded at any stage in the process, prior to proof dissertation, his mother sticking them down. Luke's developing interest in writing is shown in Figure 14, which would seem to be a list of music names.
His mother said 'Since Luke started school, he's been practising his writing wherever and whenever he gets the chance. He can read all his letters on dissertation, the alphabet chart and doesn't copy when doing things like this.' Although his mother said it was his choice to karl essays, draw and write in the home context there did seem to be a regular time set aside each evening for it. Importantly, there seemed to be little pressure put upon Luke as to the content of his drawings and without being asked he included at the bottom of the page a drawing of himself. Dissertation? During phase three Luke had a relaxed and music censorship, confident approach to drawing and it was his inability to make letters perfectly, which frustrated him. His mother commented 'He gets wound up if you ask him to write a card out, he gets really wound up. He got really upset last week because it was my birthday and his wasn't right.' Phase 3: Luke aged five, drawing at proof dissertation, school. Having transferred to the reception class of a Roman Catholic primary school.
Luke was taught by a confident and campus, experienced early years teacher who was concerned to introduce formal education gradually, seeking to provide a balance of child and adult initiated activity. As in the Family Centre, the class teacher's expectations regarding drawing were linked to realism and figure drawing 'A lot still just have the dissertation circle with the arms and legs coming out of the popper head but I would expect to see a recognisable face' . The children were allowed to draw whatever they wanted if a drawing table was set up, but the teacher commented that the children often replicated the standard images which adults drew for them and cited as an example a recent preponderance of house drawing. The passing of an idea from child to child was confirmed by Luke's representation of a house, drawn for proof the first time during his initial weeks at school. Although Luke's teacher felt the girls generally seemed to contrast essay academic writing, be more interested in drawing than the boys, she noted that Luke was often to be found at the drawing table. The third and proof, final phase of the research project gives evidence of proof Luke's choice of drawing as a developing form of representation and meaning making. He may have been attracted to drawing in this setting, whether at the drawing table or in the office, for research paper a range of reasons. Most importantly, for dissertation Luke's growing confidence in his own ability, in karl popper essays, this setting drawing was an activity without teacher direction, where he was free to express and explore his own ideas and proof, where he knew they would be valued.
He had always been able to concentrate and become quietly immersed for long periods of music censorship essays time in activities that were meaningful to proof dissertation, him and he was now motivated to contrast essay academic, draw because of a real sense of achievement in relation to his drawings. When showing them to the researcher he said enthusiastically 'You'll love this' in relation to his 'Machine for making bread' (Figure 15) . This drawing had been similarly represented the dissertation preceding evening at home and named as 'Bread making machine' (Fig 16) by Luke. An explanation for the preoccupation with this theme was perhaps connections he was trying to work through. On My Resume? The story of the 'Little Red Hen' had been 'acted out' at school, he had past experience of his Nan's bread making machine and he had a growing friendship with a boy who drew machines. Perhaps these factors led Luke to try to proof dissertation, make sense of the way a machine can deliver a loaf of bread in this way. In this drawing and in popper, 'Aeroplane and dissertation, Machine' (Figure 17) there is popper falsification essays, a continuity of line reminiscent of proof his earlier drawings, but this interest in movement and connections had now developed to incorporate shapes which required more complex hand/ eye co-ordination. He was now far more physically confident in falsification essays, his ability to proof, draw images that were acceptable representations both to him and to others and because he felt his drawings were now capable of tabata research paper conveying a message, he was beginning to proof, be able to talk about them.
The class teacher tried to support her understanding of the karl popper falsification need for talk about proof, drawing by planning for a work experience girl to sit with the studies in nursing children at the drawing table. She gave her the following guidance 'Don't do it for proof dissertation them. You're there to talk to them basically; you're not there to draw. Let them get on with the drawing. But I would say if they've drawn a person and they've forgotten something obvious, then you could say to them, they've got no hair, or what's happened to their arms?' The class teacher commented that the young girl coloured in alongside the children. Essay? 'She's quite arty and she likes just sitting doodling.' Having an older girl modelling drawing behaviour at the table would be attractive to Luke because firstly it gave drawing status but secondly it fulfilled his need to talk to an older child or an adult. His teacher commented 'He likes to talk. so if he can give you a running commentary and he thinks he's got a receptive audience then I think he likes to be there.' Suddenly Luke seemed to be using drawing to explore his broader range of interests. Interestingly there did seem to dissertation, be a growing division between play and work and tabata protocol research paper, there was no evidence of the influence of cartoons, which had replaced his fascination with video images and stories, in his drawings.
It was at playtime, surrounded by proof dissertation, the same age or older boys that Luke took part in very animated discussion about contrast essay academic, video and cartoon characters. 'But know what, have you seen that bit where Scooby Doo falls down that hole and that panda went like that, pointing out on the wall and then a zombie came out. That was the proof first zombie. Oh have you seen the T-Rex movie? Oh you should, it goes, its good. Right this T-Rex eated only compare writing, one dinosaur. It bit it, then it ate it. It was one of the nice ones. Playtime was when chasing and pretend fighting games flourished and his love/hate relationship with scary images was retained.
This was illustrated in Luke's following discussion with a school friend. But you know what? One day, one night, my Dad told me this story and do youknow what he said? This little boy went on proof dissertation, holiday with his Uncle Nick and doyou know what? One day the protocol little boy looked out of the dissertation window at the field and they were playing football and he went to compare contrast academic writing, tell his Granddad and he said those are ghosts. And then the next night he stayed up really late and looked out of the window again and they were playing football again and guess what they were playing with? A head! Somebody's head! In the classroom Luke spent a lot of time in the office area, mark making and copying words rather than the dissertation role play and 'dressing up' area 'If he's in the office you could lose him for virtually the whole day.' 'Dinosaur' (Figure 18) was completed in the office, and Luke spent a long time discussing his drawing with another boy. Karl? He then brought the finished drawing to his teacher 'He showed me the picture saying at first that the circles were spots but then correcting himself saying 'No I mean they're scales' . Perhaps Luke will turn to cartoon drawing when once again he cannot represent his understanding of reality to his and society's satisfaction.
Figure 19 is proof dissertation, a first attempt to tabulate a pattern of on my resume drawing development, not confined to stage theories. Dissertation? It derives from Dyson's illumination of the research paper way drawing is helped by the critical role of talk and gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving graphic voice to proof dissertation, an intention. Using In Nursing? This adaptation (Figure 19) places emphasis on drawing as an iterative process during which a child may display more than one of the listed features simultaneously, depending on the media, the task and the context. Exploration of dissertation available medium. has no intention to symbolize; manipulates the: sounds of language; movement of own body; graphic marks of drawing and painting implements; structural possibilities of blocks and other constructive media; explores the distinctive physical and visual properties which each medium offers; responds to the material, the material responds to on my resume, the child . Use of gestures, marks and words to proof dissertation, symbolize - to represent - significant actions in their world. begins to use these symbolic tools to karl popper, invest meaning in drawn marks (Vygotsky, 1978); derives symbolic meaning from the gestures , not the marks (Matthews, 1994); uses the marks as a critically important prop for dramatic play (Wolf Perry, 1989) Attempt to read the proof meaning of popper falsification what they have made.
Attempt to communicate its potential meaning to other people. notices, after drawing, similarities between salient physical features of the world and his/her own graphic constructions; invests his/ her marks with meaning through talk with others; is prompted to talk about his/her drawings, read his/her marks and discover hidden meanings through the interest shown by other people (Golumb, 1974, 1988); names, reinterprets and dissertation, renames his/her drawings in order to respond to the interest of others (Malchiodi, 1998 ). may respond as a 'patterner', classifying his/her world through form, colour and size or. may respond as a 'dramatist, showing more interest in actions and adventures, dramatic stories and tales' (Gardner, 1980) and inventing stories about his/her drawings; With experience drawing accompanied with talk about evolving intentions. reinterprets their original intentions, making them more suited to their products, if their intentions prove too ambitious (Golumb, 1974, Brittain, 1979); eventually uses talk to writing, represent meanings, to proof dissertation, interact with others about those meanings, but also to regulate drawing itself; uses consciously a range of genres and stylistic conventions in his/her drawings. Autonomous, personal drawings. uses drawing to re-represent important objects, events and relationships. partakes in general rites of drawing alongside peers (home/ wet playtimes) uses drawing to fulfil the educational agenda in tabata research, school settings. is supported by talk in planning a particular drawing, monitoring his or her shaping of lines and curves, evaluating progress. Figure 19: A sociocultural pattern of drawing development adapted from Dyson (1993:24) The role of drawing in children's learning is frequently misunderstood.
Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the opportunity to draw is often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon 'mark making leading to writing' rather than communication and creativity. Dissertation? This paper draws attention to the need for practitioners to. reaffirm or reconsider the place and value of drawing within the curriculum, particularly the relationship between drawing as communication and drawing as art. There is a need for practitioners not only to 'tune into' and thus give value to children's drawings as re-presentations of their interests and pre-occupations, but also to music essays, use re-presentations as starting points for provision which will motivate a child's or children's thinking and support learning. Athey, C. Proof? (1990) Extending Thought in music, Young Children: A Parent-Teacher Partnership London: Paul Chapman.
Brittain, W.L. (1979) Creativity, Art, and proof dissertation, the Young Child. New York: Macmillan. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979) The Ecology of contrast writing Human Development: Experiments by Nature and dissertation, Design. Cambridge,MA.: Harvard University Press. Bruner, J. (1996) The Culture of Education Cambridge, Mass,: Harvard University Press. DES (1991) Art for Ages 5 to compare academic writing, 14 London: HMSO. Dyson, H.A. Proof? (1982) 'The emergence of visible language: Interrelationships between drawing and protocol paper, early writing.
Visible Language, 6, 360-381. Dyson, H.A. Proof? (1993) 'From Prop to Mediator: The Changing Role of contrast academic Written Language in dissertation, Children's Symbolic Repertoires' in Spodek,B. and Saracho,O.N. Yearbook in essay on ragging, Early Childhood Education:Language and Literacy in Early Childhood Education Volume 4,pp21-41 New York: Teachers College Press. Egan, K. (1989) Teaching as Story Telling: An alternative approach to teaching and curriculum in the elementary school Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Gallas, K. (1994) The Languages of Learning: How children talk, write, dance, draw, and sing their understanding of the world New York: Teachers College Press. Gardner, H (1980) Artful Scribbles: The significance of children's drawings New York: Basic Books. Geertz, C. (1983) Local Knowledge New York: Basic Books. Golumb (1974) Young Children's Sculpture and Drawing: A Study in Representational Development , Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Golumb (1988) 'Symbolic inventions and transformations in child art. In K.Egan D. Nadaner (eds.) Imagination and Education (pp.
222-236) New York: Teachers College Press. Inhelder, B. and Piaget, J. Proof? (1958) The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence London: Routledge. Kellogg, R. Censorship? (1970) Analysing Children's Art (Palo Alto, Cal.:Mayfield) Kress, G. (1997) Before Writing: Rethinking the Paths to Literacy London: Routledge. Lindqvist, G. (2001) 'When Small Children Play: how adults dramatise and children create meaning' Early Years Vol 21, No.1. Dissertation? pp 7-14. Luquet, G. (1927) Le Dessin Enfantin. Paris: Delachaux et Niesle. Malchiodi, C. (1998) Understanding Children's Drawings London: Jessica Kingsley. Matthews, J. (1992) 'The genesis of aesthetic sensibility' in Thistlewood, D. Academic Writing? (ed.) Drawing, Research and Development , NSEAD and Longman, pp. 26-39. Matthews, J. (1994) Helping Children to Draw and Paint in Early Childhood London: Hodder Stoughton.
Matthews, J. (1999) The Art of Childhood and Adolescence: The Construction of Meaning. London: Falmer Press. Nutbrown, C. (1994) Threads of Thinking: Young children learning and the role of early education London: Paul Chapman. Nutbrown, C. Proof Dissertation? (1996) Respectful Educators - Capable Learners: Children's rights and early education London:PCP. Pahl, K. (1999) Transformations: Meaning Making in Nursery Education Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Rogoff, B. Essay On Ragging? (1990) Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive Development in a Social Context.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. SCAA (1996) Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education. Proof? London:SCAA. Tizard, B. and Hughes, M. (1984) Young Children Learning: Talking and Listening at Home and at School. On Ragging In College? London: Fontana. Trevarthen, C. (1980) 'The foundations of proof intersubjectivity: The development of interpersonal and cooperative understanding in infants', in Olson, D. (ed.) The Social Foundations of Language and Thought: Essays in karl popper falsification, Honour of dissertation J.S.Bruner, New York: W.W.
Norton, pp. 316-42. Trevarthen, C. (1995) 'The child's need to learn a culture' Children and Society 9(1). Schaffer, H.R. (1992) 'Joint involvement episodes as contexts for cognitive development in H. McGurk (Ed.) Childhood and Social Development: Contemporary Perspective. Case In Nursing Research? Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum. Vygotsky L.S. (1962) Thought and Language Cambridge. Mass: The MIT Press. Vygotsky L.S. Dissertation? (1967) 'Play and its role in the mental development of the child' Soviet Psychology 5(3), 6-18. Vygotsky L.S. (1978) Mind in Society. Cambridge MA:Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1995) Fantasi och kreativitet i barndomen (Imagination and music censorship, Creativity in Childhood) Gothenburg: Daidalos. Wells, G. (1986) The Meaning Makers London: Hodder and Stoughton. Wertsch, J.V. (1985) Culture, Communication and Cognition: Vygotskian Perspectives Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wolf, D. and Perry, M.D. Proof Dissertation? (1989) 'From endpoints to repertoires: Some new conclusions about drawing development. In Gardner, H. and Perkins, D. (eds.) Art, mind and education: Research from Project Zero (pp. 17-34) Urbana and case studies in nursing, Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Woodhead, Faulkner Littleton, K. Dissertation? (eds) (1998) Cultural Worlds of Early Childhood London: Routledge. Figure 1 Crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs.
Figure 2 Strawberry eating little boy from fruit pastille advert. Figure 4: My mummy. Figure 5: Our house. Figure 6: Dr. Jekyll when he turned into a nasty monster. Figure 7: Pumpkin. Figure 8: Drawing around leaf. Figure 9: Brother's birthday card. Figure 10: Sea snails.
Figure 11: Lots of little pictures. Figure 12: Holiday diary. Figure 13: Arranged cut outs. Figure 16: Bread making machine. Figure 14: Names. Figure 15: Machine for making bread. Figure 17: Aeroplane and machine. Child's use of drawing across a year in both settings. Frequency/ no of music censorship drawings. Content of drawings.
Drawing as physical action. Drawing as prop. Drawing as mediator. Messages given to child (belief systems) Views of adults. Provision by proof, adults. Modelling by adults. Adult/ sibling involvement. Multi-modal meaning making.
#9;#9;Frequency/ no of drawings. Drawing as physical action. Drawing as prop. Drawing as mediator. The adults in Liam's life are obviously influential in modelling and resourcing activity. Children use what is to hand and watch adults using what is to hand.
The videos provide additional models which attract children with fast moving action, songs and karl popper falsification essays, rhythms. This is the only world Luke knows and he brings this knowledge to bear on new situations, looking for the objects and activities that make sense to him. Adults attitudes to drawing and understanding of its place within child development will therefore influence the child's motivation to use drawing as a means of. Access to drawing as part of daily routine - importance of views and beliefs of adult about drawing - it is done at nursery - link to proof, writing / academic; its part of what you do with young children - its what my mum did. Female role. Children use what is to hand. Children influenced by daily pattern of behaviour. If home has special focus this influences the campus child and is taken into proof, the nursery. Importance of choice, provision of materials and adults who model use of on my resume different materials, particularly initial exploration 'what can we do' rather than 'this is what you do' Role model for drawing.
An adult who draws. In nursery being comfortable with familiar activities therefore initially following home pattern. Talk about drawing - joint involvement episodes. 1. Drawing as part of a range of activities (syncretistic creativity) 2. Proof? Messages given to children. 3. Narrow view of literacy. Drawing as part of a (developmental) sequence towards writing. Play Drawing Writing (double symbolism) plus with talk. The importance of social interaction. The importance of oral storytelling in broadest sense.
The importance of popper essays drawing and talking in carrying the dissertation story meaning. Linked to above: The prescriptive curriculum. Adult focus/ child freedom. Gender expectations/ female teachers/ good behaviour is 'still' 'passive' '2D' Material not used in text. 'children construct their own understanding of the world, including their understandings of how symbolic media work, and that they do so as they engage in social activities with other people (Vygotsky, 1978).' Cassirer (cited in Gardner, 1982) claimed that such representative symbols are not simply tools of thought but are the functioning of thought itself. In other words, symbols provide a way of representing reality and integrating ideas we have about the essay on ragging in college world.
Through symbolic activity, children engage in dissertation, what is now popularly called 'meaning making'. (Wright in Boulton-Lewis Catherwood :1993) which children develop cultural awareness'. Mikkelsen (1990:13) Storymaking a third literacy, a way we 'read' ourselves into music censorship essays, understanding the world, as well as a way to 'write' a new version of the world we are trying to proof, see Egan - the power of storytelling for children. The children in the study fall within the age range which is associated with children learning to use symbols and symbol systems. This symbolic period (Gardner, 1991) is a time when children learn to use and tabata, understand language, to ask for things and information, and to tell others what they want. Proof? They also use language for more expressive purposes, such as telling jokes, teasing, making up or retelling stories, creating friendships and role playing. Carr,M (2001) Assessment in Early Childhood Settings London: Paul Chapman Publishing Y.
David,T and Goouch (2001) 'Early Literacy Teaching: The Third Way' Education 3-13 Vol 29 No 2 pp 19-24 Y. * Dunn,J. (1993) Young Children' Close Relationships London: Sage. Egan,K (1986) Teaching as Story Telling Chicago: University of Chicago Press Y. *Einarsdottir,J. (1996) Dramatic play and print Child Education Vol. 72(6) pp.352-57. Ferreiro,E. and Teborosky, A. (1983). Literacy Before Schooling London: Heinemann P. Hall,N. Campus? (1987) The Emergence of Literacy.
Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder and Stoughton. Jones,E and proof dissertation, Reynolds,G (1992) The Play's the Thing: Teachers' Roles in Children's Play. New York: Teachers College Press Y. Kantor,R., Miller,S. and Fernie,D. (1992) Diverse paths in literacy in a preschool classroom: a sociocultural perspective. On Ragging Campus? Reading Research Quarterly Vol.27 pp. 185-201 P. * Knupfer,A.M. (1996) Ethnographic studies of children: the difficulties of entry, rapport, and presentations of their worlds. Qualitative Studies in proof dissertation, Education, 9(2) pp.135-49. * Merritt,S. and Dyson,A.H. (1992) A social perspective on informal assessment: voices, texts, pictures, and case studies in nursing research, play from the first grade.
In C. Genishi (ed.) Ways of Assessing Children and Curriculum: Stories of proof Early Childhood Practice New York: Teachers College Press. * Morrow, L.M. Karl? (1990) Preparing the classroom environment to promote literacy during play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly Vol.5(4) pp.537-54. * Morrow,LM and Rand,M. (1991) Promoting literacy during play by designing early childhood classroom environments. Proof Dissertation? The Reading Teacher Vol.44 pp. 396-402. * Smith, A.B. (1992) Early Childhood Educare: seeking a theoretical framework in.
Phillips, L. (2000) 'Storytelling: The seeds of on my resume children's creativity' Australian Journal of Early Childhood Vol 25 (3) pp1-5. Pollard,A. (1996) The Social World of Children Learning: Case Studies of proof Pupils from four to seven. London:Cassell. L. Roskos,K. and Neuman, S. (1993). Descriptive observations of adults' facilitation in young children's play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly . Using Case? Vol.8 pp.77-97 P. Seitz J.A. (1997) 'The development of Metaphoric Understanding: Implications for proof a Theory of Creativity' Creativity Research Journal Vol. 10 (4) pp347 - 353 P. Smith, A.B. (1993) 'Early Childhood Educare: Seeking a theoretical framework in Vygotsky's work' International Journal of on my resume Early Years Education Vol 1(1) pp47-61 P. Sylva,K. (1994) School influences on children's development.
Journal of proof Child Psychology and essay on ragging in college campus, Psychiatry, 34(1), pp. Dissertation? 135-70 P. *Vygotsky's work . On My Resume? International Journal of Early Years Education , 1,pp.47-61. Wright,S (1995) in Boulton-Lewis,G and Catherwood,D The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching London: Pitman Publishing Y. Yair,G. (2000) Reforming motivation: how the structure of instruction affects students' learning experiences. British Educational Research Journal, 26(2) pp.191-210 P.
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Free Environmental Studies essays. In this project we are going to discuss the subject ‘light pollution’. We will discuss the following topics: What is light pollution Causes light pollution Effects of light pollution on individual organisms Types of light pollution Effect on astronomy What will happen if all dark places would be gone Solutions. We weren’t familiar with the topic, which made it exciting for us to do. We could actually learn something new, which is the purpose of the proof dissertation, project.
We spent a lot of time in the mediatheek looking for information. Karl Falsification Essays! When we knew something about dissertation light pollution, we could start writing. We have spent a lot of time working on campus, our project. We think that we did a good job at doing the project. We do believe that there is a solution to the problem, as long as we all try. Everything can help, even the smaller things. We hope that you enjoy reading our project and maybe even learned something new. A basic evolutionary fact is dissertation, that we humans are diurnal (active mainly during the day) species. Humans have eyes that are adapted to living in the sun’s light. We have engineered the essays, night to receive us by filling it with artificial light.This engineering is almost the same like damming a river. It has benefits, but also consequences.
These consequences are light pollution. Light pollution (aka: photopollution or luminous pollution) occurs at night and dissertation, is obtrusive (bothering), misdirected, inappropriate, or excessive artificial light. Components of light pollution are: Urban Sky Glow, which is the brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas; Light Trespass, when light falls where it is not intended or needed to fall; Glare, visual discomfort caused by excessive brightness and high levels can decrease visibility.; Clutter, light sources which are bright and excessive. These light sources can be found in over-lit urban areas. It is the brightening of the case, night sky and it diminishes the view of stars and dissertation, planets.
Light pollution is case in nursing, pollution caused by misplaced artificial light and dissertation, reflections such as outdoor light which scatters in the atmosphere and reflects back to compare contrast writing the ground. The light allows a fraction of light to dissertation go up in using the sky. This leads to sky glow. The particles in the atmosphere, which cause air pollution, accentuate light pollution by increasing the amount of light scatter. It has been proven that around one-third of the energy used for the outdoor lighting is reflected into the outer space, where it is proof dissertation, wasted, because it doesn’t serve any useful purpose. The rate at which urban areas are expanding also plays a big part to the increase of light pollution. Effects of light pollution on music censorship, individual organisms. The most common effect of light pollution is that it interferes with biological cycles and activities. With all our artificial light we disrupt our own and other organisms sleeping cycles. This is proof dissertation, mainly a big problem with nocturnal species, that wake up at sundown. Because of the artificial lighting, the are more exposed to predators so they have less time to find food.
Organisms depend on their genes which tell them when they need to wake up or sleep, but with all our artificial lighting this gets mixed up. Humans can experience this when they travel to different time zones, everything is different and your mind and body are confused. A lot of different animals are affected by light pollution. Compare Contrast Essay Academic Writing! For example, sea turtles are also affected by light pollution from artificial lighting. Lights that are turned on at night confuse the unhatched turtles, they may think it’s time to dissertation hatch when they shouldn’t. Protocol! If they hatch to early, or during the dissertation, wrong part of the day, the chances of survival will become a lot smaller.
With the artificial lighting by the beaches or on the roads, instead of crawling to karl popper falsification essays the sea they might crawl to the roads. Not only proof dissertation, reptiles are affected by light pollution, also insects, amphibians, mammals and birds. Insects that are attracted to light like flies will fly around street lights during the night and they will stay in one place, this makes them vulnerable to nocturnal predators. Since they fly around the lights the opportunities to essay mate are reduced which leads to population reduction. Overall the number of insects will be reduced over the years. Amphibians are also affected by dissertation, light pollution, even if they don’t live in music essays an urban city, because light pollution isn’t only proof dissertation, causing problem in the areas with a large amount of light, areas around it are also affected. Contrast Essay Academic! Amphibians get really confused by proof dissertation, light pollution because they don’t know when it’s nighttime with all the artificial lighting. Since they eat at night to avoid predators, they become an easier prey because they don’t know when they need to get food.
Also mammals are affected by paper, light pollution, especially nocturnal mammals like bats, coyotes and bats. They are so affected by light pollution because there is too much light at night to find food. It becomes more difficult to dissertation find a breeding site, which leads to less reproduction opportunities, and the population of the species will shrink. Birds that migrate at night rely on the light that is reflected by the moon and stars to find their way through the music, dark. They get confused and proof, could get stuck in compare contrast writing an urban area, because they were caught off their guard by all the lights. When birds end up in cities there is usually little food and they are more vulnerable to predators or human inventions like cars or trains. Besides all the organisms that are affected by light pollution, us humans who invented artificial lighting that causes this light pollution are also affected by it. Since we are so advances with technology and other things like that we have found ways so we don’t suffer from light pollution.
But we can’t completely solve it with our inventions like curtains. Even our sleeping patterns get mixed up when we travel across time zones. Our natural sleep rhythm get’s affected by light pollution too. Us humans have a hormone called melatonin. This hormone helps us sleep and creates a natural rhythm for sleep. Light pollution and artificial lighting disturbs the natural rhythm and decreases the amount of melatonin in proof dissertation our body. Which leads to broken nights and in college campus, a bad sleeping patterns. If you look at a bigger picture of dissertation, how light pollution affects organisms, you will see that different organisms are affected in the same ways. They’re biological cycles get mixed up, they have trouble finding out when it’s nighttime.
Also they have a smaller chance of essay on ragging, survival because of the proof dissertation, light pollution. All the consequences to these organisms are bad and disrupt the natural rhythms. Types of light pollution. Urban Sky-glow: Sky glow exists in large cities. Contrast Essay Academic Writing! It is the ‘glow’ which you can see over many cities and towns in the evening. Urban Sky Glow is the dissertation, brightening of the night sky. It is caused when artificial light escapes from misdirected and karl, badly designed light sources into proof dissertation, the atmosphere.
It is scattered by particles (pollen, bacteria, dust, spores, mineral particles) or by water droplets while it travels through the atmosphere. The light gets reflected and masks the background stars and cases a hazy glow over the night sky. This type of light pollution is a concern to astronomers, because it creates a hazy glow over the night sky. On My Resume! Skyglow makes it hard for astronomers to see anything besides the most luminous stars and planets. Skyglow also caused behavioral disorders in proof many species of animals. for example; sea turtles and birds, who rely on the night sky for breeding and to find their way. In heavily polluted areas Urban Sky-glow is worse. Essay In College Campus! It will always exist if the air quality is poor.
“Empire State Building Night” – an example of proof, sky glow. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons. Clutter: Light clutter is the on my resume, excessive groupings of light. These groupings of light may cause confusion, distraction from objects, and possibly cause accidents. Clutter light pollution is proof dissertation, caused by things like street lights, these can be dangerous to the people driving since the drivers can be distracted by in college campus, these lights.
“Las Vegas Strip” by BrendelSignature at English Wikipedia – an example of Clutter – Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Common Good using CommonsHelper.. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons. Glare: Glare is a visual sensation that is cause by excessive and uncontrolled brightness. Glare from street-lights, car-yard and proof, security lights can shine directly into the eyes and cause discomfort. This makes it hard for compare contrast writing the eye to adjust effectively to changing levels of proof, illumination, so compromising night vision. there are three forms of glare: Discomfort glare: The sensation of annoyance or pain induced by essays, overly bright sources. This can be caused by any light source that’s bright enough to cause glare. Disability glare: The reduction in visibility caused by intense light sources in the field of view.
This can be caused by any light source that’s bright enough to cause glare. Blinding glare: When there is a light source that’s so bright that it can cause a moment of blindness, the amount of time the proof dissertation, blindness lasts depends on the brightness of the music essays, light source. Light trespass: Light trespass is unwanted and proof, uncontrolled light that shines outside the area that it is designated to illuminate. It causes discomfort, distraction, annoyance, or a reduction in visibility, and music, wastes energy and money. These are several characteristics of dissertation, nighttime lighting that can cause Light trespass: Spill light: The light that illuminates surfaces beyond the on ragging campus, property line. Brightness: The presence of bright sources which are in a person’s field of view which can cause discomfort glare, disability glare or blinding glare. Astronomy is very sensitive to light pollution. Light pollution interferes with our visibility due to sky glow. Sky glow is unshielded light that is send in all directions. Sky glow, mostly caused by big cities, makes it hard to see dim objects in the sky at night, such as nebulae, stars and galaxies.
Sky glow reduces the contrast between the sky and between the stars and galaxies, which makes it even harder to proof see dim objects. Astronomers use a broad-band light filters, which reduce the effects of light pollution on astronomy. The broad-band light filters do that by filtering out on ragging campus spectral lines and so alter the view of dim objects. The filters help by blocking light from some wavelengths, which modify the colors of the objects. But the dissertation, broad-band filters can only censorship, affect certain object types. Proof Dissertation! They affect nebulae, but have little effect on galaxies and stars. The visibility of objects such as nebulae and compare contrast, galaxies is affected more than stars, due to their. Of course, these broad-band filters can’t stop light pollution affecting astronomy, but they sure help to see even better during the night time. What will happen if all dark places are gone? Most of us live in an area where it is proof, not dark enough for our brains to recognize it as night. Humans and other species have evolved to be in tune with cycles of day and night, so if we would destroy our night, the following problems will occur everywhere.
Light pollution is in college, bad for our health, it can cause cancer, so if all the dark places would be gone there would be higher nighttime lighting levels, which will cause a big increase of dissertation, cancer patients. Light pollution is a disturbance to animals, animals are, just like we are, evolved to be in tune with cycles of day and using in nursing research, night. If all dark places would be gone, animals would be confused, which can cause their death, for example, a sea turtle hatches her eggs, when the hatchlings go swimming, they use light in the reflected water to find their way home, and proof, because of using research, light pollution on the beach, they will lose their way. Also birds are affected by light pollution, they can get captured by the artificial lightning, fly in circles until they die from exhaustion. Many more animals are affected by light pollution, they become an easy prey for predators which has an unknown effect on proof, the ecosystem. Astronauts and compare contrast essay academic, astronomers have already complained that the streetlight interferes with their equipment. If all the dark places would be gone, we could not see anything in proof space which will stop us from discovering and learning more from space. Light pollution also alters our view of the sky and stars. It is a waste of energy, about academic 30 percent of the dissertation, nightlight is a waste. The total amount of essay on ragging campus, electrical energy can illuminate over 11 million homes and power over 777.000 cars.
It is bad for the environment, this is because out nightlight causes 12 million tons of dissertation, carbon dioxide to go into tabata protocol, the atmosphere which ruins it. Light pollution suppresses a natural occurring radical that cleans the air in the night. Light pollution increases the chemicals for proof dissertation ozone pollution by 5 percent. How can we reduce light pollution? (solutions): We can reduce the light pollution by, for compare essay academic example save more energy at home, turn off the light that’s not needed, by doing this, we can reduce the light pollution together.
Also we can reduce light pollution in bigger amounts, we can cut off a few streetlights and dissertation, embrace the night. We also can use smarter lighting by, for karl popper essays example using dimmer or timer light, we can also use wavelength light with a red or yellow tint to minimize the impact. We can also reduce excessive lighting, for example the proof, billboards in Las Vegas can be turned off or can be made smaller, we can also turn off lights of big buildings, while nobody is doing something, for example a football stadium or the Eiffel Tower. We can also make a special day, when people can use candles instead of electricity. Using In Nursing Research! We can shield our outdoor lightning too. One of the most effective solutions would be to dissertation shine lights down instead of upwards on streets. In that way we could efficiently use the light, and shine it at the place where it is most needed, which is the ground. We should also replace small and poor quality fixtures and get better lighting, so we could use as less as possible but still see enough to walk down the street. We could also use efficient sources around businesses and houses. Most of the spaces we are in, have enough light from a low wattage light bulb. And when you do need higher wattage light bulbs,you should make sure that the bulb is compare, shielded, so that no light is dissertation, wasted.
Of course not for everyone making a change is easy, mostly because we all have our personal habits, for example, most people like to have a late night snack or some people have to go to the bathroom in the middle of the night. Even those people can make a change by installing a dimmer so they can use as little light as possible, or they can install a light sensor, so that the on my resume, light will only go on proof dissertation, when you walk passed the case in nursing, sensor. As you can see, there are a lot of proof dissertation, solutions to these problems, but almost nobody does something against light pollution. Karl Popper Falsification Essays! If we work harder and together, we can reduce light pollution and get the night back. Dissertation! We can make the change together, as long as you are aware of the fact that we are ruining our environment and as long as we keep talking about it and spreading the word, we can work towards a safe and healthy environment. There is already a movement called The Dark-Side Movement, which consists of astronomers who try to music essays show people that light pollution is bad and want it to decrease. On this picture you can see how we can reduce light pollution of the streetlights, if we make all the streetlights like this, light pollution would decrease in a large amount.
Beside this, there are many more ways to use light in dissertation a better way. Street light schematic. Source: http://www.gizmag.com/led-streetlamp/27246/pictures#5 Street lamp design. Music Censorship Essays! Source: http://www.gizmag.com/led-streetlamp/27246/pictures#1. So, light pollution is the artificial light which is wasted. Dissertation! There are a lot of bad consequences, but most people have never heard of it and some of the people who do know it, don’t think it’s a big problem, we think this has to change because it is a very bad thing even though some people say it isn’t. Using Case In Nursing Research! But there are a lot of people that are trying to fight light pollution. They want to proof dissertation protect human health and wildlife. Countries are starting to realize the big effects and on my resume, problems light pollution is dissertation, causing. They are starting to look for solutions that will make a big difference.
Many scientists are trying to find good solutions to this problem. If everybody helps to fight light pollution, we can make a big difference together. Music Essays! We think that it’s not that hard to turn off some lights and use better lightning. People who care about proof themselves should care more. Search our thousands of compare academic writing, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on dissertation, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is writing, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and proof dissertation, you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in music censorship your email box, in proof as little as 3 hours.
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