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perfection, barely kissed the ground before their departure was rocketed off in direction of the stark white goal posts. Help For Research? As I gazed around the essay field, I . gathered this sense of calm from my team mates. A Thesis For Research Paper? The scoreboard counted down towards start of the game as the stock investing essay breeze whispered to me a silent farewell. But the breeze wasn't my concern at this point; we were about to play Richland center and I had a good feeling that today was going to be one to remember. How To Write Company Report? Coach called everyone over to the gleaming.
Association football , Thing 1163 Words | 3 Pages. Present Situation of Bangladesh in Cricket. supposed that cricket will be only stock, game for rich, sluggish and lazy people. But now-a-days it becomes very popular and . interesting game for us. Over 120 countries playing cricket and 3rd grade book report, many people want to stock investing, be cricket player.
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Extensive catalogues of essay, stars have. Alpha Centauri , Binary star , Main sequence 2252 Words | 6 Pages. Sport of India not Cricket Well, if asked some Indians about statement, what they thought was the investing essay National Sport of India his answer would most . probably be Cricket . Even though most people will agree but, the truth is the a thesis paper National Sport of India actually is stock Field Hockey. Cover Letter Letter Of Application? The thing is actually the investing hockey team deserves little better treatment and higher praise than cricket . But, do we treat both games equally in India and do we have any special attachment for our national game ? Even though Hockey. Board of Control for Cricket in India , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1358 Words | 4 Pages. Sport Technology in Sport How does the 3rd Umpire affect the way we play Cricket ? The 3rd umpire is a thesis statement a person who sits off the . cricket field using high technology equipment and computers to make correct decisions regarding a run out, a catch and investing essay, a stumping, when the on field umpires are unsure of how to company, making a correct decision. The 3rd umpire is appointed by essay, the International Cricket Council (ICC), the dvd author resume governing body of cricket . It is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket's major.
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Cricket , Foreign language , Language 2183 Words | 8 Pages. physical activities or mental activities. For me, cricket is my hobby because it has become part of my life. I . often engage in playing both at the club level and for recreation. Cricket is a team sport for two teams of eleven players each.
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Baseball , Batting , Cricket 1857 Words | 5 Pages. My favourite sport:Cricket My favourite sport is Cricket . Cricket is a . wonderful game between the two teams. Each team will have eleven players and two to three substitutes. Out eleven players five to cover of application difference, six players will be bats men, and stock essay, the rest will be a bowlers and fielders and one wicket keeper. Company Report? Skipper will be appointed to lead the team. It is a team game . Cricket is an one day match and now it is played for threes hours too. Cricket field will have pitch with stamps and bales and stock investing, two ends. Cricket , Cricket terminology , Fielding 741 Words | 2 Pages. Cricket is not a game that most Americans know about, however, it is a popular sport in Australia and in other British parts of the wave understanding the concept of critical thinking, . the world.
This sport is not unlike any other sport in the area that it involves a great deal of investing, physics. However, this paper will focus on the aspect of bowling the ball and the batters reaction to this. Catching Understanding The Concept Thinking? When comparing Cricket to other sports that most Americans know, the closest match that can be found is stock baseball. For example, a ball is dvd author thrown toward someone with. Base on balls , Baseball , Bowler 999 Words | 3 Pages. earth in my opinion. My whole life has been surrounded by football as both my papa and dad were crazy over 'Rangers . Football Club'. As I grew up I remember them both telling me stories of essay, how they played for their school teams and about how many trophies they had won. As my papa was around 70 when he told me these interesting stories about the black poe thesis statement, his younger life surrounding football a lot of stock investing essay, facts had changed dramatically since then, I remember thinking to resume, myself I wish football was like it was in my papas.
2006 FIFA World Cup , 2010 FIFA World Cup , American football 1000 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket , not snake charmers and elephants, is the most common sight in India. Go where you will or want, there will always be a narrow street . Stock Investing? nearby, chock full of a group of enthusiastic boys, of all ages and write performance, descriptions, playing cricket with remarkable energy and stock, passion. Charlotte's? Little boys who are only just bigger than the bats they bravely hold, teenagers attempting to play in the manner of the investing national cricketers they watch and admire, grown men whose love for book report charlotte's web the game has never waned ? such are. Batting , Cricket , Cricket ball 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket , one of the best sports any can play, where eleven fielders and two batsmen stand on a field trying to show how they are better than . the other. Stock Investing Essay? This was definitely not the case at one of the best cricket matches I have ever been to.
The Asian XI VS The Rest of the World XI match which was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in January 2005. This match was played for the reasons of Charity for the Boxing Day Tsunami disaster in the black cat edgar allan, 2004. The match was very different to a normal cricket match. Adam Gilchrist , Brian Lara , Cricket 734 Words | 2 Pages. up in an illustrious and essay, cohesive |Permanent Address: | | |family with . Letter? three brothers. My father Md.
Monzurul Hoque |54 A/B 2nd colony | | |Chowdhury is an Advocate; my mother Mrs. Kohinoor Begum is|Mazar Road, Mirpur-1 | | |a housewife. I was born on investing essay May 25. High school , Managing director 267 Words | 3 Pages. An Individual Training Program for Cricket. What is interval training and understanding the concept, how can it make you a better player? Back in 2006 I answered that question with a post about the best way to run to investing, . cricket success. To summarise my stance then (and now): I love interval running for a thesis statement for research paper the following reasons: It's cricket specific because it reflects the stop-start nature of the game . Essay? You can the the black cat edgar allan same fitness results in less time. You can integrate it with fielding drills. It speeds up your metabolism which is stock investing essay good for the wave understanding the concept thinking fat burning.
It's a flexible. Cricket , Exercise , Interval 772 Words | 3 Pages. Overview Twenty20 cricket , often referred to as the “short game ” involves each team only essay, playing a single innings, batting each . for a maximum of 20 overs. Dvd Author Resume? The timespan of a typical Twenty20 game is just under 3 hours, each innings therefore lasting 75 mins, and this brings the investing game more in line with other popular sports such as football or rugby. The game was conceived by allan poe thesis statement, the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) with the aim of creating a faster and more exciting version of investing, cricket . The board stressed. 2007 ICC World Twenty20 , Cricket , ICC World Twenty20 1273 Words | 4 Pages. ? Whenever I think about my aim of life for exploring my willingness in sport or game then my mind . The Black Cat Edgar Allan Poe Thesis Statement? mingles with a lot of options. Investing? My choice swings between two games Football and Cricket . Therefore I workout on my choice deeply and concluded that I really want to see myself as a cricketer. I found that Cricket is the most favourite one for me. The great Bangladeshi Cricket player's life style already telling the story of big success and showing the height of human stature in the world society. Batting , Bowling , Cricket 719 Words | 1 Pages.
by many people in the year 2010 has made India proud and it will be remember for many years. Write Company? India did not only achieve a lot in cricket in . 2010 but achieved a lot in many others sports. Indian cricket team achieved a lot in 2010. Indian cricket team did not only won many one day series and test series in stock investing, the year 2010 but it also got the number one rank in ICC Cricket Ranking for Test teams . India is still the number one team in test matches and if India keeps doing well Indian team may keep the. Chess , Corus chess tournament , Cricket 830 Words | 3 Pages.
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Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is death. They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the stock investing stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama.
Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into the world. We ring out the old and ring in the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into a youth and 3rd grade then into a man. The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, “Today is not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is permanent, it is subject to change.
This is observed in all spares of activity. Change indeed is essay painful, yet needful”. Flowing water is wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is how to write company performance able to stock investing, refresh and recreate. Change is an help a thesis for research, ever-present phenomenon. It is the law of nature.
Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to essay, incessant changes. Individuals may strive for stability, yet the fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it. It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is influenced by 3rd grade book report charlotte's, many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change.
Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of investing essay sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for social change is of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in investigating ‘future’ developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in 3rd grade book report the modes of essay living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes. Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium.
The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in the black statement anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of stock investing time. Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Understanding Of Critical Thinking! Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. Stock! These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society.
Thus, the term ‘social change’ is performance report used to describe variations of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in investing essay the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society. Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from company those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in investing essay some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Human society is constituted of dvd author resume human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man. Theorists of social change agree that in most concrete sense of the word ‘change’, every social system is changing all the time. The composition of the population changes through the stock investing life cycle and cover difference thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is perhaps the most difficult one within the stock investing scientific study of change. It involves the often neglected query of what ‘kind’ and help statement paper degree of change in what is to be considered social change.
Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in investing essay the context of the latter’s application to some empirical case. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization”. As Kingsley Davis says, “By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization – that is, the structure and functions of society”. According to Maclver and Page, “Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the man in made condition of life; to changes in the attitudes and beliefs of men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and the wave understanding the physical nature of things”.
Morris Ginsberg defines, “By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the society, the composition or the balance of its parts or the type of its organization”. P. Fairchild defines social change as “variations or modifications in any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. Kuppuswamy says, “Social change may be defined as the process in stock investing which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system”. H.M. Johnson says, “Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern”. According to Merrill and Eldredge, “Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before”. Anderson and Parker define, “Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves”. According to M.D.
Jenson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of people. As H.T. Mazumdar says, “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the cover letter difference old, in the life of investing essay people or in the operation of a society”. According Gillin and Gillin, “Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of life; whether due to alternation in geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the catching the wave understanding the concept thinking population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the investing essay group. By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of cat edgar allan society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the people together and help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other.
For example, a change in the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Stock Essay! Towards the cat edgar allan close of the investing essay 19 century, there was a tendency in the wave the concept of critical thinking the countries of Western Europe for families to grow smaller in size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by voluntary restriction of births”. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is mainly responsible for change in the social structure. On the stock investing essay other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the society. 3rd Grade Book Report Web! Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society.
For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production. The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from home to factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of investing independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of a thesis statement women’s personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of investing essay social change is one of the central foci of sociological inquiry.
It is so complex and so significant in 3rd grade report charlotte's the life of individual and of society that we have to explore the ‘why’ and investing ‘how’ of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Social Change : The fact of social change has fascinated the keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of catching understanding the concept social change is not simple but complex. It is essay difficult to understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to the wave understanding of critical, find an appropriate answer. To understand social change well, we have to analyse the nature of social change which are as follows:
1. Social Change is Social: Society is a “web of social relationships” and stock investing essay hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Social relationships are understood in statement terms of social processes and social interactions and investing social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in writing for research paper a community form. Essay! The changes that have significance for the black allan poe thesis all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of nature. The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic.
Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static. Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is stock essay constantly undergoing change. Just as man’s life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and allan statement times. Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment.
Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for achieving new goals, and stock investing here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of nature. Social change is also natural. Change is an 3rd grade book report, unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, “The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous:
Society is an ever-changing phenomenon. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an “ongoing process”. These changes cannot be stopped. Society is subject to continuous change. Stock Investing! Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions.
Society is a system of social relationship. Resume! But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Essay! Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the how to write ravages of stock time. From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in the concept of critical thinking flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history.
In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today. Stock Investing Essay! There is no fixity in human relationships. Write Report! Circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement: Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. Stock Essay! The question of “what ought to be” is how to company beyond the nature of social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement.
It is essay ethically neutral. A correct decision on poe thesis, what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to be. 6. Social Change is Bound by Time Factors: Social change is investing temporal. It happens through time, because society exists only as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors. For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. But in 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of how to performance social change differs from age to age.
The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the stock essay changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for letter letter of application difference each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of change is not uniform. It differs from society to society. In some societies, its speed is rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in essay them.
For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is help writing a thesis statement for research Impossible: It is stock investing very much difficult to resume, make out any prediction on the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the face of investing essay society was vastly different from company performance that what exists today. But what the society will be in thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. Stock Investing! For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and marriage system. The Wave The Concept Of Critical! But we cannot predict the stock investing essay exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable. 9. Write Company Performance! Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences:
Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in investing one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the emancipation of letter difference women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the essay mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The Concept Of Critical Thinking! The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted. The changing values of women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Change in its one aspect may lead to a series of changes in stock other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of Factors:
Social change is the consequence of cover letter of application difference a number of factors. A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of investing one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the ’cause’ of the change. M. Ginsberg observes: “A cause is an assemblage of of critical thinking factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change”. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the stock investing essay doors leading to social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. 11. Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. Help Paper! For example, the form of our breakfast food has changed.
Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of social relationships. For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards women’s status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such.
13. Short-term and Long-term Change: The conceptualization of the investing magnitude of change involves the next attribute of change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as ‘small-scale from 3rd grade book charlotte's web a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of investing essay time, as the decreasing death rate since the 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent:
At times, the attribute ‘peaceful’ has been considered as practically synonymous with ‘gradual’ and ‘violent’ with ‘rapid’. The term ‘violence’ frequently refers to the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may ‘violently’ affect the emotions, values and expectations of write performance report those involved. According to W.E. Moore, “A ‘true’ revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in the institutions or normative codes of society and of its power distribution, is rapid and continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to investing, erratic”. ‘Peaceful’ has to do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by the normative restraints of society. 15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned:
Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately. The Wave The Concept! Unplanned change refers to change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and essay floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. So social change is called as the charlotte's web unchangeable law of nature. The nature is never at rest. Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in order to determine and control the direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to stock investing essay, know. There is report web always a curiosity about unknown. Stock Essay! The needs of human beings are changing day by day.
So to satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Help A Thesis For Research Paper! Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to investing essay, the change caused by the factors that are generated by write company performance, society or a given subsystem of society. Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by new factors introduced into the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies. 17.
Change Within and Change of the investing System: The distinction between kinds of change has been developed by Talcott Parsons in dvd author his analysis of change ‘within’ and change ‘of the system, i.e., the orderly process of stock investing essay ongoing change within the book charlotte's boundaries of a system, as opposed to the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of stock investing change ‘within’ the 3rd grade report system may result in a change ‘of’ the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of essay change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary). Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on cat edgar allan poe thesis, the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in change.
Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of change, the use of the stock essay foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying one’s conceptualization of any type of 3rd grade charlotte's web change or at least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the stock investing essay subject of social change. In explaining the concept of social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the concept of evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of Darwin’s “Origin of Species”, the how to write notion of social evolution was taken directly from the theories of biological evolution. Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism. It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object.
Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of ‘organic evolution’ in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term ‘evolution’ is borrowed from biological sciences to Sociology. The term ‘organic evolution’ is replaced by ‘social evolution’ in sociology. Whereas the term ‘organic evolution’ is used to denote the evolution of organism, the stock investing expression of resume ‘social evolution is used to explain the evolution of human society. It was hoped that the stock investing theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the the black allan same to the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion.
Sociologists adopted the word ‘evolution’ to investing, convey the sense of growth and change in social institutions. How To Company Report! Social institutions are the result of evolution. Stock Essay! They began to work to trace the origin of the ideas, institutions and of the developments. The term ‘evolution’ is derived from the Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to ‘develop’ or ‘to unfold’. It is equivalent to 3rd grade book report web, the Sanskrit word ‘Vikas’.
Evolution literally means gradually ‘unfolding’ or ‘unrolling’. It indicates changes from ‘within’ and not from ‘without’. The concept of essay evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an organism. Evolution means more than growth. Help Writing For Research! The word ‘growth’ connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to Maclver and Page, “Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in structure also”. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, “Evolution is merely a change in a given direction”. Ginsberg says, “Evolution is defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing “an orderly continuity in transition”.
That is to say, we have evolution when” the series of changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of changes, but a ‘continuous process’, through which a clear ‘thread of identity runs’. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in stock essay a system of a thesis for research paper some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. Stock! It is a principle of internal growth. How To Write Company Performance! It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. “What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is made actual.” Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the stock investing essay variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. Catching The Wave Understanding The Concept Of Critical! We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is essay changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity.
Characteristics of Social Evolution : According to Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity.” Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of evolution; that is, changing from a state of ‘incoherent homogeneity’ to a state of ‘coherent heterogeneity.’ Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to catching the wave understanding the concept, complex existence. The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Investing! Darwin, came to 3rd grade charlotte's web, be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencer’s point of view can best be illustrated by an example.
In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an essay, individualistic life, trying to know and 3rd grade book web do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned. In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed “an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity,” But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to investing, work together.
The task of social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Thus, a state of “definite, coherent heterogeneity” was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. Cat Edgar Poe Thesis! These principles are: 1. Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is gradual.
4. Social evolution is progressive. In addition to this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and many others. (i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to study the investing essay history of a society over a long, period of time.
Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc” are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in a town previously. When the town had been a small community, its management was the the black allan poe thesis statement responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of stock a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the cat edgar poe thesis statement educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to essay, look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere. Catching Of Critical! Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary.
In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: ‘Arya Samaj’,” etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of investing this double processes of differentiation and integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of labour is the magic word of modern economic evolution. By an increase in the number of associations and how to institutions in society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully.
And because of the process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each other’s efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of essay cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an increase in poe thesis the number and stock the variety of functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and writing a thesis statement (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in the medium of language. Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development. Other writers have taken the various aspects together and sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, “The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed.” In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested.
For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and stock investing essay Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and diversity of their origin. Book Report Charlotte's! Here the essay process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation. However in spite of the various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the performance report principle of social evolution. Essay! He has criticised the practice of dvd author resume believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of social evolution.
He emphasizes, if we open the essay pages of History, we find that in the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of how to company diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the extent and element of reality in the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and Organic Evolution : Though ‘social evolution’ is borrowed from the stock biological concept of ‘organic evolution’, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the help writing a thesis statement for research paper two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the stock investing differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for catching the wave of critical different purpose. But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life.
Because man has the capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and after. Secondly, in organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through ‘genes’. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences. Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in social evolution even the old as well as the new generations are affected by it. Stock! For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is continuous.
There can be no break in it. It is continuous because of the statement for research paper irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution. It is subject to disruption. Stock Investing Essay! It is an intermittent.
It lacks continuity. Social Change and Social Evolution : Social change is an letter, ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Stock! Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static. The term ‘social change’ itself is wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of help a thesis for research paper social change, modern sociologists from time to time used different words and expressions. Evolution is one of them. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change.
But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in stock investing essay a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the the black cat edgar allan variety of aspects belonging to the nature of stock investing changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity.
Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature. Help Paper! Consequently, it is a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in which the equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is stock investing not mere change. 3rd Grade Book Report Charlotte's! It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. He writes, “the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the essay unity of the organism.”
Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of company performance labour resulting in great specialization (b) an increase in the number and variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and investing essay refinement in 3rd grade book report charlotte's web the means of social communication. “When these changes are proceeding, society is evolving”, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and investing Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the book web earlier exponents of the idea of progress. According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of progress. Etymologically, the word progress means “moving forward.” But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and investing such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change.
It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to change in every direction. For example, if the condition of agriculture in a thesis paper a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is stock investing undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways. Book! The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, “By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, “Progress is a change, but it is a change in a desired or approved direction, not in any direction.” Ginsberg defines progress as “A development or evolution in investing a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value”. According to Ogburn, “Progress is a movement towards an of application difference, objective thought to be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, “Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of persons or other organized from of life to live may be said to represent progress”.
Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to investing, another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of progress which are relative to their temporal context.
Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place. The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of progress. However, the following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Longevity of Life: Average length of life is one index of progress whether the world is growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of progress.
Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is write company not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress. But is stated that the integrated development of society is the criterion of progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is investing a change, a change for the better. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal.
The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to performance report, have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values: Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, “The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is stock investing essay a Change in Progress: Change is charlotte's web one of stock its essential attributes.
The concept of progress presupposes the company performance report presence of stock change. Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is not mere change. It is a change in a particular direction. Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of society. The Black Cat Edgar Poe Thesis! Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.
5. Progress is Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for progress. Efforts have to be made and investing essay when these efforts are successful it is allan poe thesis statement called progress. It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive.
The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to place and from time to time. It does not remain constant in all times and of all places. Investing Essay! That which is today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in how to write report the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Progress are Variable:
As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. Stock! But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of company performance report progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the investing criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod: The term progress is very much subjective and paper value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it.
Progress is stock a reality which is immeasurable and help a thesis undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. Investing! It is especially true in the case of catching the wave the concept thinking progress. To conclude, progress conveys the sense of investing essay something better and improved. Cover Letter! The advancement in stock essay technology was opposed to contribute to company performance report, progress.
But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of stock essay ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is writing a thesis statement paper now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The ‘progress’ in stock investing the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the book charlotte's web fulfillment, that was taken to stock investing, be its true aim.
For this, the use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. Book Report Web! The application of the term fell into disfavour. More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the stock essay term change is wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in a phenomena over, a period of time.
The moment the specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology ‘progress’ becomes necessary to describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. It cannot be appended to change in every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of some desired goal. Book Report! It is certainly a change, a change for the better not for the worse.
The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is not possible to investing, speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. There is no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and how to company some are harmful. But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress.
For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to essay, Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Letter Letter! Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out investing that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive. 3rd Grade Report Charlotte's Web! If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved.”
Social evolution should also be distinguished from stock investing essay social progress. A Thesis Statement For Research! Firstly L.T. Stock Investing! Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the growth of social life in respect of thinking those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is investing essay thus a ‘genus-species’ relation. Social progress is the black cat edgar allan statement only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of stock investing social evolution is not a form of social progress. Help A Thesis Statement For Research! For example, caste system in essay India is a product of social evolution.
But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, “that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction. The Black Allan! It describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement. The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should.
The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the concept of end varies with the mentality and investing experience of the individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution “depends on our perception of objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of cat edgar poe thesis progress depends on our ideals.” It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and progress is an stock, ethical concept. Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. While social evolution is clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the letter of application difference objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. Stock Essay! They have always been powerful in shaping and moving the a thesis world. In some manner they are active in every process of social change. “All social change has this double character.” From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. Investing Essay! They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the the concept of critical thinking three processes, one cause produces a number of stock investing effects, the effect and cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on dvd author resume, goes the process.
Factors of stock investing essay Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in company all periods of time. We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of stock essay factors involved in social change. Web! Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to investing essay, explain social change.
Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the dvd author resume origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in which it effects social change. These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an invention, is a great agent of social change.
It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to change. When the stock scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the first wave (agricultural revolution).
We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave. We go forward to describe the full power and reach of this extraordinary change. Some speak of a “Looming Space Age”, “Information Age”, “Electronic Era”, or “Global ‘ Village”. Brezezinski has told us, we face a “Technetronic Age”. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of the wave understanding of critical a “Post-Industrial Society”.
Soviet futurists speak of the STR-‘The Scientific-Technological Revolution”. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a “Super Industrial Society”. Technology is stock essay fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at resume less cost and at less time. It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of life.
The social effects of essay technology are far-reaching. In the words of W.F. Ogburn, “technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. Performance Report! This change is stock investing essay usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions”. Ogburn and dvd author Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. Stock Investing! They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in the modern era is easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.
The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from book hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to investing, industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. “Modern technology,” remarks the economic historian David Landes, “produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the concept thinking, the craft methods of stock essay yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in the pre-industrial era the camera, the motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of a thesis statement for research paper electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the stock investing essay nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum…. The result has been an enormous increase in catching the wave the concept of critical the output and variety of stock goods and services, and this alone has changed man’s way of life more than anything since the discovery of fire…” Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and international contact and understanding the concept of critical the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and essay industrialization, urbanization and the rise of catching the wave understanding the concept of critical working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society.
Ogborn even goes to the extent of suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe. Development in stock transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about catching the concept of critical thinking, social mixing of the people. It has helped people to investing, move out of their local environments and the black cat edgar statement take up jobs in distant corners of the country. Movement of people from East to stock essay, West and North to South has broken social and regional barriers.
There have come into existence new vocations and trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to take up an cover letter of application difference, occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days. Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon stock essay, the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and new standards of living. Technology thus is a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and cat edgar poe thesis comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and stock essay professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under:
1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of statement paper machines in the industry has replaced the system of stock investing individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of dvd author resume people and where most of the work is performed automatically. The birth of investing gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the write company report community of ‘labourers and with it was felt the need for stock all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and recreation clubs.
The area further developed when new business came to write company report, it with the formation of large business houses. 3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to investing essay, the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of superior seeds. 3rd Grade Report! All these factors resulted in increase of production. In India, the effect of technology is most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an investing, agricultural country.
4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to bring news from every corner of the cover letter letter of application difference world right into the household. The development of the car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of stock essay commodities much easier. As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress.
5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to division of society into book charlotte's classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking. ‘Trade Union’ movements, ‘Lockouts’, ‘Strikes”, “Hartals’, ‘Processions’, ‘Pen down’ became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to promote class interest. Investing Essay! These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of technology on help statement for research, major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and stock essay relation in several ways.
Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of letter production has brought women from home to the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity. It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament.
Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of technology. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of stock women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in writing statement for research paper the relations between men and women at stock home. It has lessened the importance of family in the process of socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and help writing paper social life, have now been abandoned by investing essay, them. 3rd Grade! With the stock growth of scientific knowledge and modern education, the 3rd grade book report charlotte's faith of the people in several old religious beliefs and stock essay activities have shaken. The most striking change due to allan, technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. Industry has been taken away from the household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils.
Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the stock investing essay products of technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in 3rd grade charlotte's web several ways. The functions of the State has been widened. A large number of stock investing essay functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of dvd author social welfare State is an offshoot of technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to stock investing essay, the Central Government.
The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the human relations. Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of social stratification from birth to letter letter of application difference, wealth. Stock Investing Essay! Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is masking of one’s true feelings. Socially, the urbanites are poor in the midst of plenty. “They feel lonely in the crowd”. On all sides, one is confronted with “human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings”. Technology has grown the catching sense of individualism. It has substituted the ‘handi work’ with ‘head work’.
It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. But is should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the master as well as a servant of the machine. He has the stock investing essay ability to alter the circumstances which have been the creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of for research paper social change. Culture is not something static. It is always in flux.
Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of society. It creates itself and develops by itself. It is men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to stock, social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. “Culture is the realm of final valuation”. Men interpret the whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclver’s simile, technological means may be represented by a ship which can set sail to various ports. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.
Without the ship we could not sail at all. Charlotte's! According to the character of the ship we sail fast of ‘slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and our experiences vary accordingly. But the direction in which we travel is not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of essay a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society. In order to be effective “The technology must have favourable cultural support”.
When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to the wave the concept of critical, influence the direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of stock essay war and for production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for dvd author resume building purposes and for warships.
Fire can be used for constructive and destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of “cultural lag”. The concept of ‘cultural lag’, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in which inventions discoveries and innovations of many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change. The concept of ‘cultural lag’ was first explicitly formulated by stock, W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled ‘Social Change’. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, ‘cultural lag’ means the phases of culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead.
Ogburn’s idea of ‘cultural lag’ is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the fact of discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between “material” and ‘non-material’ culture. By ‘material culture’ he means things which are ‘tangible’, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the ‘non-material’ culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent. Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in ‘material culture’, those in turn stimulate changes in ‘non-material’ culture, particularly in what he terms the ‘adaptive’ culture. The Black Poe Thesis! According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is different in pace from changes in investing essay non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of a society, the greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially.
Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is how to write accepted and used. There exists a “cultural lag” in stock creating controls and altering social relationship related to new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to man’s psychological dogmatism. He is catching understanding thinking wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out that “unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in essay a clear and effective manner. According to him, the distinction is dvd author resume not a workable one. Stock! Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the statement ‘material’ or that the main problem is one of adapting the ‘non-material’ to the ‘material’ culture.
Maclver also observes that the term ‘lag’ is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and stock investing the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, ‘technological lag’, ‘technological restraint’, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of culture. Kingsley Davis, in his ‘Human Society’ holds that the cover of application aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology. Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book ‘Introductory Sociology’ point out that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of social change. Social change is stock a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is not the same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over the wave the concept of critical thinking simple materialistic view of society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburn’s theory of cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the cultural factor in bringing about social change. It has been acknowledged by all that there is an intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the stock investing essay consequences of changes of the former.
Both technology and cultural factors are the two important sources of social change. Catching The Concept Thinking! The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in introduction to investing, Sociology’, rightly remark, “Culture tends to give direction and momentum to dvd author, social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact. It makes people think not of their own but also of the others.
Any change in cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the group. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization. It brought new hazards, new diseases, and industrial fatigue. That was not the stock investing essay fault of the machines and book report charlotte's web power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions.
But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. Culture began, at first very slowly, to redirect the new civilization. It made the investing essay new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of personality and new arts blossomed on the ruins of the old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values. So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, “What people think, in short, determines in every measure… what they do and what they want”. Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is “a broad correlation between the system of institutions and mentally behind them”.
Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the catching the wave understanding the concept of critical most decisive role in causing social change. The quantitative view of demography takes into account the factors that determine the stock population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of every community is always changing both in letter letter numbers and in composition. The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on stock investing, society. During the the wave understanding the concept of critical thinking 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down.
During the same time also, the essay death rate of these countries declined. Letter Difference! This double phenomenon is essay unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and changing mores. There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of for research both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of stock investing female children is greater than the statement for research number of male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the case is investing reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure.
The social structure influences population changes and is affected by 3rd grade book, them. It is stock essay beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour. With the changes in size, number and density of catching the concept population, changes take place in composition. Investing! The most important reasons for the contemporary population explosion are the tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by science and preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. For example, take the case of ‘Malaria’. This disease was responsible for the death of million of people in India and other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides.
Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and 3rd grade book heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of synthetic goods. Essay! It has led to urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to militarism. These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of living and thus inspires a change of attitude. Due to catching the wave understanding the concept, unprecedented growth of population in the 19th century, the practice of essay birth control took a new development. Help A Thesis For Research! This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in a pattern of ‘consumption’. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education.
On the other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of a people of then complicates the political process of country. Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the stock people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to statement paper, eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to these people’s low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of investing essay population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of our social relationship.
In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the relationship between people is said to superficial and secondary. In the opinion of letter letter Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by various sociologists and economists. An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on to the extent of developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called “Social Morphology” which not only analyses the size and quality of stock essay population but also examine how population affects the quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of catching understanding of critical thinking function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of essay function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of population. The Black Statement! He stresses on essay, the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the the black cat edgar allan poe thesis necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is stock based on “mechanical solidarity”. But as the groups grow in size and writing a thesis for research paper complexity with the increase in population, the “services of the experts” are more required. Stock Essay! The society, according to resume, him, moves towards “organic solidarity”. There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity.
M. David Heer, in his book “Society and Population”, has developed a “theory of demographic transition”. The theory was popularised just after the end of World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book “Popular Religion”, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to decline in mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out investing that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to dvd author, their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature. Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and investing essay stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an cat edgar poe thesis, English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the investing earliest demographers. In his work, “An Essay on the Principles of help writing statement paper Population”, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by stock essay, arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the cover letter difference two would create a lot of problems for society.
That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of stock essay checks which can keep the the wave understanding the concept of critical thinking population down. Essay! He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and late marriage and enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in the black cat edgar allan society’s socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate. These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and stock investing moral degeneration.
The gap between the living standards of catching the wave understanding thinking general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. The gap is cruelly frustrating the third world country’s hopes for stock essay development. With the current rate of write company performance report population increase, it is expected that the total requirements for future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in investing essay the microstructures, but also in macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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