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Best universities creative writing uk

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Burmese Pythons in the Everglades. They followed their ears to universities creative writing uk, a duel between an alligator and a huge Burmese Python. The alligator clamped his jaws around the snake. The snake wrapped its body around the alligator. The tourists wasted no time in whipping out their camera phones or video cameras, and within days the argumentative tattoo essay video was viral. Millions were enthralled by the odd match-up, but to scientists, it was a sign of what could be a very serious problem.

The fight between an American alligator and a Burmese Python is unusual, and pretty intriguing, because the best universities writing Burmese Python is not native to Florida. We will write a custom essay sample. on Burmese Pythons in the Everglades or any similar. topic specifically for you. In fact, people barely noticed they were there until the early 1990s. The accidental introduction of an american final, invasive species to an ecosystem can be absolutely devastating. They can wipe out other species, destroy habitats, and throw the whole system out of universities whack. Homework Dest. We’ve seen it before. The introduction of the Brown treesnake to Guam, for example, caused major ecological and socioeconomic problems since its introduction to Guam shortly after World War II.

The tree snakes clearly thrived in the environment of best universities writing uk Guam over how to scientific conclusion that of Australia; Specimens from best universities writing Guam were significantly larger, Dobson 2 nd reproduced year round, as compared to those found living in Australia, which reproduce seasonally. As the write scientific paper conclusion snakes thrived in a new home, the island could not quite handle them as their native lands could. The brown treesnake caused a severe decline in native forest bird species, the loss of best creative writing uk two lizard species, and homework dest, declines in the Marianna fruit bat. It is now recognized as a public health threat, as well as a substantial drain on Guam’s economy. Writing Uk. What has happened to Guam at the hand of a foreign, invasive species which should never have been introduced could easily happen to Florida too. If we allow the Burmese Python to take over argumentative essay and deplete the best writing uk diverse everglades, there is no telling what could be the long term effect. Like the Brown Treesnake to Guam, the Burmese Python survives better in the Everglades than its own natural environment. Argumentative Essay. In Southeast Asia, the best writing uk pythons may beprey to write conclusion, jackals, monitor lizards, parasites, and diseases. “By the time they reach two years old, not much can eat them in the Everglades” says USGS biologist Kristen Hart, quoted by Michael Tennessen (6). These animals are large: up to 20 feet long, and best creative writing uk, 200 pounds heavy. Page 2 Burmese Pythons in the Everglades Essay. American Government Final Exam. They aresneaky: they’re often underground, in trees, underwater, or just blending into best uk, their surroundings with their brown and green-ish markings.

They’re fast: “Relocated Pythons have demonstrated a homing ability, returning up to 48 miles from where they were captured. ” (Tennessen, 5) Most native species of the Everglades don’t stand a chance against these monsters. Some experts estimate that there are tens of thousands of Burmese Pythons living free in Florida today. Some eighteen hundred specimens have been removed and proxemics paper, recorded in and around the universities creative writing Everglades since 2005. Their numbers have risen dramatically. Two Burmese Dobson 3 Pythons were captured in the Everglades in 2000. In 2008, the final exam essay number captured hit 343 (Tennesen, 3). Long ago, water from the Kissimmee River was free to flow to Lake Okeechobee and southward, over the lowlands of Biscayne Bay, the Ten Thousand Islands, and universities creative uk, Florida Bay. It was a shallow layer of water moving slowly across nearly 11,000 square miles. Homework Dest. It created the swamps, sloughs, ponds, marshes and forests which now make up the remaining wilderness of southern Florida.

Many of those species are native, but many have been introduced to the environment, usually as stowaways on other imports, or pets that have been released. The Burmese Python is best creative uk, one of the most invasive of these non-native species. The snakes originate from proxemics paper Southeast Asia, so they thrive in best writing Florida’s similar environment. CSULA Optional Essay. The Everglades became sort of a paradise to the pythons, since their introduction in the early 1990’s. A female Burmese Python will lay up to 207 eggs at once. Inside her nest, she will coil her body around the eggs to maintain a temperature of about ninety degrees Fahrenheit. Incubation takes around two months. The python has only just recently been observed engaging in shivering thermo genesis for the first time outside of captivity. This is the creative writing production of body heat through muscle contractions.

The mother snake does this to raise the temperature of her nest and eggs- the warmer the incubation, the quicker they will hatch, and slither free throughout the forest, carrying on its destructive path. With this sort of reproduction, it’s no wonder they’re so easily taking over the Everglades. CSULA Essay. Dobson 4 One of the first big releases of the universities uk Burmese Python in Florida took place in 1992. Hurricane Andrew, a category 5 hurricane, took down a large snake importer’s warehouse, as well as causing many billions of dollars of damage. Each year, Miami receives 12,000 exotic pet shipments, many of which are the Burmese Python. A person who takes in a 20-inch baby python might be understandably surprised when it becomes a 12-foot, 200 pound beast within a couple years, and many will end up releasing it into the wild. Most likely they are unaware that the write scientific paper reptile is about to wreak havoc on the ecosystem, gobbling native small to medium-sized species of universities writing all kinds, if they are unlucky enough to paper, fall into its path. A Burmese Python will eat anything from best writing uk birds and rodents to bobcats and paper, deer- it will even swallow one of Florida’s iconic American Alligators like the one the tourists captured. Scientists who are worried about conservation of The Everglade’s native species have been recording numbers of medium-sized animal sightings and comparing them to numbers taken during 1996 and 1997. The recordings for universities creative most species were down by close to 99 percent!

Obviously there are other factors that have surely had an effect on the animals, like climate change, pollution, hurricanes, and whatever else, but there is a pretty definite link between the CSULA optional time of introduction of the universities creative writing uk Bermuda Python to wild Florida, and the sharp decrease in sightings of native species. The solution for such an issue is a tricky debate. How do you get rid of such a large population entirely? It may not seem especially “eco-friendly” or humane to research, run around capturing and killing as many Burmese Pythons as we can get our hands on, but neither is. Dobson 5 allowing these creatures that humans are responsible for bringing to Southern Florida, deplete the natural ecosystem and universities writing, force native species into endangerment or extinction. So far nobody has thought up a good alternative, and argumentative tattoo, permits to catch/kill Burmese Pythons found in and around the Everglades are now distributed. In 2003, the Task Force established an interagency team (FIATT) that will focus its efforts on non-native species. Their goal is to figure out how to assess and control the numbers of these threatening species (National Resource Council, 53).

The largest subtropical wilderness here in the United States has also been designated as a World Heritage Site, an best universities writing uk, International Biosphere Reserve, and Wetland of International Importance. It is exam essay, naturally home to a wide spectrum of species, some which cannot even be found anywhere else. Needless to say, the preservation of this landmark is universities writing uk, hugely important. Besides the Pythons there are Nile Monitor Lizards, African Sacred Ibis, Old World Climbing Ferns, and god knows what else threatening a fragile ecosystem. There is no quick or easy way of stopping the Burmese Python from destroying the Everglades. We will have to write scientific conclusion, work tirelessly and with dedication, because this problem will not take care of itself.

One by one, each Burmese python will have to be captured and dealt with by relocation, or extermination. In all of my research, I found no alternative solution proposed, besides killing off most of the snakes. Maybe, more humanely, we could arrange some sort of python sanctuary in which Burmese Pythons are captured, sterilized, and cared for until their natural deaths.

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Read the full transcript of President Obama's farewell speech. President Obama delivered his farewell speech Tuesday in Chicago. President Obama delivered his farewell speech Tuesday in Chicago. Here is an unedited transcript of President Obama’s prepared remarks during his farewell address in Chicago, as provided by writing the White House. It’s good to be home. Scientific Conclusion? My fellow Americans, Michelle and I have been so touched by all the well-wishes we’ve received over the past few weeks.

But tonight it’s my turn to say thanks. Whether we’ve seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at all, my conversations with you, the American people – in living rooms and schools; at farms and on factory floors; at diners and on distant outposts – are what have kept me honest, kept me inspired, and kept me going. Every day, I learned from you. You made me a better president, and writing you made me a better man. I first came to Chicago when I was in my early 20s, still trying to figure out who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life. Argumentative Tattoo Essay? It was in neighborhoods not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills. It was on these streets where I witnessed the power of faith, and the quiet dignity of working people in the face of struggle and loss. This is where I learned that change only universities creative, happens when ordinary people get involved, get engaged, and come together to CSULA essay demand it. After eight years as your president, I still believe that. Universities Creative Writing Uk? And it’s not just my belief. It’s the argumentative essay beating heart of our American idea – our bold experiment in best universities writing uk, self-government.

It’s the conviction that we are all created equal, endowed by our creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It’s the insistence that these rights, while self-evident, have never been self-executing; that we, the people, through the instrument of american government final exam essay our democracy, can form a more perfect union. This is the great gift our Founders gave us. The freedom to chase our individual dreams through our sweat, toil, and imagination – and the imperative to strive together as well, to achieve a greater good. For 240 years, our nation’s call to citizenship has given work and purpose to universities creative writing each new generation. It’s what led patriots to choose republic over simple money essay, tyranny, pioneers to universities creative trek west, slaves to paper brave that makeshift railroad to best writing freedom.

It’s what pulled immigrants and refugees across oceans and the Rio Grande, pushed women to reach for the ballot, powered workers to organize. It’s why GIs gave their lives at Omaha Beach and Iwo Jima; Iraq and ways essay spm Afghanistan – and why men and women from Selma to best universities creative writing uk Stonewall were prepared to give theirs as well. So that’s what we mean when we say America is exceptional. Not that our nation has been flawless from the start, but that we have shown the capacity to change, and make life better for those who follow. Yes, our progress has been uneven. The work of democracy has always been hard, contentious and sometimes bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. But the long sweep of America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of homework dest our founding creed to embrace all, and not just some. If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the best writing longest stretch of job creation in our history…if I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, and take out the mastermind of proxemics 9/11…if I had told you that we would win marriage equality, and universities writing secure the right to health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens – you might have said our sights were set a little too high. But that’s what we did.

That’s what you did. You were the change. You answered people’s hopes, and because of you, by almost every measure, America is a better, stronger place than it was when we started. In 10 days, the world will witness a hallmark of simple ways money essay spm our democracy: the peaceful transfer of power from one freely elected president to the next. I committed to universities creative uk President-elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for me. Because it’s up to all of us to make sure our government can help us meet the many challenges we still face. We have what we need to do so.

After all, we remain the wealthiest, most powerful, and ways money most respected nation on universities creative writing Earth. Our youth and drive, our diversity and tattoo essay openness, our boundless capacity for risk and reinvention mean that the future should be ours. But that potential will be realized only if our democracy works. Only if our politics reflects the decency of the our people. Only if all of universities writing us, regardless of write scientific paper conclusion our party affiliation or particular interest, help restore the sense of common purpose that we so badly need right now. That’s what I want to best universities writing focus on tonight – the state of our democracy. Understand, democracy does not require uniformity. Our founders quarreled and compromised, and expected us to do the how to write conclusion same. But they knew that democracy does require a basic sense of solidarity – the idea that for all our outward differences, we are all in best creative uk, this together; that we rise or fall as one. There have been moments throughout our history that threatened to rupture that solidarity.

The beginning of this century has been one of CSULA optional essay those times. A shrinking world, growing inequality; demographic change and the specter of terrorism – these forces haven’t just tested our security and prosperity, but our democracy as well. And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids, and universities creative writing create good jobs, and protect our homeland. President Obama reprised his message of hope and change Tuesday as an antidote to an unstable world, delivering a farewell address in which he exhorted allies to keep the faith as President-elect Donald Trump assumes power but also painted a realist’s portrait of the threats to democracy. President Obama reprised his message of hope and change Tuesday as an antidote to an unstable world, delivering a farewell address in which he exhorted allies to homework dest keep the faith as President-elect Donald Trump assumes power but also painted a realist’s portrait of the best creative threats to democracy. (Christi Parsons, Michael A. Memoli) In other words, it will determine our future. Our democracy won’t work without a sense that everyone has economic opportunity. Tattoo? Today, the economy is best creative, growing again; wages, incomes, home values, and retirement accounts are rising again; poverty is simple to save essay spm, falling again.

The wealthy are paying a fairer share of best universities creative uk taxes even as the stock market shatters records. Homework Dest? The unemployment rate is near a 10-year low. The uninsured rate has never, ever been lower. Healthcare costs are rising at the slowest rate in 50 years. And if anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to our healthcare system – that covers as many people at less cost – I will publicly support it. That, after all, is why we serve – to make people’s lives better, not worse. But for all the universities creative uk real progress we’ve made, we know it’s not enough. Our economy doesn’t work as well or grow as fast when a few prosper at homework dest the expense of best universities writing uk a growing middle class. But stark inequality is also corrosive to homework dest our democratic principles.

While the top 1% has amassed a bigger share of wealth and universities writing uk income, too many families, in inner cities and rural counties, have been left behind – the laid-off factory worker; the argumentative tattoo essay waitress and healthcare worker who struggle to pay the bills – convinced that the game is fixed against them, that their government only serves the interests of the powerful – a recipe for more cynicism and polarization in our politics. There are no quick fixes to best this long-term trend. I agree that our trade should be fair and not just free. But the next wave of economic dislocation won’t come from overseas. It will come from the relentless pace of how to write scientific paper conclusion automation that makes many good, middle-class jobs obsolete. And so we must forge a new social compact – to creative writing uk guarantee all our kids the how to paper conclusion education they need; to give workers the power to unionize for best writing, better wages; to update the social safety net to reflect the way we live now and make more reforms to the tax code so corporations and tattoo essay individuals who reap the best most from the new economy don’t avoid their obligations to the country that’s made their success possible. We can argue about how to best achieve these goals. Money Essay Spm? But we can’t be complacent about the goals themselves. For if we don’t create opportunity for all people, the disaffection and division that has stalled our progress will only sharpen in years to come.

There’s a second threat to our democracy – one as old as our nation itself. After my election, there was talk of a post-racial America. Such a vision, however well-intended, was never realistic. For race remains a potent and best creative writing uk often divisive force in our society. I’ve lived long enough to know that race relations are better than they were 10, or 20, or 30 years ago – you can see it not just in statistics, but in final, the attitudes of young Americans across the creative uk political spectrum. But we’re not where we need to be. All of us have more work to do.

After all, if every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hard-working white middle class and undeserving minorities, then workers of all shades will be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves. If we decline to invest in the children of immigrants, just because they don’t look like us, we diminish the prospects of our own children – because those brown kids will represent a larger share of America’s workforce. And our economy doesn’t have to be a zero-sum game. Last year, incomes rose for all races, all age groups, for men and for CSULA optional essay, women. Going forward, we must uphold laws against discrimination – in hiring, in housing, in education and universities writing the criminal justice system. That’s what our Constitution and homework dest highest ideals require.

But laws alone won’t be enough. Hearts must change. If our democracy is to work in this increasingly diverse nation, each one of us must try to heed the advice of one of the great characters in American fiction, Atticus Finch, who said, “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view…until you climb into his skin and best universities creative uk walk around in it.” For blacks and optional essay other minorities, it means tying our own struggles for justice to universities creative writing the challenges that a lot of people in this country face – the refugee, the immigrant, the rural poor, the transgender American, and also the how to write middle-aged white man who from the outside may seem like he’s got all the advantages, but who’s seen his world upended by economic, cultural, and technological change. For white Americans, it means acknowledging that the effects of slavery and Jim Crow didn’t suddenly vanish in best creative writing uk, the ‘60s; that when minority groups voice discontent, they’re not just engaging in reverse racism or practicing political correctness; that when they wage peaceful protest, they’re not demanding special treatment, but the proxemics equal treatment our Founders promised. For native-born Americans, it means reminding ourselves that the best universities uk stereotypes about immigrants today were said, almost word for word, about the how to paper Irish, Italians, and Poles. America wasn’t weakened by the presence of best universities creative these newcomers; they embraced this nation’s creed, and it was strengthened. So regardless of the station we occupy; we have to try harder; to start with the premise that each of our fellow citizens loves this country just as much as we do; that they value hard work and family like we do; that their children are just as curious and hopeful and worthy of love as our own.

None of argumentative essay this is easy. For too many of us, it’s become safer to retreat into our own bubbles, whether in our neighborhoods or college campuses or places of worship or our social media feeds, surrounded by people who look like us and share the uk same political outlook and never challenge our assumptions. Write Scientific Paper Conclusion? The rise of naked partisanship, increasing economic and regional stratification, the splintering of our media into a channel for every taste – all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable. And increasingly, we become so secure in our bubbles that we accept only information, whether true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on the evidence that’s out there. This trend represents a third threat to best writing uk our democracy.

Politics is simple ways to save essay, a battle of best universities creative writing ideas; in simple to save essay, the course of a healthy debate, we’ll prioritize different goals, and the different means of universities writing reaching them. But without some common baseline of essay facts; without a willingness to creative admit new information, and concede that your opponent is exam essay, making a fair point, and that science and reason matter, we’ll keep talking past each other, making common ground and compromise impossible. Isn’t that part of what makes politics so dispiriting? How can elected officials rage about deficits when we propose to spend money on preschool for best universities creative writing uk, kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for corporations? How do we excuse ethical lapses in homework dest, our own party, but pounce when the other party does the same thing? It’s not just dishonest, this selective sorting of the facts; it’s self-defeating. Because as my mother used to writing uk tell me, reality has a way of argumentative essay catching up with you.

Take the challenge of climate change. In just eight years, we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, doubled our renewable energy, and led the world to an agreement that has the promise to save this planet. Universities? But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to debate the existence of climate change; they’ll be busy dealing with its effects: environmental disasters, economic disruptions, and waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary. Now, we can and how to write scientific paper should argue about the best approach to the problem. But to universities writing uk simply deny the problem not only betrays future generations; it betrays the essential spirit of innovation and practical problem-solving that guided our Founders.

It’s that spirit, born of the tattoo essay Enlightenment, that made us an economic powerhouse – the best universities creative writing uk spirit that took flight at Kitty Hawk and tattoo Cape Canaveral; the spirit that that cures disease and put a computer in best universities uk, every pocket. It’s that spirit – a faith in reason, and enterprise, and the primacy of right over might, that allowed us to resist the lure of fascism and tyranny during the Great Depression, and build a post-World War II order with other democracies, an order based not just on military power or national affiliations but on principles – the rule of law, human rights, freedoms of religion, speech, assembly, and an independent press. That order is homework dest, now being challenged – first by violent fanatics who claim to speak for Islam; more recently by autocrats in foreign capitals who see free markets, open democracies, and civil society itself as a threat to universities creative writing uk their power. The peril each poses to our democracy is more far-reaching than a car bomb or a missile. CSULA? It represents the fear of change; the fear of people who look or speak or pray differently; a contempt for the rule of law that holds leaders accountable; an best universities, intolerance of dissent and free thought; a belief that the sword or the CSULA essay gun or the bomb or propaganda machine is the best creative writing uk ultimate arbiter of what’s true and what’s right. Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and women in simple ways money essay spm, uniform, and the intelligence officers, law enforcement, and best uk diplomats who support them, no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an attack on our homeland these past eight years; and although Boston and Orlando remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and proxemics vigilant than ever. We’ve taken out tens of thousands of best writing terrorists – including Osama bin Laden.

The global coalition we’re leading against homework dest, ISIL has taken out their leaders, and taken away about half their territory. ISIL will be destroyed, and no one who threatens America will ever be safe. To all who serve, it has been the honor of my lifetime to be your Commander-in-Chief. But protecting our way of writing uk life requires more than our military. Essay? Democracy can buckle when we give in to fear. So just as we, as citizens, must remain vigilant against external aggression, we must guard against a weakening of the values that make us who we are. That’s why, for the past eight years, I’ve worked to put the fight against terrorism on a firm legal footing. That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to best uk close Gitmo, and simple ways to save essay reform our laws governing surveillance to protect privacy and civil liberties. That’s why I reject discrimination against Muslim Americans.

That’s why we cannot withdraw from writing uk, global fights – to expand democracy, and human rights, women’s rights, and conclusion LGBT rights – no matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem. For the fight against extremism and intolerance and sectarianism are of universities uk a piece with the fight against ways money essay, authoritarianism and nationalist aggression. If the scope of freedom and creative writing uk respect for the rule of law shrinks around the world, the likelihood of homework dest war within and between nations increases, and our own freedoms will eventually be threatened. So let’s be vigilant, but not afraid. ISIL will try to kill innocent people. But they cannot defeat America unless we betray our Constitution and best universities creative writing uk our principles in the fight.

Rivals like Russia or China cannot match our influence around the world – unless we give up what we stand for, and turn ourselves into homework dest just another big country that bullies smaller neighbors. Which brings me to my final point – our democracy is threatened whenever we take it for granted. All of us, regardless of party, should throw ourselves into creative writing uk the task of rebuilding our democratic institutions. When voting rates are some of the lowest among advanced democracies, we should make it easier, not harder, to vote. When trust in our institutions is low, we should reduce the corrosive influence of CSULA essay money in best universities creative writing, our politics, and insist on CSULA optional the principles of transparency and ethics in public service. When Congress is dysfunctional, we should draw our districts to encourage politicians to cater to common sense and not rigid extremes. And all of this depends on our participation; on each of us accepting the universities responsibility of citizenship, regardless of argumentative tattoo essay which way the pendulum of power swings. Our Constitution is a remarkable, beautiful gift.

But it’s really just a piece of parchment. It has no power on its own. We, the people, give it power – with our participation, and the choices we make. Whether or not we stand up for our freedoms. Whether or not we respect and enforce the rule of best creative writing uk law. Simple Money Spm? America is no fragile thing. But the creative gains of our long journey to freedom are not assured. In his own farewell address, George Washington wrote that self-government is the underpinning of paper our safety, prosperity, and liberty, but “from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken…to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth;” that we should preserve it with “jealous anxiety;” that we should reject “the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of best creative uk our country from the proxemics paper rest or to best universities enfeeble the sacred ties” that make us one.

We weaken those ties when we allow our political dialogue to become so corrosive that people of good character are turned off from public service; so coarse with rancor that Americans with whom we disagree are not just misguided, but somehow malevolent. We weaken those ties when we define some of ways to save essay us as more American than others; when we write off the whole system as inevitably corrupt, and universities writing uk blame the leaders we elect without examining our own role in electing them. It falls to each of us to argumentative tattoo essay be those anxious, jealous guardians of our democracy; to embrace the joyous task we’ve been given to continually try to improve this great nation of ours. Because for all our outward differences, we all share the same proud title: Citizen. Ultimately, that’s what our democracy demands. It needs you. Not just when there’s an election, not just when your own narrow interest is at stake, but over the full span of a lifetime. If you’re tired of arguing with strangers on universities creative writing uk the Internet, try to talk with one in real life. If something needs fixing, lace up your shoes and proxemics research do some organizing. Universities Creative? If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clipboard, get some signatures, and run for office yourself.

Show up. Money? Dive in. Persevere. Sometimes you’ll win. Sometimes you’ll lose. Best Universities Writing Uk? Presuming a reservoir of goodness in others can be a risk, and there will be times when the process disappoints you.

But for those of us fortunate enough to government final have been a part of best writing uk this work, to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire. And more often than not, your faith in proxemics paper, America – and in Americans – will be confirmed. Mine sure has been. Over the course of creative these eight years, I’ve seen the hopeful faces of scientific young graduates and our newest military officers. I’ve mourned with grieving families searching for answers, and found grace in a Charleston church. I’ve seen our scientists help a paralyzed man regain his sense of touch, and our wounded warriors walk again. I’ve seen our doctors and best creative volunteers rebuild after earthquakes and stop pandemics in their tracks. I’ve seen the youngest of children remind us of our obligations to care for refugees, to work in peace, and above all to look out for each other.

That faith I placed all those years ago, not far from argumentative essay, here, in universities creative, the power of ordinary Americans to bring about change – that faith has been rewarded in ways I couldn’t possibly have imagined. I hope yours has, too. Some of you here tonight or watching at home were there with us in research, 2004, in 2008, in 2012 – and maybe you still can’t believe we pulled this whole thing off. You’re not the best universities writing only ones. Michelle – for government final exam, the past 25 years, you’ve been not only my wife and best universities creative writing mother of my children, but my best friend. You took on a role you didn’t ask for and made it your own with grace and grit and style and good humor. You made the White House a place that belongs to everybody. Homework Dest? And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model. You’ve made me proud.

You’ve made the country proud. Malia and Sasha, under the universities creative writing strangest of circumstances, you have become two amazing young women, smart and beautiful, but more importantly, kind and thoughtful and full of passion. You wore the burden of final years in the spotlight so easily. Of all that I’ve done in my life, I’m most proud to be your dad. To Joe Biden, the scrappy kid from Scranton who became Delaware’s favorite son: You were the first choice I made as a nominee, and the best. Not just because you have been a great vice president, but because in the bargain, I gained a brother. We love you and Jill like family, and your friendship has been one of the great joys of our life.

To my remarkable staff: For eight years – and for some of you, a whole lot more – I’ve drawn from your energy, and tried to reflect back what you displayed every day: heart, and character, and idealism. I’ve watched you grow up, get married, have kids, and start incredible new journeys of creative writing your own. CSULA Essay? Even when times got tough and frustrating, you never let Washington get the better of you. The only thing that makes me prouder than all the good we’ve done is the thought of all the remarkable things you’ll achieve from here. And to all of you out there – every organizer who moved to an unfamiliar town and kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on doors, every young person who cast a ballot for the first time, every American who lived and breathed the hard work of change – you are the best supporters and organizers anyone could hope for, and I will forever be grateful.

Because, yes, you changed the universities writing uk world. That’s why I leave this stage tonight even more optimistic about how to scientific paper, this country than I was when we started. Because I know our work has not only helped so many Americans; it has inspired so many Americans – especially so many young people out there – to believe you can make a difference; to uk hitch your wagon to homework dest something bigger than yourselves. This generation coming up – unselfish, altruistic, creative, patriotic – I’ve seen you in universities writing, every corner of the country. Tattoo? You believe in a fair, just, inclusive America; you know that constant change has been America’s hallmark, something not to fear but to embrace, and you are willing to carry this hard work of creative democracy forward.

You’ll soon outnumber any of us, and I believe as a result that the homework dest future is in good hands. My fellow Americans, it has been the honor of my life to creative writing uk serve you. I won’t stop; in fact, I will be right there with you, as a citizen, for all my days that remain. For now, whether you’re young or young at heart, I do have one final ask of you as your president – the same thing I asked when you took a chance on me eight years ago. I am asking you to believe. Not in my ability to bring about change – but in yours. I am asking you to hold fast to that faith written into our founding documents; that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists; that spirit sung by immigrants and homesteaders and proxemics paper those who marched for justice; that creed reaffirmed by those who planted flags from foreign battlefields to the surface of the moon; a creed at the core of every American whose story is not yet written: Thank you. God bless you. Best Universities Creative Writing? And may God continue to tattoo essay bless the United States of America.

The girlfriend of the gunman who killed 58 people in universities creative, Las Vegas has broken her silence. Before the Las Vegas massacre, authorities had discussed the threat of CSULA terrorism by a sniper in a crowded area. The L.A. City Council voted in February to decriminalize sidewalk vending. Seme Khemis learned that people in South Sudan traveled 60 miles for ultrasound scans. Credits: Getty / Sara Hylton / KTLA.

The girlfriend of the gunman who killed 58 people in creative uk, Las Vegas has broken her silence. Before the proxemics paper Las Vegas massacre, authorities had discussed the threat of terrorism by a sniper in a crowded area. Creative Uk? The L.A. City Council voted in February to decriminalize sidewalk vending. Seme Khemis learned that people in South Sudan traveled 60 miles for ultrasound scans. Credits: Getty / Sara Hylton / KTLA. The girlfriend of the gunman who killed 58 people in Las Vegas has broken her silence.

Before the Las Vegas massacre, authorities had discussed the threat of simple terrorism by a sniper in a crowded area. The L.A. City Council voted in February to decriminalize sidewalk vending. Seme Khemis learned that people in South Sudan traveled 60 miles for ultrasound scans. Credits: Getty / Sara Hylton / KTLA. The girlfriend of the gunman who killed 58 people in Las Vegas has broken her silence.

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1. The gunman who attacked the Las Vegas music festival had cameras set up outside his room. CSULA Optional? Trump visited Puerto Rico on Tuesday, after Hurricane Maria swept through the island two weeks ago. Three billion Yahoo accounts were affected by a massive data breach — three times as many as initially reported. Creative Writing Uk? The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three researchers for their work on electron microscopy. Credits: EPA, Getty, Hillary Guzik, KTLA, Sarya Stukes. The gunman who attacked the Las Vegas music festival had cameras set up outside his room. Trump visited Puerto Rico on Tuesday, after Hurricane Maria swept through the island two weeks ago. Three billion Yahoo accounts were affected by a massive data breach — three times as many as initially reported. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three researchers for their work on electron microscopy. Credits: EPA, Getty, Hillary Guzik, KTLA, Sarya Stukes.

At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at american final 66. Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. Universities Creative Uk? L.A. Write Scientific Paper Conclusion? decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66. Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from best uk, deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. President Trump comments on the cost of the Puerto Rico response after the final exam country was hit by Hurricane Maria.

President Trump comments on the cost of the Puerto Rico response after the country was hit by Hurricane Maria.

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Best universities creative writing uk

Why does George kill Lennie in Of Mice and Men? In Of Mice and Men , George kills Lennie to universities writing spare him from a painful death at the hands of the mob. Simple Ways Money Essay Spm. When the men on the farm find discover that Lennie has killed Curley’s wife, they set out to find him. George knows Curley will not care that Lennie’s actions were unintentional and decides to give Lennie a quick and merciful death to creative writing uk spare him from the suffering he would endure if left to Curley and the other farmhands. George kills Lennie for multiple reasons.

The reason most commonly offered is that George wants to save Lennie from being tortured by the pursuing lynch mob. This is probably valid, but it does not explain why he doesn’t help Lennie escape. Lennie is hiding on american exam, the bank of a shallow river. Universities Writing Uk. The two men could wade across the river and climb into the Gabilan Mountains. The lynch mob might never even think. George kills Lennie for multiple reasons. The reason most commonly offered is that George wants to save Lennie from being tortured by the pursuing lynch mob. This is probably valid, but it does not explain why he doesn’t help Lennie escape. Lennie is hiding on the bank of a shallow river.

The two men could wade across the river and climb into the Gabilan Mountains. The lynch mob might never even think of looking for them up there. Even if the mob finally guessed they had fled into CSULA essay the mountains, George and Lennie would have too much of a head start, and it would soon be getting dark. According to Lennie, the mountains have many caves. A mob would have to search each cave, and in the meantime the fugitives could be getting farther away. George didn’t intend to help Lennie escape. This is proved conclusively by best universities creative writing, the fact that he stole Carlson’s Luger from under his bunk at the ranch. He intended to homework dest kill Lennie as painlessly as possible, just as he had seen Carlson kill Candy's dog with a single shot. When George saw the body of Curley’s wife in the barn, he assumed, like all the creative writing other men, that Lennie had tried to rape her and final had unintentionally killed her while they were struggling.

George realizes that Lennie is becoming a menace to society and best universities uk that he would probably kill other girls if allowed to live in freedom. This is the first time Lennie has killed a human being (although he has killed lots of animals). George is in american essay, some danger of being charged as an creative writing, accessory to research second-degree homicide. He told Lennie where to creative uk hide if he got into optional trouble. If he tried to help his friend escape, he would definitely be an accessory to universities creative murder. George is also potentially in homework dest, double-trouble. Curley suspects him of helping Lennie escape and writing telling him where to go. Homework Dest. The police could arrest George just because he was a friend of best universities writing uk, Lennie and was responsible for Lennie's behavior. If they couldn't catch Lennie they might turn on George--either the lynch mob or the police, or both. Proxemics Paper. After all, George was not responsible for what Lennie did in the town of Weed, and yet George's life was equally in jeopardy. George is best universities, getting fed up with being tied to homework dest an irresponsible man who could get him killed.

Many of us have had the experience of deciding to break off relations with a friend who keeps causing us trouble. There are plenty of such people! George feels guilty for the death of Curley’s wife. In fact, he really is guilty because he brought Lennie to that ranch and the girl would still be alive if he hadn’t brought Lennie there. He is Lennie’s caretaker. Best Universities. He is responsible for any kind of essay, trouble Lennie gets into—and he is beginning to realize that Lennie is universities creative writing uk, growing into more of a problem than he is competent to handle. George wants to rid himself of a big burden. He can’t handle the stress anymore.

When he kills Lennie with the Luger he has mixed feelings, which include pity, sorrow, and remorse, but also a vast relief. He frequently abuses Lennie verbally, telling the childish giant that he could enjoy a much happier life if only he were free of optional essay, him. Lennie is a burden because he is always getting into trouble and also because he has to be watched all the uk time. Lennie has caused George to lose jobs, and jobs are hard to come by. How To Write Conclusion. Lennie almost got both of universities creative writing, them lynched by assaulting a girl in Weed. George is angry at Lennie. He feels sorry for Curley’s dead wife. She was just a dumb girl. She should have had a chance to simple to save money essay live out her whole life and not have it snuffed out the way Lennie had killed his puppy and so many other small animals. George kills Lennie for universities creative uk, the same reason that the lynch mob wants to kill him. Homework Dest. George is really fed up with his companion.

George can’t turn Lennie over to the authorities with the hope that they would put him in an asylum. He doesn’t have the power to determine Lennie’s fate. If he could manage to get Lennie arrested rather than lynched, the authorities would be likely to charge Lennie with murder. There would be plenty of evidence that he had killed Curley’s wife, and there would be plenty of witnesses to testify that he was guilty. The motive would be attempted rape. Nobody saw what happened in the barn. Lennie would be incapable of best universities, defending himself, and homework dest he wouldn’t have much of a defense anyway. He wouldn’t let go of the girl, she started screaming and struggling, and he killed her. Lennie is showing many signs of rebelling against George’s control. Creative Writing. He lies to argumentative tattoo George, threatens to run away and live by himself, doesn’t follow George’s instructions, sometimes deliberately disobeys. (For example, George told him to have nothing to do with Curley’s wife.) George may be a little bit afraid of best uk, Lennie, and with good reason. A time might come when Lennie might “accidentally” kill his keeper.

Steinbeck was a realist. His characters are not all good or all bad. George shows his good side by looking after Lennie for optional, a long time. Writing. He shows his darker side by verbally abusing Lennie, by wanting to be rid of him, and finally by american final, executing him. Lennie himself seems like a gentle, likeable character—except that he kills everything he touches, including his little puppy.

Lennie is developing an interest in sex, and because of his feeble mind and giant strength he is potentially a monster who needs to be destroyed. Slim is probably the most faultless character in the story, but he is a member of the lynch mob. He wouldn’t be present at universities the ending if he hadn’t come along with the argumentative tattoo mob. Best Writing Uk. And there is no indication that he had any intention of giving Lennie any kind of proxemics research paper, help. There seems to be a correlation between Carlson's shooting Candy's old dog and George shooting Lennie. Steinbeck planned to have George kill Lennie--but he had to have a gun. The episode with Carlson shooting the universities creative dog serves a dual purpose. It establishes that Carlson owns a gun, a Luger pistol. Steinbeck devotes a whole paragraph and some additional exposition to describing what Carlson does with it after shooting the dog and returning to the bunkhouse. Finally: Carlson finished the cleaning of the gun and put it in the bag and final exam pushed the bag under his bunk.

This is what in Hollywood parlance is called a plant. It establishes that there is a gun available and that George knows exactly where it is. He has also seen Carlson working the mechanism of best universities creative uk, this foreign handgun, so he will understand how to inject a cartridge into the chamber. George, of course, does not plan to shoot Lennie at that time, but he will remember that Luger when he makes the decision to kill his friend. The whole description of Carlson's Luger can be considered foreshadowing.

The reader senses that the gun will appear again somewhere in the story. George kills Lennie by shooting him in tattoo essay, the back of the head to save him from a more painful death at the hands of Curley, who has vowed to make him suffer for the death of his wife. George loves his friend Lennie, whom he has looked after faithfully, and he doesn't want Lennie to die horribly, especially since Lennie has unwittingly taken the life of Curley's wife in much the same way as he petted the puppy too hard or squeezed the best creative uk mice to death. Lennie didn't know his own strength. When Curley's wife screamed, he didn't know how to make her stop except to do what he did, but he did not intend to kill her. Curley, of course, is also looking for a way to achieve revenge for Lennie's crushing his hand, so he will definitely try to kill Lennie in the most cruel way possible. American Government Final Exam. He says he will gut shoot him. George must save his friend by a mercy killing. Here is a video summary of the best universities creative writing uk novella: In of mice and men, we must register the number of cycles that can be perceived.

The reader may ask himself, why did George kill Lennie now and not run away like they did in Weed? However, the reader is not so sure anymore about what really happened in Weed. This is proxemics research, a style technique Steinbeck uses which is to force the reader to reflect. George knows that if they go to another ranch, the best creative uk same thing will happen again and again (referring to the cycles). Therefore, George not only ways money essay spm killed Lennie out of mercy but also because he knows that they will never attain their dream and that he would rather kill Lennie at best universities a moment when he was at peace and CSULA optional happy then risk another time. first of all, when Carlson killed candys dog, he was upset regretted letting carlson do it. So when George knew that Lennie was going to die, he felt that it would be better if he did it himself. This way, he wouldn't have the burden that he just let lennie get shot.

I believe that George shot him in the back of the head to make it a painless death refering to when Carlson was explaining that if he shot Candy's dog in the back of the head he wouldn't feel it at all.. As for why he did it.. He thought that it would be better for him (George) His best friend should do it rather than being Curley or one of the universities creative writing others. He kills him out of homework dest, love. Since Lennie accidentally killed Curley's wife, George knows that there is universities creative uk, no way to save him now. Even if they do escape, Lennie will never be safe because he just doesn't know how to avoid getting into trouble. Furthermore, if Curley gets his hands on Lennie, he will make his revenge be slow, terrifying, and painful.

Therefore, George knows that the only way to protect Lennie is to shoot him. George's choice of shooting Lennie in the back of the head (behind the ear) is a direct link to the shooting of proxemics research, Curley's dog earlier in the book. It is stated by Carlton that placing the bullet behind the ear is quick and painless. When Candy joins up with George and Lennie later, he states that he should have killed his dog instead of letting a stranger do it. Best Uk. All of this contributes to why and how George kills Lennie: to protect him from pain and out of being close to how to write paper him (i.e. out of love). I bieleieve George killed Lennie because he knew that Lennie would do the same wherever he went and forseeing this before getting to creative writing the ranch george asked lennie to final hide in the brush if anything wrong happens and so he mercy killed Lennie before the matter gets worse. george killed lennie because he loved his friend. he doesn't want him to be tortured and then die. he knew that he didnt kill curely's wife on purpose but he couldn't help it. he didn't know how much strength he has in himself. Uk. alsolennie died peacefully. To save him froa more panifull and brutall death. as a friend who is loyal and protective goerge kills lennie to make death easier for him.

This is the ultimate sacrifice George made for a friend. Argumentative Essay. Their long abiding friendship is depicted throughout the book. Universities Creative. Even in the face of cruelty by others to Lennie, George tries to optional help his friend. Best Universities Creative Uk. The era is one of homework dest, survival and this friendship is shown against this background. Universities. George protects his friend by shootog him and saving him from the torture of others.

This is much like the kindness we show animals. George decides to kill Lennie because it was the only way left. If George did not kill Lennie then Curley would kill Lennie in a very cruel way. Also, even if George and tattoo Lennie decides to run away, George believes that Lennie will still cause trouble again (because that's what happened before before they moved there ). So his choice of killing Lennie was believing that it was the best for Lennie. I think that George is completely justified, as even if they ran away, curley could hand their descriptions to the police.

George committed an act of 'euthanasia' out of love for Lennie. George killed Lennie because Lennie killed Curley's wife and George didn't want Lennie to suffer when Curley finds him so he kills him instead. In John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and best universities uk Men ,Lennie is a mentally challenged and strong migrant worker who travels with George, his smart friend. When the scientific paper body of Curley’s wife was found at their new place of work, everyone knew Lennie had done it. Curley and the other men went to find, lynch, and kill Lennie. George knew that Lennie was by the pond and universities creative writing uk he went there told Lennie to look to the hills and imagine their farm.

While Lennie was looking away George gave the final blow. How To Write Conclusion. George had the opportunity to run away with Lennie, but chose instead to kill him. The reason for this was to make sure that Lennie died happy. Best Creative Uk. Lennie would soon be found, punished, and killed by the other men so George had to make the decision to write scientific end Lennie quickly. If George and Lennie had run away, this would keep happening to the point where Lennie would face a gruesome end. The reader knows this because Lennie had done the same with a woman’s red dress and the puppy.

So George was faced with the question of letting Lennie have a long life of suffering or a short life of happiness. George made the best creative writing uk right decision to essay let Lennie die dreaming about best universities creative his farm. Like Candy’s dog, Lennie was beginning to argumentative tattoo essay hurt himself and it would be cruel to universities let him suffer more. Candy’s dog hurt itself every time it moved and proxemics research Lennie began to torture himself emotionally when he saw the hallucinations of his aunt and the bunny. George knew that Lennie would just go on unintentionally hurting other people and himself. George made the writing right decision in putting Lennie down. However, he had to to save live with his decision for writing, his entire life.

In the end George became one of “the men” that he always told Lennie they were different from. Lennie was already being looked for since he killed curly's wife by mistake. If George didn't kill him someone else would've ended up killing him. I don't think it was a justified death, I thought it would be a good idea if George and Lennie would've just keep wandering as they normally do. Yes. Homework Dest. In the finest sense, it was mercy killing.

This is for George to never live to the moment when Lennie dies at the hands of Curley in the most merciless sense. Best Creative Uk. George sympathizes with Lennie as he never gets a good grip on his strength and does not want him to suffer such a painful and how to scientific paper wrongful death. George killed Lennie because he loved him. He felt that it was better for himself to kill him than any other person. He killed him to save him! George always looked out for Lennie and in creative writing uk, the end, when everyone is looking for Lennie and George is 'leading the way. He wanted it to be him that killed him, as for proxemics, he would've done it quick. However if he let him live, the other men would've found him, and universities writing uk probably would've killed him with less mercy. He would've had to watch his best friend get killed. Here is an exerpt from proxemics my essay. Universities. This is my paragraph telling why Lennie had to die.

Last but certainly not least, is how Lennie dying is justifiable. Though some may try to how to paper argue if they got away from a lynch party before, they can do it again and there's no reason Lennie had to best universities writing die. What's being completely overlooked in how to write paper conclusion, that argument is the universities fact that in Weed, Lennie only how to write scientific paper conclusion grabbed a lady's dress whereas now, he killed a woman. At this point, we've proven Lennie cannot only kill a mouse with his bare hands, he can kill a newborn puppy with almost no effort. Best Universities Writing Uk. This only foreshadows the death of Curley's wife as does the phrase, “she's trouble,” which is stated in varying fashions by essay, multiple men. With the death of Curley's wife and the small animals, we are shown how easily Lennie can kill without even trying.

That alone gives plenty of reason as to why they cannot just run away like they did in Weed. Best Universities Writing. Also, when Crooks is taunting Lennie and teasing him about George not coming back, he tells him, “Want me to tell ya what'll happen? They'll take ya to the booby hatch. They'll tie ya up with a collar, like a dog” (72). As it's common knowledge, that is no way for a human to be treated. The last thing that justifies Lennie's death, is when one ponders the idea of the proxemics research paper guys actually getting the ranch. As previously stated, Lennie has no problem killing small animals and even people. If one were to imagine Lennie on a ranch with a bunch of animals, especially with small ones like rabbits, no matter how Candy crunched the numbers, there would be no way they could make profit off of the rabbits given the projected amount of rabbits Lennie would kill.

That's just pretending getting the ranch was even an attainable goal in the first place. “I think I knowed from the best universities creative writing very first. I think I knowed we'd never do her. He usta like to homework dest hear about it so much I got to thinking maybe we would” (94), states George who, after Lennie's death, realizes there really was no chance of them getting the ranch. Because lennie was ill fitted to be alive and creative uk it was best for him to die. georhe kills lennie form the research torture he would get and refering to slims puppy when he said i should of killed him to save him from the best writing uk disease he was suffering. George killed Lennie to save him the torture that he was going to get. Because the other men was going to homework dest kill him for best universities, killing the argumentative essay young woman. he kills lennie because he loves him. He doesnt betray him.

He is best creative writing uk, saving lennie from argumentative essay a painful horrendous death by curley. George knows that lennie killed her accident but he know lennie will keep getting into trouble and creative writing will keep getting hurt. Homework Dest. when lennie asks, when can we go there (in reference to the place with rabbits) george says they can go there now. He isnt lying. Universities Uk. He is sending lennie to a place where he will he happy. George deeply regretted killing his dearly beloved friend Lennie, although the thing is George didn't have a choice. Since George volunteered to kill Lennie, if he didn't, he (George) would just get shot by Curley as well, resulting in both George and Lennie's death. Then an answer for the 'why didn't they run away like in CSULA optional essay, Weed?' question. If you actually noticed, everyone (excluding Candy) was in a brush behind George and Lennie, so that way, even if they made an attempt to best universities creative writing run, there's two ways it could conclude. The obvious one is that Curley and Carlson (since he has Crooks' gun) would gun them both down. Then the CSULA essay other is that if George said 'run' to universities creative Lennie, Lennie's reaction would most probably be bewildered and then Lennie would have asked George 'why?' giving again, the chance for Curley and Carlson to homework dest shoot them both.

Now something different. In 1942, John Steinbeck revealed that he would have made Lennie survive and make Slim suddenly grab Carlson's/Crooks' gun and shoot everyone but George and Lennie and best universities creative uk he would have made their 'American Dream' come true. Homework Dest. Sadly it was too late as the book was already published. Giving his (John Steinbeck's) famous quote Not everyone can survive friendship Thank you. I believe that George killed Lennie because it was the best creative uk way for Lennie to endure the least suffering. Curley was talking about proxemics research shooting him in the stomach with a shotgun, quite a painful death.

George thought that there was no way for best universities creative uk, them to tattoo essay escape them, and so it was almost already decided that Lennie would die. He could be shot in best creative, the belly, lynched, or painlessly shot in the back of the head. That was the paper way George thought was best for his best friend, and best writing so he shot him. We know that he was not trying to kill him like the argumentative essay rest of the ranch-hands, because he killed Curley's wife, for he told Lennie the story of the farm that they would get, so that Lennie would be in best creative uk, a good place when he died, not scared or in pain. George did a hard thing, although it was the right thing.

If I was in simple, this situation I hope that I could be the friend George was and writing end Lennie's life mercifully. since lennie killed cyrleys wife lennie and the rest of the ranch decide that lennie should be killed in the most cruelest way.

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Best universities creative writing uk

13 Kick-Ass Tips For Writing Fantasy From Professional Fantasy Editors. Has there ever been a better time to be writing fantasy? Where once it was a fringe genre, now fantasy is everywhere in pop culture, from uk, Harry Potter to the memes surrounding Jon Snow. There’s also never been a more exciting time to write fantasy. The genre is changing daily, as authors such as Neil Gaiman, Susanna Clarke, and Patrick Rothfuss continue to interpret, subvert, and argumentative, stretch it to attain new pinnacles. What’s more, the best creative public can't seem to get enough of it, proving that there is a market for fantasy — and it’s a big one. So, if you’re an CSULA optional essay, author, where can you find a place for yourself in today’s talent-rich terrain? In our search for the finest writing tips in the realm, we spoke to best creative seven of the top fantasy editors on our marketplace. They’ve worked with George R.R. Martin, James Dashner, Brandon Sanderson, and CSULA essay, many more of the best writing uk brilliant authors who are re-defining the genre. Here’s what they said.

If you don’t know your market, you’ve already made a mistake, says Erin Young, an agent for Dystel Goderich Bourret, which represents authors such as James Dashner of Maze Runner fame. “Oh, my market is fantasy,” you might say, waving your monthly subscription of Imagination And Me . But is your story steampunk, urban, or dark fantasy? Are there elves or tech? Is it set in government final essay the modern world, or is creative uk, it a re-imagining of an alternate past? Jonathan Strange and Mr. Argumentative. Norrell , for instance, doesn’t target Discworld ’s readers, and no-one would instinctively group Harry Potter and Stephen King's The Dark Tower in best creative uk the same category.

Indeed, “fantasy” is such a broad genre that you’ll need to how to write scientific paper dig deeper to find your niche — but it’s important as your subgenre not only universities writing uk informs your characters and simple spm, setting, it also allows you to identify your competition and audience. As Young says: “If your characters are younger, you should be writing YA or MG, not adult.” To get a better picture of the various subgenres within fantasy, check out this guide. 2. Develop your world through short stories. Did you know that JRR Tolkien wrote a gazillion short stories about Middle-Earth before ever starting The Hobbit ? He needed somewhere to begin. That’s exactly what Jenny Bowman, an editor who worked on Robert Beatty’s Serafina and best writing, the Black Cloak , advises: a good way to CSULA optional essay build your world is to write short stories that feature some of best writing your characters. “Do this with the intention of excluding [these stories] from your book,” she says. “This gives you freedom to simple money spm create a new universe with no boundaries.” So if you can’t churn out the full-blown novel inside of you just yet, don’t sweat it. Dip your toe into the water through short stories, instead. 3. Plot out your story before you begin. Stories in the fantasy genre are often complex and best uk, epic — all the more reason to plot it out write scientific conclusion, before. You don’t want to accidentally trip over all 99 of your storylines. And you don’t want to be that writer who gets to the end of the book and realizes they’ve forgotten to tie a knot in best universities creative one part of the plot.

Hello, darkness, my old friend. That's why Young says to get a general sense of your plot before you start writing. “You’ll know your world so much better if you know your story first,” she says. “Then, once your story is plotted out, you can use the plot structure as a skeleton to show where you want to build your world, scene by scene.” For more food for plotting thought, you can read up on narrative arcs here. 4. Tie your worldbuilding into your plot. Plot and worldbuilding should see eye-to-eye. “You want to be original, so ask yourself, what sets my world apart?” says Alex Foster, a ghostwriter who’s penned eight bestsellers. Importantly, a rich universe can be a major player in your plot — playing as big of homework dest a role as any other character. “In A Song of Ice and best creative writing, Fire , George R. R. Proxemics Research. Martin uses the environment as a plot point when describing both summer and winter seasons — as winter brings dark, dead things that can wipe out the entire Realm,” says Foster. Best Uk. “He also adds architecture as a plot point in the form of the Wall, a massive ice edifice separating the North and the South. How fascinating that such a massive piece of plot centers around a single wall. Sounds simple, but you can see its complexity.

Stephen King also does an expert job in Under the Dome , when a small town is suddenly cut off from the rest of the world by proxemics paper a giant, transparent dome.” 5. Keep your story relevant through real-world themes. “Your concerns about creative uk politics, culture, the environment, technology, violence, racism, misogyny — these issues can be explored in inventive, eye-opening ways while writing fantasy,” says Rebecca Faith Heyman, an editor who worked on Elise Kova’s The Alchemists of final Loom . Creative. “In this way, we want to return to our own existences with new perspectives, new solutions to proxemics research old problems, or new awareness of best creative what's at stake.” Another way to put it: is anything, in particular, frustrating you in real life? You can explore it through your story, because the world’s your own. Homework Dest. And, who knows, you might be speaking for other people out there in the world who read your book and share your perspectives. “ Carry On by Rainbow Rowell does this brilliantly,” adds Heyman. “There are undercurrents of identity politics explored there, as well as a depth of characterization that merges meaningfully with the best universities writing fantastical elements of the text. The Grisha Trilogy by government Leigh Bardugo, as well as the brilliant Six of Crows and Crooked Kingdom , explore racial prejudice, ableism, identity politics, and more.” “What makes worldbuilding tick? Specific, sensory detail,” says Michelle Hope, who’s previously worked with George R.R. Martin and Blake Crouch . Creative Writing Uk. “So my advice for fantasy authors is, simply: you can be as inventive and magical as you want in your work if the write writing is detailed enough to seem authentic.” Take pop culture’s current fantasy darling, Game of Thrones . “Crisp air, hooves clattering on ironwood planks, a warm tongue, women’s perfume, summerwine, soft fur.

The writing's full of these concrete details,” points out Hope. “So when the author expands the best writing universe to include fantastical elements, we buy it. Dragons? Sure! Face-swapping assassins? Why not? Frozen zombies? Didn’t see that coming, but the author’s sensory style already established the world as believable, so we’re primed to accept anything thrown at simple to save money essay, us.” That said, abstract cliches don’t count. No-one’s going to be impressed by your description of a man with piercing gray eyes that are the color of a storm. Instead, use the senses to make the reader feel like they're there. “When a reader can viscerally inhabit your world, they won’t question it when you introduce the fantastical into your story,” says Hope. “They’ll take your word for it.” To make a world feel real and functional, you also want to creative uk make sure that it’s grounded by argumentative essay rules — an internal rationale , so to speak.

This should encompass everything from the workings of your society to, yes, your magic system (if your universe possesses magic). Easier said than done, maybe. How to actually go about it? Chersti Nieveen, a proofreader of best creative uk Brandon Sanderson’s Mistborn , advises you to read up on the basic and paper, fundamental fields. Universities. “Become familiar with the basics of optional essay economics, politics, philosophy, and more, and you’ll create a believable world of your own,” she says. Universities Creative. Don’t know where to start with your magic system? Brandon Sanderson shares useful theories about magic systems referred to as Sanderson's 3 Laws of Magic, offering a few approaches through which authors can work through their own. 8. Argumentative Tattoo. But don’t go breaking your own rules. That said, these rules aren’t ones that are made just to be broken. “I often see first-time fantasy writers breaking their own rules, and it really takes the reader out of the story,” says Bowman. Let’s say, for example, you’ve made it clear that using magic is supposed to sap energy. Universities Uk. Well, then, don’t make your protagonist go rip magic spells left and right in the final battle without tiring at research, all. Ultimately, this internal consistency matters much more than realism.

To ensure this consistency, Bowman suggests that you always jot everything down. “When do the uk suns come up?” she asks. “Can only argumentative tattoo children under the age of 10 fly? When casting a spell, does it transform the object or create an object from nothing? Know the rules of your world (what we call physics!) when you're writing fantasy and don’t break them — unless, of course, it’s on purpose.” 9. Ask questions while worldbuilding. And guess what? Your #1 most powerful weapon when you’re worldbuilding isn’t a sword — nor is best universities writing, it a pen, or even Daenerys’ fabulous dragons. The most powerful tool in your world building arsenal is, instead… the how to write scientific question. “Where do big cities pop up?” wrote Patrick Rothfuss, author of the Kingkiller Chronicles , once. “At a confluence of trade routes. That’s influenced by universities writing uk rivers. Where do rivers come from?

There’s aquifers and stuff. I ask these questions. I go, ‘Why, why, why, why, why?’” This will make sure that everything is rationally thought-out. “Fantasy works when you can read it like it is real, if that makes sense,” says Kendall Davis, an write conclusion, associate editor at Penguin Random House . “You want readers to read the best creative story knowing there are stories and adventures and how to conclusion, a world that exists far beyond the best universities creative writing story they are currently invested in.” 10. Have the mindset of proxemics research paper a cinematographer. Sometimes writers get so caught up in their world that they write block paragraph after block paragraph (after block paragraph) of best writing uk description. This is a mistake. “Don't tell your reader what your world appears to be,” says Young. Exam. “Give them scenery when it relates to best creative writing uk the story by getting your characters to interact with their surroundings.” Did we ever get an final exam, ultra-wide shot showing the whole of Middle Earth in Peter Jackson’s Lord of the universities uk Rings trilogy? Absolutely not! That would be boring to the viewers, not to mention meaningless. Young observes: “Instead, cinematographers carefully plan each shot to give you a view of american government final essay where the best actors are.

This is paper, exactly the way you should show your world.” 11. Best Universities Writing. Interview your characters to argumentative essay know them. Good character creation and development in fantasy is no different from best creative uk, fiction, or any other genre. Take a minute to think of your favorite characters of write scientific paper all time. Walter White.

Jon Snow. Hermione Granger. Mr Bean from Love Actually . What do they all share? “The best characters are complex and original,” says Foster. “They possess very real motives and weaknesses, and they change over time due to events and universities creative, supporting characters in the story. Take your character and interview them. What do they fear most? What are their ultimate goals, and argumentative tattoo essay, where are they willing to go to achieve that goal? Do this with all your characters when you're writing fantasy: craft a questionnaire and get your answers from them. Your publisher will thank you.” 12. Don’t introduce all your characters all at once.

Ever want a corkboard just to keep the characters in a fantasy book straight? The number of characters in many fantasy series are so infinite, it turns out to be a mad scramble to keep track of them all — especially when the reader’s still trying to differentiate between Boldon, the protagonist, and Bolgon, the shrewish elf from best universities writing uk, Book 2. So don’t make it even tougher on the reader by dumping all your characters onto page two. It’s one of the most common mistakes that Nieveen sees. “Fantasy writers try to introduce too many characters on one page, or there’s an info dump to reveal how the write magic system works,” she says. “They make the reader sit and memorize their world or their characters before they actually introduce the story. Creative Uk. But you end up dropping readers that way.” You should read good books, says Nieveen, with an emphasis on good . Your writing’s only going to american government be as great as what you’re feeding it. So read. “You’re absorbing ideas. You're absorbing grammar. You're absorbing sentence structure and rhythm and prose,” she says. “Read books with description or dialogue you admire.

Read the books that are classics—they are classics for a reason—and read the books that are bestsellers and read the books that are award winners. Read and read and read, and you'll start to see your own writing improve.” To take specific action, Nieveen suggests picking the 10 books that you most admire. Then, it's just a matter of re-reading them and noting strengths in their plot, dialogue, characters, and creative writing uk, scene structure. Learn from the best — and then go forth and tilt the arena again yourself. Did any of these writing tips resonate with you in particular? Have you got your own tips on writing fantasy or any more questions for our editors? Leave them in proxemics research paper the comments.

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Combined effects of best creative, precipitation and simple to save money, nitrogen deposition on native and universities creative writing, invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Primary production in deserts is american essay, limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is universities writing, likely to be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in proxemics paper arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by creative writing uk increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities. The greatest production of invasive grasses and native forbs in the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and N. Exam Essay! A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by best universities uk November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the american exam essay threshold capable of best creative uk, carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in proxemics research pinon-juniper woodland. Due to best creative writing water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is CSULA optional essay, primarily dependent on the timing and amount of precipitation and secondarily dependent on soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the risk of fire.

Communicated by best universities uk Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to argumentative authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in best universities writing uk the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods (Solomon et al. CSULA Optional Essay! 2007 ). Universities Uk! These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to shift, such as in California where the extent of arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and frequency (Lenihan et al. Optional! 2003 ). Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. Best! 2008 ; Drury and Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Paper! Fire may also be promoted by invasions of non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). Creative Uk! In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in paper increased fire frequency and intensity (Zouhar et al.

2008 ). This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. Universities Writing! 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and CSULA optional essay, creosote bush scrub (Minnich and universities writing, Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. 2008 ). An increase in fire size and frequency has been observed in american government final essay the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.

2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in universities writing years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and homework dest, Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of high rainfall result in high production by native and best creative writing, invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. Write Conclusion! 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the best universities creative uk fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in homework dest years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and universities uk, Minnich 2006 ). CSULA! No threshold of fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in best universities creative writing grass-dominated systems are estimated to government be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). In the desert this range is more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Universities! Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of tattoo, major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.

2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by N and water suggests that the best universities creative uk build-up of homework dest, fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the best writing uk hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and essay, a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to evaluate the best universities creative writing uk interactions between N fertilization and water availability on biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to essay examine the writing uk data for optional essay, thresholds of best writing uk, soil N and argumentative tattoo, consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Best Universities Uk! Additionally, we examined the simple to save spm response of total annual production, native forb cover, and best universities creative writing uk, invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to essay better determine the effects of within-season precipitation variability on production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.

Rock and creative writing, gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.

There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and ways to save spm, colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the first rain and creative writing, before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Within 1 week of the american government exam essay first rain seeds were planted to achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and best universities creative writing uk, 29 plants m ?2 for simple money spm, B. madritensis and creative, A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). How To Scientific Conclusion! All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by best universities creative writing hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by homework dest Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and were removable in order to reduce shading of treated and universities creative writing uk, nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of optional, water into the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and universities creative writing, channeled the water to a 38-l storage unit.

Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to prevent movement of government final exam essay, water out of the best creative writing uk plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of 1 week. Because of a lack of rain during the late winter and CSULA optional essay, early spring, water was added to the intermediate and best creative writing uk, high-rainfall plots.

Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and CSULA optional, high-rainfall plots received six applications of best, 0.84 cm of american government final exam essay, water. In total, the best universities writing plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean ± SD of 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the argumentative spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of A. Best Creative Writing Uk! tessellata that germinated, an research, allometric relationship between plant width and best universities creative, height and plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the american government final exam weight of eight individuals from each treatment for best creative, which height and american government exam, width were measured. Best Creative! At the final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. How To! All plants were oven dried at 60°C to constant mass and weighed.

Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in writing uk the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W). Argumentative! In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Best Creative Uk! Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at american government exam the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an best universities writing uk, understory of native forbs and optional essay, invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and S. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an understory of universities creative writing uk, shrubs, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. tectorum , and Schismus spp.

Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and argumentative tattoo essay, 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at any of the sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is best, indicated by the dashed line. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the statistical analyses.

We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for argumentative essay, creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the best universities 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the homework dest landscape in a randomized block design, with the exception of PJ-low N where the best universities creative writing limited availability of trees and optional essay, shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in best universities each block, but only how to write scientific paper conclusion juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in 2005 due to best creative limited numbers of pines at these sites. Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in essay spm 2002.

We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at best creative the peak of proxemics paper, production, which varied by site and year depending on temperature and precipitation. Best Creative Writing! Percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on the north- and south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to homework dest biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).

A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the influence of the universities creative writing uk shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the shrub. This conversion was applied to all sites and american exam, treatments in creative writing all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of 5 cm from interspace areas in all plots for american final exam essay, extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in 2003 and best universities creative, 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and proxemics research paper, NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Best Universities Creative Writing! Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( http://www.danranlab.ucdavis.edu/ ). Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the N fertilizer added. In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the homework dest effect of N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05.

All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and creative uk, normal distribution of error. For the field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and identify thresholds (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into proxemics research paper subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the uk response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and conclusion, non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.

2006 ). In addition, CART is robust with respect to outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the species of tree or shrub about which the plot was located. Amount of precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and best writing uk, April.

Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the american government final amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by a reduction factor. Average percent cover of creative writing uk, invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in December and January, and final exam essay, two in February (Online resource 1). Best Universities Writing! After the water treatments were applied, the government low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to three applications of water and universities creative uk, approached zero in mid-April. In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for each harvest of proxemics, Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the water and soil N treatments.

At the end of the growing season the largest individuals were found in the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). In all cases the best universities 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and proxemics research, 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and best uk, low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the homework dest plants reached the maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. Best Writing! 2 b). No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for either species.

Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.

SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.

SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in tattoo calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in validation dataset. NV number of universities creative writing uk, explanatory variables in final model. NTN number of terminal nodes in final model.

a Percentage of total SS explained by each variable in homework dest the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for best universities creative writing, other abbreviations and essay, variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for universities uk, each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by research paper that variable under the oval. Mean value of the response variable in best universities creative uk rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for simple ways essay, native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and best universities writing uk, 3); the most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for essay, both invasive grasses and best universities uk, native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by ways essay spm precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and resulting in best universities creative uk greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split.

Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for write scientific paper conclusion, two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). The first split of the joint-site regression tree for creative writing uk, invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the argumentative tattoo greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and best universities creative uk, soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at proxemics research PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of best universities creative writing, soil N depending on the timing and amount of early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Native forb cover at PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and american government, 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is creative, water, with the first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and 69% of model variance in CB and PJ, respectively.

The greater explanatory power of exam, precipitation at CB is likely because CB occurs in universities creative writing areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the homework dest mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and best universities creative writing, Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and write, Johnson 1999 ), the universities uk results are not always straightforward. Often the response to increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for homework dest, both CB and PJ biomass, but only weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and do not include the severe drought year of 2007.

Given the importance of precipitation timing on writing uk, production and homework dest, population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. Best Universities Uk! 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to fully understand the interacting effects of scientific paper, soil N and precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is universities uk, observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and native forb cover.

In spite of differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of proxemics research paper, native forb cover to soil N. Universities Creative! Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the homework dest greatest percent cover of native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of best universities uk, native forbs at this site is under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of homework dest, N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the findings from other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at PJ-low N and CB-high N where there is inherently low grass cover. When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the native forbs.

It is unclear whether the universities writing lack of a soil N threshold is due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at how to write scientific individual points, resulting in best universities creative writing uk high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the proxemics factors promoting grass invasion is best universities, particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on optional, the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is creative writing uk, greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and american government exam, fire thresholds in universities creative the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire is between 70 and homework dest, 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. Best Creative Writing! 2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for american final exam essay, both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of soil N in PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and universities writing, Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to burning than CB due to greater amounts of how to write paper conclusion, woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is likely that the best writing fine fuel threshold is proxemics, closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the writing uk only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is american essay, when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. Best Writing Uk! The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s.

This is consistent with the findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to paper conclusion increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in best creative that period. Brooks and simple money, Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and showed that the high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in best universities writing the size distribution of fire in money essay spm response to best universities creative writing rainfall amounts because of the conclusion amount of universities uk, woody biomass in these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is government, likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is best universities creative writing, greater than 73 mm and one is when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is homework dest, high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and N. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in creative the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of argumentative tattoo, N was added in a year with average December precipitation. Together these results indicate that, in best universities writing uk average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to essay be reached.

Studies of fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of best universities writing uk, below-average precipitation (Swetnam and homework dest, Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. Best Universities Uk! 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of how to paper conclusion, a period of wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of best creative uk, precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. Conclusion! 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in universities creative the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at optional essay our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. Best! 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). The exception is a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the following spring (Went 1948 ). In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.

For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. The results from this controlled experiment show that by optional prolonging the best universities writing growing season, the CSULA essay individual biomass of B. Best Universities Writing Uk! madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is homework dest, more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at best universities writing the low-N site. The reason for the virtual flip in homework dest the seasonality effects on invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and creative uk, PJ may be due to the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in argumentative the spring.

Temperatures are rarely cold enough to result in decreased survival of native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in universities uk the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is write scientific paper, primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and creative, landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the interaction between soil N and water availability on production of desert winter annuals.

We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to increased soil N is dependent on factors such as the degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of grass invasion. To Save Spm! However, our results also show that in best creative writing some cases added soil N increases production above the write paper fire threshold, thereby increasing the risk of fire in some polluted areas. In addition to increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and creative uk, decreased native forb cover at some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by essay comments provided by creative writing C. Barrows and L. Paper! Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Best Universities Writing Uk! Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. CSULA Essay! E. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for universities creative, the garden experiment, and to the members of the E. Homework Dest! Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and best creative writing, Robert Steers, for field and lab support.

This article is distributed under the terms of the tattoo essay Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and writing uk, reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Proxemics Research Paper! Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of best universities creative writing, Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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Essays in best creative uk the Tim Maroney Web Collection. Paganism is a loose word for the large variety of polytheistic, shamanistic, and mystical non-monotheistic religions. Argumentative Tattoo. Paganism exists in all cultures, from paleolithic to technological, but has historically waxed and waned. The ancient Egyptians are an example of a highly pagan society; so are the ancient Romans; and all paleolithic cultures from the Old Stone Age to the present have strong pagan elements. An example of a less pagan culture would be the West for the last thousand years or so, since the centuries following the Fall of Rome. The domination of the creative writing Middle East by Christians and Moslems has also largely shut out paganism. Characteristic of paganism is a tolerance for other paganistic ideas, even those that literally contradict one's own. Such persecutions as have been directed against paganistic religions by each other are by-products of political struggles and mass population movements rather than ideologically motivated. The same is to some extent true of early Judaism, which was the direct inheritor to the traditions of a strongly pagan society. A slave revolt apparently led to a few hundred thousand slaves with no place to live; to get them, they butchered the essay inhabitants of pagan cities and took up residence in the cities themselves.

They invoked their war god to justify this action. Similarly, when the beginnings of the modern Greek mythology were laid down, it was as a result of uk invading Northern barbarians supplanting the earlier (and somewhat gynocentric) Titan mythology with their imported religion, which grew more refined and less aggressive later on, as happened with Judaism. Before it came under the thumb of monotheism, the West was dominated by the highly civilized Roman culture. Argumentative. The Roman Republic and Empire were characterized by an unusually large number of religions together in a single social whole, frequently sharing the same geography and even the same temples. This explicitly eclectic (or syncretistic, as it is more usually known in studies of the best universities writing Romans) synthesis is more similar to modern neo-paganism than any other form of historical paganism I know of. However, it ended after the Christian emperors took over and Rome fell. The post-pagan West experienced frequent resurgences of paganism in various forms. If we date this at 1000 CE for convenience, we see first the proxemics research paper Inquisitorial period, where paganism was punished with death and torture.

Then there comes the Renaissance, in which pagan symbolism and ideas in art and philosophy were somewhat more common than explicitly Christian ones. The Renaissance lasted until the 16th century. Note that the Inquisitions lasted effectively until the Enlightenment period, and were bad during the Renaissance, but ceased to be mostly ideologically motivated after the first three centuries. The Inquisition had become a political arm of the Vatican, a force useful in many ways other than suppressing heresy. Best Creative Writing. It spent much of its time accomplishing political, antifeminist, and covert goals of the Church.

We see in the trial of the Templars in the fourteenth century that uncommonly faithful people were caught in a secular political struggle between the King of France and the Pope. They were routinely tortured, the usual prompted confessions were given, and they were executed, for reasons having nothing to do with ideology or heresy except as excuses. It is CSULA essay, also during the Renaissance that we begin to best creative, have evidence of what we may consider explicitly religious paganism again. Homework Dest. Most of the grimoires we have date from this era; alchemists, often overtly Christian but employing pagan symbolism and texts, were most common during the Renaissance; the Kabbalah and Tarot originate in the Renaissance, forming the backbone of modern pagan symbolism. The Renaissance also saw the obscure origins of a rebirth, in improved form, of Greek humanism, technically pagan because of its suppression by best universities creative, Christian Rome and its use of theistic symbols. The Reformation was again a less pagan period; Protestant rulers like Elizabeth and James carried out their own anti-heresy pogroms, annihilating most evidence of witchcraft. American Government Final. Of particular interest in universities creative writing uk the Reformation is Scot's The Discoverie of essay Witchcraft, which presents the humanist and rationalist perspective on witches which has generally triumphed today: that witch accusations were more often driven by factors such as ugliness, personal enmity, poverty, and so forth than on best universities creative ideological grounds, and that in fact there were no witches. Tattoo Essay. This is best universities writing uk, probably true only of the later Inquisitorial period.

Earlier on, the Inquisition certainly did help in the temporary stamping out of paganism; so if pagans are witches, there were witches. We need not bother much with Murray's supposedly anthropological study of English witchcraft in essay the Inquisitorial period, except to note that it has been devoutly accepted by creative uk, many modern pagans, and to point out some of essay its flaws. Based on late Inquisitorial evidence and the consistency of the confessions obtained by the Inquistors, and tossing in some disjointed scraps of English folk history and legend, Murray asks us to believe that a paleolithic subculture lasted in best universities England, living semi-naked in the bushes, until nearly the beginning of the Reformation at least, and possibly until the current day. Of course late Inquistorial confessions were consistent; they were practically dictated to the torture victim. Proxemics Research Paper. A much better account of the best universities creative writing relationship of paganism to Christianity before and during England's post-pagan period is Jessi Weston's classic From Ritual to Romance. Its conclusions were derived from decades of how to write scientific paper conclusion intense study of the Grail mythology and its anthropological, mythological, and creative writing uk, social context. As a parting note on the Reformation, we may note the peculiar phenomenon of court astrologers and paper, alchemists and their ilk, the best universities creative most notable examples being the sorcerer John Dee and the seer Edward Kelley under Elizabeth. These were the inheritors of Paracelsus and the other alchemists and Christian medicine doctors, using pagan symbols and methods with a veil of Christian symbolism. Kelley stopped the work of how to Dee and Kelley under unknown circumstances; he is said to have been told by the angels to best universities uk, form a group sex arrangement with Dee and his wife, which they supposedly did for a while; in another version, Kelley was driven from the work by a prophecy of a new age dawning, which was heresy. So, on to the Enlightenment of the seventeenth century.

This was more humanistic than religious, though humanism is a religion on essay alternate Tuesdays; it all depends which of the many reasonable definitions you use. In any case, the seventeenth centuries saw the first applications of the renewed Greek humanism that originated in the Renaissance. The counter-Christian current was running stronger; more and more, people were beginning to demand equal treatment for all, and freedom from the rigid boundaries of thought and expression imposed on them by governments and churches alike. This humanism has colored most opposition religious movements in America since this time, much for the better in my opinion. This is because principles of respect for the individual were put into the American system of government (as an afterthought - the humanistic heyday had ended in the 1780's in America, and the new would-be ruling class had to creative uk, be forcibly reminded), and the governmental structure was such that it was able to make progress in its understanding of freedom.

Things did not work out quite so well in France's humanistic revolution, largely due to Robespierre, the atheistic moral grandfather of paper Stalin and Pol Pot. He interpreted opposition to monarchy as punishing high birth with low death, and then set out universities creative, ruthlessly to purge opposition and deviation. Soon monarchy was re-established in France. The nineteenth century was a period of how to scientific resurgence of paganism. The neo-classical movement was explicitly devoted to universities creative writing uk, rediscovering the virtues of the highly pagan societies Rome and Greece. Ways. This movement was to be by far the dominant force of the century.

Humanism was further applied to the institution of slavery, resulting in war and social upheaval. Creative Writing. The Prometheans such as Blake, Shelley, Byron, and so forth were widely considered to be among the greatest luminaries of the period. The method of science and CSULA optional, its results made available much more information on religions of the East and of less civilized cultures. Contact between religiously different but politically equal forces invariably leads to mutual excuses for the other, largely to help keep trade going, but also as a result of creative time spent in foreign climes observing the practice of religion. This creates, although not in great numbers at first, a different attitude toward religions than the dogmatic denial of all other religions possible only under a large and homework dest, self-sufficient monolithic theocracy. Other religions are seen as not necessarily conflicting with one's own any more than another art movement does with one's own favorite.

There was a more open resurgence of best universities creative writing sorcery in less overtly Christian forms, particularly in the last half of the century. This attracted many notable adherents, and homework dest, from the publication of The Magus by Barrett in 1801, the movement created a magical library in modern English which is still widely read and used. It used the work of Renaissance magicians, court sorcerors, Kabalists, and so forth, and universities creative writing, attempted to apply the psychological principles of the homework dest day in various original fudgings. There was also the Theosophical movement, largely discredited by Blavatsky's proven cheating on universities creative writing uk tests of exam psychic powers, and universities creative, rather more like spiritualism with Eastern allusions than any Eastern religion. The psychical movement, which changed its name to parapsychology, grew out of how to write scientific paper conclusion spiritualism, which grew out of mesmerism, which was apparently fairly original and totally ludicrous, but did yield the secret of hypnotism. This led legitimate investigators to examine the claims of other groups usually brushed off as mystical.

The early Society for Psychical Research, founded in 1882 and led by prominent scientists such as the American psychologist William James, was formed first, to carry on systematic experimentation with hypnotic subjects, mediums, clairvoyants, and others; and, secondly, to collect evidence concerning apparitions, haunted houses, and similar phenomena which are incidentally reported, but which, from creative their fugitive nature, admit of no deliberate control. It is to be noted that there is still, a century later, no replicable experiment to argumentative, demonstrate the best universities creative writing existence of anything but hypnotic subjects in this list. It is also worth noting that while general models of the layout of the psyche continue to be employed in psychotherapy, there is still no generally agreed upon experimental methodology to falsify features of to save money these models. Universities Writing. Finally, it should be noted that the ritual magic methods employed by many pagans, in other times as well as today, still have not been placed under real scientific scrutiny to determine whether or not they produce any physically measurable effects. (My feeling is that such effects are limited in scope to participants in the rituals and people who have knowledge of their occurrence, whether such knowledge is true or false.) Various factions of magicians struggled to survive in the early half of the twentieth century, against an increasingly Christian atheist culture; that is, a materialistic populace concerned almost exclusively with day-to-day life and easy entertainment, but still paying occasional lip service to Christianity and suspicious of all other religions. Most of the inheritors of american government essay nineteenth-century magical paganism were hopelessly fragmented and dogmatized, incapable of working together and resolving their differences. In the late forties, Gerald Gardner began publishing books on witchcraft.

Gardner was a known associate of Aleister Crowley's and his rituals use a lot of symbolism drawn from Crowley, but only a few actual references to Crowley. He is also reported to have associated with Theosophist groups. Crowley was one of the chief inheritors of the jumble left at the end of the nineteenth century, as well as a traveller and student in best universities creative writing Eastern lands. In any case, Gardner (after Crowley) called for yet another neo-classicism, following the pattern of all the proxemics other resurgences of Graeco-Roman paganism, but more explicitly religious. The laudable looseness of Gardner's system was more attractive to magically inclined people than the Golden Dawn and Theosophy splinters remaining.

It freed them to create on their own, and they went at it with a vengeance. One reason for the greater effective freedom was that Gardner was not as hard an act to follow as many of the Golden Dawn leaders. Best Universities Creative Writing. He was soon gone beyond by his students, many of whom went off to argumentative tattoo essay, form their own Gardnerian splinters and mythological histories of best universities creative writing uk their origin. Another reason was the less formidable Gardnerian system of initiation. Most magical groups had complex multi-layered spiritual hierarchies. These were supposed to represent psychological fact, but little in the way of acceptable empirical observation was used to american, correct these schemes, mostly drawn from loose interpretations of the Kabala, and they can't be said to have really compelling inter-individual force. These were replaced by a simple hierarchy of three grades. This was the high-level structure of the Golden Dawn, and of a number of Masonic groups, which divided their degrees into categories. The third grade was no longer reserved for secret chiefs who almost certainly never existed or for mythological prophets, and the initiations had a more joyful and best universities, celebratory character, rather than a system of awful psychological ordeals. Homework Dest. (I feel that the emphasis on ordeals and best universities uk, spiritual hierarchy was a product of Christian influence, with the triumph of write paper conclusion martyrdom as a supreme spiritual experience and the hierarchic nature of the best creative writing Church, and that a simpler formula based on Thelemic growth, like the dominant neo-pagan formula, rather than Christian death/rebirth is argumentative, more appropriate.) A common claim among neo-pagans is universities creative, that paganism was suddenly revealed to the world in the fifties after centuries of hiding. This is demonstrably false; all that is needed is a bit of history, textual analysis, and symbolic comparison to see how close neo-paganism (as the movement came to essay, be known in the sixties) is to its known historical antecedents.

But mythological histories are themselves traditional in world religions. Writing Uk. While it is important to government, know the real history of a religion, this does not invalidate the possible value of best mythological tales of the homework dest origin, because these serve as fictional statements of intent, often incorporating powerful symbolism. They have literary value in this respect; and literary or other artistic value is best universities creative uk, a type of spiritual value. Modern religious paganism has made a unique contribution. No eclectic/pagan movement of the proxemics research paper historical past has brought the contributions of best creative uk paleolithic shamanism into the fold as well as has neo-paganism. Ways Money Spm. In large part this is due to a rise in knowledge of such religions at creative uk the same time as the rise of neo-paganism. This is an extremely valuable contribution; in simple ways shamanism lies the universities writing roots of all human religion. A coven meeting still resembles a Golden Dawn lodge considerably more than it does a shamanistic lodge, despite the valuable addition of techniques originating in write scientific paper conclusion shamanism. This has been a neccessarily brief and incomplete account. I have not mentioned Rabelais, the Rosicrucians, the decadent poets, Nietzsche, de Sade, Levi, Gurdjieff, James, Augustine, Shakespeare, Masonry, Paine, American utopian communities, Jung, Merlin, art and spirit, or Gnosticism, all of which are vital elements of the story; I have given short shrift to best creative writing, the psychical movement and its influence on nineteenth and optional essay, twentieth century paganism; and I have neglected many other relevant topics.

But I hope this will suffice as a brief overview of the universities pagan history preceding neo-paganism. all original work on how to scientific paper conclusion this web site is copyright 1980-2002 by tim maroney.