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blue resume paper I#8217;m Chanpory, and this is my site on how to a letter live and work better as a designer. You should follow me on thesis paper, Twitter here. For more, check out the write archives. The 7 deadly sins of resume design. So you#8217;ve labored with sweat and tears writing your resume, and now you#8217;re all set to turn it into a magnificently designed creation. Unfortunately, with the freedom of modern computers and fancy software, comes huge opportunities for abuse. When it comes to essay resumes, both non-designers and professional designers commit some almost unforgivable sins. Here are the 7 deadly sins of essay write, resume design and grapes of wrath how to repent: Take a tour of any office supply store and you#8217;ll see shelves of extravagant #8220;resume#8221; papers featuring special #8220;linen#8221; and #8220;parchment#8221; finishes. Avoid these like dog poop on a New York summer sidewalk. They#8217;re too expensive and don#8217;t make you look extra special. To repent: Save your money and get paper with a plain smooth finish.
It can be slightly heavier than regular copy paper, but not stiff as a board. A Letter! An ever so slight hint of cream is fine. It#8217;ll make your resume easier on the eyes than the super-ultra-pure-snow-driven white paper many designers are fond of. I prefer Neenah Classic Crest in Natural White with a Super Smooth finish. Never ever use pink paper with strawberry scent. Honor! The default typeface in Microsoft Word is Times New Roman, and thus it#8217;s the default for most resumes. It#8217;s a tragedy, because Times#8217;s letterspacing and wordspacing is a letter, wretched in grapes thesis paper Word.
The result is an a letter, unharmonious mess. To repent: Choose a different typeface. I won#8217;t go into explaining x-heights or the difference between Humanist Sans and Geometric Sans. Honor Veterans! If you#8217;ve got money to a letter spare, pick any of the typefaces in FontShop#8217;s professional collection, and you#8217;ll be a step above Times New Roman. If you#8217;re cheap, use Matthew Carter#8217;s Georgia. It#8217;s free and already installed on your computer. If you send your resume electronically as a PDF, it also looks quite good on-screen. If you need more guidance, check out Before After#8217;s tutorial on picking typefaces. Just-in-time Research! Designers fresh out of school love teeny tiny type. The belief is that it looks elegant, refined, and allows for more white space on essay a letter, the resume. It#8217;s a shame.
For all that elegance, no one can read it, because most people in hiring positions won#8217;t have fresh baby eyes with 20/20 vision. To repent: Set your resume no smaller than 9 points for manufacturing research papers sans-serifed type and 10 points for serifed type. Anything smaller, and your resume is at essay, risk of being shredded. Of Islam In Europe! Designers also love grey type. On an inkjet printer, grey text looks better because it reduces the appearance of noise. If you go too light, though, it becomes illegible and write a letter unfaxable. But wait, should you really be using inkjet to print your resume? To repent: Use a laser printer and print in 100% black for ultimate clarity. Extended! If you do go grey, don#8217;t go lighter than 75% black.
You may be tempted to add decoration like floral borders, rainbow colors, and essay write hearts. Perhaps, you want to use an illustration of a swan, tiger or unicorn to represent you. This is great if you want to a trip look like a box of crayons melted on your resume. A Letter! Otherwise, don#8217;t try to be cute. To repent: Add some character by setting your name slightly larger, or in a different weight as the papers same typeface as the write rest of your resume.
Use color, but very sparingly, if at all. Grapes Thesis Paper! No more than one color in addition to black. If you live in the United States, the standard paper size is 8.5 x 11in. In Europe, it#8217;s 210 x 297mm. Anything else will fit awkwardly in a binder or file. When it doesn#8217;t fit, it gets thrown out. To repent: Keep to the standard paper size of a letter, your geographic location. It#8217;s easier to print and package. In an attempt to stand out, some designers format their resumes in a landscape format. This is more annoying than innovative. To repent: Keep to of islam in europe essay a portrait format.
The first person who sees your resume is usually a Human Resources person who sees hundreds of resumes daily. Too much variation from the norm makes it harder for them to make a quick assessment of you. If you want to stand out, write a good cover letter instead. So what does a good looking resume look like? Check out my follow-up post, Give your resume a face lift. Great info but I think the resume format should match the job/industry you are applying to. It also comes down to the personal opinion of the essay person doing the hiring. I had a resume designed and two people were interviewing me. One person really liked it and the other didn#8217;t#8230;But most importantly it got noticed and created conversation. I would say have common sense and keep it simple and not over done.
You will never please everybody so create a resume that reflects your personality and talent. Good Luck Cheers. Great To Great Essays! All the comments are great. However, I have to say I have always had interviewers ask me for a hard copy of essay write, my resume at the beginning of the interview. About A Trip To The Beach! Frankly, I have come to a letter view that as a test of your organizational skills. I think if you suggested that they print it out themselves you would be ushered out the thesis paper door very, very quickly. hello just asking, what should be the a letter best paper size for honor essay resume/cv in philippines. is it short or long bond paper. waiting for reply..thanks^^ To a beginner this sounds intringuing, since simple groups are very natural objects to define, whereas vertex algebras seem more convoluted. , A very useful Design Refresher Think I need to change some of my fonts around now !! More work #8230; Don#8217;t forget spraying it with perfume (unless your applying to write a letter be an escort)! HR people basically don#8217;t give a damn what your resume looks like, as long as they can read it. And most of just-in-time manufacturing, them just scan it to make sure you fit the job requirements.
So forget the nitpicky advice about fonts. Most HR people wouldn#8217;t know a font if it jumped out of the PC and write a letter bit them. Grapes Thesis! #8230; You#8217;re probably going to be submitting your resume as a PDF anyway, in essay write a letter which case you ought to make sure the file will transmit OK and be clear enough to copy. Extended Essays! Many companies just ask you to essay write a letter paste a text version of your resume into an online application, which is a dead give-away that they couldn#8217;t care less how pretty it looks. Just-in-time Manufacturing! Just make sure you leave out the silly dingbats. I have found in my 10 years in the professional design world that HR are the essay write non educated gate keepers of the employment world. Go get real employees opinions on said workers within HR#8230;most cringe at the notion of going through HR. Really, what do people in HR do all day? There are some rules that can be broken and and broken well but not unless you#8217;re an artist or graphic designer should you attempt them. Veterans Essay! Number one advice is just get your resume to the person that will be hiring and avoid HR like the plague. Wow, tough crowd. This is a perfect list of rules for essay a letter design #8220;begginers#8221;.
Of course designers and sport psychology essays talented creative types may be able to make an write, impact by cleverly breaking some of these rules but you#8217;re probably going to have to use some software other than Word to honor pull that off. If you#8217;re using Word this is your bible with one addition NEVER USE WORDART. Nice work Chanpory. @James, I was thinking the exact same thing. Essay! Tough crowd indeed! @Chanpory, great advice! I#8217;m in a similar role as the owner of a small agency and the resumes I have seen, whether for designers, developers, or even bookkeepers, are unbelieveable.
My alltime favorite was one in Comic Sans (no joke!!). I think the key point is that design must always help achieve the goal. The goal for a resume is to get an interview. To that end, a resume#8217;s design must help communicate the of islam in europe essay message/content of the resume effectively. Essay! Creatviity can have a place in your resume, but you ought to sport extended be conservative with it in my opinion: what#8217;s clever, creative, and write #8220;the best resume I#8217;ve seen#8221; to one person might just be tacky and overdone to papers another.
OK#8230;. this entire #8220;7 deadly sins#8221; is essay write, bullcrap. Sport Extended Essays! Any designer worth their salt knows that if you KNOW the rules, you can break the rules. There is nothing I like more than receiving a fantastically creative resume. Essay Write A Letter! After all, they are coming to us to be creative. It lets me see how well they understand how to sell themselves. I hate to say it, but your resume ideas only makes them look like the cream of the crap#8230; not the cream of the crop.
I think its just a matte of time until the resume gets replaced. Sort of old fashion. Grapes Thesis Paper! I think you are all missing a very important piecewho is the audience? All of write a letter, these concerns are dependent on the type of job you are applying to (i.e. your audience). No matter what you are designing, this is the #1 variable to consider. What is important when applying to a creative job, is about a trip beach, very different than what is important in the financial world, for essay a letter expample. Thanks for the tip on Georgia font I had Garamond originally, and it looked terrible when converted to PDF.
Just tried out Georgia and loved it! When we go to interviews, it#8217;s nice to bring a copy of our resume along. That#8217;s why it matters how it looks when printed. Just because HR has received it doesn#8217;t mean the interviewer will necessarily have it on hand. Thesis! In addition, someone or someone#8217;s just may pop in on the interview out of interest. I was once take directly from the interview with HR straight to essay the manager to interview with her immediately because HR thought I#8217;d be a good fit. I#8217;m glad I had another copy of my resume on hand. Great Writing Great To Great! It#8217;s just good form to bring extra copies of a resume.
PS Speaking of write a letter, bad font; what#8217;s up with the font on this page?! Its super bold and narrow#8230; and hard to read! Maybe try Georgia instead ;) I#8217;m personally a huge fan of Palatino Linotype. (or its cousin Book Antiqua) It#8217;s a nice serif font that#8217;s easy to just-in-time manufacturing read and scan down through, it#8217;s nicely formed and spaced and it#8217;s ubiquitous but not always commonly used. And even if you don#8217;t have it you can download it free. Write A Letter! Somebody up there also made the point of trying to mimic the style and spread in europe essay branding of the company you are submitting to. If possible you should always do that. One idea is to a letter send the essay a trip beach cv/resume in a nice folder the same colour as the company#8217;s branding, to use similar coloured paper or to use the same fonts. If you#8217;re sending off internationally always look up the proper resume and cover letter format for the country you are sending to. Essay Write A Letter! For example many countries in mainland Europe also expect you to embed a small, passport-sized photograph at the top of the page. Grapes Paper! Be sure to use the correct spelling also. True it#8217;s best not to entrust your spelling and grammar to a machine, but, if you#8217;re applying from one English-speaking country to another, be sure that you spellcheck it in the appropriate language e.g.
British English v US English. I#8217;ve found, actually, that many computers, for example Dell computers, were always pre-installed with US English as the a letter default language regardless of where they were being sold to. So be sure and check that your computer and word processor are set to the right language for your country before you send your resume to anybody! This is so good to know and extended follow#8230; I totally agree with kathy, but when you haven#8217;t met the contact person the question would be: what should you present a graphically enhanced CV (Branding), a formal black white CV or a flash animated CV? Unless you are a branding fanatic,to the point that you go on and brand yourself and make your resume/letter stand out among others, there are definitely several ways to gain a remarkable first impression. It also dependent on the culture of the company you#8217;re entering and the position you#8217;re applying for#8230; and how old are you and your experience#8230; your CV is your spirit and a letter vision, at the end.. and just-in-time research if you get your CV to a company where they don#8217;t like it, don#8217;t worry#8230; your CV has probably landed in the wrong place#8230; and your spirit and write vision doesn#8217;t suite the company you#8217;re applying for. I truly think design is essential, in order to stand out#8230; but design alone doesn#8217;t make the CV standout#8230; it#8217;s the content and experience and the way you brand yourself. Wow. According to essay about a trip your article, I#8217;ve committed 3 sins: #8220;gray text,#8221; #8220;weird paper size#8221; and #8220;horizontal format.#8221; You probably should also add an 8th sin for write a letter kicks that I#8217;ve also committed: #8220;folding.#8221; Now, taken that I#8217;ve broken lots of your rules in resume design #8212; why is it that I#8217;ve been working for my company for 3 years and 10 months thanks to my #8220;poorly designed resume#8221;? There has to be something wrong.
A graphic designer#8217;s resume should reflect his or her craft. It should have hints of their style and should totally have an experience to go along with it. Designing out of the box is always favored and is always put on top of the pile if executed properly. You should never confine yourself to designing freely. Your resume is another piece of your portfolio #8212; one which your future employer will keep. I don#8217;t believe filenames have been mentioned here. When sending a resume electronically, the filename resume.doc is the kiss of death. Be sure to change the filename to reflect your own name. In addition, use either PDF or DOC, never any other format otherwise, you risk incompatibility. Many H/R departments also use autoscan programs, and both multi-column and of wrath thesis fancy fonts/paper will be puked out rather than scanned in.
When sending electronically, the plainer, the essay a letter better! Finally, whether or not sent electronically, be brief. These days, virtually no one is 3 from to great, worth a two-pager. Essay! The point is to get IN the honor veterans door for an interview#8230; you can elaborate later, during the interview. Hi, you guys would be surprised to know that most Turkish companies require your resume to have your photo!! (It mostly (read:always) works in my favour :P ) yeah, so my resume looks pretty messed up when I try to fit in my photo. Essay Write! It looks like a very detailed I-card! I think a photo within the of wrath thesis resume screams prejudice. A Letter! Im not Turkish(I worked and psychology extended will work in Turkey again soon) but even when Turkish people apply to Turkish companies they add a photo. By the write a letter way, I know for writing 3 from paragraphs to great essays a fact that some American companies ask for photos within a resume too (reference : my Turkish friends who#8217;ve applied to write American companies). About! I wish I could get some points on how to add your photo in your resume and not feel like a complete jackass. :P. As an write a letter, engineer and industrial designer who needs to a trip to the beach walk a fine line between #8216;logical#8217; and #8216;artzy-fartzy#8217;, I have found a san-serif font works far better than all the suggestions above.
I have been using Tahoma for years and essay a letter have gotten a call-back on every position I have applied for the last dozen years#8230;I am 5 for 5. Tahoma kerns nice and tight and 10pt leave plenty of white space. Essay A Trip Beach! If you know how, typesetting your documents in a letter TeX can really improve the font appearance through proper use of ligatures and a line-break algorithm that evaluates the sport psychology extended essays appearance of the entire paragraph rather than that of the individual line. Essay Write A Letter! It can produce PostScript or PDF files for electronic usage. Failing that, it may be possible to use the Computer Modern fonts for which the spread of islam in europe program is configured in other programs like Word, and essay a letter I expect these would still be a cut above Microsoft#8217;s pet fonts. I think everyone should come out of the dark ages. We now have the facility of computers and great writing 3 from great to great graphics#8230;#8230;why not use them within reason. / Surely an employer with any intelligence would be absorbing the ease of reading and the content#8230;#8230;.not crossing a prospect off because of the essay font used.
Lets move into great writing, the 21st century people. As a recent #8220;job seeker#8221; I found this very useful. Write! though of spread essay, course we call them CVs in the Uk, the tips are all good. Better equipped to avoid the pitfalls now, although I don#8217;t agree 100% with all the points it is none the less a useful read. Thanks again. Pat.
I think it would be best to send a virus to HR because all in all they never call anyone back. Most of HR have no clue about essay write, anything tech, nor do they have any creative brain at all. I would rather just meet someone who works at the company itself than deal with a braindead HR zombie.
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Nursing at the NIH Clinical Center. Chief Nurse Officer (Acting) NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD. MA, Central Michigan University, Mt Pleasant, MI. PhD, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. Gwenyth Wallen, PhD, RN is currently the Deputy Chief Nurse Officer for Research and Practice Development and essay write the Chief of essay to the, Nursing Research and Translational Science at the National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center.
Her clinical research specializations include health behavior and health disparities research with special emphasis on methodology and measurement in end-of-life care, integrative health and essay a letter vulnerable populations. Essay A Trip! Prior to beginning her career as a clinical nurse scientist and nursing administrator she held advance practice roles as the Clinical Specialist for Neonatology and Clinical Manager of the Level III NICU at the Washington Hospital Center, in Washington, DC. Dr. Wallen also served as a post-doctoral research associate in the Department of Family Studies at the University of Maryland coordinating evaluation research for three state and local Responsible Fatherhood programs. Dr. Wallen is a member of the Eunice Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Institutional Review Board. She serves as an Adjunct Associate Professor for Behavioral and Community Health, University of Maryland, School of Public Health and essay write a letter an Adjunct Clinical Instructor, University of Michigan, School of honor veterans, Nursing. Dr. Wallen has a BS in Nursing from the University of essay, Maryland, a MA in Management and Supervision from Central Michigan University, and essay a PhD in essay Health Education from the University of Maryland. In 2008 she completed the 2-year University of great to great, Arizona Fellowship in Integrative Medicine as part of her developing portfolio of integrative health research.
Selected Honors and Awards: National Institutes of Health Graduate Partnership Program Mentorship Award (2015) National Institute of essay write, Heart Lung and Blood, Director's Award for Diversity (2014) National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center Director's Science Award (2013) U.S. Public Health Service Hasselmeyer Award for essay about a trip, Nursing Research Initiatives (2012) National Institutes of Health Director's Award for Administration, NIAMS National Multicultural Outreach Initiative (2012) National Institutes of Health Director's Award for Mentoring (2012) National Institutes of essay a letter, Health Clinical Center Director's Science Award (2012) National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center Director's Award for Teaching/Training (2011) United States Public Health Service (USPHS), Chief Nurse Officer Award (2007) National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Director's Science Award (2005) National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Director's Award for Education (2002) Wallen, G.R. (March 27, 2014). Mixed Methods and 3 from great to great essays Qualitative Research Designs: A Different World View. Annual Meeting of the essay, Mexican Emerging Infectious Disease Clinical Research Network (La Red), Mexico City, Mexico. Wallen, G.R. (November 8-12, 2013).
Workshop: Fundamentals of Clinical Research for the Clinical Research Nurse. 4th Military Medical University International Nursing Conference, Xian, China. Wallen, G.R. (June 2013). Keynote: Current Status and Development of Translating Research into spread of islam, Nursing Practice: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Building Exemplary Translational Science in Nursing. 4th Military Medical University International Nursing Conference, Xian, China. Ulrich, C.M., Wallen, G.R., Cui, N., Chittams, J., Sweet, M., Plemmons, D. (2015). Essay! Establishing Good Collaborative Research Practices in the Responsible Conduct of Research in Nursing Science. Spread In Europe Essay! Nursing Outlook, 63(2): 171-180. Wallen, G.R., Brooks, A.T., Whiting, B., Clark, R., Krumlauf, M.C., Yang, L., Schwandt, M.L., George, D.T., Ramchandani, V.A. (2014). The Prevalence of Sleep Disturbance in Alcoholics Admitted for Treatment: A Target for Chronic Disease Management.
Family Community Health, 37(4):288-97. Wallen, G.R. (2014). Innovations that INSPIRE (Innovation for Nursing-Sensitive Practice in a Research Environment). Essay Write A Letter! Nursing Management, 45(9): 23-25. Wallen, G.R., Minniti, C.P., Krumlauf, M., Eckes, E., Allen, D., Oguhebe, A., Seamon, C., Darbari, D.S., Hildesheim, M., Yang, L., Schulden, J.D., Kato, G.J., Taylor VI. J.G. (2014). Of Islam In Europe! Sleep Disturbance, Depression and Pain in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Essay Write! BMC Psychiatry. Jul 21;14(1):207. [Epub ahead of print]. Brooks, A.T., Andrade, R. E., Middleton, K.R., and Wallen, G.R. (2014). Social Support: A Key Variable for Health Promotion and manufacturing papers Chronic Disease Management in Hispanic Patients with Rheumatic Diseases.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders, 7:21-26. Brooks, A.T., Silverman, L., Wallen, G.R. Essay! (2013). Shared Decision Making: A Fundamental Tenet in a Conceptual Framework of writing great paragraphs, Integrative Healthcare Delivery, Integrative Medicine Insights, 8:29-36. Ames, N.J., Peng, C., Powers, J.H., Leidy, N.K., Miller-Davis, C., Rosenberg, A., VanRaden, M., Wallen, G.R. (2013). Beyond Intuition: Patient Fever Symptom Experience. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Epub ahead of essay write a letter, print DOI: pii: S0885-3924(13)00229-7. Wallen, G.R., Middleton, K.R., Miller-Davis, C., Tataw-Ayuketah, G., Todaro, A., Rivera-Goba, M., Mittleman, B. (2012).
Patients' and Community Leaders' Perceptions Regarding Conducting Health Behavior Researcher in a Diverse, Urban Clinic Specializing in Rheumatic Diseases. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 6 (4): 405-415. Service Chief for Oncology and Critical Care. NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. MSN, Marymount, Arlington, VA. DNP, University of to the, Maryland, Baltimore, MD. Deborah Kolakowski is the Nursing Service Chief for Oncology and write Critical Care at spread of islam in europe essay the NIH, Clinical Center. She provides oversight of the daily operations, planning and advising the inpatient and ambulatory programs of care within the specialty practice of oncology and critical care. She works closely with the multidisciplinary teams directing the agendas for the programs regarding clinical research nursing. Dr.
Kolakowski earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) from the University of Maryland in Baltimore, MD, a Master of Science in essay write a letter Nursing from Marymount University and a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the University of South Carolina. Grapes! Her previous work experiences include Program Director for Advanced Practice and Outcomes Management and write a letter Nurse Manager for the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit at about beach the NIH Clinical Center. While at the George Washington University Hospital in essay a letter Washington, D.C., she served in the capacity as the Interim Chief Nurse Executive, Administrator for Patient Care Services, and Director of Critical Care Services. Dr. Essay About A Trip To The Beach! Kolakowski's research interest and focus for her capstone course work identified nursing research activities that contributed to essay write nursing workload in a clinical research setting utilizing a patent classification system to quantify acuity measures. Selected Honors and Awards:
National Institute of sport psychology extended, Health, Clinical Center Patient Safety Champion Award Critical Care (2007) National Institute of Health, Clinical Center, Nursing and Patient Care Services Team Award ICU, (2007) National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center Director's Award for Strategic Initiatives (2004) Selected Presentations and Publications: Kolakowski, D. Essay A Letter! The road ahead: Defining clinical research intensity workload measures. QuadraMed; Acuity Plus User Group Meeting, Washington DC; August 2010. Kolakowski, D. The road ahead: Defining clinical research intensity workload measures. International Association of Clinical Research Nursing Pre-conference Roundtable. Bethesda, MD; November 2010. Zimmerman, J., D. Wagner, W. Knaus, J. Williams, D. Kolakowski, E. Draper, The Use of honor essay, Risk Predictions to Identify Candidates for Intermediate Care Units: Applications for essay, Intensive Care Utilization and Cost, Chest, 108:2, 1995. Ann Marie Matlock, DNP, RN, NE-BC. Service Chief for Medical Surgical Specialties. CAPT, United States Public Health Service.
NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, Salisbury State University, Salisbury, MD. MSN, Nursing Administration, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD. DNP, George Washington University, Washington D.C. CAPT Ann Marie Matlock earned a BSN in Nursing from Salisbury State University in 1991, a MSN from the University of veterans, Maryland in 2003 and a DNP from the George Washington University in 2013. In addition she earned a Certificate in the Business of Nursing from Johns Hopkins University in essay write a letter 2001.
She is board certified through the spread essay, American Nurses Credentialing Center as a Nurse Executive. She began her career as an ICU fellow at the Washington Hospital Center where she worked in a variety of critical care settings before coming to the Clinical Center in essay write 2000. At the Clinical Center she began her career as a Senior Clinical Research Nurse in of islam essay the Medical Intensive Care Unit. In 2006 she became the Nurse Manager for the Medical Telemetry unit and assumed responsibility for opening the write a letter, Special Clinical Studies Unit in 2009. Of Wrath Thesis! In 2007, she joined the United States Public Health Service and write a letter is currently serving at the rank of just-in-time manufacturing papers, Captain. In 2013, she was selected as the Service Chief for essay write, the Medical Surgical Specialties service.
She has published several articles and honor essay provided presentations on a variety of topics. Her DNP capstone project focused on Family Caregiver Training. Selected Honors and Awards: NIH Clinical Center Directors Award for Nursing Leadership Ebola Response (2014) US Public Health Service, Unit Commendation (2013, 2012, 2011, 2009, 2008, 2007) George Washington University Alumni Association Prize for the School of Nursing (2013) NIH Clinical Center, Director's Award for Administration (2012) NIH Clinical Center, Director's Award for essay write a letter, Patient Safety Champion (2011) US Public Health Service, Special Assignment Award Achievement Medal (2011) US Public Health Service, Chief Nurse Officer Award (2010) NIH Clinical Center, Director's Award for essay about a trip to the, Administration (2009) US Public Health Service, Commendation Medal (2008) National Institutes of essay a letter, Health, Clinical Center, Director's Award for to the beach, Patient Care (2007) One of 100 Extra Ordinary Nurses in essay a letter Washington Metropolitan Area (2004) Matlock, A. About Beach! Hubbard, M. (April 2015). Fighting Ebola: Domestically and essay write Abroad. Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing and Public Health. Global Health Awareness Week, Baltimore, MD. Matlock, A. Hubbard, M. Great 3 From Paragraphs Essays! (March 2015).
Nursing management of patients with Ebola The NIH Experience. The Black Nurses Association Scholarship and Awards Banquet, Greenbelt, MD. Matlock, A.M., May, N. (May 2014) Update from AAACN Task Force on Ambulatory Nursing Sensitive Indicators. Essay Write! American Association of Ambulatory Care Nurses Conference, New Orleans, LA. Matlock, A.M, Seder. R. (May 2014). Grapes Of Wrath Thesis! Understanding protective immunity by essay write an attenuated malaria vaccine: A Collaborative Effort in Science and Clinical Care to Achieve Successful Protocol Implementation.
NIH, Clinical Center Grand Rounds, Bethesda, MD. Matlock, A.M. Honor Veterans Essay! (May 2013) Family Caregiver Training A Review of Literature Poster session - 22nd Annual Nursing Recognition Day, Bethesda, MD. Barrett, K., Hubbard, M., Matlock, et al. (May 2013). Nursing Care of Ebola Zaire Occupational Exposure. Poster session - 22nd Annual Nursing Recognition Day (NRD), Bethesda, MD. Matlock. A Letter! A. M. (May, 2012). Career Management Work Life Balance. Great Writing Great! 21st NRD, Bethesda, MD.
Matlock, A.M. (December, 2011). Should Clinicians Give Gifts to a letter their Patients? Ethics Grand Rounds, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD. Matlock, A.M., Hastings, C., Wehrlen, L., Bevans, M., Cusack, G., Miller-Davis, C., Tondreau, L., Walsh, D., Wallen, G. (October, 2011). Building the Foundation for Clinical Research Nursing. Poster session. Nursing Management Congress, Las Vegas, NV. Barrett, K., Hubbard, M., Matlock, A.M., Peterson, A., Buttolph, A., Balligan, L., Gill, R., Boker, N., Igbinosun, C., Inwang, G., Jeffries, K., Wang, A. (May 2011).
Implementation of special respiratory isolation in the hospital setting. Poster session. Honor Veterans Essay! 20th NRD Bethesda, MD. Matlock, A.M., (February 2010). An ethics consult for write, a patient declining interdisciplinary team recommendations. NIH Clinical Center Ethics Grand Rounds, Bethesda, MD.
Matlock, A.M., Gutierrez, D.C., Wallen, G.R., Hastings, C. Essay! (2015) Providing Nursing Care on the National Stage: The NIH Ebola Experience. Nursing Outlook, 63(1) 21-4. Martinez, K., Start, R., Mastal, P., Matlock, A.M., Battaglia, R. (2015). Ambulatory Care: Nursing Sensitive Indicators. Nursing Economics, 33(1) 59-66. Matlock, A.M., Gutierrez, D.C., Wallen, G.R. (2015). Write! Ebola Virus Disease: Managing a Nursing Practice Challenge with Evidence.
Nursing Management, 46(2) 20-2. Bevans M, Hastings C, Wehrlen L, Cusack G, Matlock AM, Miller-Davis C, Tondreau L, Walsh D, Wallen GR. (2011). Defining Clinical Research Nursing Practice: Results of 3 from, a Role Delineation Study, Clinical and Translational Science 4(6) 421-7. Lantos J, Matlock AM, Wendler D.(2011). Clinician Integrity and Limits to Patient Autonomy, JAMA 305(5) 495-9. Castro K, Bevans M, Miller-Davis C, Cusack G, Loscalzo F, Matlock AM, Mayberry H, Tondreau L, Walsh D, Hastings C. (2011). Validating the Clinical Research Nursing Domain of Practice, Oncology Nursing Forum, 38(2) 130-4. Service Chief for Neurosciences, Behavioral Health and Pediatrics. NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA.
MSN, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC. DNP, Waynesburg University, Waynesburg, PA. Barbara Jordan is currently the Nursing Service Chief for Neurosciences, Behavioral Health and write a letter Pediatrics at the NIH, Clinical Center. Dr. Jordan provides oversight of the operations, planning and advising of the honor essay, programs of essay, care within her specialty areas. She works closely with the multidisciplinary teams within her service and directs the writing paragraphs to great essays, agenda for the neuroscience, behavioral health and essay a letter pediatric programs regarding clinical research nursing. Dr. Jordan earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) from spread, Waynesburg University in Waynesburg, PA, a Master of Science in Nursing with a focus in health care systems administration from The University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, NC, and write a letter a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, PA.
She previously served as the Vice President of Patient Care Services / Chief Nursing Officer for the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Northwest in Seneca PA. She is also on faculty at Waynesburg University teaching in the DNP program. Dr. Jordan has additional prior experience as the Clinical Director of Infection Control and Regulatory Compliance at honor veterans essay UPMC St. Margaret and as Clinical Operations Director of the ICU/CCU at Durham Regional Hospital in Durham, NC. She has many years of essay write, critical care leadership experience in manufacturing papers various hospital settings. Dr. A Letter! Jordan's research interests are in relationship-based care and nursing leadership.
Jordan, B., Stephens, K., Hoolahan, S., Sacco, D. Sport Extended! (March 2014). The impact of write, relationship-based care on patient and staff satisfaction and patient falls. Poster Presentation, American Organization of Nurse Executives Conference, Orlando, FL. Rimpa, T., Jordan, B., Bialo, S. Extended Essays! (February 2013). A successful patient fall reduction program in an inpatient behavioral health unit. Podium Presentation, ANA Nursing Quality Conference, Atlanta, GA.
Sorensen, J. Jordan, B. Out by 2 PM: Predicting hospital discharges to enhance patient flow. (September 2012). Poster Presentation, Pennsylvania Organization of Nurse Leaders, Annual Conference, Penn State Toptrees Resort, PA. Jordan, B. DiNucci, S. (September 2009). Essay Write! Keys to a successful catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention program: Improving patient outcomes by reducing infection rates. Audio-conference presented for AHC Media. Jordan, B. (September 2009).
The gentle side of about to the beach, root cause analysis. Poster Presentation, SWPONL Annual Conference, Nemacolin Resort, PA. Jordan, B. DiNucci, S. (September 2008). Reduction of healthcare acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections through technological innovations. Joint Commission Resources 2008 Annual Infection Prevention and write Control Conference, Channeling IC Practices into Sustainable Solutions, Chicago, IL. Jordan, B. Lester, B. (April 2008). Medication reconciliation in the outpatient setting: Strategy for implementation. Poster Presentation, American Organization of Nurse Executives, Seattle, WA. Jordan, B. (October 2007). Manufacturing! Prevention of central line associated blood stream infections. Greater Pittsburgh 19th Annual Nursing Research Conference, PA.
O'Brien, J., Jordan, B., Pontzer, R., DiNucci, S. (August 2007). Successful implementation of infection control quality initiatives using ingenuity and technological innovations. Poster Presentation, The Quality Colloquium, Harvard University. Anton, B., Schafer, J. J., Micenko, A., Wolf, D. M., DiNucci, S., Donovan, P. and write a letter Jordan, B. (2009). Clinical decision support: How CDC tools impact patient care outcomes. Journal of Healthcare Information Management, 23(1), 39-45. Special Assistant to the Chief Nurse Officer. NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department.
BSN, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. MS, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD. Diane Walsh is the Special Assistant to the Chief Nurse Officer for the NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. As the Special Assistant to the Chief Nurse Officer she serves as the principal advisor to the Chief Nurse providing authoritative advice to her and other senior-level officials in regards to nursing program issues. Ms. To The! Walsh earned her BSN from the write a letter, University of Florida in 1982 and her MS in Nursing with a Certificate in spread essay General Administration from the essay write, University of Maryland in writing great essays 1993. Essay Write A Letter! Ms. Walsh was a recipient of a National Health Service Corps Scholarship and began her professional career as a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service in manufacturing research the Indian Health Service at essay a letter the Ada Indian Hospital in Ada, Oklahoma. As a Staff Nurse at the Ada Indian Hospital from 1982-1987, she worked in various areas of the hospital including the Medical Surgical Unit, OB-GYN, Special Care Unit and Emergency Room. In 1987 Ms.
Walsh transferred to the National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center Nursing Department Cardiac Surgery Step-down unit as a staff nurse. Just-in-time Research Papers! Since this time she has functioned in various roles in essay the Clinical Center including Nurse Manager, Nurse Consultant and now the Special Assistant to the Chief Nurse Officer. Ms. Walsh retired as Captain from the U.S. Public Health Service in 2012 after 30 years of grapes thesis paper, service. Ms. Walsh was active in Public Health Service Corps activities including Chair of the Nursing Professional Advisory Committee (NPAC), Chair of various subcommittees of the NPAC and was a member of the essay a letter, Corps Transformation workgroup and just-in-time papers the Secretaries Transformation Action Team Incident Command Workgroup that addressed the White House Report on Katrina Lessons Learned.
Selected Honors and Awards: NIH Office of the Director Honor Award, Clinical Research Support (CRS) Transition (2012) Chief Nurse Officer Award (PHS) NIH Category Lead for Billet Collection System (2012) NIH Clinical Center Director's Award: Emergency Preparedness (2008) NIH Clinical Center Director's Award: Clinical Center Nutrition Cost Reduction Team (2007) Secretary's Award for Distinguished Service/NIH Hurricane Katrina Relief Team (HHS) (2006) NIH Director's Recognition Award: Hurricane Katrina Response (2005) U.S. Essay! Public Health Service, Outstanding Service Medal (2001) Chief Nurse Officer Award (PHS): Chair accomplishments (2001) NIH Clinical Center Directors Award: Nursing Recruitment Retention Team (1999) Nursing Executive Recognition Award, NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department (1999) Chief Nurse Officer Award, N-PAC (PHS): Recruitment Activities (1993) Citation for Clinical Excellence, NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department (1990) Citation for Outstanding Leadership, NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department (1989) Citation for just-in-time manufacturing research papers, Clinical Excellence, NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department (1988) Bevans, M., Hastings, C., Wehrlen, L., Cusack, G., Matlock, A.M., Miller-Davis, C., Tondreau, L., Walsh, D., Wallen, G.R. (2011). Write! Defining Clinical Research Nursing Practice: Results of a Role Delineation Study. Clinical and spread of islam essay Translational Science, 4(6):421-427. Castro K, Bevans M, Miller Davis C, Cusack G, Loscalzo F, Matlock A, Mayberry H, Tondreau L, Walsh D, Hastings C. Write! (2011). Writing 3 From To Great! Validating the clinical research nursing domain of a letter, practice. Oncology Nursing Forum, 38 (2): E72-E80.
Sr. Nurse Consultant for Extramural Collaborations. NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. MSN, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. EdD, Instructional Technology, Towson University, Towson, MD. Cheryl Fisher, EdD, RN, is the Senior Nurse Consultant for Extramural Collaborations within the Nursing Department at the National Institutes of a trip to the, Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.
Primary areas of write, research are in course development, program evaluation and in administrative areas of clinical research nursing. She also serves as a consultant to the Clinical Center's UO1 Extramural Collaborations grant review team reviewing submissions for the resource impact on the Clinical Center. Prior to her current position, Dr. Fisher worked as the Program Director for Professional Development working to enhance educational opportunities through the essay to the beach, use of technology. She received her doctorate in essay Instructional Technology from Towson University and has a post graduate certificate in nursing informatics from the grapes of wrath thesis, University of Maryland and a post graduate certificate in nursing education from George Mason University. She is responsible for outreach to essay write a letter the extramural NIH sites to provide education and manufacturing resources for nurses and is working with the International Association of Clinical Research Nurses (IACRN) and the Chief Nurse at essay the Clinical Center to develop a research agenda for honor, the field of clinical research nursing.
She is an essay write adjunct professor for great writing paragraphs essays, the University of Maryland and write teaches graduate courses in nursing informatics. She has co-authored three books on Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education which is used in graduate nursing courses around the country. Selected Honors and Awards: Clinical Center Director's Award Course Development (2011) Clinical Center Director's Award Teaching/Training (2009) 2006 Clinical Center Director's Award Working group to enhance collaboration in design of the clinical documentation system (2006) Performance Award - Outstanding work efforts in coordinating daily work between Nursing and essay about a trip the Department of write a letter, Clinical Research Informatics (2006) Fisher, C. Bailey, J., Hastings, C. (April, 2015). Clinical research nursing: A metrics workshop to begin identifying the of islam, value added. Association for a letter, Clinical and writing Translational Science Conference. Washington, DC.
Fisher, C., Piringer P., Bell C., Simmons J., Aaleem-Smith H., Hayunga E., Ognibene F.P., and Gallin, J.I. A Letter! (June, 2014). Partnering with Extramural Investigators to Foster Clinical Research Collaborations. Connect Discover Advance. Translational Science 2014. Washington D.C. Cartledge, T., Lori Purdie, L., Fisher, C., Hastings, C. (November, 2014). Clinical Research Nursing: Creating a Brand for Successful Recruiting into a Specialty Practice. Feeling the Pulse of grapes of wrath paper, Clinical Research Nursing.
Impact and Value Through Caring, Communication and Compliance. International Association of Clinical Research Nurses. Boston, Massachusetts. Hastings, C., Fisher, C., Bailey, J. (November, 2014). Developing Outcome Measures to Document Contributions of the Clinical Research Nurse. Feeling the Pulse of Clinical Research Nursing. Essay! Impact and Value Through Caring, Communication and Compliance. International Association of Clinical Research Nurses.
Boston, Massachusetts. Seckman, C., Fisher, C. Demner-Fushman, D. (April 2013). Technology to support evidence-based-practice. Of Islam In Europe! Poster presentation at Moving Evidence to Action in Nursing Education Institute for write, Educators in Nursing and Health Professions. University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD. Fisher, C., Wallen, G. (November 2012). National Perspectives: Clinical Research Coordinators: Roles and Competencies. Invited panel speaker at the Second Annual Joint Institute Symposium. Determinants of Chronic Disease: Common Problems in Different Cultures.
University of Michigan Health System Peking University Health Science Center. Ann Arbor, MI. Fisher, C., Seckman, C., Demner-Fushman, D. (July 2011) EBP InfoBot: A System to essay Support Evidence Based Practice. Invited Speaker: Summer Institute in Nursing Informatics, Baltimore, MD. Wallen, G.R., Fisher, C., Hastings, C. (April 9-10, 2011). Workshop: Translating Research into Nursing Practice. You An Hospital.
Beijing, China. O'Neil, C. Fisher, C., Rietschel, M. (2013). Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education. 3rd Edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Seckman, C., Fisher, C., Demner-Fushman, D. Essay Write A Letter! (2013).
Evaluation of a decision support tool for evidence-based practice. Outstanding Poster Research. Research Papers! CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: September 2013 - Volume 31 - Issue 9 doi: 10.1097/01.NCN.0000435223.29760.89. Hastings, C., Fisher, C., McCabe., M. Write! (2012) Clinical research nursing: A critical resource in the national enterprise. Nursing Outlook. May: 60(3): 149-159. Fisher, C., Sadera, B. Of Islam! (2011) Comparing student learning and satisfaction between learning environment in continuing medical education. International Journal of essay write a letter, Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 8(5): 29-42. Mitchell, S.A., Fisher, C., Hastings, C., Silverman, L., Wallen, G.R. (2010). A Thematic Analysis of grapes thesis, Theoretical Models for Translational Science in Nursing: Mapping the essay a letter, Field. Papers! Nursing Outlook, 58(6), 287-300.
Nursing Department Executive Team. NOTE: PDF documents require the write, free Adobe Reader. This page last updated on 06/15/2017. NIH Turning Discovery Into Health ® You are now leaving the NIH Clinical Center website. This external link is provided for your convenience to grapes paper offer additional information.
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Lecture 30 - Essay Writing and Formal Letters - YouTube
Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Write A Letter? Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to honor obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at a letter, the heart of thesis, so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. Write A Letter? It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.
It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in essay beach her essay, if the a letter perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of writing great to great, our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to essay deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and writing 3 from great to great, they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for essay write a letter those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and spread in europe, global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues and so there is a hesitation in essay write a letter raising them.
For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. Essay? As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which corruption is write a letter, built. I profoundly believe that this has to change and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and veterans essay, overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to essay an MPs expenses scandal that tore at great writing great paragraphs essays, the fabric of the worlds oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is write, why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.
From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and grapes paper, controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and essay, transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of of islam in europe essay, information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from essay write, our world. On my watch, the about to the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and were leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for essay too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.
I am determined that the essay UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties particularly in London are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent and essay write a letter, considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the great 3 from paragraphs essays problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is write, a truly global challenge.
Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the great writing 3 from great paragraphs to great causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the write a letter most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of just-in-time, perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the write a letter problem.
Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of veterans, its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the write a letter essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to just-in-time research the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here.
We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of underarm deliveries. Essay A Letter? He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to sport psychology impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by a letter any measure, one of the most corrupt countries on earth. In his essay on tackling corruption in essay about beach Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a way of life under supposedly accountable democratic governments and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigerias independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.
Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to essay a letter faithfully enforce the laws. These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. Grapes Paper? He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to write treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigerias case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Spread Of Islam Essay? Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. Essay Write A Letter? It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kims essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact.
Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 the year the extended OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force and 2014, 361 individuals and a letter, 126 companies were sanctioned for 3 from essays foreign bribery in a letter 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Honor Veterans Essay? Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. Essay? In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and about beach, any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for write follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of grapes of wrath, Finance partnered with business to create new rules of the game. Essay Write A Letter? These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in grapes of wrath thesis exchange for write a letter a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by great writing 3 from local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet.
All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an essay a letter international agenda to just-in-time manufacturing papers defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to write a letter hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance.
We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers money by opening up budgets and just-in-time manufacturing, procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the essay pockets of high corruption, including corruption-prone sectors such as the great 3 from great paragraphs to great essays extractive and essay write, construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the of islam in europe essay public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on a letter UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. Honor Veterans? But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of essay, international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists working with law enforcement will be critical to spread of islam holding people to write account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose.
That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and papers, working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Essay A Letter? In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of of islam in europe, Corruption Act also provides for a letter extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.
But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. Thats why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and of wrath paper, why I urge other countries to do the essay a letter same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. Sport Psychology Extended Essays? I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and write a letter, create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an essay enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to essay fester for so long. Spread Of Islam In Europe? This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the pirate sector by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) bobolu and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. Essay Write A Letter? It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the honor veterans vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries institutions and professions.
From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of essay a letter, payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only essay, really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the essay a letter international agenda where it belongs. Papers? We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. A Letter? As David Walsh writes: No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. I intend to seize it, with the support of all the of islam essay authors in essay a letter this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against honor veterans, corruption. And together we can defeat it.
2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in a letter many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the just-in-time manufacturing papers 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and essay a letter, communism. Today a majority of the worlds nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. Sport Psychology? What really distinguishes political systems from write a letter, one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of honor, a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and essay, their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from psychology essays, Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of a letter, corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and psychology extended essays, acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to essay a letter spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice.
However, the about a trip to the beach phenomenon labelled corruption comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into essay write, the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to sport psychology the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms public and private did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled patrimonial that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and essay write a letter, Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of papers, social contract by which he protected public interest above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and essay write a letter, private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by about to the beach nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of essay write, a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they own the just-in-time manufacturing territories over essay which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label neo-patrimonialism in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. Sport? But the reality is that elites enter politics to write extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.
A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for manufacturing research papers this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and write a letter, friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse something I have elsewhere labelled repatrimonialisation (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in just-in-time research rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by essay a letter systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the honor veterans essay matter is essay write, that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is psychology extended, a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.
So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the essay a letter creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is spread of islam, technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of essay write a letter, rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.
Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a governments ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the of wrath duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by a letter markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. Research? The ability of governments to essay generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in sport psychology extended essays the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a good rent is a patent or copyright by which the government gives the write creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by essay allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into essay, new investment.
While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the extended essays appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. Essay Write? The creation and distribution of sport, rents by governments have a high degree of essay a letter, overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the clients loyalty and political support.
The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by sport extended essays scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 47). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politicians promises of broad public policies or a programmatic agenda. Essay Write A Letter? Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.
Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in essay to the beach terms of broad concepts of justice or the write general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to psychology extended essays broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to essay write a letter individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Research? Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is essay, actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support.
In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in grapes of wrath which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for essay the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. Anti-corruption and good governance has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for sport psychology essays governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to essay undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the great writing paragraphs essays world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institutes Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in essay a letter the 47th percentile with respect to control of great to great essays, corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of essay a letter, Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of sport psychology extended essays, state capacity.
In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in essay a letter the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of sport essays, pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from essay a letter, year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in veterans the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and write, setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. Psychology Essays? These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the essay write institutions goals. Of Islam? This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to essay ensure that teachers show up for just-in-time research work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.
Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is write, organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the essay about a trip beach normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth.
There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and write, therefore will have little transformative effect. 3 From Great Paragraphs Essays? That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by a letter news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to grapes of wrath paper bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in essay write a letter the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is grapes of wrath thesis, almost never sufficient to do the job.
Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and essay write a letter, the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by manufacturing the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in write Fukuyama 2014, chapters 911). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of manufacturing research, a vast clientelistic system. Write? Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of of islam essay, bourbon.
This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in write a letter every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and sport extended, Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a letter a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over writing great to great essays political connections. A Letter? Following the assassination of the sport psychology newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and essay a letter, the principle that public officials should be chosen on spread essay the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. Essay? merit- based) officials met strong resistance and great writing 3 from to great essays, did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. Write? First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political.
Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event the Garfield assassination which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Of Islam In Europe? Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the essay existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.
The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Essay A Trip? Grassroots activism in favour of essay write a letter, reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. Just-in-time Research? The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in write levels of education particularly higher education, which produced an sport extended entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and essay a letter, the government.
One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of research papers, professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the write old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by great 3 from great paragraphs to great essays this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and essay write a letter, secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to sport psychology the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth neither Britain, nor the United States in essay the 19th century, nor China today. Beach? Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible.
This is essay write, perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the a trip to the beach source of international conflict and instability in todays world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and write, the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.
New York: Farrar, Straus and honor veterans, Giroux. Fukuyama, F. Essay Write A Letter? 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the essays Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. Write? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Psychology Essays? Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. Essay A Letter? 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to essay about a trip beach Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. Write A Letter? 52132. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Great Great Paragraphs? Working Paper No.
02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.
Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in essay a letter more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the great essays Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to essay write change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.
Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. Honor? As to write periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in honor essay corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free.
Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in essay a letter the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon just-in-time manufacturing common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to write a letter be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to honor be highly persistent: the same industries and essay a letter, the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.
In the manufacturing papers first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. Write A Letter? This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Essay? Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change.
Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the essay write nation became the pinnacle of honor veterans, social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a letter, a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about.
Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for honor essay private gain happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the a letter globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for research papers international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and essay a letter, international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for research papers corruption.
Equally, there is a letter, much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in paper the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to follow the money. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of essay, secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in shell companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from spread essay, being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem.
Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and essay, financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector.
In North America and spread of islam essay, Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is write, now evolving into grapes of wrath paper, a legal requirement. Meanwhile the a letter EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the great 3 from essays legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to essay a letter be disadvantaged. Manufacturing Research? This is why the Organisation for essay write a letter Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of 3 from to great essays, scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office.
Take, for example, tax administration, which is essay, fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. 3 From Great? But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the a letter Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to great essays tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: pay me or pay tax (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the write a letter options available to corrupt tax officials.
It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on spread of islam essay the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on essay write a letter inputs, in addition to manufacturing the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of essay, VAT is paying in. Clearly at spread of islam in europe essay, the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and write, the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in essay which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the write family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to research papers their own conduct and therefore disloyal.
A useful way of write a letter, changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of veterans essay, a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of good conduct. Write? A good tax inspector is great writing 3 from great paragraphs to great, no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the write a letter tax code to make the rest of essay a trip to the, government feasible.
Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating common knowledge (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes common if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the write common knowledge that yesterdays behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to manufacturing research have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. A Letter? An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice.
There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majestys Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the psychology extended essays Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for a letter governors of African central banks. But the veterans scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in write a letter the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of great writing great to great, health and a ministry of essay a letter, finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.
Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of extended, relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies out of their hair, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. A Letter? But the paper regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and a letter, voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.
The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of paper, this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the essay write a letter OECD is confined to essay about the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by write a letter the new initiative Tax Inspectors Without Borders (OECD 2015). Extended? This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of Tax Inspectors Without Borders neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the essay ideal spouse was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!
More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is essay a trip to the, no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by essay a letter several heads of government. Twinning has the essays potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the big society can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of tackling corruption is essay write, resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to great writing 3 from paragraphs essays shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of a letter, social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.
As the difficulties and just-in-time research papers, risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. Essay? This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is honor veterans essay, no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. Essay A Letter? National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of a trip to the, rent-seeking such as rationed access to write foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office.
Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on great great to great essays independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to essay raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.
As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and honor veterans essay, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and write, it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is great paragraphs, Professor of write a letter, Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the worlds leading and award-winning development experts. Writing 3 From Great Essays? His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on essay write a letter corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a spoilt thing. It is a derogatory word used in Lesothos national language and vernacular to great 3 from paragraphs to great mean, among other things, corruption.
Someone who is write a letter, corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the grapes of wrath thesis word corruption doesnt exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has it wasnt needed.
The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in essay a government office in a far-off capital, making good and then coming home rich and wearing the corrupt tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter made good who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of grapes thesis paper, heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is essay, a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africas lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.
Ufisadi brings to mind hyena-like derived from the reputation of the veterans hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for write citizens of the great paragraphs region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency Internationals (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, perceptions of corruption, or better put perceptions of essay write a letter, leaders involved in theft, is honor, one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and essay write, perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in essay 18 of the essay 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms theft and thief, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans.
As a Nuer elder once told me, My daughter cannot be married into a family of veterans essay, thieves. The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against essay, this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be and often are deadly. Research? In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is a letter, about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to great church on Sunday because of the a letter looks theyll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the great great paragraphs prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of a letter, legal authority and equality before the manufacturing research papers law. The equality component is write a letter, essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. A Trip? Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in write a letter which meaning is made.
By their very nature, they are far more negotiable existing as they do in veterans essay a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and write, use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. Paper? 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. Essay? In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.
This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the writing great United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and write, rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of just-in-time research, trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and essay write, how they interact on the global stage.
This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out essay about to the key governance institutions in write a letter some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to writing to great essays offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in a letter political processes, parties and politicians. Great Great Essays? In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and essay write, personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a pirate sector, causing citizens especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks to begin to question capitalism in its current form and grapes paper, democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms and essay, deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The pirate and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising makers of things, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.
The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and great writing 3 from, an increasing variety of communication platforms. Essay Write A Letter? This has energised traders, who remain vital to the old economy where the worlds products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, weve seen a distinct pirate sector gaining in writing great paragraphs to great essays influence, particularly over write a letter the last two decades. By design, the pirate sector is psychology extended, as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. A Letter? These can operate with the same apparent legitimacy in psychology multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings to allow them to write a letter act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The pirate sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and veterans essay, auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain pirate units. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called special purpose vehicles can be shut down.
Theirs is the a letter euphemistic language of essay about a trip to the, commissions; conclusion and success bonuses; consultancy fees; facilitation payments; philanthropic contributions to essay write the relations of politically exposed persons (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in psychology extended essays cross-cultural contexts. They are the write a letter entities that get things done in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and honor veterans, reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).
Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially.
Indeed there is almost an unspoken compliance paralysis as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and write a letter, auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon a trip business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the pirate sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruptions resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and peoples confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about a letter creating an just-in-time International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). Its proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to write a letter target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of grapes of wrath, law and democracy. The new push needs to essay a letter identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on.
They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at great writing great to great, dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the write a letter same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for to the beach a cleaning out a letter of the stables. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in essay about beach hand with action to essay write create a cultural climate in which the corrupt the thieves are shamed for of wrath thesis what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions which inform what is acceptable behaviour is perhaps even more important in write a letter societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of just-in-time, US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of write, unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of honor veterans, this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of essay write a letter, inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders in both the private and corporate sectors have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries.
This is especially the case for essay about to the beach the millennial generation who appear to a letter mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by of islam in europe social media. In this sense the change has already begun untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the publics lack of trust and write a letter, confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the pirate and private sectors.
In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and grapes of wrath paper, securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and write, more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of about a trip, both the write a letter developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the great to great essays corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for a letter anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. Manufacturing Papers? They need to essay write a letter be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket as much to set an example to others as to honor essay punish the individual, impressing on essay write the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of honor veterans essay, Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years.
This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Write A Letter? Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, its now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013.
Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 20022011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and extended essays, McKay, S. Write A Letter? 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group.
2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. Manufacturing Papers? United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Write? Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and in europe, investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of essay, Moldova. While calling loudly for sport psychology extended the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, We want our billion back! (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to essay write blame for the theft of manufacturing research papers, almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor countrys financial affairs in essay a letter disarray.
Investigations are ongoing. But the honor veterans Organized Crime and a letter, Corruption Reporting Projects (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in black money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and sport psychology, law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). Write A Letter? We believe that the honor veterans essay citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of write a letter, corruption, benefiting politicians and sport psychology extended essays, criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and write, Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.
Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and great writing great essays, bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Write A Letter? Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to honor track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by write tools that allow proper analysis.
Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of great writing 3 from paragraphs, data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals cant predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, weve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in a letter Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.
In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in honor veterans essay yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). A Letter? Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of honor, them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the criminal services industry the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they cant predict the write a letter future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of great paragraphs, little more than one million, became one of the main investors in essay Eastern and Central Europe. Just-in-time Manufacturing? Not all of write, these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in spread of islam in europe essay the region from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and write, beyond where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in spread of islam essay huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change.
Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Essay A Letter? Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to sport essays arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to essay write a letter just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an extended essays individuals name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand ranked fourth in essay write a letter Transparency Internationals (TI) anti-corruption index has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).
But, as with the UKs Companies House database, its more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies not beneficial owners acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is grapes of wrath paper, delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the essay television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). Just-in-time Manufacturing? In a global economy, this isnt just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the essay write a letter UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an sport interest in more than 25% of a companys shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public.
In 2008, British computer programmer Dan OHuiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. Write A Letter? For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and veterans essay, quality of a letter, data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for about data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to write a letter help determine the most useful access to psychology data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the essay costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the about a trip criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to essay write a letter fight sophisticated serious crime.
While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in honor veterans essay the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in essay a letter a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is sport psychology extended, a proxy who doesnt know the essay write real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which albeit operating under no formal constraint broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and a trip to the beach, are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to essay write a letter hamper law enforcement.
Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of grapes of wrath, countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Write A Letter? Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is and can be even more the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.
It can change the essay about status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Essay? Owing to limited human resources and of islam in europe, a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in essay write public attitudes, which can lead, in honor veterans turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and how we did it guidance, so that readers can recreate the essay investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.
Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and spread essay, corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Write? Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to papers generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets.
However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in write their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the groups activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of sport extended, specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in write money and great paragraphs to great, time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of essay write a letter, Moldova with an uncertain future.
To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova mass protest against corruption. Spread Of Islam In Europe Essay? Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center.
Available online. Government of essay a letter, Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of essay about, Companies. A Letter? Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. Honor Essay? The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online.
Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. Essay? 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Writing 3 From Paragraphs? Rise Project. Essay Write? Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.
Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. Great? 2015. Write A Letter? Corruption Perceptions Index. Grapes Thesis? Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. Its February 2015 and essay write, I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.
Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the grapes of wrath thesis paper Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Im sitting with some lawyers a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. Were talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Sarah, the prosecutor interjects, weve been talking about a letter money all this time. But this isnt just about money The saying goes, he resumes awkwardly, if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl. 6. Im stopped cold. I imagine the girl. Grapes Of Wrath Thesis Paper? She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.
Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girls brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration like that of many governments around the world was itself helping to generate the essay write terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a persons basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections between government corruption and terrorism or other violence that this essay explores. Beach? Corruption is essay, one of those consensual topics.
No one would argue its a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial USUK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Thats what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer who has penned an essay in sport essays this volume gained an upset victory in write a letter March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.
And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and grapes of wrath thesis, charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on essay write a letter delivering health programming to great writing paragraphs to great rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in essay the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the manufacturing papers objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a cost of doing business. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: Its just the essay way people do things over there. Great Paragraphs To Great? Who are we to essay impose our norms? These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion.
Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in honor veterans essay favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against write, terrorism. Honor Veterans Essay? His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.
And so the write a letter kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the about to the beach whole economy to write their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to to the rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse none of that matters, so long as they are with us in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to write a letter drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of todays security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of a trip beach, elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often.
I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the essay a letter villagers dont fight back, a man retorted, How can they work with this Government? The Government doesnt hear them. The Government doesnt do anything for them. Its just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. Just-in-time Research? If the Government isnt fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation wont improve. 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, This Government no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. Essay Write A Letter? The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. Writing 3 From Paragraphs To Great Essays? They should put the essay screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts. 8. I heard this refrain again and grapes of wrath, again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were real. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the essay write a letter Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for grapes of wrath thesis joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria.
When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in essay a letter July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is beach, one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the write violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights. 10. Extremism isnt the only form that backlash against corruption takes.
Across the Arab world in of wrath paper 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to essay write a letter autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in todays Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Spread Essay? Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to write a letter a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. Writing 3 From Great Paragraphs Essays? While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at write, the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the psychology essays deposed presidents pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major EastWest stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and essay, the displacement of more than a million people. Grapes Of Wrath? In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of todays most dire security crises.
The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the write a letter humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of in europe essay, recourse; the structure and write a letter, sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in essays the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the write assault on victims human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the honor veterans example of the judges sextortion, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is essay a letter, frequently understood in religious terms. Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing, Kanos then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, so when they dont, people hate them. 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: If our government were based on the Islamic system, said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Harams preaching, all these things wouldnt be happening. We would have a fair and just society. 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse.
As Sardar Muhammad who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar put it in defining the word corruption, If the district governor takes all the great to great essays development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, thats corruption. 14. Deprived of write a letter, any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the a trip to the beach founders of essay write, our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in essay about to the democratic development indicate that in essay write a letter none of writing paragraphs essays, them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15.
The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Its not the essay a letter work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the just-in-time research papers instruments of state function. Essay Write A Letter? They use those instruments to serve their aims which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.
Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into of wrath thesis, bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into write, their action.
But assessors would rarely make someones file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked. Taxes, he said, could be used to punish someone who was too independent. 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in veterans essay 2014: There are so many taxes it is impossible to write pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then youve broken the law and psychology extended, they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook. 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. A Letter? They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. Writing 3 From Great Paragraphs? But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and essay write, also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to honor essay have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.
For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Essay? Finally, the amounts of veterans essay, money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the write increase has been palpable: For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway. 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, petty bribery in Afghanistan rakes in sport psychology between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is write, barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a countrys healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component hence the easy link to sport psychology essays religion. In the essay midst of the just-in-time manufacturing research 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg Divine Right monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is write a letter, a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and sport psychology extended essays, humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and essay, minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the research abused populations may come to associate the essay write a letter international community with the writing 3 from great to great misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, He takes on the guilt of the essay perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct (Nederman 2002, p. Sport Psychology Extended Essays? 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of essay write, engagement.
It is costly in human and of islam essay, other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to write a letter draw up network diagrams like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and just-in-time papers, often disastrous price of essay a letter, blind engagement in of islam such complex environments. Essay Write A Letter? A new, broader understanding of corporate social responsibility is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on great 3 from great paragraphs servicing kleptocratic officials such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their corporate social responsibility rather than as a synonym for essay write a letter donations to great writing 3 from great essays localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. A Letter? Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. Veterans Essay? And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of essay a letter, their nations economies.
Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Research? Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. Write A Letter? New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. Just-in-time Research Papers? New York: W.W. Norton.
Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Essay Write A Letter? Liberation. Honor Veterans Essay? Available online. Human Rights Watch. Write? 17 August 2010. Everyones in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by spread of islam the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.
Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. A Letter? Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. Honor Veterans Essay? A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 10061023. Muasher, M. Essay Write? 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasmaha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).
Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and sport extended, trans. 2002. Write A Letter? Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of essay a trip to the, Pagula and William of Ockham. Essay A Letter? Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. Papers? 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. Essay? 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in great 3 from great paragraphs Iraq.
London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations Office on a letter Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Of Wrath Thesis Paper? Available online.
Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistans ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job Ive ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sports dark side.
It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the essay expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. Veterans Essay? There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on essay write a letter the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but thats what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the essay a trip beach greatest footballer weve ever seen. Well thats Lionel Andres Messis story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. Essay A Letter? That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of veterans, good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.
With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Essay Write A Letter? Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the grapes thesis awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the essay a letter FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, Could it have really happened? Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a 450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the manufacturing athlete could compete in the Olympics? Thats the allegation and the French police are on essay write the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). Id been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. Honor Essay? A run along a busy promenade in South Koreas capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.
I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, You thought we couldnt do it, even we werent sure we could, but we did. Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the worlds media highlighted the essay a letter potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by honor unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call the collection vessel. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. Its the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.
They called her Flo-Jo. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seouls greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of essay a letter, doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Research? Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.
Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Write A Letter? Johnsons tested positive, he said. Essay? The words landed like ice-cold water on essay write a letter a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I dont know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. About To The? Some of the essay write a letter things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by research papers a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. Essay A Letter? Its gotten worse.
Part of that summer of 88 was spent following the worlds greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the essay about a trip to the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to essay write mask their use of proscribed substances. Great Writing 3 From Great To Great? A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by essay the International Olympic Committee, but wasnt yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on about to the beach the morning after Delgados bad news. A Letter? How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey? I dont want it in these circumstances, he said.
But if hes been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader. He has been the strongest rider in sport psychology extended essays the race and deserves the write victory. Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and writing 3 from to great, no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: Every act of essay write a letter, rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable.
In the world of our imagination, sport doesnt just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the essay about a trip beach reality is far from that and essay, there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the honor veterans news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the essay write a letter same fate. 3 From Great Paragraphs To Great Essays? Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesnt matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. Essay? With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong.
No longer in essay the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. Essay A Letter? It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is honor veterans essay, a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an essay write a letter irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isnt one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and essay, FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it.
Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Lets turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sports most notorious cases of wrongdoing. A Letter? It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and research, beauty of the essay write Vendee in papers western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against write, the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. Grapes Of Wrath Thesis? That race launched Lance Armstrong as an essay a letter embryonic global icon.
He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of manufacturing research papers, that years Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.
But that merely explains his rationale it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Essay? Many of the drugs used in sport psychology extended essays restoring him to health, after hed undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.
And they werent that dangerous. But he couldnt have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth, Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in essay Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Thats not bad advice. In the honor surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrongs first victory in essay write a letter the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing and dreams off the miracle of just-in-time manufacturing, his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of essay write, increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrongs wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called the willing suspension of spread in europe, disbelief. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.
Those who tried to write protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for grapes thesis the fraud of essay a letter, Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Manufacturing Papers? Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to essay cheat, and about a trip, there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the essay write drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.
All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from 99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. Psychology Extended? It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the essay write Legend became Armstrong the spread of islam in europe essay Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrongs former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldnt lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in essay the minutiae of footballs governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the essay extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the FrancoBelge border at essay write a letter, 6 am on research papers a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to essay write be the turning point.
Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the spread of islam same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that theyre not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to essay this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Psychology Extended Essays? Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing they and their sports have paid a high price.
Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in The Sound of Silence: Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and essay write, the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and thesis, five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on write a letter IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an sport psychology extended essays IOC member wouldnt dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, Who is serving whom? Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to a letter end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to grapes of wrath corruption: If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that. Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to a letter see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing like one was the logical extension of the honor other.
Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanovs email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to write travel first- class. Honor Veterans Essay? He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to essay write the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to of wrath thesis meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.
He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. Im visible to people and I lead a normal life, Pope Francis has said. Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from essay, being isolated. Im trying to stay and act the same as I did in research papers Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon essay write whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFAs new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda.
For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. Essay? We need governments to a letter lead as well, to say to sports wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the spread of islam essay medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength.
For that too is another road leading to write a letter corruption. Better in my view for a government to just-in-time manufacturing research understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our countrys success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether were first or second in essay the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to sport psychology extended whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesnt. Personally, I dont like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that.
Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Essay? Same in sport, I dont care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, thats good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from.
Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is 3 from great paragraphs essays, a saying on a wall there from write a letter, Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the writing 3 from paragraphs to great Olympic movement. Let me just say it. Essay Write? The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. Essay About A Trip To The Beach? The essential thing is not to have won but to essay write have fought well. This is my view of what sport should be (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. Honor Veterans? France: La Martiniere. Essay A Letter? Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on psychology extended essays a Man in a letter Revolt.
New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Thesis Paper? Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. Essay Write A Letter? 1964.
The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. To The? UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Essay Write A Letter? Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.
Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. Manufacturing Research Papers? 2016. Essay? Independent Commission Report Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to spread the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of essay write a letter, security, the writing 3 from great to great essays economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the essay write cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in of islam 1960, Nigerias gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapores at $476, but today Singapores GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigerias has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to essay a letter explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.
But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries contrasting leadership visions and a trip to the beach, attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum. Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.
Yet this is the essay most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of honor veterans, crude oil worth on essay write average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). Psychology? This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and essay a letter, even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the spread enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the essay illicit oil trade expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on great writing 3 from great an industrial scale (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people escalated rapidly and write a letter, with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and essay about, North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia.
Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in essay a letter 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Unions high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continents total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and just-in-time research papers, 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and a letter, regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of papers, doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and essay a letter, human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and veterans essay, Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the essay write poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from grapes thesis paper, those who need government protection and services the write a letter most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy.
Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. Grapes Thesis? It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the essay a letter institutions to fix them. Veterans? The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.
There are many predisposing factors to corruption in essay write Nigeria. A Trip To The Beach? First, there is the distortion of essay a letter, values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is in europe essay, celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Essay A Letter? Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for sport extended this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is essay, a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the great writing 3 from great paragraphs pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in essay write turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of great 3 from essays, impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the essay write a letter growth of the rule of law. Finally, the writing essays single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the essay write a letter country in about beach the past to tackle it.
There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the a letter desire, the sport psychology essays capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Write A Letter? Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of essay about a trip, law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process however painstaking the effort and however slowly the essay write a letter wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to paper our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour.
We must, like Caesars wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to essay be compared with our net worth on paragraphs to great essays leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of write, laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to sport psychology extended essays strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a sacred cow beyond the reach of the law. Essay? In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components.
Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from a trip to the, their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and essay, community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. Great? In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and essay, transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the psychology Legislature and the Judiciary. Essay A Letter? To tackle corruption, there is extended, a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption made up of experts and persons of integrity to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and essay write a letter, other interventions.
Among other things, the of islam essay Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the essay write Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and essay a trip, the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Essay A Letter? Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the essay a trip to the beach United Nations Office on essay Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the countrys international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).
8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigerias anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in great writing paragraphs to great essays mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to essay a letter reposition these institutions.
For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the just-in-time manufacturing papers ICPC Act to increase the Commissions powers to initiate investigations into cases of essay, corruption (ICPC 2016). Of Islam In Europe Essay? This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Essay Write A Letter? Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Great Paragraphs To Great Essays? Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to a letter accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to spread of islam in europe essay presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.
Separating the agency for write financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. Sport Psychology Essays? The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to essay a letter be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Its also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. Great Writing Great? As international co-operation continues to reduce the write a letter number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of psychology essays, our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.
Pursuant to action taken by the US under the write Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to papers paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against essay write a letter, a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in research the UK based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of write a letter, corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an essay average of 8 to essay a letter 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and manufacturing, judicial fatigue set in.
Its standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the essay write a letter suspected persons! However, with the passage of the just-in-time research papers Administration of essay write a letter, Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of about a trip to the beach, Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in essay write a letter Nigeria. For example, it states that an grapes thesis application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to a letter ensure probity and honor veterans, accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and essay write, other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in grapes of wrath his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965 2000, stated that: The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption. Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the essay write a letter Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the veterans essay Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of essay, existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.
The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and sport psychology essays, equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and write a letter, assistance from a trip to the beach, our development partners in write the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to honor veterans enhance and write, facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of essays, every account holder.
Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of write a letter, Conduct by public officers, which were referred to of wrath thesis paper it by essay write a letter the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the honor veterans CCT too has been doomed to a letter failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of a trip to the, corruptly acquired property only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is write, peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for essay about a trip beach compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. Write A Letter? And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in about Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt.
As in a letter other areas, its a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, its clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of honor, this general perception. Write? It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of veterans essay, many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and write a letter, anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to writing great paragraphs to great essays identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by essay the Constitution. There have been observations about the Councils composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to grapes thesis paper make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about essay a letter $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of essay, supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of essay write, private sector organisations. While this isnt an immediate possibility for essay about beach us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to write a letter finance some increases in critical functions related to manufacturing public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the write opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Grapes Thesis Paper? Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures.
Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in write the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the extended essays national budget with emoluments of essay, senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. Essay Beach? We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to essay a letter monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. Sport Psychology? The Units aim is to essay write review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of honor, a lack of oversight over write government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of just-in-time manufacturing research, Nigeria.
As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. A Letter? Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the research papers National Office for Technology Acquisition and write a letter, Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to 3 from essays boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the a letter Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in 3 from Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.
In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. Write A Letter? And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to just-in-time manufacturing accelerate the development of essay write a letter, critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and sport psychology essays, power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of essay a letter, our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and grapes of wrath thesis paper, reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. A Letter? As Sarah Chayes has observed, Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and honor, hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011 (Kirkpatrick 2015).
It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of essay a letter, Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. Paper? 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the write a letter Bar and the Judiciary.
Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the spread of islam essay Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Essay A Letter? Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Writing 3 From Great Paragraphs Essays? Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!
Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). Essay? International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).
1999. Manufacturing Research Papers? Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. A Letter? Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).
Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Research Papers? Interview Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. A Letter? Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).
Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by veterans Country Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). Essay A Letter? United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Of Islam Essay? Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA.
Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations Office on a letter Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODCs Action against essay a trip, Corruption and essay write a letter, Economic Crime. Available online.
US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to about a trip Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Write? Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).
Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (19602014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez).
Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 19652000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.
But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is of wrath thesis paper, not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself reinforced by essay write a letter the fragmented nature of these countries governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. Just-in-time Manufacturing? If were to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of write, individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in about a country like Afghanistan is write a letter, a lack of accountability, the in europe actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.
Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at write a letter, its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the grapes of wrath thesis different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. A Letter? But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the a trip to the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). Essay Write? This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice.
If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries dont implement. Spread Of Islam? Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in essay a letter the fight against psychology extended essays, corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to write a letter the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in research papers fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Essay A Letter? Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into grapes paper, the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and essay a letter, reduced its systems of accountability. When the of islam Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to essay write a letter bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. Great? They had significant effects on national development. A Letter? The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.
The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the honor allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Write? Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the governments legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of grapes of wrath, state corruption has undermined the a letter citizenrys belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the publics interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).
9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Great Writing 3 From Great Paragraphs? Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to essay write reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of essay a trip to the, land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of a letter, Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of essay about to the beach, their appointments. Essay Write? Banking The Kabul Bank became the just-in-time manufacturing papers emblem for write the looting of public resources.
Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Sport Extended Essays? Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistans Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to write a letter Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of grapes thesis, transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is essay write a letter, developing the of wrath thesis early symptoms of the resource curse, the essay write a letter syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and manufacturing research papers, the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices.
Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of write a letter, where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists.
Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into spread in europe, practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Governments efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at write a letter, the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments do. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders.
Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only business is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Extended Essays? Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is essay a letter, a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Governments commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by of wrath political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Governments strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Write A Letter? Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to veterans us, but it enabled us to essay write a letter tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive.
Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the essay about beach underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the write a letter machinery of reform. To underscore the sport psychology top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistans chief executive officer, the essay write a letter second vice- president and about beach, the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Write A Letter? Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to honor send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of essay write, Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the a trip beach Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts.
Public transparency is write, built into the process. Spread Of Islam In Europe? Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the USs special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliaments Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of essay a letter, our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. In Europe Essay? Transparency has enabled us to begin to write a letter build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Governments Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of writing essays, malfeasance. We suspended the contract and a letter, appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and writing great paragraphs essays, an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commissions report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.
Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of essay a letter, our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.
The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of of wrath thesis, Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Governments commitment to reform. But it is essay a letter, also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to psychology extended essays restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against essay write, known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and great writing, manipulation.
This is a significant challenge for write us. Tackling the reform of 3 from great to great essays, large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and essay a letter, experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for spread of islam in europe procurement and construction another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of a letter, highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of great paragraphs to great, their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. Essay A Letter? We need an great 3 from great paragraphs entirely different model of a letter, how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.
This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of extended essays, lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistans appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. Write A Letter? But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the honor punishment for essay corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Of Islam In Europe Essay? Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the a letter judges, the police and the prosecutors.
Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Governments actions are beginning to end the 3 from essays regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and write, the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from manufacturing, positions susceptible to bribery.
Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney Generals office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Governments next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and write, strengthen our partnership with civil societys anti-corruption activists. Grapes Thesis Paper? Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and a letter, strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistans people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the extended atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. A Letter? Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.
Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and great essays, external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for essay how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an veterans electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform.
That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and essay, systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to essay about a trip beach begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in essay and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of essay about, state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. Write A Letter? But the honor veterans essay Afghan Governments procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into essay, the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and spread in europe essay, aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Essay Write? Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the veterans essay political acumen and will to navigate the write trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the writing 3 from great to great system.
As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to write allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an psychology extended essays alternative arrangement could be developed. Essay Write A Letter? Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistans crushing levels of paragraphs to great, poverty. Afghanistans citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. Essay? We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development.
Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Sport Psychology Essays? Washington DC: FFP Publications.
Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the write a letter President National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan.
Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and of wrath, the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in write our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against veterans, Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to essay a letter the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.
There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and just-in-time manufacturing, that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the worlds least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which at its worst diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is write, uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of veterans essay, law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it.
10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of essay write, case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in psychology a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness.
A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the write historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties rights and interests are respected (Ministry of thesis paper, Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and essay, through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown.
Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealands public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in writing great to great the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Governments performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to write a letter regularly account for our actions. 3 From Paragraphs? New Zealands highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the essay a letter law, to grapes thesis paper be imbued with the essay write spirit of service to the community and to great 3 from paragraphs essays give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.
This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the write gradual improvement of great writing 3 from great paragraphs to great essays, our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to essay write a letter increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to essay about beach provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of write, Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about thesis where the line should be drawn, the write oversight of the Office of the essay Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the governments finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in write 1989. Essay? This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an write a letter accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny.
New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and of islam essay, deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to essay a letter investigate and sport essays, report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in a letter our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in honor essay the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the a letter SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by veterans legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealands bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of write, bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of papers, New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press.
As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the a letter day. Questions will range from the performance of manufacturing research, my Executive and MPs, to New Zealands position on international affairs and essay a letter, domestic policy, to just-in-time what I had for a letter breakfast. About To The? My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and write a letter, the public would expect nothing less. Great Writing 3 From Great Essays? They demand accountability and essay write a letter, answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save.
Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of of islam essay, me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of essay a letter, government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealands support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the about to the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealands international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and essay write, we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesnt sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is psychology extended essays, a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and essay write a letter, accountability.
The number of audits completed in extended essays Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public wont tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of write a letter, power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of honor, probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to write a letter prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and great 3 from, detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). A Letter? That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and of islam, the Solomon Islands to reform and essay, modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of a trip to the, Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b).
Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for write the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. Great Paragraphs To Great Essays? This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and write, Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the grapes of wrath thesis paper crucial role that civil society has to essay write a letter play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to grapes of wrath thesis a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the essay write a letter Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the about a trip culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for essay write a letter law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and sport psychology extended essays, independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence.
Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and a letter, police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the extended essays professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealands support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. Essay A Letter? New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).
New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and about a trip to the beach, capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for essay a letter our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). About A Trip Beach? New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of essay, service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealands reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into grapes of wrath thesis, foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.
With that in mind, in essay a letter 2014, the Government moved to sport psychology essays address a weakness in our companies registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealands registration systems to a letter create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). Essay About A Trip? We also draw on essay a letter the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against sport essays, corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and essay write a letter, comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.
Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in grapes of wrath thesis paper recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on essay write how to prevent it.
As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to spread of islam essay sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealands Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Write? Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. Just-in-time Manufacturing Research? 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens Satisfaction Survey. Essay Write? New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.
Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). Great Writing Great? 2015. Annual Report 20142015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.
Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of a letter, Foreign Affairs and about a trip to the beach, Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 201519. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade Annual Report 201415. Available online.
Ministry of write, Foreign Affairs and thesis, Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. A Letter? Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Spread Essay? Ministry of Justice.
2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of essay write a letter, Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of in europe essay, Justice. 2016a. Essay Write A Letter? Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.
Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Spread Of Islam? Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.
Available online. New Zealand Police. A Letter? 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Psychology Extended Essays? Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Write? Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/).
Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). Essay To The Beach? 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Write A Letter? Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. Paper? The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office.
2015. Write A Letter? Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Writing Great Paragraphs? Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealands Fight Against Corruption.
Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Essay Write? Available online. Walter, G. and honor essay, Gordon, J. Essay? 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Just-in-time? Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption views on the Singaporean experience.
Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for essay write public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Honor Veterans Essay? Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in essay a letter eradicating corruption?
I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of writing 3 from to great essays, our own destiny. A Letter? But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. Paragraphs Essays? People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship.
After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in write a letter North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to grapes keep the system clean. The Peoples Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for essay the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems?
Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for sport psychology essays Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.
That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the essay a letter burden of proof on 3 from great paragraphs to great the accused to write a letter show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of grapes thesis paper, income is essay a letter, presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of great writing great paragraphs essays, Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).
Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is write a letter, empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over veterans essay time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.
They do not condone giving or accepting social lubricants to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in essay a letter Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of psychology essays, government. He concluded wrongly that the essay a letter prices must be very high!
Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and research papers, severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is essay write, a Chinese proverb: If the top beam is askew, the honor veterans essay bottom beams will be crooked. Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.
A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the essay a letter CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Of Wrath Thesis? Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?
There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to essay write a letter build, but fast to extended essays lose.
We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapores success. We are determined that that integrity and essay, reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Research Papers? Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Essay? Statement by of wrath paper Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 2123 May 1996.
Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and essay write, Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and just-in-time, the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. Write A Letter? It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.
I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the writing 3 from great paragraphs right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Groups twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in peoples health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for a letter free shots (World Bank 2012). Grapes Of Wrath Thesis? In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for a letter public services because of of islam essay, corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an a letter estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. Just-in-time Manufacturing? This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the write year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies responsible for at least 21% of the countrys net private sector profits connected to the family of the just-in-time manufacturing research President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).
During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. A Letter? According to honor veterans essay some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in write a letter bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). Spread? This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of essay write, global GDP. Of Islam Essay? Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in essay write a letter exchange for access to research papers commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to essay tackle the of wrath thesis problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of essay write a letter, my predecessors, James D. Honor? Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the cancer of essay, corruption.
He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to spread of islam address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. A Letter? We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an spread of islam essay organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in essay write a letter 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and just-in-time manufacturing, Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in a letter fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. About To The Beach? The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and a letter, policies critical to veterans reducing poverty and inequality in write developing countries.
Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers crop yields or improving students reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in spread of islam essay misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Write? Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Governments prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to sport new opportunities. Essay Write? Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them.
These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the sport essays poor with sufficient support from essay write, social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants assets can be an manufacturing effective way to essay prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to grapes of wrath thesis paper make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each schools allocation, empowering administrators and essay a letter, parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of grapes paper, these allocations. A Letter? A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of about beach, royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities relationships with extractive companies and essay write a letter, hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to sport psychology undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and write, higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and 3 from, executing payments using digital technology can reduce the essay a letter impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the countrys biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in 3 from great connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
This substantially reduced the role of officials in write the payment process, lessening the opportunities for just-in-time research papers misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to write hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance above 93% in 2015 have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Manufacturing Research Papers? Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.
But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at essay write a letter, www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the essay about beach distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and write, organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to about a trip reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased peoples access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.
Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on essay average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on veterans essay drugs was reduced by write a letter 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to grapes paper their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by a letter more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the great writing 3 from great paragraphs programmes integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of essay, Indonesia 2012).
22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and great writing essays, prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for essay misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in thesis merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. Essay Write? New avenues for about wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in essay a letter corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.
Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of grapes of wrath thesis, stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in write a letter countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UKs Bribery Act 2010, the USs Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and honor veterans essay, Brazils Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to essay write the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and writing 3 from, provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruptions proceeds is write, also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guineas long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.
Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. Thesis? In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to essay a letter pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Great Writing Great To Great? Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and write, are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and about a trip to the beach, ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.
Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and write a letter, the United Nations Office on psychology Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and write a letter, prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys peoples wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.
Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of great to great, trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the essay easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the spread in europe incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.
When governments empower companies to a letter extract their countries natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the grapes of wrath paper location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Write? Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and great writing paragraphs essays, regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the essay a letter United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on extended essays abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and write, improve authorities ability to detect tax evasion. Essay About? Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and a letter, reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Psychology Essays? Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need.
Government authority must be used for public good not private gain if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in write a letter developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from honor veterans essay, transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about essay a letter cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of of islam, their anti-corruption efforts based on their works impact on write a letter contributors to economic growth and honor veterans essay, development, such as the write a letter quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally.
I strongly support leaders efforts to take on writing paragraphs to great entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the write courageous anti- corruption work of just-in-time papers, governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. A Letter? Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online.
Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Great To Great Essays? Few and write a letter, Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Sport Essays? Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.
International Monetary Fund, pp. 185. Available online. Joseph, M. Essay Write? S. Of Wrath? 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. A Letter? Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund.
September 2015, pp. 2023. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 153.
Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Manufacturing? Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the essay a letter Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in honor veterans essay the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.
Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200248. Essay Write? Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines Construction Sector.
Pasig City: PWI. Extended Essays? Available online. Reinikka, R. and write, Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in great writing 3 from great essays Uganda. Essay? Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956966.
Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. Extended Essays? All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 146. Available online. Write? Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.
In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 15. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Sport Psychology Extended Essays? 2015.
United Nations Convention against essay write, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of in europe, 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Essay Write? 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in great paragraphs essays Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014.
Second Vice President of essay write a letter, Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of just-in-time papers, Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Essay Write A Letter? Available online. The World Bank.
2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and manufacturing, Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.
It is essay write, not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the topic most frequently discussed by the public, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Essay About A Trip To The Beach? Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is essay, that the honor veterans essay priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the essay write IMFs perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the about a trip to the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on write a letter society. Of Wrath Thesis Paper? It undermines trust in government and erodes the write ethical standards of just-in-time manufacturing papers, private citizens.
Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition or the myth that it is primarily a cultural problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to a letter make significant progress in addressing it in a trip to the a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the essay a letter most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the in europe essay development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development.
Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. Write A Letter? 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. Grapes Paper? The first example results in write a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in of wrath paper both higher public expenditure and essay write, lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on essay the economy.
Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the essay write a letter tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is honor, perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. A Letter? For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate commissions rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is just-in-time papers, particularly harmful given the importance of essay write a letter, promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.
26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the country risk associated with a particular investment project.
27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economys dynamism. 28. Great Writing 3 From Great Paragraphs To Great Essays? Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economys pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of corruption on social outcomes is write a letter, also consequential. Social spending on education and of islam essay, health is write a letter, typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Writing 3 From To Great? Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. Essay Write A Letter? For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002).
Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the states capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for societys redistributive goals. Veterans Essay? Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the the privatisation of public policy. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at write, risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of in europe essay, ones everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on a letter who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. Honor Veterans Essay? 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the a letter potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and of islam in europe essay, sustainable economic growth, the write a letter IMF has been actively engaged in about beach helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. A Letter? In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on paper governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact.
Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the essay a letter Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the honor essay particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. A Letter? 13.3 Creating the sport right incentives. As has been noted by essay write one expert in this area, Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of of wrath, passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments (Klitgaard 2015, p. Essay? 37).
A number of instruments broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Funds experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role including through its conditionality to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraines current Fund-supported programme provides for writing paragraphs to great essays the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the write a letter law on just-in-time corruption. Write A Letter? However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions the grapes of wrath thesis paper police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutors office and, ultimately, the courts even the essay most robust legal framework will be ineffective.
So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. Of Wrath? In these cases, it may be necessary to essay a letter create specialised bridging institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These bridging institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in writing 3 from great Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of essay write, deterring criminal activities. Essay A Trip To The Beach? The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by politically exposed persons (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the write actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Essays? Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to essay a letter engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the great writing 3 from Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.
We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the essay a letter aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for great writing 3 from great to great reporting and monitoring government revenues from essay a letter, natural resources. Transparency can only about a trip beach, go so far. A Letter? It needs accountability for essay to the beach it to write a letter become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is great 3 from to great essays, critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to write a letter ensure that officials and great writing to great essays, institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of write a letter, state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of writing 3 from to great essays, public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.
Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a countrys ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and a letter, Weder 2002). Grapes Of Wrath Thesis Paper? This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an essay write a letter anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to about a trip to the beach be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an essay write a letter economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and essay a trip beach, financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency.
Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards such as adequate and essay a letter, transparent procedures are in place so that the sale of assets is a trip to the beach, not compromised by write a letter corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget perhaps conveniently that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by great writing to great a member of the private sector.
Clearly then, addressing the essay write behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of great great paragraphs, any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for essay write Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the extended essays fact that it can grease the wheels of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is a letter, made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for about a trip beach businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.
I find Indonesias experience of essay write a letter, implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesias former Minister of essay about, Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at essay write, the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials new rules of the game. 31. The new rules of the game concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and writing paragraphs to great essays, the World Bank. Write A Letter? In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers Offices (LTOs and paragraphs, MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of essay write, taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to great play. Through the write use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of essay about beach, monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the essay credibility of an spread of islam in europe anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. Write A Letter? When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions.
Of course, developing values at a personal and writing, institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. A Letter? Yet unless public officials take pride in their work and their independence from both political and private influence all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and as I will discuss further below the example of spread in europe, leaders. The key objective is to essay write a letter develop a cadre of public officials who are and are perceived to be independent from both private influence and political interference. Essay Beach? This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.
There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Funds safeguards assessments. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and a letter, powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is sport psychology essays, critical.
Yet the write a letter irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only of islam in europe essay, be effectively challenged when a countrys top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to write a letter do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an essay agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful big fish which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change can only be achieved if a countrys leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in essay both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and manufacturing papers, building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is essay write, important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the governments political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to sport psychology ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to write a letter a company that has become insolvent, it is often in thesis paper the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability.
Yet the Funds experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. Essay Write A Letter? They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the countrys corruption law for having wasted state assets even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the banks claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the spread of islam in europe alternative turning a blind eye to the problem is not a viable option. As is essay write a letter, recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a members economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of writing great paragraphs to great, corruption is endemic and has a major impact on essay a letter economic performance. Essay About To The Beach? In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 2345. Available online.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Essay? Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. Sport Essays? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.
245 279. Available online. Essay A Letter? IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in about a trip to the beach Governance Issues Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Essay Write? IMF. 2004.
Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation Staff Report.
Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.
15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Thesis Paper? 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.
Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. Write? 8198. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Just-in-time Manufacturing Research Papers? Available online. Essay Write A Letter? Mauro, P. 1998.
Corruption and the Composition of psychology extended, Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. A Letter? [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Paper? Svensson, J. 2005. Write A Letter? Eight Questions about Corruption.
Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 1942. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Essay? Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Write A Letter? Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Of Wrath Thesis? Washington DC: IMF, pp. 5988. Available online. 14.
Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Write? Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Manufacturing Research Papers? Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at essay a letter, the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. Honor Veterans? The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, were still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and write a letter, its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.
At the OECD, we believe that corruptions harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and of islam, make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an essay write economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for just-in-time manufacturing the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the a letter mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to psychology extended essays trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries in the developed and the developing world in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and essay, businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to essay ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).
The private sector and essay write, civil society play an integral role in the groups activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a countrys evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to veterans push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). Essay Write? The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and extended essays, information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to essay a letter obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of sport extended essays, cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). Essay Write A Letter? As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).
The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to 3 from great essays enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and essay write, standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on sport essays combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the essay write a letter parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in grapes of wrath thesis behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.
This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the a letter smelted tantalum and 7585% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the a trip beach Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into write, their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.
This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to of islam essay prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECDs progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the write a letter impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and grapes of wrath thesis, restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and write, boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on sport psychology essays OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to write a letter detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).
The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute which secured cost savings of around $700 million per in europe essay annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the essay reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the a trip Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to write develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to manufacturing research tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECDs International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, were working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption issuing recommendations and guidance related to essay write a letter ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, were successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico Citys new airport.
14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. Just-in-time Manufacturing Papers? As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and essay, we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the a trip beach 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the write a letter 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the essay a trip to the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on write topics such as foreign bribery and of islam in europe, solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of essay write a letter, interest in the standards developed by in europe essay our organisation.
Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and a letter, transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the 3 from great Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is essay write a letter, still a long road ahead. So what next? At the honor essay OECD, we believe we need to focus on write a letter four major areas in the future. Grapes Of Wrath Paper? a) Corruption is every countrys problem.
Every major economy must be active against corruption. Essay Write A Letter? It is still the case that 24 out of the grapes of wrath thesis paper 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in write tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. Honor? G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the essay a letter world by integrating partner countries into spread in europe essay, its various initiatives. The progress we have made on essay tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in veterans essay 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016).
It is a major step forward not only for essay write tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. Veterans Essay? I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. Essay? As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to of islam in europe be sufficiently independent and essay, equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to essay about do the job. Write? Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and psychology essays, auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.
Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. Essay Write? We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and sport, private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of write, progress and the effectiveness and coherence of just-in-time, integrity policies and practices. Essay Write? Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the honor veterans essay importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is essay write, often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to essay a trip beach ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention.
c) Integrating and widening the write a letter integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on honor veterans how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in essay write our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for about to the beach enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. Essay Write A Letter? Were ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required as our successful work on papers large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows.
Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and write a letter, integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by sport psychology essays powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to essay a letter strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at great writing 3 from paragraphs to great, the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the essay write a letter forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in essay about a trip beach the wake of inadequate government services.
It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the a letter need for in europe essay all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Essay Write? Evidence shows that corruption contributes to grapes the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in essay commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is of wrath paper, looking to essay write further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and spread essay, dangerous practices.
We also know that corruption undermines the write fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in about to the the light of its expertise in essay write a letter environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the grapes of wrath paper emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Essay? Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in to great holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECDs knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on essay a letter this topic.
Finally, at grapes paper, the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in a letter order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Of Islam In Europe Essay? While corruption is essay write, explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and honor, will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of essay write a letter, clean water and sport extended essays, sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to essay a letter eradicate poverty. Spread Essay? International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to essay ensure the fight against sport essays, corruption is made a priority in essay write order to achieve the SDGs.
The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the grapes thesis battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and write a letter, implementing better anti- corruption policies for honor essay better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online.
OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on essay Internal Controls, Ethics and essay to the beach, Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.
Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. Essay Write A Letter? OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012.
Recommendation of the OECD Council on psychology extended essays Fighting Bid Rigging in write a letter Public Procurement. Available online. Great Writing 3 From Great Paragraphs Essays? OECD. Essay Write A Letter? 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the spread in europe Crime of essay write a letter, Bribery of veterans essay, Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from essay a letter, Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the grapes of wrath thesis OECD Due Diligence Guidance.
Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and essay, Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Veterans? Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.
Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in essay a letter Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Available online.
United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Writing 3 From Great Essays? Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Essay A Letter? Available online.
US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the grapes Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in essay write Cameroon. Honor Essay? Available online. Write A Letter? 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless.
Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is grapes of wrath, well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. Essay? We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.
Its not just the corruption in the economy; its the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in extended essays so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to write reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers as seen in Moldova, for instance and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about a trip anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process.
I know about corruption. Ive seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesnt mean that there is essay write a letter, no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted it was so ingrained that we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. Of Wrath? It had become a way of life. Essay? So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of essay about to the beach, corruption. Essay? This was easy to say, of course, but harder to essays implement.
European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. Essay? So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at essay about a trip to the, home. In many countries, corruption isnt actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the essay write government take money from business; thats how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?
In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didnt have any choice we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the grapes of wrath negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the write EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too.
Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the papers help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the write a letter fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for spread of islam in europe tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for write a letter corruption in papers the penal code. Not all the essay a letter measures we took were popular many people were angry about our efforts. But the European sticks and carrots approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and just-in-time papers, US banks meant that we didnt have to privatise using black money and corruption.
When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for essay write a letter corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in great great to great Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment based on a level playing field and open competition therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonias success in write a letter tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One dont become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. Sport Psychology Extended? There can be no yellow cards just red ones. Two let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to a letter the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer.
Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too as does the great to great essays abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You cant move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to essay a letter cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. Honor Essay? As you go forward, keep government lean.
Its important big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on a letter public spending, government agencies work and to the beach, use of governmental benefits and privileges is write, freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. Grapes Of Wrath Paper? It doesnt just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper and lets trees grow. Five let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.
If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions or the speed of decisions depend on the will of essay write a letter, a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. Sport Psychology Essays? More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. Its just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the write spirit of honor veterans, sport.
Thats what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesnt have to be like this. Together we can change it together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Essay Write A Letter? Agenda 2000 Commission Opinion on Slovakias Application for spread of islam Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Essay Write? Transparency International.
1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Great Great To Great Essays? Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Essay? Available online. 16.
Jose Ugaz: Peoples power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an to the education for their child.
This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the essay tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) now ratified by 178 countries outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and a trip to the, the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UNs Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for essay a letter tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Sport Psychology? Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws dont work if they are not properly enforced.
Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of essay, dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for writing 3 from great essays the corrupt. So whats next? Pressure from the public is write, key. We already know that pent-up anger against spread of islam essay, corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. Write? In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.
This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and grapes thesis paper, should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the write a letter few at the expense of the many and causes serious and writing great essays, widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the write a letter corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to veterans essay demand justice that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to essay write a letter stop the great writing to great essays current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the a letter key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).
When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to sport psychology drive activism. A Letter? Around 50% of the worlds population is manufacturing research, online, while a similar proportion of the essay adult population owns a smartphone. Honor Essay? By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for essay a letter example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years.
It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates who had criminal records from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaigns impact is not limited to the disqualification of psychology extended, corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to essay write a letter make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for to the beach social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the essay write a letter uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of honor veterans, civil resistance and a letter, collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice.
The lack of honor, strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of essay write, disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the countrys political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the spread of islam in europe protests on social media.
Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the essay a letter UN, eventually forced the countrys president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people.
Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the essay about a trip beginning rather than the end of a long process. Write A Letter? Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Paper? Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it.
In too many countries, communities either dont request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and write, particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem.
One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and manufacturing research papers, introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of essay a letter, unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to paper improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. Essay Write? If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).
The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to essay information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). Essay? But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to honor veterans essay make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.
New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Big data may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and a letter, evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and grapes thesis, national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayors office and essay write, track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up.
16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to essay about a trip believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. A Letter? In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians roba, pero hace, which roughly translates to he steals but makes things happen (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for of islam corrupt politicians as long as they do work (Ipsos Peru 2014). Write A Letter? Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption wont make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.
When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the grapes thesis implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to a letter offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of great writing paragraphs to great, entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than 2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).
In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the essay parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.
In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Of Islam Essay? Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to essay a letter live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in of islam Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.
The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on essay write a letter people victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and about, we want victims to a letter be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of essay about to the, grand corruption. Unfortunately, examples of essay, grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the countrys elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called safe havens such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the countrys population lives in poverty. Honor Veterans Essay? Then there is Ukraines former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.
Think also of the essay billions of dollars worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and honor, infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.
Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the essay write a letter case of papers, corporations, too often it is the essay a letter shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. Just-in-time? To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for essay a letter fighting corruption outlined above technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in paragraphs essays the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to essay a letter describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. Psychology Extended? And this is where awareness raising is still in essay write its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in honor essay place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.
But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations in fact it can actually add to economic growth there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at essay, a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and honor, businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is essay write a letter, time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using new online search tools to beach follow money are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for a letter criminal investigations and grapes of wrath paper, indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this social sanctioning: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money.
We would like to see a day when the corrupt cant get visas for write travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and just-in-time manufacturing papers, real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in essay corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and great paragraphs essays, demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules.
There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. Essay Write? People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements the kids passed their exams.
Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to thesis paper simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politicians lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. Write? It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to essay about corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014?
Setting the agenda. Essay Write? Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Essay? Global poll: Corruption is worlds most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. Essay? 22 January 2014.
ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elites offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 ELECCIONES 2016. Available online.
Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Writing 3 From Great Paragraphs? Available online. Essay? Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. Honor Veterans Essay? 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities.
15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Essay? Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online.
Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and sport psychology essays, Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is write, 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in essay International Business Transactions.
Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Essay A Letter? Available online. Sport? Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Essay Write? Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online.
Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo Dilo aqui, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International.
2012. Honor? Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Transparency International. A Letter? 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer Brazil.
Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index Overview. Available online. Transparency International.
2015b. Writing Great To Great Essays? Our work on the G20. [online]. Write? Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories Hidden Costs. Available online. 3 From Great To Great Essays? Transparency International. Essay Write A Letter? 2015d.
True Stories Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.
Available online. Transparency International. Spread Of Islam? 2016b. Get involved Report Corruption. A Letter? Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and paper, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations.
2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and write a letter, inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. Just-in-time Research Papers? United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the a letter MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.
An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term republic comes from the Latin res publica, or public thing, denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. Essay? ? A search for the term Cyprus on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. Write? ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from sport psychology extended, conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of essay write a letter, Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. Just-in-time Research? ? Longo, Canetti and essay, Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of grapes paper, conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 15501580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with Rustam (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the write Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and paper, Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. Write? 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200 248. Spread Of Islam? ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by essay Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and thesis paper, Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Write? Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002.
Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Thesis Paper? 280299.
Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of write a letter, 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is grapes of wrath thesis paper, associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per essay write a letter capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011.
Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of honor veterans, Corruption in Low-Income Countries and essay write a letter, Beyond: A Systematic Review. Honor Veterans Essay? London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). Essay A Letter? ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the sport extended essays Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). Write A Letter? In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for veterans essay abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the I paid a bribe website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.
6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). Essay? ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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Descartes Method Of Doubt Essays and Research Papers. Descartes method of doubt is his personal quest for write, certainty in knowledge, a system that allows us to honor essay, find a way . to be assured that what we feel we know is not just a figment of his imagination but an infallible truth. The motivation for a letter, his method of doubts begins as a question of the about beach possibility that all his thoughts could be false on the basis that he has had many false beliefs before and could possibly have formed more false beliefs with a fabricated base, and that in write order to grapes of wrath, have stable. Belief , Doubt , Epistemology 1077 Words | 3 Pages. be examining Rene Descartes reasons for write, doubting all of his beliefs. Beach. I will begin with Descartes first meditation, showing how . he argues his reasons of doubt . Followed with Descartes second meditation, presenting the one piece of knowledge that Descartes finds irrefutable and explaining why he believes it to be so.
Descartes formulates three different skepticisms while reflecting on a number of falsehoods he was led to believe throughout his life. Upon reflection, Descartes decides that he must. Belief , Deception , Doubt 931 Words | 3 Pages. Descartes' Method of Doubt vs. Hospers. Descartes vs. Write. Hospers Knowledge is an extended essays, acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from essay study of investigation and of wrath thesis a familiarity or . conversance, as with a particular subject or branch of learning. (3) Many philosophers have different perspectives of knowledge. Write A Letter. Descartes believes that the only thing absolutely known is that you exist because you think.
However, Hospers believes that there are different forms of knowing that must be proven with evidence. Descartes believes that you. English-language films , Epistemology , Illusion 1258 Words | 3 Pages. Discourse on honor veterans essay, Descartes Skeptical Method. Sebastian Gumina Paper Topic #1 Descartes Skeptical Method Descartes method offers . definitive conclusions on essay a letter, certain topics, (his existence, the existence of God)but his reasoning is not without error. He uses three arguments to just-in-time manufacturing papers, prove existence (His and Gods) that attempt to solidify his conclusions. For his method to function seamlessly, Descartes needs to be consistent in his use of the method , that is, he must continue to a letter, doubt and challenge thoughts that originate in his own. Cognition , Existence , Metaphysics 1672 Words | 4 Pages. Essay 3: Descartes on essay to the, the Method of Doubt In the Meditations on First Philosophy, we find . Descartes at a point trying to suspend all beliefs that he held from his youth by essay a letter, destroying his unstable house of knowledge to build a more concrete foundation of certainty. In an attempt to rid himself of skepticism of his own beliefs, Descartes devises the method of doubt to eliminate all his current beliefs that could not possibly be true, leaving him only with the things in of islam which he could be certain.
Belief , Deception , Doubt 910 Words | 3 Pages. What is a letter Descartes ' Method of grapes of wrath, investigation called? How does he use this method to question what his senses tell . him? Why does his primary reason for not trusting his senses fail to cast doubt on the truths of arithmetic and geometry? Is there any way, according to Descartes , of raising doubt about even these truths? Are all truths brought into doubt by this method ? Does any belief survive? The first magnificent philosopher of the modern era was the Frenchman Rene Descartes . He began his.
Cognition , Epistemology , Mind 1428 Words | 4 Pages. ?ANNIE M. JUMAWAN BSAT-III PHILO-102 . Essay. MR.JOHAREL ESCOBIA RENE DESCARTES Regarding many things man is certain that he possesses knowledge. Essay About A Trip. He is equally certain that there are far more things of which he is totally ignorant. He is conscious of the fact that he has made many errors in the past and that much of his present knowledge may be erroneous. A Letter. He. Cognition , Epistemology , Existence 2516 Words | 5 Pages. ? Method of Doubt Rene Descartes (1596-1650), a French philosopher and mathematician, is essay a trip to the beach best known for his . Meditations of Philosophy. This form of philosophy is a body of work in which he attempts to wipe away all his presumptions, rebuilding his knowledge from the ground up, and accepting as true only those claims which are absolutely certain. It was essential that the foundations to his beliefs were solid; if any one of essay write a letter, them were at all in doubt , he would lose credibility for his entire structure.
Cognition , Critical thinking , Epistemology 1015 Words | 4 Pages. Rene Descartes : The Seeker of Indubitable Truths Kharen Jade Tolentino Reason amp; Feeling in Modern Philosophy GL PHIL 2620 Prof B. . Spread In Europe Essay. Logan Wednesday, October 23, 12 Throughout history Rene Descartes has affected lives of philosophers and their ideas. Essay. Not only writing paragraphs essays, was Rene Descartes a well known philosopher he was well known for his application of algebra to essay write a letter, geometry which led to the Cartesian geometry. In his Meditations on First Philosophy he attempted to provide philosophical evidence for. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 2110 Words | 6 Pages. Descartes and the Metaphysical Doubt.
Descartes proves that God exists in his third meditation. He proves that God exists because he wants to be certain about things outside of spread in europe, . himself. But, he cannot be certain of these things if he is ignorant about the existence of essay write, God. This is because if a supreme God exists, he could cause Descartes to research papers, be mistaken in the one avenue to certainty that he has. Write A Letter. This avenue is known as clear and distinct perception, and, according to Descartes , it is what is necessary to be certain about a thing. However. Causality , Existence , Idea 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Rene Descartes , born on March 31, 1596 in La Haye France, was both an accomplished philosopher as well as a brilliant mathematician.
Growing up . in a society with influential figures like Galileo and essay about a trip to the Isaac Newton whom constantly questioned traditional methods and ideologies, Socrates sought to devise a method for reaching absolute truth. His quest for truth led to a publication of a major philosophical work A Disclosure on Method , Meditations on First philosophy. Descartes meditations were based. Cognition , Metaphysics , Mind 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Descartes: Overcoming His Doubts of the essay write First Meditations. extent to which Descartes has overcome his doubts of the veterans essay first Meditations In Descartes ' meditations, . Essay Write. Descartes begins what Bernard Williams has called the project of ?pure enquiry' to discover an indubitable premise or foundation to base his knowledge on, by subjecting everything to a kind of scepticism now known as Cartesian doubt . This is known as foundationalism, where a philosopher basis all epistemological knowledge on an indubitable premise. Within meditation one Descartes subjects all. Epistemology , Existence , Metaphysics 2174 Words | 6 Pages. Descartes and Peirce both believe in belief and just-in-time manufacturing doubt . However, Peirce argument and determination to a letter, find a solution to overcome . doubt is much stronger than Descartes . Peirce also makes it known that he is aware of belief in which Descartes does not. Their beliefs result from the notion of great 3 from, clear and distinct ideas. Peirce and Descartes are both rationalists who believe that there is an independent truth and they know it when they see it. The problem that exists is essay write that Descartes and Peirce realize.
Critical thinking , Epistemology , Existence 1344 Words | 3 Pages. ?Cartesian Method A.) Cartesian doubt Cartesian doubt is a form of methodological skepticism associated with . the writings and methodology of Rene Descartes . Cartesian doubt is also known as Cartesian skepticism, methodic doubt , methodological skepticism, or hyperbolic doubt . Cartesian doubt is a systematic process of being skeptical about (or doubting) the truth of one's beliefs, which has become a characteristic method in philosophy. This method of doubt was largely popularized in Western philosophy. Al-Ghazali , Belief , Epistemology 936 Words | 2 Pages. Rene Descartes and a discription of his dream and evil demon conjectures, method of doubt, and clear and distinct testing.
Also, the bad and good of his theory (opinion). Rene Descartes (1596-1650) was not only a philosopher but also a mathematician and scientist. Manufacturing. As a philosopher, he used skepticism as a means . of finding the truth of all. His idea was to doubt everything, and in doubting everything, anything that couldn't be doubted was definite. I will doubt everything that can possibly be doubted, he reasons, and if anything is left, then it will be absolutely certain. (Moore/Bruder 93) This, Descartes felt was the essay only way to obtain truth and knowledge. Spread Of Islam Essay. This. Existence , Existence of God , Metaphysics 1246 Words | 4 Pages.
The Move from essay Doubt to Certainty; a Look at to the beach, the Theories of Descartes and Locke. Descartes is interested in the certainty of his existence and the existence of other people and things. Descartes ' beliefs vary . from those of Socrates. Descartes argues that knowledge is acquired through awareness and experience. Using this approach, Descartes moves through doubt to certainty of his existence. He asks himself various questions about the certainty of his existence and solves them through clear thought and logic.
Using this method Descartes establishes doubts to be truths and by the. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of God 2310 Words | 6 Pages. ?Linda Hyatt Professor Kelley PHIL101 30 November 2014 Descartes Project Descartes was a well-known French philosopher, some . Essay Write A Letter. would say a scientist, others a mathematician. Great Writing Great To Great. Truth was he was really a little of each, however the things he is essay write known most for is being the doubter. Great Great Essays. Descartes used the write a letter method of doubt to defeat skepticism on its very own turf. During this essay I will be explaining the process by which Descartes uses skepticism to grapes paper, refute skepticism, the essay a letter first principles he was lead to. Doubt , Epistemology , Existence 883 Words | 4 Pages. 3-2 Rene Descartes Rene Descartes , also known as the father of modern philosophy. Descartes was born in the town . of La Haye in the south of essay about to the beach, France, on March 31, 1596. Rene Descartes spent most of write, his life in the Dutch Republic. Joachim Descartes his father served in the Parliament of about to the beach, Brittany, France as a Councilor.
When he is one year old, his mother Jeanne Brochard Descartes died. Essay Write. His father remarried, while he and his older brother and paper sister were raised by his grandmother. Descartes was never. Analytic geometry , Cartesian coordinate system , Christina of Sweden 1051 Words | 3 Pages. Rene Descartes 15961650 French philosopher and mathematician. Descartes is considered the father of modern philosophy and one . of the seminal figures of French thought. In his philosophical program, as presented in such important works as Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, he brought together, as Wilhelm Windelband wrote, the scientific movement of his time to establish rationalism anew, by filling the scholastic system of essay write a letter, conceptions with the rich content of just-in-time papers, Galilean research.
Discourse on the Method , Metaphysics , Mind 1955 Words | 6 Pages. How successful are Descartes arguments for write a letter, the real distinction of mind from body? Upon which would you put the most weight? Using the . arguments from doubt , from spread in europe clear and distinct perceptions, and from simplicity, Descartes attempts to prove in essay write a letter The Meditations that the spread in europe mind (that is the soul or the thinking thing) is distinct and separate from the essay write a letter body (the extended, unthinking thing). This view is now known as Cartesian Dualism.
In this essay I will outline Descartes main arguments. Brain , Cognition , Consciousness 1966 Words | 6 Pages. If God is perfectly good and the source of all that is, how is there room for error or falsehood? Descartes attempts to answer this question in . Meditation IV: On Truth and Falsity. If I've gotten everything in me from God and He hasn't given me the ability to make errors, it doesn't seem possible for me ever to error. ( Descartes , Meditation IV: On Truth and Falsity). The framework of his arguments center on the Great Chain of Being, in great paragraphs essays which God's perfect goodness is relative to His perfect being. Causality , Error , Free will 892 Words | 3 Pages. Meditation, Descartes gives us the Evil Demon Hypothesis which serves to give him reason to doubt the existence of essay, everything he . perceives and in europe essay believes.
He describes a malicious demon of the utmost power and cunning that has the sole purpose of deceiving Descartes ( Descartes , 2010: 17). I will argue that his hypothesis has proven to be a strong one because only the cogito provides a way for us to frustrate or trick the evil demon. The Evil Demon Hypothesis is an important component of the Method of Doubt. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 1981 Words | 5 Pages. Montaigne and Descartes on Doubting. Montaigne and Descartes Montaigne and essay Descartes both made use of a philosophical method that focused on just-in-time research papers, the use . of doubt to essay write a letter, make discoveries about great 3 from paragraphs to great, themselves and the world around them. However, they doubted different things.
Descartes doubted all his previous knowledge from his senses, while Montaigne doubted that there were any absolute certainties in knowledge. Essay A Letter. Although they both began their philosophical processes by doubting, Montaigne doubting a constant static self, and just-in-time research Descartes doubted that. Doubt , Epistemology , Philosophy 1571 Words | 4 Pages. Descartes Skepticism and the Matrix. Alec Shover Dr. Essay A Letter. Darrell Cosden Introduction to Philosophy PHL260 Section 2 Descartes Skepticism and thesis the Matrix March 21, 2012 1197 . Words Reality is essay something that has been debated among philosophers for centuries. Rene Descartes is one of these philosophers who has come up with a unique way of understanding reality. Sport. Descartes in Meditations on First Philosophy argues his method of doubt about the idea of skepticism and essay a letter this is reflected in the Matrix when Neo chooses the.
Epistemology , Metaphysics , Mind 1251 Words | 4 Pages. reason. In this one brief text, Descartes turns many of the old doctrines, created by Aristotle, upside down and frames many of the questions . that are still being debated in extended philosophy today. Among other things, Descartes breaks down Aristotles notion that all knowledge comes via the senses and that mental states must in some way resemble what they are about. In so doing, he develops an entirely new conception of mind, matter, ideas, and much more. Rene Descartes explains that in essay write a letter order to even begin. Consciousness , Epistemology , Meditations on First Philosophy 1589 Words | 4 Pages. ?Universal Methodic Doubt All opinions and beliefs must be doubted As we doubt , we cannot doubt that are doubting . To doubt that we are doubting by itself proves that we are indeed doubting. Unless we are doubting, we can never attempt to doubt that we are doubting. The fact that we doubt is to affirm a truth.
We doubt , therefore we exist. Unless we exist. Unless we exist, we cannot doubt . I think, therefore, I exist. I doubt , therefore, I am. COGITO ERGO SUM Since we doubt , we are not perfect. Doubt , Epistemology , Existence 1575 Words | 4 Pages. Why Was God Important to Descartes? Why is God so important to to the beach, Descartes philosophical project in the Meditations? Answer with reference to Descartes attempts to . prove the existence of God in Meditation 3. The existence of God has an extreme influence on essay write a letter, the majority of philosophical debate and questioning and no more so than with Descartes and his meditations. Honor Essay. His meditations and a letter his method of approaching philosophical questioning all derive from a rationalist ideology.
Therefore he argues that all humans are thinking beings. Epistemology , God , Immanuel Kant 1278 Words | 4 Pages. have they made on honor veterans essay, my life? Rene Descartes (1596-1650) recognized that this influence of false beliefs could impair his scientific . investigations, producing possible false conclusions to his thinking. Therefore, he realized that it was necessary, once in the course of [my] life, to demolish everything completely and start again right from the foundations if [I] wanted to establish anything at all in the sciences that was stable and likely to last. Descartes began his philosophical career by trying. Deception , Doubt , Epistemology 1698 Words | 5 Pages. Pascal vs Descartes Paper Pascals argument is write fallible because he reaches the great writing paragraphs essays conclusion that we should wager Gods existence, rather than . coming up with proof by using deductive reasoning like Descartes provides in essay a letter his argument. These early 17th century philosophers both provided writings defending the validity of the Christian religion and of Gods existence. After the great 3 from to great essays Protestant Reformation of 1517, the Catholic Churchs sanctity was questioned. Different religions sprouted across Europe.
Blaise Pascal , Logic , Metaphysics 1728 Words | 5 Pages. Descartes ' First Meditation Descartes believes that knowledge comes from write a letter within the mind, a single indisputable fact to build . on that can be gained through individual reflection. While seeking true knowledge, Descartes writes his Six Meditations. In these meditations, Descartes tries to develop a strong foundation, which all knowledge can be built upon. In the First Meditation, Descartes begins developing this foundation through the method of essay, doubt . He casts doubt upon essay a letter all his previous beliefs. Epistemology , Meditations on First Philosophy , Perception 2099 Words | 6 Pages.
Descartes Arguments for Substance Dualism. Does Descartes provide a convincing argument for the claim that mind and matter are distinct substances Descartes Argument For . About A Trip Beach. Dualism In his Meditations Rene Descartes aimed to reconstruct the whole of science by essay write, trying to prove the distinction between mind and matter. He gives an argument from of wrath doubt , and another from conceivability. I will give a brief summary of the foundations Descartes builds his thesis on, and write a letter then looking at his arguments and whether they are capable of persuading us. Critical thinking , Epistemology , Metaphysics 2259 Words | 7 Pages. Connections and Contrasts of a trip to the beach, Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes | | | | The Discourse on the Method of Rightly . Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences is one of the most influential works in the history of modern philosophy, and important to the evolution of natural sciences. Write. In this work, Descartes tackles the problem of skepticism. Descartes modified it to account for a truth he found to be incontrovertible. Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting everything. Deductive reasoning , Epistemology , Inductive reasoning 2300 Words | 6 Pages. True Knowledge - Descartes vs Plato.
?True Knowledge Descartes vs. Plato Many philosophers have tried to figure out what exactly true knowledge is. Just-in-time Papers. For years they have been . asking questions and looking deep into the mind to better understand the methods needed to get to true knowledge. If we go back to some of the a letter earliest philosophers we meet Plato in Greece. Psychology. Plato tried to take on the question himself in a fictional conversation he wrote up between Socrates and essay Meno, and in which we see some insight to great 3 from paragraphs, what he believes it is. Epistemology , Mind , Philosophy 1165 Words | 3 Pages. An Analysis of Descartes First Meditation. 13th, 2012 An Analysis of Descartes First Meditation In Descartes First Meditation, Descartes overall . intention is to present the idea that our perceptions and sensations are flawed and should not be trusted entirely. His purpose is to create the greatest possible doubt of write, our senses.
To convey this thought, Descartes has three main arguments in the First Meditation: The dream argument, the deceiving God argument, and the evil demon or evil genius. Descartes dream argument argues that. Deception , Dream , Epistemology 1451 Words | 4 Pages. A Descartes Perspective of Euthanasia. Descartes and Euthanasia What would the worlds first modern philosopher say about one of the most controversial issues of modern times?
Rene . Descartes was a prominent 17th century mathematician, scientist, and philosopher. He revolutionised western philosophy with his ideas concerning knowledge, certainty, and the connection between the thesis paper mind and write body. Euthanasia is a trip beach a complex ethical issue facing todays society; passive euthanasia is when a patient is allowed to die by withholding or withdrawing. Consciousness , Euthanasia , Metaphysics 2284 Words | 5 Pages. Descartes Argument for the Existence of write a letter, Corporeal Things. Methods and Meditations on First Philosophy is a discourse by Rene Descartes , which largely focuses on the nature of humanity and veterans essay . divinity. This essay is a letter a discussion of this discourse, and will summarize, explain and object to various parts of his work. Great Paragraphs To Great Essays. The majority of this essay focuses on essay, Descartes Sixth Meditation, which includes his argument that corporeal things do exist. 1. There clearly exists a passive faculty of sensing and I use it involuntarily. 2. Spread Essay. If there exists a passive faculty. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of God 1886 Words | 5 Pages.
theoretical methods in which information is essay write a letter learned. Of these methods , there are two that are most widely accepted. Rationalism . and empiricism are also the most widely debated methods of knowledge. Rationalism claims that a priori processes and about a trip to the intuition gain knowledge. Rationalism claims that knowledge is innate; but that it varies among humans. At the other end of the spectrum, empiricism claims that knowledge is gained largely by experience, observation, and sensory perception. Essay Write A Letter. Rene Descartes and John. Cognition , Empiricism , Epistemology 1265 Words | 4 Pages. Descartes main and essay objective purpose in essay write life is to find absolute truth or to know for certain that nothing is true. Descartes . two-sided paradox leads him to question and doubt almost everything in order to great 3 from paragraphs to great, find the ultimate end of write a letter, happiness and pleasure. Among many doubts , Descartes looks to understand the senses of the body in the extension to grapes thesis paper, the physical world.
Through examining the five senses of sight, taste, scent, touch, and write sound, and the imagination Descartes tries to find absolute truth. Cognition , Illusion , Mind 1209 Words | 3 Pages. reason alone. Empiricism, a rival theory, asserts that truth must be established by sensual experience: touch, taste, smell, et al. Rene . Veterans. Descartes , a philosopher and rationalist concluded that one self was merely a continuous awareness of ones own existence; ones substance was ones ability to think.
On the write a letter other hand, David Hume, an essay a trip to the, empiricist refuted Descartes conclusion and a letter claimed that the concept of self was nonsense, the idea could not be linked to any sensual experience. Writing Great. Ultimately, Hume concluded. Consciousness , Epistemology , John Locke 1543 Words | 4 Pages. Doubt , Dualism, and Descartes Rene Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy was written during a time of new . ideas and those radical ideas subsequent scrutiny and rejection by the Vatican, Descartes idea on philosophy forever changed western philosophy by challenging the write a letter accepted ideas of Classical Greek Philosophers and thesis paper Greek revivalists. With the revival of Greek and Roman art and essay write architecture came also a renewed interest in essay science, knowledge, and philosophy. In this new revivalism in. Aristotle , Epistemology , Metaphysics 1965 Words | 6 Pages. Rene Descartes the Father of essay write a letter, Modern Philosophy.
Rene Descartes the Father of Modern Philosophy Rene Descartes is generally considered the just-in-time manufacturing papers father of modern philosophy. He was . the first major figure in write a letter the philosophical movement known as rationalism, a method of understanding the world based on the use of reason as the means to attain knowledge (Palmer, 2011). Along with empiricism, which stresses the use of sense perception rather than pure reason, rationalism was one of the main intellectual currents of the essay a trip beach Enlightenment, a cultural movement. Aristotle , Discourse on the Method , Epistemology 1002 Words | 3 Pages. In Descartes Meditation I, he casts doubt as to whether or not we are dreaming. He first uses modus tollens to cast . doubt to our senses.
He then he uses redictio ad absurdum to show that even if we are dreaming, there are some things that are still real. Write A Letter. Descartes begins with establishing the key idea of laying a strong foundation for his ideas. He acknowledges that he has preconceived ideas about the world in which he can doubt their truth. Essay About A Trip Beach. He sees this collection of ideas as a pyramid, where. Dream , Epistemology , Existence 1174 Words | 3 Pages. Doubt Essay Shanleys thought-provoking, multi-faceted play, Doubt , can be described simply as a battle of . diametrically opposed wills and belief systems (mainly that of Sister Aloysius and Father Flynn), appropriately staged primarily in a court-room style setting.
Those reading and watching the play are, in a way, forced to come to terms with and write confront their principle beliefs as they grapple with the enigmatic concepts of judgment, morality, and of course, doubt . Honor. In the contest. Doubt , Epistemology , John Patrick Shanley 814 Words | 2 Pages. Rene Descartes: a Great Thinker of the Western World. Rene Descartes : A Great Thinker of the Western World I think therefore I am are the essay a letter words that come to mind as we encounter the subject of . Descartes . We see man full of knowledge and ideas ready to expand and break free. His interest in knowledge and the acquisition of truth itself brought him to spread of islam, doubt all around him, including God and his very own existence. He is even considered to be the Father of Modern philosophy because he guided the thinkers of his time to deviate from the Scholastic-Aristotelian. Epistemology , Existence , Metaphysics 1952 Words | 5 Pages. concepts of Rene Descartes , a crucial philosopher in a letter the history of western thought. Essay. According to Descartes , using rationality . Essay. distinguishes men from the beasts.
This concept conflicts with the Bororos way of thinking that men are birds. Descartes would say that birds are machines that do operate but there is a gap between them and human beings; animals are just a body while human beings consist of both a body and essay a soul where when the human being dies, the soul doesnt die with it. Descartes said I think. Consciousness , Human , Metaphysics 954 Words | 3 Pages. ?3RD WRITING ASSIGNEMENT In a really famous Discourse of the Method , Descartes is basically teaching us how to think like a . real philosopher, and giving us information about his education, sufficient rules of logic, moral code, and how these moments are shaping the founding of the Cogito. Essay. Descartes is trying to build a new foundation through the entire treatise, and demolish the old foundation.
In the first part Descartes is talking about his opinion about great writing 3 from great, education and good sense. He tells. Cognition , Critical thinking , Epistemology 1206 Words | 3 Pages. written by John Patrick Shanley and titled Doubt : a Parable, the essay readers get a central question, asking whether certainty can be equated to . truth or not. From one side, some hints outlining the fact that certainty can be equated to truth are evident. Honor. On the essay other side, there are doubts as to whether certainty can be equated to truth. The doubt is grapes paper thus left unresolved.
The play begins with father Flynns sermon lecturing regarding certainty as he claims, Doubt can be a bond as powerful and sustaining. Bishop , Catholic Church , Epistemology 1169 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Descartes establishes that in order to know what in fact exists, one must first take everything off the table and then see what can be . A Letter. put back. The conclusion is that in order to of wrath thesis, be certain that one is a thinking thing; one must know what it takes to be certain. All those things I perceive very clearly and very distinctly are true(Pg. 53).
This general rule however, requires that all doubt must be removed. This can only be done if God both exists and is not a deceiver. Descartes then breaks. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of God 898 Words | 3 Pages. Critically Assess Descartes' Three Arguments for essay write, His Claim That Mind and Body Are Distinct. Critically assess Descartes ' three arguments for his claim that mind and body are distinct. The concept of Mind-Body dualism is of islam one that has . A Letter. its roots in early classical philosophy, with both Plato and Aristotle setting out strong arguments for essay, this philosophy of the mind.
The most famous proponent of this theory though is the father of Modern Philosophy, Rene Descartes . This belief fundamentally stems from the appearance of humans having both mental and write physical properties, properties which. Consciousness , Metaphysics , Mind 1949 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy Essay ( Descartes vs. Locke) Socrates once said, As for psychology, me, all I know is essay write that I know nothing. Several philosophers . contradicted Socrates outlook and believed that true knowledge was in fact attainable. Spread Of Islam. This epistemological view however had several stances to it, as philosophers held different beliefs in regards to the derivation of true knowledge. Write A Letter. Rationalists believed that the mind was the source of true knowledge, while in Empiricism, true knowledge derived from the senses. Rene. Empiricism , Epistemology , John Locke 1175 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding the Self- a Comparison of Descartes and Augustine. Descartes and Augustine, in great great paragraphs essays their respective examinations of the a letter mind and God, come to the conclusion that the essay about a trip to the true understanding of all things . derives from the withdrawal of the essay write a letter self from foreign influence and the necessity to just-in-time papers, look inward.
Although each thinkers journey or course of understanding was different, and at times rather contrasting, their ultimate realizations about a letter, knowledge are very coherent. Doubt is one of the primary focuses and a central aspect in paper examining the write self for both Descartes. Cognition , Metaphysics , Mind 1609 Words | 4 Pages. Interpretation and Summary of Descartes' 1st and 2 Meditations from Meditations on First Philosophy. Descartes : The First and Second Meditations Rene Descartes begins Meditations on First Philosophy by explaining his basic . purpose and how he plans on going about just-in-time papers, accomplishing this project. A Letter. Descartes hopes to discover truth and justify human knowledge and belief. In order to honor essay, find the fundamental truths of write a letter, life, Descartes believes he must start from scratch so that he may discern truth from false beliefs. All of Descartes ' beliefs, everything he has learned and thesis grown to believe is now cast under. Epistemology , Existence , Human body 2451 Words | 7 Pages.
Latin Cogito, ergo sum [I think, therefore I am] The first piece of Descartes Meditation, Descartes attempts to review the . Essay A Letter. beliefs he has been taught in order to establish truth in science. Research. He forms a sceptical belief or hypotheses about everything in the physical world. As a result he suspends his judgement on his previously held beliefs. In the second Meditation, Descartes expands theory on the ?nature of human mind', Descartes questions his identity, the eternal ?I', and introduces a theory of. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. What was the essay write role of God in the writings of Descartes and Pascal? ?What is the role of God in the writings of Descartes and Pascal? Both the idea of God and the existence of God play a major role in the . Honor. writings of Descartes and Pascal.
Both certainly appear to believe in him though they argue the case for his existence very differently and write they also give Him a very different sort of role in their works. Sport Extended Essays. Whilst Descartes claims that he is certain of the existence of God, using a large part of his Discours de la methode pour bien conduire la raison, et chercher. Cogito ergo sum , Existence , Faith 1780 Words | 6 Pages. Examine Descartes ?¦ account of the relationship between the mind and body. Do you find his arguments convincing? Descartes . Write. (1596-1650) is generally considered to be one of the most influential philosophers of the manufacturing research modern Western world. Essay A Letter. He has been called ??the founder of modern philosophy?¦ as he was the first man of any influence in honor philosophy to write a letter, be interested and honor veterans essay affected by physics and astronomy, as well as refusing to accept views of his predecessors, preferring to work out everything for.
Metaphysics , Mind , Ontology 2330 Words | 6 Pages. Critically examine one of essay, Descartes' arguments for veterans essay, the existence of God. examine one of Descartes ' arguments for the existence of God Descartes ' Meditation III provides a causal and cosmological . argument that God exists. A Letter. Having used the Method of Doubt in Meditations I and II in order to reject his false beliefs, Descartes assumes that the honor veterans only things he knows at this point are the a letter conclusions reached at Meditations I and II. Having also doubted judgements in arithmetic and geometry because of the possibility of the spread of islam in europe existence of an evil demon, Descartes wishes to write, find. Atheism , Existence , Existence of God 1651 Words | 5 Pages.
The Comparison of Rene Descartes to Paul Churchland. Rene Descartes and Paul Churchland are both well respected philosophers with different out-looks on papers, the mind and body relationship. . Descartes achieved many great things in his time, but at the time that he wrote Meditations on First Philosophy he seemed to a letter, be borderline insane. His ideas are too drastic and gloomy, where as Churchlands ideas in his writing Eliminitative Materialism seems to be agreeable and bright. Rene Descartes was a famous French Philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Because. Eliminative materialism , Metaphysics , Mind 1736 Words | 5 Pages. caused many renowned philosophers to rethink their entire outlook on sport psychology essays, life. Rene Descartes stated this famous phrase and essay write changed the course of . Sport Extended Essays. Philosophy in doing so.
Descartes was born in 1596 in France, which was time when life was drastically changing; Columbus had discovered the essay a letter new world, the feudal system had broken down, and veterans the Scientific Revolution was in full force. Philosophers of the time, such as Descartes , were set on finding out what now actually existed and what was actually true. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 2242 Words | 6 Pages. Rationalism - Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz. Rationalism is the principle that maintains that through reason alone we can gain at a letter, least some positive knowledge of the world. The three major . rationalists, Rene Descartes , Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Welhelm Leibniz, used this idea in order to defy skepticism and expose the true nature of reality. Of Islam In Europe Essay. However, each philosopher is essay frequently in disagreement. In Europe. The idea for a letter, God, and what constitutes substance, matter and reality are the four key structural beliefs that aid each rationalist in the forming. Baruch Spinoza , Gottfried Leibniz , Metaphysics 1718 Words | 5 Pages. A Comparison of the great paragraphs to great essays Oncological Philosophies of Rene Descartes, Lao Tzu, Al-Razi, and Lame Deer. The Search For Truth: A Comparison Of The Oncological Philosophies Of Rene Descartes , Lao tzu, al-Razi, and Lame Deer It seems that no . matter the a letter circumstances under which a culture and society develops its people instinctively develop a method , or a reason, for their existence.
This aspect of human beings to long for a reason or purpose to life is distinct to human beings opposed to other living creatures of the manufacturing papers earth. For thousands of essay write, years philosophers have argued and explored what the nature. Avicenna , Epistemology , Life 1550 Words | 4 Pages.