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Brief overview on The Mauritian Legal System Essay Sample. 1. Historical background The Mauritian legal system is a unique hybrid system with French Substantive law (for Offences) English Law (Procedure Evidence Language) English judges with English law background will be interpreting our laws which invariably include French laws. Thus, in 1837 it was decided that lawyers were to be trained in England. In 1841 all laws in Mauritius were originally published in construction, English and the Court was to make reference to the English version only. The hybrid nature of our legal system was highlighted in the report of the Committee on the Review of legal Studies in Mauritius (1983) by Rajsoomer Lallah J. Such a decision was supported by the Supreme Court in on the of a good leader, R V Shummoogum 1977 MR 1 and Legoffe v Severy 1981 MR 89 2. Sources of Mauritian Law (a)Legislation The Constitution Primary Legislation Secondary Legislation (b)Judicial Precedents (c )Customs (d) Books of Authority/Legal Doctrine The Constitution A constitution is a set of rules, generally written, which identify and regulate the major institutions of the state and govern the relationship between the state and the individual citizen.

In most countries the essay, written constitution is the ultimate source of legal authority all actions of government and the law-making body (the legislature) must conform to the constitution. In order to uphold and interpret the constitution there will be a Supreme Court. As the constitution is the big family vs small, ultimate authority, any action which contravenes the rules of the constitution will be both unconstitutional and unlawful. Written constitutions also contain procedural rules for the amendment of the constitution. Constitutions, whether written or unwritten, will share common features. They will identify the principal institutions of the state, that is, the executive, the legislative and the judiciary. In relation to each of construction test these, the constitution will specify their functions and powers. In addition the constitution will identify the rights and freedoms of citizens so as both to protect citizens and to restrict the power of the state. There are different types of Constitution 1.Written and unwritten constitutions Constitutions may be written or unwritten, and unlike the majority of family states, the British constitution is largely unwritten and uncodified. Allied to their written or unwritten character, constitutions may also be classified as rigid or flexible. A rigid constitution is one in which amendment is very difficult, requiring special procedures to be employed before any changes can be made.

By contrast, the construction essay, British constitution is essentially flexible. Parliament the supreme law-making body within the United Kingdom may theoretically alter the constitution at will. Mauritius has a written constitution. 2. Republican and monarchical Constitutions may be classified according to whether they are republican or monarchical. China? In republics, such as the USA, there will normally be a Head of State (usually designated a President) who is directly elected by the people. In Britain by contrast, the monarchy remains, with the Queen as Head of State and essay test, holding widespread formal powers (under the royal prerogative). In practice these powers are conventionally exercised by the elected government of the day which is and spondylolithesis, headed by the Prime Minister 3.Unitary and federal Constitutions may also be unitary or federal. Under a written constitution, the constitution will define which powers are exercisable by construction test the central federal government, and which powers are exercisable by the constituent parts usually known as states of the sip research paper, federation. In a federal state power is diffused rather than concentrated in any one body. The constitution has overriding force and any conflicts between the test, federal government and state governments will be determined according to the constitution. For centuries, Britain has been a unitary state, with one Parliament having ultimate law-making power over all the constituent nations England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

4.Supreme and subordinate A further classification explains whether a particular constitution is and spondylolithesis, supreme or subordinate. A supreme constitution is not subject to any external superior force. A subordinate constitution is one where as with former British colonies the constitution is drafted and introduced in a country by an external sovereign power, and theoretically may be amended or repealed by that external power. Importance of the Constitution Any organisation /company/club needs a constitutional document to operate. Construction Test? This can be in the form of Memorandum Articles of Association, Statutes. In the absence of which there may be chaos and confusion making it impossible for any positive action to be taken. The constitution will designate a sovereign body, bestow powers and set limits on same, facilitate a sharing of powers among the various organs of the State and confer rights on the citizens.

A constitution is made with the assumption that a given state exists and has legal identity of its own. S1 of the Constitution of Mauritius Mauritius shall be a sovereign democratic State which shall be known as the Republic of Mauritius. The Organs of the State The main organs of the state are the Legislature the Executive and the Judiciary Some main Provisions of the qualities of a good leader, Constitution of Mauritius Chapter II Protection of essay fundamental rights and freedoms of theindividual sections 3 to 19 Chapter III Citizenship sections 20 to 27 Chapter IV The President and the Vice President of the Republic of Mauritius sections 28 to 30B Chapter V Parliament sections 31 to 57 Chapter VI The Executive sections 58 to 75 Role and powers of the Executive Chapter VIA The Rodrigues Regional Assembly sections 75A to 75E Chapter VII The Judicature sections 76 to 84 Chapter VIII Service Commissions and the Public Service sections 85 to sip research 95 Chapter IX The Ombudsman sections 58 to 75 Supremacy of Constitutional law Section 2.- Constitution is supreme law This Constitution is the supreme law of construction essay Mauritius, and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, that other law shall, to the extent of the papers pay with, inconsistency, be void This supremacy ensures that all laws enacted by Parliament should be in conformity with the Constitution. In Mahboob v Government of test Mauritius1982MR 135, the plaintiff sold land to a foreigner in contravention of Non-Citizens (Property Restrictions) Act, according to which one could not sell land to how to write a foreigner without the consent of the construction essay test, Prime Minister. The Supreme Court held that the sale was void and allowed the custom china research papers, plaintiff to repossess the construction, land. Parliament later passed an Act giving effect to the sale. Held It is fundamental disposition of the Constitution that there should be separation of powers between the various organs of the state. Parliament has no right to pronounce judgments than the Supreme Court has the right to make laws.

The enactment was an usurpation of judicial powers and the law was held to be invalid. Also, in sip research, Noordally v Attorney General 1986 MR 204 where, inter alia, Section 3 of the Constitution, which provides for the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, was in question. The applicant was arrested after he was suspected of being in possession of heroin. He was denied bail on the basis of S 46 (2) of the Dangerous Drugs Act 1986 and sought a declaration that this provision was in construction essay, violation of how to write sections 3 and 5 of the Constitution. It was held that S 5 indicates that the suspect remaining at large is the rule, his detention on the ground of suspicion is the exception and he must be tried within a reasonable time or be released. It is essay test, not in vs small family essay, accordance with the letter and spirit of the constitution to test legislate so as to allow the executive to overstep the Judiciary s role in ensuring the citizen the protection afforded by argumentative high school students law. Construction Essay? Within the framework of the Constitution, Parliament s right to legislate remains unfettered and china research papers pay with paypal, a law, which passes the test of constitutionality cannot be questioned. The Courts power to control the essay test, Executive in accordance with its constitutional role also remains unfettered. Therefore, S 46 (2) of the Dangerous Drugs Act 1986 is sip research paper, void. Primary Legislation In a democratic State, Primary Legislation is the most important source of law For example Mauritius It is the responsibility of construction essay parliament to enact legislations which are subject to the limits imposed by and spondylolithesis the Constitution.

45.Power to make laws (1)Subject to this Constitution, Parliament may make laws for essay, the peace, order and good government of Mauritius. 46. Mode of vs small family exercise of legislative power (1)The power of Parliament to essay make laws shall be exercisable by Bills passed by the Assembly and assented to by the President. A Bill is introduced into Parliament and china papers, after it has undergone the different stages in construction test, Parliament it then become an Act of Parliament after it has been assented by essay school students the President of the Republic and construction, after publication in the Gazette. Essay? Secondary Legislation Secondary legislation refers to those Rules and Regulations enacted by Ministers, local councils or public authorities to whom law-making power has been delegated. Section 118 of the Constitution empowers the Commissions and tribunals established under the Constitution to make regulations for their proper functioning. Similarly, Parliament can delegate its law-making power. Test? Section 118. Vs Small Family Essay? Performance of functions of Commissions and tribunals (1) Any Commission established by this Constitution may by regulations make provision for regulating and construction essay test, facilitating the performance by the Commission of its functions under this Constitution. (2) Any decision of any such Commission shall require the concurrence of a majority of all the members and, subject to this subsection, the Commission may act, notwithstanding the absence of any member Provided that where in any particular case a vote of all the members is taken to decide the question and the votes cast are equally divided, the chairman shall have and shall exercise a casting vote. High School? (3) Subject to this section, any such Commission may regulate its own procedure. (4) In the exercise of its functions under this Constitution, no such Commission shall be subject to the direction or control of any other person or authority. (5) In addition to the functions conferred upon it by or under this Constitution, any such Commission shall have such powers and other functions as may be prescribed. Test? (6) The validity of the china research pay with paypal, transaction of business of any such Commission shall not be affected by construction test the fact that some person who was not entitled to up ipa do so took part in the proceedings. (7) Subsections (1), (2), (3) and (4) shall apply in relation to a tribunal established for the purposes of sections 5(4), 15(4), 18(3), 78(4), 92(4), or 93(4) as they apply in relation to a Commission established by this Constitution, and any such tribunal shall have the same powers as the Supreme Court in essay, respect of the attendance and examination of essay witnesses (including the administration of construction essay test oaths and the examination of witnesses abroad) and in respect of the production of documents. The secondary legislation must be in conformity with the enabling Act (where this power has been conferred by an ordinary Act of Parliament) and the Constitution. Judicial Precedents The Doctrine of family judicial Precedent is to the effect that like cases must be treated alike.

Judicial precedent means the essay test, process whereby judges follow previously decided cases where the facts are of sufficient similarity. Customs Custom is also recognized as a source of law. Two requirements must be fulfilled for it to be established that a custom exists a material element an and spondylolithesis intellectual element If only the first element is present, the practice is referred to as a usage. A material Element There must have been a consistent practice over a period of construction essay time. Big Family? In matters of trade, it has been considered that a period of 18 months is too short to establish such a practice. In Pipon Adam Co v Chapuy (1879) MR 104, it was held that for a usage to be binding it must be known to the parties and of uniform and long continuance. The Supreme Court considered that the shortest practice that has been sustained as constituting a usage of trade is 3 years.

A practice proved to test be of only 18 months was regarded as insufficient to establish a usage of trade. An intellectual element That it is not sufficient that a practice has existed, it must also be demonstrated that the practice is adhered to because the persons concerned labour under the impression that there is a legal obligation on their part to adopt such a course of action. Case law Techniques The Doctrine of judicial Precedent is to the effect that like cases must be treated alike. Judicial precedent means the process whereby judges follow previously decided cases where the argumentative students, facts are of sufficient similarity. Judicial precedent constitutes the cornerstone in English law. It is adhered to in Mauritius since the 1850s with the establishment of the construction, Supreme Court, which was vested with the big family, same powers as the Court of Queens Bench (today the High Court) The doctrine of essay judicial precedent involves an application of the principle of stare decisis ie, to stand by the decided. In practice, this means that inferior courts are bound to up ipa apply the legal principles set down by superior courts in earlier cases. This provides consistency and predictability in construction essay, the law. RATIO DECIDENDI AND OBITER DICTUM The decision or judgment of a judge may fall into two parts the ratio decidendi (reason for the decision) and obiter dictum (something said by the way). RATIO DECIDENDI The ratio decidendi of a case is the principle of law on and spondylolithesis which a decision is essay test, based.

According to Sir Rupert Cross The ratio decidendi of a case is any rule of law expressly or impliedly treated by the judge as a necessary step in reaching his conclusion, having regard to the line of reasoning adopted by him. When a judge delivers judgment in a case he outlines the facts which he finds have been proved on the evidence. Then he applies the law to qualities of a good leader those facts and arrives at a decision, for which he gives the reason (ratio decidendi). OBITER DICTUM The judge may go on to speculate about what his decision would or might have been if the construction essay test, facts of the case had been different. This is an obiter dictum. The binding part of a judicial decision is the ratio decidendi. An obiter dictum is not binding in later cases because it was not strictly relevant to the matter in issue in the original case. However, an obiter dictum may be of persuasive (as opposed to binding) authority in later cases. A difficulty arises in that, although the judge will give reasons for his decision, he will not always say what the ratio decidendi is, and it is then up to a later judge to elicit the custom research papers, ratio of the case. There may, however, be disagreement over what the ratio is and there may be more than one ratio The Mauritian Legal System One feature that could be taken as the cornerstone of Mauritian legal procedure it is adversarial (or accusatorial) nature of the proceedings as contrasted with the inquisitorial nature of civil law systems.

At the apex of this adversarial system lies the traditional picture of the English court an arena wherein a contest is waged between parties in which one emerges the winner. In the construction essay test, inquisitorial procedure the court takes charge of the case even to the extent of framing the legal and factual issues to be disputed. In the adversarial system the parties dictate, within the constraints of traditional forms and packages such as writs, forms of sip research paper action and pleadings the form, content and pace of construction essay proceedings. The pre-trial proceedings are arranged such that by the time of the big family vs small family essay, trial each side should have gained as much information as possible both to support their own case and to exploit any weaknesses in the oppositions arguments. The agent of the court (i.e. the judge) should stand back and wait for the case to proceed to trial. During the trial the construction test, judge in civil cases and and spondylolithesis, the judge and jury in construction test, criminal cases should allow him/herself to be guided, at least initially, as to the relevance of questions of high students fact and law by the parties advocates. The judge should take a procedural back seat and intervene only to ensure that fair play is essay test, operating or where the public interest is at stake. The proceedings are dominated by the advocates for the parties with, as in the case of criminal cases, the prosecution trying to leader build a strong case against construction essay test, the defendant and the defence, in turn, endeavouring to demolish the prosecutions case. Throughout this procedure witnesses are examined and cross-examined using a variety of tactics available to the skilled advocate. Some use subtle means to cause witnesses to react in a certain way, others use bullying tactics to obtain the same result from and spondylolithesis nervous participants. The success of a case, therefore, often rests upon the ability of an advocate to manipulate proceedings and not just the weight of evidence.

As the eminent English commentator, Jacob (The Fabric of English Civil Justice (1987), p. 16) stated with respect to civil cases, the adversarial system introduces an element of sportsmanship or gamesmanship into the conduct of civil proceedings, and it develops the propensity on the part of lawyers to indulge in procedural manoeuvres. The system rests upon a number of assumptions specifically that both parties are represented the lawyers representing each party are efficient and equally matched the lawyers will promote their clients interests. Lawyers do not owe a general duty to test ensure that justice is done or to enable the court to find the truth. Their only custom, obligation to the court is not to mislead the construction essay, court on questions of law or fact. But the adversarial system often produces unexpected and, according to some observers, unjust results due to paper the manner in which evidence can be presented. The outcome, therefore, hinges upon the events of the construction essay test, trial itself as much as the gathering of evidence beforehand, since the courts only judge what is presented before them and, especially when juries are present, the high students, way it is presented. Construction Test? Proceedings in the English courts do not take the form of investigations into of a good the matters brought before them, unlike the inquisitorial system which basically entails an examining judge conducting his or her own investigation, often in conjunction with organisations such as the police, before any trial takes place. Test? The inquisitorial procedure appears more obviously oriented as a search for the truth, taking into account all aspects of the matter, and consequently a substantial number of high students cases do not reach the trial stage. Those that do go to trial often reach that point with far greater certainty as to the outcome than in courts using the adversarial system. Is this the essay, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Brief overview on The Mauritian Legal System. essay editing for and spondylolithesis, only $13.9 per construction essay, page.

Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Brief overview on The Mauritian Legal System. What is a difference between a codified and on the qualities of a good, uncodified constitution? Below are presented some differences between codified and test, uncodified constitutions. The first differnce between this two sorts of constitutions is#8230; When the English were colonizing North America, they brought with them their laws. Being from the British Common Law system, the settlers understood how that system worked, so they modeled#8230; Marbury v. Argumentative Essay High School Students? Madison Case Brief (includes reflection) FactsMarbury was commissioned to serve as a judge by former president John Adam.

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By Jack Cashill. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Democrat Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Prior to that, he had served four years as a U.S. senator from Illinois (2005-2008) and eight years as an Illinois state senator (1996-2004). “In Islam, religion passes from the essay of a good, father to test the child. Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. [his Kenyan birth father] was a Muslim who named his boy Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Only Muslim children are named ‘Hussein’. [Barack Obama’s] stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, was also a Muslim.

In fact, as Obama's half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng explained to Jodi Kantor of the and spondylolithesis, New York Times : ‘My whole family was Muslim, and most of the people I knew were Muslim.’ An Indonesian publication, the Banjarmasin Post reports a former classmate, Rony Amir, recalling that ‘All the relatives of Barry's [Barack’s] father were very devout Muslims.’” * As a child in Indonesia, Obama attended Koranic classes at a Muslim school known as Besuki. At tha same time, he attended the St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School. * In February 2009, Obama said: I was not raised in a particularly religious household. I had a father who was born a Muslim but became an construction, atheist, grandparents who were non-practicing Methodists and paper Baptists, and a mother who was skeptical of organized religion. Construction Essay Test! I didn't become a Christian until I moved to the South Side of Chicago after college. * In a March 2009 interview, Obama's then-30-year-old half-brother, George Hussein Onyango Obama , said that “on the inside Barack Obama is Muslim.” * In September 2010, Obama said: I came to my Christian faith later in life.

* Author Edward Klein , while researching his 2012 book The Amateur , once asked the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Obama's longtime pastor at custom china research pay with paypal, Trinity United Methodisy Church in Chicago: Did you convert Obama from Islam to Christianity? Wright replied enigmatically: That's hard to construction essay tell. * Daniel Pipes writes that many pieces of and spondylolithesis, evidence argue for Obama having been born and raised a Muslim Specifically, says Pipes: (1) Islam is a patrilineal religion : In Islam, the father passes his faith to the children; and when a Muslim male has children with a non-Muslim female, Islam considers the children Muslim. Obama's grandfather and father having been Muslims the extent of construction test, their piety matters not at all means that, in Muslim eyes, Barack was born a Muslim. (2) Arabic forenames based on the H-S-N trilateral root : All such names (Husayn or Hussein, Hasan, Hassân, Hasanayn, Ahsan, Muhsin, and others) are exclusively bestowed on sip research paper Muslim babies. (The same goes for test, names based on the H-M-D root.) Obama's middle name, Hussein, explicitly proclaims him a born Muslim. (3) Registered as Muslim at on the qualities of a leader, SD Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi : Obama was registered at a Catholic school in test Jakarta as Barry Soetoro. A surviving document correctly lists him as born in Honolulu on big family family Aug. 4, 1961; in addition, it lists him having Indonesian nationality and construction essay Muslim religion. (4) Registered as Muslim at SD Besuki : Although Besuki (also known as SDN 1 Menteng) is a public school, Obama curiously refers to it in essay high school Audacity (p. 154) as the Muslim school he attended in Jakarta.

Its records have not survived but several journalists (Haroon Siddiqui of the Toronto Star , Paul Watson of the essay, Los Angeles Times , David Maraniss of the Washington Post ) have all confirmed that there too, he was registered as a Muslim. (5) Islamic class at SD Besuki : Obama mentions ( Audacity , p. 154) that at Besuki, the teacher wrote to tell my mother that I made faces during Koranic studies. Only Muslim students attended the sip research, weekly two-hour Koran class, Watson reports: two of construction, his teachers, former Vice Principal Tine Hahiyari and third-grade teacher Effendi, said they remember clearly that at this school too, he was registered as a Muslim, which determined what class he attended during weekly religion lessons. Muslim students were taught by a Muslim teacher, and Christian students were taught by a Christian teacher, said Effendi. Andrew Higgins of the Washington Post quotes Rully Dasaad, a former classmate, saying that Obama horsed around in class and, during readings of the Koran, got laughed at essay good, because of his funny pronunciation. Maraniss learned that the class included not only studying how to pray and how to read the Koran, but also actually praying in construction the Friday communal service right on the school grounds. (6) Mosque attendance : Maya Soetoro-Ng, Obama's younger half-sister, said her father (namely, Barack's stepfather) attended the mosque for essay on the qualities good, big communal events, Barker found that Obama occasionally followed his stepfather to the mosque for Friday prayers. Watson reports: The childhood friends say Obama sometimes went to Friday prayers at essay, the local mosque. We prayed but not really seriously, just following actions done by older people in the mosque. But as kids, we loved to meet our friends and good leader went to essay the mosque together and played, said Zulfin Adi, who describes himself as among Obama's closest childhood friends.

Sometimes, when the muezzin sounded the call to prayer, Lolo and Barry would walk to the makeshift mosque together, Adi said. How To! His mother often went to construction the church, but Barry was Muslim. Paper! He went to the mosque, Adi said. (7) Muslim clothing : Adi recalls about Obama, I remember him wearing a sarong. Likewise,Maraniss found not only that His classmates recalled that Barry wore a sarong but written exchanges indicating that he continued to essay wear this garment in the United States. This fact has religious implications because, in china papers pay with paypal Indonesian culture, only Muslims wear sarongs. (8) Piety : Obama says that in Indonesia, he didn't practice [Islam], an assertion that inadvertently acknowledges his Muslim identity by implying he was a non-observant Muslim.

But several of those who knew him contradict this recollection. Rony Amir describes Obama as previously quite religious in construction test Islam. Custom China Paypal! A former teacher, Tine Hahiyary, quoted in construction essay test the Kaltim Post , says the future president took part in advanced Islamic religious lessons: I remember that he had studied mengaji . In the context of argumentative high school, Southeast Asian Islam, mengaji Quran means to recite the Koran in Arabic, a difficult task denoting advanced study. In summary, the construction test, record points to Obama having been born a Muslim to a non-practicing Muslim father and having lived for four years in a fully Muslim milieu under the auspices of his Muslim Indonesian stepfather. For these reasons, those who knew Obama in Indonesia considered him a Muslim. * Daniel Pipes has pointed out the significance of the manner in which Obama typically addresses Muslim audiences: “When addressing Muslim audiences, Obama uses specifically Muslim phrases that recall his Muslim identity. He addressed audiences both in Cairo (in June 2009 ) and custom china pay with paypal Jakarta (in Nov. 2010 ) with 'as-salaamu alaykum,' a greeting that he, who went to Koran class, knows is reserved for one Muslim addressing another.” Further, Pipes notes that “In Cairo, he [Obama] also deployed several other pious terms that signal to Muslims he is one of them: (a) 'the Holy Koran' (a term mentioned five times): an exact translation from the standard Arabic reference to the Islamic scripture, al-Qur'an al-Karim ; (b) 'the right path': a translation of the Arabic as-sirat al-mustaqim , which Muslims ask God to guide them along each time they pray; (c) 'I have known Islam on three continents before coming to the region where it was first revealed': non-Muslims do not refer to Islam as revealed ; (d) 'the story of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed joined in prayer': this Koranic tale of a night journey establishes the leadership of Muhammad over construction essay test, all other holy figures, including Jesus; (e) 'Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, peace be upon them': a translation of the Arabic 'alayhim as-salam , which pious Muslims say after mentioning the names of dead prophets other than Muhammad.” * Pipes offers also the and spondylolithesis, following insight about essay Obama's use of the phrase Peace be upon them: “Obama's saying 'Peace be upon them' has other implications beyond being a purely Islamic turn of phrase never employed by Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians. How To Up Ipa! First, it contradicts what a self-professed Christian believes because it implies that Jesus, like Moses and Muhammad, is dead; Christian theology holds him to have been resurrected, living, and the immortal Son of God. Second, including Muhammad in this blessing implies reverence for him, something as outlandish as a Jew talking about construction Jesus Christ . Third, a Christian would more naturally seek peace from Jesus rather than wish peace on him.” “[Obama] drastically overestimates both the number and big family family essay the role of Muslims in the United States, announcing in construction test June 2009 that 'if you actually took the number of Muslims Americans, we'd be one of the largest Muslim countries in how to up ipa the world.' (Hardly: according to construction one listing of Muslim populations , the United States, with about 2.5 million Muslims , ranks about custom research pay with 47 th largest.) Three days later , he gave a bloated estimate of 'nearly 7 million American Muslims in our country today' and bizarrely announced that 'Islam has always been a part of America's story. since our founding, American Muslims have enriched the United States.' Obama also announced the essay, dubious fact, in essay on the Apr. 2009 , that many Americans 'have Muslims in their families or have lived in a Muslim-majority country.' When ordering religious communities in the United States, Obama always gives first place to Christians but second place varies between Jews and construction Muslims, most notably in his Jan.

2009 inaugural speech: 'The United States is a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and non-believers.' Obama so wildly overestimates the Muslim role in American life that they suggest an Islamic supremacist mentality specific to someone coming from and spondylolithesis a Muslim background.” The 1970s and CPUSA Member Frank Marshall Davis: In 1971, Obama was sent back to Hawaii to be raised largely by test his white, middle-class, maternal grandparents, and to attend the sip research paper, prestigious Punahou Academy. For only one month of his life, also when he was ten, Obama was visited by his biological father. To avoid being mistaken for a sellout,I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. The foreign students. Essay Test! The Chicanos.The Marxist Professors and argumentative essay school students the structural feminists and essay punk-rock performance poets.We smoked cigarettes and and spondylolithesis wore leather jackets. Test! At night,in the dorms,we discussed neocolonialism, [the socialist, anti-colonialist revolutionary] Franz Fanon,Eurocentrism,and patriarchy.

When we ground out our cigarettes in write the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the walls began to essay test shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling constraints. We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. We were alienated. John C. Drew's Recollections of Obama as a Student at high school, Occidental College: What’s missing from this story is that the 'social justice' young men and women were, in fact, simply left-wing socialists.

They found a hero in Professor Boesche because he made complex texts easier to construction test understand and because he encouraged them to fight even though they would be inevitably ground up in on the qualities of a the gears of history. The outrage that Obama felt when he got a 'B' from Boesche was due to the idea that Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was a revolutionary who shared Boesche’s perspective. Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was one of the student[s] in greatest ideological agreement with what Professor Boesche was teaching at that time. In February 2010, John C. Drew shared the following recollections he had of construction essay, Obama: I met Barack Obama face-to-face later that same year in late December 1980.

By then, I was in my second year of graduate school at Cornell. Vs Small Family Essay! I was doing my first, official teaching. Construction! The young Ann Coulter was a student in custom pay with paypal Theodore J. Lowi’s Introduction to American Government course in essay test 1980 and I was the teaching assistant responsible for guiding her small group discussion section. Write Up Ipa! Back on the West Coast for Christmas break, I was visiting a girlfriend who was still attending Occidental College who introduced me to 'Barry' Obama and test his housemate Mohammed Hasan Chandoo, a wealthy Pakistani student. From Occidental, Obama transferred to essay school students Columbia University in New York City, where he graduated in 1983 with a degree in political science. In 1982, Obama's biological father -- Barack Obama, Sr. -- died in a car crash.

In Dreams From My Father , Obama reveals that during his student years at essay test, Columbia he “went to socialist conferences at Cooper Union and African cultural fairs in Brooklyn.” Specifically, these were Socialist Scholars Conferences (SSC), which featured the elite of socialist academia as well as union activists, political revolutionaries, reformers, and opponents of “corporate greed.” According to the libertarian writer Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the paper, Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the construction essay, Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotskyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” Matthew Vadum and Jeremy Lott provide an excellent explanation of what a community organizer does. They write: “What does a “community organizer” do? Good question. Ever since former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani mocked Senator Barack Obama at argumentative school students, the Republican convention in September 2008, for test, the senator’s community organizing past, and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin said that her previous experience as mayor was “sort of like a ‘community organizer,’ except that you have actual responsibilities,” [Obama’s] supporters have been furiously spinning this one. They’ve suggested a fanciful interpretation of sip research paper, “community organizer” that includes organizing church picnics and bake sales. Some have even had the cheek to suggest that Jesus Christ was a community organizer. Dr. Thomas Sowell, the eminent Stanford University sociologist, offers this assessment of construction, what community organizers do: For 'community organizers' . racial resentments are a stock in sip research trade.

What does a community organizer do? What he does not do is organize a community. Essay Test! What he organizes are the custom china, resentments and paranoia within a community, directing those feelings against other communities, from whom either benefits or revenge are to be gotten, using whatever rhetoric or tactics will accomplish that purpose. Political analyst Andrew McCarthy calls community organizing a gussied-up term for systematic rabble-rousing. He adds: The quest for test, raw power is the gospel according to the seminal organizer, Saul Alinsky. In Obama terminology, 'hope' is the possibility that power may be wrested from society’s 'haves' by and spondylolithesis infiltrating their political system. Just as Willie Sutton robbed banks because that’s where the money is, organizers must target the construction essay test, very system they reject to acquire powermaking themselves attractive to leader the great mass of society despite having 'contemptuously rejected the values and the way of life of the middle class,' as Alinsky put it.

This is the test, formula for essay school students, transformational 'change': the exploitation of power, once acquired, to redistribute wealth and elevate the left’s professionally aggrieved vanguard. The day after the rally, Marty [Jerry Kellman in construction essay test Dreams] decided it was time for me to do some real work, and school he handed me a long list of construction essay test, people to interview. Find out their self-interest, he said. Custom Research Pay With! That’s why people become involved in organizingbecause they think they’ll get something out of it. Once I found an issue enough people cared about, I could take them into action. Construction Essay! With enough actions, I could start to build power. Paper! Issues, action, power, self-interest. I liked these concepts.

They bespoke a certain hardheadedness, a worldly lack of sentiment; politics, not religion. Obama's expenses at DCP were signed and approved by the late Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, a far-leftist who founded the Catholic Campaign for Human Development (CCHD); who famously credited Mikhail Gorbachev, not Reagan or John Paul II, with having brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union; and who called for construction, a “consistent ethic of life,” in an effort to persuade anti-abortion Catholics to likewise embrace pacifism and wealth redistribution. He pursued manifestly worthy goals; protecting people from asbestos in government housing projects is obviously a good thing and a responsibility of the good leader, government that built them. But [in every case except one] the proposed solution to every problem on the South Side was a distribution of government funds . [5] Nor was Obama reluctant to use intimidation as a tactic. In one instance, he personally orchestrated a demonstration in which scores of construction essay, protestors broke into a private meeting between bank executives and local community leaders, menacing them as they attempted to negotiate a deal vis a vis a controversial landfill issue. In 1987, when Obama was executive director of DCP, he asked Chicago mayor Harold Washington to support a community organizing project whose advisory board would include Obama's pastor Jeremiah Wright, the leftist Catholic priest Michael Pfleger, Illinois State Senator Emil Jones, and John Ayers (brother of former Weather Underground terrorist Bill Ayers). In a followup letter addressed to Washington’s assistant three days later, Obama again laid out his plans and included a list of his advisory council members. Trained in the Saul Alinsky Method:

Three of Obama's mentors in Chicago were trained at the Saul Alinsky-founded Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in the Windy City. (The Developing Communities Project itself was an affiliate of the Gamaliel Foundation, whose modus operandi for the creation of “a more just and democratic society” is rooted firmly in and spondylolithesis the Alinsky method.) Alinsky was known for construction essay, having helped to establish the aggressive political tactics that characterized the 1960s, and which have remained central to all subsequent revolutionary movements in and spondylolithesis the United States. He was a natural, the construction test, undisputed master of agitation, who could engage a room full of recruiting targets in a rapid-fire Socratic dialogue, nudging them to admit that they were not living up to their own standards. As with the panhandler, he could be aggressive and confrontational. With probing, sometimes personal questions, he would pinpoint the source of qualities of a, pain in their lives, tearing down their egos just enough before dangling a carrot of hope that they could make things better. For several years, Obama himself taught workshops on the Alinsky method. “Grass-roots community organizing builds on indigenous leadership and direct action. Construction Test! The debate as to and spondylolithesis how black and other dispossessed people can forward their lot in America is not new. Essay! From W. E. B. DuBois to Booker T. Washington to Marcus Garvey to Malcolm X to Martin Luther King, this internal debate has raged between integration and custom china pay with paypal nationalism, between accommodation and militancy, between sit-down strikes and boardroom negotiations. The lines between these strategies have never been simply drawn, and the most successful black leadership has recognized the need to bridge these seemingly divergent approaches.

Author Andrew McCarthy makes the following observations about Obama's words: Breathtaking. Lawfulness and lawlessness, thuggishness and regular politicswe’re not to divine any moral or ethical differences. They are just different 'approaches' to empowerment. They only 'seem' to be 'divergent.' It may be important to construction essay test maintain the veneer of respect for legal processes, but it is just as legitimate to paper stretch or break the rules whenever necessary to construction essay test achieve the desired outcomesocial justice being a higher form of legitimacy than society’s rule of law. Separatism, menacing, and civil disobedience: none of these is essay of a good leader beyond the pale; they are simply choices on the hard power menu Obama 'bridges' with soft power (i.e., the system’s mundane legal and political processes). As a young community organizer, Obama had close connections to the Midwest Academy, a radical training ground for activists of his political ilk.

Probably the most influential community-organizing-related entity in America at construction essay test, that time, the Midwest Academy worked closely with the DSA and synthesized Saul Alinsky’s organizing techniques with the and spondylolithesis, practical considerations of electoral politics. Emphasizing “class consciousness” and “movement history,” the Academy’s training programs exposed students to the efforts and achievements of veteran activists from earlier decades. Recurring “socialism sessions,” taught by Heather Booth, encompassed everything from Marx and Engels through Michael Harrington’s democratic socialism and the factional struggles of the Students for a Democratic Society, a radical organization that aspired to test remake America’s government in a Marxist image. Custom China Pay With Paypal! Knowing that many Americans would be unreceptive to straightforward, hard-left advocacy, the Midwest Academy in its formative years was careful not to explicitly articulate its socialist ideals in its organizing and training activities. Construction! The group’s inner circle was wholly committed to custom research papers pay with building a socialist mass movement, but stealthily rather than overtly. As Midwest Academy trainer Steve Max and the prominent socialist Harry Boyte agreed in a private correspondence: “Every social proposal that we make must be [deceptively] couched in terms of how it will strengthen capitalism.” This strategy of hiding its own socialist agendas below the proverbial radar, earned the Academy the essay, designation “crypto-socialist organization” from Stanley Kurtz. “Nearly every thread of Obama’s career runs directly or indirectly through the Midwest Academy,” says Kurtz, and, as such, it represents “the hidden key to Barack Obama’s political career.” The author elaborates: “Obama’s organizing mentors had ties to [the Midwest Academy]; Obama’s early funding was indirectly controlled by it; evidence strongly suggests that Obama himself received training there; both Barack and Michelle Obama ran a project called ‘Public Allies’ that was effectively an extension of the Midwest Academy; Obama’s first run for public office was sponsored by Academy veteran Alice Palmer; and Obama worked closely at two foundations for write up ipa, years with yet another veteran organizer from the Midwest Academy, Ken Rolling.

Perhaps more important, Barack Obama’s approach to politics is clearly inspired by that of the Midwest Academy.” Obama and construction essay test the Alliance for Better Chicago Schools: In 1988 Obama applied for admission to sip research Harvard Law School. Construction Essay Test! At the time, a Muslim attorney and black nationalist named Khalid Abdullah Tariq al-Mansour asked civil rights activist Percy Sutton to essay good send a letter of recommendation to construction test his (Sutton's) friends at Harvard on Obama's behalf. In an interview published by the Daily Herald on big family vs small family essay March 3, 1990, Barck Obama said: I feel good when I'm engaged in what I think are the construction essay, core issues of the society, and those core issues to me are what's happening to poor folks in this society. There's certainly racism here [at Harvard Law School]. There are certain burdens that are placed [on blacks], more emotionally at this point than concretely. Hopefully, more and more people will begin to feel their story is somehow part of and spondylolithesis, this larger story of how we're going to reshape America in construction test a way that is less mean-spirited and more generous. I mean, I really hope to be part of sip research, a transformation of this country.

In May 2012, Breitbart News reported that it had obtained a 36-page promotional booklet produced in 1991 by Barack Obama's then-literary agency, Acton Dystel, which stated that Obama was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and test Hawaii. The booklet, which was distributed to people in research papers pay with paypal the publishing industry, includes a brief biography of Obama and 89 other authors represented by Acton Dystel. Construction! Obama’s biography in the booklet reads as follows: Barack Obama, the how to write, first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review , was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. The son of an test, American anthropologist and a Kenyan finance minister, he attended Columbia University and argumentative essay school students worked as a financial journalist and essay test editor for essay high school, Business International Corporation. He served as project coordinator in Harlem for the New York Public Interest Research Group, and test was Executive Director of the Developing Communities Project in Chicago’s South Side. His commitment to social and racial issues will be evident in his first book, Journeys in custom china research paypal Black and White . The booklet also included biographies of such notable authors as former Speaker of the House Tip O’Neill, sports legends Joe Montana and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and a number of essay test, Hollywood celebrities. Jay Acton (of Acton Dystel) told Breitbart News that the essay, booklet had cost the agency tens of thousands of dollars to produce.

He said that while almost nobody wrote his or her own biography, the essay test, non-athletes in the booklet were probably approached to approve the text as presented. His most traditional course was in the due process and equal protection areas of constitutional law. Qualities Good Leader! His voting rights class traced the evolution of election law, from the construction essay, disenfranchisement of blacks to contemporary debates over districting and campaign finance. His most original course, a historical and political seminar as much as a legal one, was on racism and law [In] one class on up ipa race, he imitated the way clueless white people talked. 'Why are your friends at the housing projects shooting each other?' he asked in a mock-innocent voice. . Mr. Obama was especially eager for his charges to understand the horrors of the construction essay, past, students say.

He assigned a 1919 catalog of lynching victims, including some who were first raped or stripped of their ears and fingers, others who were pregnant or lynched with their children, and some whose charred bodies were sold off, bone fragment by bone fragment, to gawkers. 'Are there legal remedies that alleviate not just existing racism, but racism from the paper, past?' Adam Gross, now a public interest lawyer in Chicago, wrote in his class notes in April 1994. Liberals flocked to test his classes[.] After all, the professor was a progressive politician[.] . Karen McQuillan writes, in American Thinker , that Obama was a lecturer, and not a full professor, because he did not have the qualifications to be a professor. Adds McQuillan: Obama never published a single law paper. He was hired by the University of Chicago when they learned he had been given a book contract on essay race and law directly after graduating from Harvard. Construction Essay Test! There was no book just the contract, which he later reneged on. This is not the on the qualities leader, normal level of accomplishment for a University of Chicago professor or even lecturer. Introduction to ACORN and Project Vote: In the early to mid-1990s, Obama worked with ACORN, a grassroots political organization that grew out of George Wiley's National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). In the late 1960s and early 70s, NWRO members had invaded welfare offices across the U.S. -- often violently -- bullying social workers and loudly demanding every penny to which the law “entitled” them. [6] Litigator for essay, Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C .: In 1993 Barack Obama took a job as a litigator of voting rights and and spondylolithesis employment cases with the law firm Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C. (a.k.a.

Davis Miner). That same year, he also became a lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School. Obama -- along with such notables as Al Sharpton and Jeremiah Wright -- helped organize the October 1995 Million Man March in Washington, DC, which featured Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Said Obama in the immediate aftermath of the essay test, March: “What I saw was a powerful demonstration of an impulse and need for African-American men to come together to recognize each other and affirm our rightful place in the society. Historically, African-Americans have turned inward and towards black nationalism whenever they have a sense, as we do now, that the write, mainstream has rebuffed us, and that white Americans couldn’t care less about the profound problems African-Americans are facing.” Obama Smears White Executives in the Suburbs: I worked as a community organizer in Chicago. I was very active in low-income neighborhoods, working on issues of crime and education and construction essay employment, and seeing that in china research paypal some ways, certain portions of the African American community are doing as bad if not worse, and essay test recognizing that my fate remained tied up with their fates, that my individual salvation is not going to come about essay on the qualities of a good leader without a collective salvation for the country. Construction Essay! Unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices, and argumentative school this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about essay a new day and a new age.

By no means was this the only time Obama spoke about collective salvation. In a 1998 radio interview he said: . Write Up Ipa! my individual salvation is not going to construction come about family without a collective salvation for the country. Um, unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices and this country has not always been willing to test make the sacrifices necessary to research pay with bring about a new day and a new age. Obama Identifies White Suppression of essay test, Blacks As a Problem in the United States, As Elsewhere: . [T]he truth of the matter is that many of the problems that Africa faces, whether it's poverty or political suppression or ethnic conflict is just as prominent there and can't all be blamed on the effects of colonialism. What it can be blamed on is some of the students, common factors that affect Bosnia or Los Angeles or all kinds of places on this earth, and test that is the tendency for argumentative high students, one group to try to suppress another group in the interest of power or greed or resources or what have you. In an environment of scarcity, where the cost of essay, living is rising, folks begin to get angry and bitter and look for scapegoats. Custom Research! Historically, instead of looking at construction essay test, the top 5% of this country that controls all the wealth, we turn towards each other, and china research papers the Republicans have added to the fire. In that same interview, Obama said that his perspective on the “top 5%” had been shaped by construction essay test his experiences abroad: It's about power.

My travels made me sensitive to the plight of those without power and research pay with the issues of class and inequalities as it relates to wealth and construction power. Anytime you have been overseas in argumentative essay high school these so-called third world countries, one thing you see is the construction test, vast disparity of wealth of those who are part of power structure and those outside of it. Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and Obama's Entry into qualities good Politics: In the construction essay test, mid-1990s, Obama developed a friendship with fellow Chicagoans Bill Ayers and his wife Bernardine Dohrn, university professors who hosted a fundraiser at their home to introduce Obama to their neighbors during his first run for the Illinois state senate in 1996. (This fundraiser was likely organized by the socialist New Party.) Ayers (who contributed money to Obama’s 1996 campaign) and Dohrn had been leaders of the 1960s domestic terrorist group Weatherman, a Communist-driven splinter faction of qualities of a good, Students for a Democratic Society. The pair had participated personally in the bombings of New York City Police Headquarters in 1970, the Capitol building in 1971, and construction essay test the Pentagon in 1972. To this day, both have remained unrepentant about their former terrorist activities and their hatred of the argumentative school, United States. [9] “This is a guy who lives in my neighborhood, who is a professor of test, English in Chicago, who I know, and essay of a who I have not received some official endorsement from.

He is not somebody who I exchange ideas from construction essay test [with] on a regular basis. And the essay of a good leader, notion that somehow, as a consequence of me knowing somebody who engaged in detestable acts forty years ago when I was eight years old, somehow reflects on me and my values doesn't make much sense [T]his kind of game, in which anybody who I know, regardless of how flimsy the construction essay test, relationship is, [that] somehow their ideas could be attributed to custom china research papers me, I think the American people are smarter than that. They’re not gonna suggest somehow that that is reflective of construction test, my views, because it obviously isn’t.” Chicago Annenberg Challenge and Bill Ayers: But in reality, Obama's ties to Ayers were deep and longstanding. In 1995, for instance, Obama was appointed as the first Chairman of the how to write up ipa, Chicago Annenberg Challenge (CAC), a “school reform organization” founded by Ayers, who would later write, in his book Teaching Toward Freedom , that his educational objective was to “teach against oppression” as embodied in “America’s history of evil and racism, thereby forcing social transformation.” “Ayers made presentations to essay test board meetings chaired by Obama. Ayers also spoke for the Chicago School Reform Collaborative before Obama's board, while Obama periodically spoke for the board at meetings of the papers, collaborative According to the documents, the CAC granted money to far-leftist causes, such as the radical Association of essay, Community Organizations for Reform Now, or ACORN, which has done work on behalf of essay, Obama's presidential campaign.” WorldNetDaily reported further that “while Obama chaired the board of the CAC, more than $600,000 was granted to an organization founded by Ayers and run by Mike Klonsky, a former top communist activist. Klonsky was leader of the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, which was effectively recognized by China as the construction essay, all-but-official U.S. Argumentative! Maoist party.” Said Stanley Kurtz: “Instead of funding schools directly, [the CAC] required schools to affiliate with ‘external partners,’ which actually got the money.

Proposals from groups focused on math/science achievement were turned down. Instead CAC disbursed money through various far-left community organizers, such as ACORN.” Kurtz has provided the following synopsis of the test, CAC/Ayers agendas: The CAC's agenda flowed from Mr. Ayers's educational philosophy, which called for how to up ipa, infusing students and their parents with a radical political commitment, and which downplayed achievement tests in favor of activism. In the mid-1960s, Mr. Ayers taught at construction essay test, a radical alternative school, and served as a community organizer in Cleveland's ghetto. Between 1995 and 1999, Obama and CAC distributed $110 million to a variety of qualities good leader, leftist education enterprises for experiments in essay test Chicago's public schools. During his time teaching at the University of Chicago, Obama told then-colleague John Lott directly: “I don’t believe people should be able to own guns.” Obama Endorses Ayers' Book:

In December 1997 Obama wrote a blurb praising Ayers' recently published book, A Kind and qualities of a good Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court , calling it a searing and timely account of the juvenile court system, and the courageous individuals who rescue hope from despair. A notable attendee at the aforementioned political gatherings which Ayers and Dohrn hosted on behalf of Obama (in the mid-1990s) was Democratic state senator Alice J. Palmer (of Illinois’ 13th District), who quickly developed a friendly relationship with Obama. Prior to her stint in construction essay politics, Palmer had worked for the Black Press Institute and was editor of the Black Press Review . Write! During the Cold War, she supported the Soviet Union and spoke out against the United States. In the 1980s she served as an executive board member of the U.S. Peace Council, which the FBI identified as a Communist front group (and which was an affiliate of the World Peace Council, an international Soviet front).

Palmer participated in the World Peace Council’s Prague assembly in 1983 -- just as the essay, USSR was launching its “nuclear freeze” movement, a scheme that would have frozen Soviet nuclear and how to military superiority in test place. Obama Betrays Palmer: But in family essay November 1995, Jesse Jackson, Jr. defeated Palmer in a special election for construction test, Reynolds’ empty congressional seat. At that point, Palmer filed to retain the and spondylolithesis, Democratic nomination for the state senate seat she had encouraged Obama to pursue; that seat would be up for construction essay test, grabs in the November 1996 elections. She asked Obama to and spondylolithesis politely withdraw from the race and test offered to help him find an alternative position elsewhere. In 1995 Barack Obama sought the endorsement of the essay high students, so-called New Party for his 1996 state senate run. He was successful in obtaining that endorsement, and test he used a number of New Party volunteers as campaign workers.

Obama was involved as early as 1993, with a New Party sister organization - Progressive Chicago. This organization was formed by members of the high school students, New Party as a support group for progressive candidates. It's main instigators included New Party members Madeline Talbott of Chicago ACORN and construction test Dan Swinney, a Chicago labor unionist. Barack Obama was probably approached to join Progressive Chicago as early April 7, 1993, as this unsigned handwritten note suggests [see image here]. According to the same note Obama was more than happy to be involved [see image here]. By September 1993 Obama was one of 17 people listed as a signatory on up ipa all Progressive Chicago letters - as shown by essay test the second page of this September 22 Progressive Chicago letter to Joe Gardner [see image here]. Big Family Vs Small! It appears beyond doubt that Barack Obama was involved, more than two years before his Illinois State Senate run, with a New Party founded, sister organization - Progressive Chicago. In a 2010 interview, Carl Davidson, a Marxist activist who helped establish the New Party, recalled Obama's involvement with the New Party: A subcommittee met with [Obama] to construction test interview him to see if his stand on the living wage and big family vs small family similar reforms was the same as ours. Test! We determined that our views on on the leader these overlapped, and we could endorse his campaign in the Democratic Party. Recently obtained evidence from the updated records of Illinois ACORN at the Wisconsin Historical Society now definitively establishes that Obama was a member of the New Party. Construction! He also signed a 'contract' promising to publicly support and associate himself with the how to write, New Party while in office.

Barack Obama, candidate for State Senate in the 13th Legislative District, gave a statement to the membership and answered questions. He signed the New Party 'Candidate Contract' and requested an essay, endorsement from the New Party. How To Write Up Ipa! He also joined the construction, New Party. Consistent with this, a roster of the Chicago chapter of the New Party from early 1997 lists Obama as a member, with January 11, 1996, indicated as the date he joined. Obama Calls for Collective Action; Says the Christian Right is Characterized by Intolerance and Narrow-mindedness; Blames Society for Failing to Educate Teens Who Get in Trouble: In a 1995 story in the Chicago Reader , Obama was quoted saying: In America, we have this strong bias toward individual action. Vs Small! You know, we idolize the John Wayne hero who comes in to correct things with both guns blazing. Construction Test! But individual actions, individual dreams, are not sufficient. We must unite in collective action, build collective institutions and organizations. The right wing talks about this but they keep appealing to china papers that old individualistic bootstrap myth: get a job, get rich, and get out. Instead of investing in our neighborhoods, that's what has always happened.

Our goal must be to help people get a sense of essay, building something larger. Big Family Family! People are hungry for community; they miss it. They are hungry for change. The Marxist Carl Davidson and Obama's 1996 State Senate Run: Obama’s 1996 senate campaign also secured the endorsement of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), the largest socialist organization in the United States and the principal U.S. affiliate of the Socialist International. Obama’s affiliation with DSA was longstanding, as evidenced by construction his reference, in Dreams From My Father , to how to write up ipa the fact that during his student years at Columbia University he “went to socialist conferences at construction test, Cooper Union,” a privately funded college for the advancement of science and how to art. From the early 1980s until 2004, Cooper Union had served as the test, usual venue of the annual Socialist Scholars Conference. According to Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the Committees of custom pay with, Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotsyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” London observes that “Obama speaks of ‘ conferences ’ plural, indicating [that] his attendance was not the result of essay, accident or youthful curiosity.” So, what’s in the play?

It truly is a love song to Alinsky. In the first few minutes of the play, Alinsky plays Moses yes, the sip research, Biblical Moses talking to God. Construction Test! The play glorifies Alinsky stealing food from how to write restaurants and test organizing others to do the same, explaining, 'I saw it as a practical use of essay, social ecology: you had members of the intellectual community, the construction essay test, hope of the argumentative essay high school students, future, eating regularly for construction essay test, six months, staying alive till they could make their contributions to argumentative essay society.' Joining Obama on the discussion panel were the construction essay test, following individuals: Also in 1937, Despres and his wife met with, and delivered a suitcase of sip research paper, “clothing” to, Leon Trotsky, who was then in Mexico City, hiding from construction Stalin’s assassins. The Joyce Foundation: I Actually Believe in essay good leader Redistribution: At an October 19, 1998 conference at Loyola University, Barack Obama said: There has been a systematic . propaganda campaign against the possibility of construction essay, government action and its efficacy.

And I think some of it has been deserved. The trick is, how do we structure government systems that pool resources and hence facilitate some redistribution, because I actually believe in redistribution, at least at essay school, a certain level, to construction essay make sure that everybody's got a shot. “to the extent that we are doing research figuring out what kinds of government action would successfully make their [the working poor's] lives better, we are then putting together a potential majority coalition to move those agendas forward”; the up ipa, one good thing that comes out of essay, [the welfare-reform bill of 1996] is that it essentially desegregates the research, welfare population,” merging urban blacks with “the working poor, which are the construction, other people; and such a coalition becomes one batch of folks . that is increasingly a majority population” whose policy needs would grow to encompass health care, job training, education, and a system where government would “provide effective child care.” The Woods Fund of Chicago and Bill Ayers: Obama also had been a board member of the Woods Fund of Chicago since 1993. In 1999 he was joined on this board by Bill Ayers, who would serve alongside Obama until the latter left the Fund in December 2002. And Spondylolithesis! (In 2002 -- while Obama was still on the board -- the construction essay test, Woods Fund made a grant to Northwestern University Law School's Children and Family Justice Center, where Ayers' wife, Bernardine Dohrn, was employed.)

In 2000, Obama ran against former Black Panther and incumbent congressman Bobby Rush in the Democratic Primary for how to write up ipa, the U.S. House of Representatives. Rush denounced Obama as an “elitist” who “wasn’t black enough,” and crushed him by construction nearly a two-to-one vote margin. Obama returned to the Illinois state senate for another four-year term. As noted earlier, during his state senate years Obama was a lecturer at the University of Chicago law school, where he became friendly with Rashid Khalidi, a professor in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.

Obama and his wife were regular dinner guests at Khalidi’s Hyde Park home. Khalidi and his wife Mona had founded in 1995 the argumentative essay students, Arab American Action Network (AAAN), noted for its contention that Arab Americans face widespread discrimination in the United States, and for its view that Israel’s creation in essay 1948 was a catastrophe for big family essay, Arab people. In 2001 and again in 2002, the construction, Woods Fund of Chicago, while Obama served on sip research paper its board, made grants totaling $75,000 to AAAN. Shortly after Obama’s unsuccessful run for Congress in 2000, he was deeply in debt, with little cash at construction, his disposal (his annual part-time salary as a state senator was $58,000) and a stagnant law practice that he had largely neglected during a year of political campaigning. “Even as I hope for some measure of peace and china papers pay with comfort to the bereaved families, I must also hope that we as a nation draw some measure of wisdom from this tragedy. Certain immediate lessons are clear, and test we must act upon those lessons decisively.

We need to step up security at our airports. We must reexamine the effectiveness of our intelligence networks. And we must be resolute in identifying the perpetrators of vs small essay, these heinous acts and construction essay test dismantling their organizations of destruction. Depicting America as a Racially and Economically Unjust Society: Obama was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War ever since it was first discussed as a possible means of unseating Saddam Hussein from power. On October 2, 2002, Obama gave an antiwar speech alongside Jesse Jackson on the very day that President Bush and sip research Congress agreed on essay test a joint resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq. Paper! It was with this speech that Obama first caught the attention of the construction, American public. Now, let me be clear I suffer no illusions about Saddam Hussein. He is a brutal man. A ruthless man.

A man who butchers his own people to secure his own power. He has repeatedly defied U.N. resolutions, thwarted U.N. inspection teams, developed chemical and biological weapons, and coveted nuclear capacity. He's a bad guy. The world, and the Iraqi people, would be better off without him. Also in his 2002 speech, Obama said that instead of using force to essay of a good leader depose Saddam, America should “fight” for democratic reforms in the Middle East, for stronger international nuclear safeguards, and for construction essay, energy independence: “Those are the battles that we need to vs small fight. Those are the essay test, battles that we willingly join the essay students, battles against ignorance and intolerance, corruption and greed. Poverty and essay despair.” In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in Boston.

He used the big family vs small family, speech to introduce himself to a national audience while impugning the essay test, Bush administration and the War in argumentative Iraq. In 2004 Obama ran for one of Illinois’ two seats in the U.S. Senate. The Chicago Tribune endorsed Obama’s campaign. More importantly, the Tribune persuaded a Democrat-appointed judge in California to test open the sealed divorce records of Obama’s Republican opponent to the media. The resulting sex scandal, based on allegations in the divorce records by a Hollywood actress eager to prevent her ex-husband from getting custody of custom research papers, their children, prompted the Republican to resign from the race. One month before the construction, 2004 Democratic primary for the U.S. Senate, Obama was down in the polls, about to lose to essay on the qualities good leader Blair Hull, a multimillionaire securities trader.

But then the construction essay, Chicago Tribune leaked the claim that Hull’s second ex-wife, Brenda Sexton, had sought an order of protection against him during their 1998 divorce proceedings. Obama then used similar techniques to win the general election, as Human Events again explains: As luck would have it, Obama’s opponent in the general election had also been divorced! Jack Ryan was tall, handsome, Catholic and shared a name with one of Harrison Ford’s most popular onscreen characters! He went to Dartmouth, Harvard Law and Harvard Business School, made hundreds of millions of dollars as a partner at Goldman Sachs, and then, in his early 40s, left investment banking to teach at big family vs small essay, an inner city school on essay the South Side of on the of a good leader, Chicago. With a $10 million campaign war chest from contributors, and with no Republican opponent who could garner much support, Obama had an construction test, open road to become the next U.S. Senator from Illinois.

His friend and of a political supporter, the construction essay test, longtime Chicago alderwoman Dorothy Tillman, helped him win the voting in Chicago’s predominantly black wards. He also received valuable backing from the Jesse Jacksons, Junior and Senior, and paper Rev. Jackson’s Rainbow Coalition. In March 2005 Obama joined forces with the Web-based, grassroots political network MoveOn -- which seeks to use its fundraising clout to push the Democratic Party ever further to the political left -- in an effort to raise campaign money for essay, West Virginia Senator Robert Byrd’s 2006 reelection bid. In a letter to MoveOn members, Obama wrote: “You and millions of others, working through MoveOn, have helped change the way politics works in this country.” In a 2005 commencement address, Obama described the conservative philosophy of government as one that promises “to give everyone one big refund on and spondylolithesis their government, divvy it up by individual portions, in the form of construction, tax breaks, hand it out, and encourage everyone to school use their share to essay go buy their own health care, their own retirement plan, their own child care, their own education, and so on.” “In Washington,” said Obama, “they call this the Ownership Society. But in our past there has been another term for and spondylolithesis, it, Social Darwinism, every man or woman for him or herself.

It's a tempting idea, because it doesn't require much thought or ingenuity.” The fact that Obama socialized with Ayers and Dohrn contradicts the statement that Obama campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt gave the New York Times in construction essay test 2008: 'Mr. LaBolt said the men . have not spoken by phone or exchanged e-mail messages since Mr. Obama began serving in the United States Senate in January 2005 and last met more than a year ago when they bumped into each other on the street in Hyde Park.' Obama Accuses the Bush Administration of and spondylolithesis, Racism: In September 2005, Obama spoke at a town hall meeting of the construction essay, Congressional Black Caucus. Nominally devoted to argumentative the subject of “eradicating poverty,” the construction test, meeting was replete with condemnations of and spondylolithesis, President George W. Bush, the Republican Party, and America’s purportedly intractable racial inequities. Essay Test! Obama stopped short of essay on the of a, suggesting that the allegedly slow federal response to the victims of Hurricane Katrina (which had devastated New Orleans and the Gulf Coast earlier that month) -- especially black victims -- was motivated by racism.

But he nonetheless claimed that racism was the cause of essay, what he perceived to be the Bush administration’s lack of sensitivity to argumentative school students the struggles of African Americans generally: “The incompetence was colorblind. What wasn’t colorblind was the indifference. Human efforts will always pale in essay test comparison to nature’s forces. But [the Bush administration] is a set of folks who simply don’t recognize what’s happening in large parts of the country.” Blacks in hurricane-hit areas were poor, Obama further charged, because of the Bush administration’s “decision to give tax breaks to Paris Hilton instead of providing child care and education ” Obama Advocates Welfare State; Says Much Success Is Due to “Blind Luck”: Obama Endorses Dorothy Tillman, Proponent of Reparations and Admirer of Louis Farrakhan: In 2006 Obama endorsed the aforementioned Dorothy Tillman in the Third Ward race for the Chicago City Council. A passionate admirer of and spondylolithesis, Louis Farrakhan, Tillman was a leading proponent of reparations for slavery. Claiming that America remains “one of the cruelest nations in the world when it comes to black folks,” Tillman continues to declare that the U.S. “owes blacks a debt.” In December of 2006, Obama, who by then was contemplating a run for the presidency, met in New York with billionaire financier George Soros, who previously had hosted a fundraiser for Obama during the latter’s 2004 campaign for the U.S.

Senate. promoting the construction essay, view that America is institutionally an oppressive nation promoting the up ipa, election of leftist political candidates throughout the United States opposing virtually all post-9/11 national security measures enacted by U.S. government, particularly the Patriot Act depicting American military actions as unjust, unwarranted, and immoral promoting open borders, mass immigration, and a watering down of current immigration laws promoting a dramatic expansion of social welfare programs funded by test ever-escalating taxes promoting social welfare benefits and amnesty for illegal aliens defending suspected anti-American terrorists and their abetters financing the recruitment and training of future activist leaders of the political Left advocating America’s unilateral disarmament and/or a steep reduction in its military spending opposing the death penalty in all circumstances promoting socialized medicine in the United States promoting the tenets of radical environmentalism, whose ultimate goal, as writer Michael Berliner has explained, is essay high school “not clean air and clean water, [but] rather . the demolition of technological/industrial civilization” bringing American foreign policy under the control of the United Nations promoting racial and construction essay test ethnic preferences in academia and the business world alike promoting taxpayer-funded abortion-on-demand advocating stricter gun-control measures advocating the legalization of and spondylolithesis, marijuana. Obama's Activities in Support of a Socialist Bidding to test Be Elected President of Kenya: McCarthy says Obama undermined U.S. relations with a strong antiterrorism ally in an African region where al-Qaida operates. In 2006 . Obama campaigned for sip research, a pro-communist candidate running against Nairobi's pro-American government 'in outrageous contravention of U.S. policy and, probably, federal law.' Running for essay test, President: On January 16, 2007, Obama announced the creation of sip research, a presidential exploratory committee. Within hours after the announcement, Soros sent the test, senator a contribution of $2,100, the maximum amount allowable under campaign finance laws. Later that week, the New York Daily News reported that Soros would back Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton, whom he had supported in big family vs small family the past.

Obama’s wife Michelle quickly emerged as one of the new candidate’s most vocal campaigners. In a February 2007 appearance with her husband on the television program 60 Minutes , Mrs. Obama implied that America’s allegedly rampant white racism posed a great physical threat to her husband. Said Mrs. Construction Essay Test! Obama: “As a black man, you know, Barack can get shot going to the gas station.” In April 2007, Obama addressed the activist Al Sharpton’s National Action Network, telling an overflow crowd of listeners about his success as an Illinois lawmaker in of a good making health insurance available to children and reducing the cost of essay, prescription drugs for senior citizens. Vs Small Family! He also expressed his opposition to racial profiling in test law enforcement, detailing how he had helped pass legislation against custom china research papers pay with, the practice. Construction! In addition, he asserted that society must help ex-convicts escape an “economic death sentence” by securing jobs for them when they leave prison. “Jackie Kendall, executive director of the Midwest Academy, was on the team that developed and high school delivered the first Camp Obama training for construction test, volunteers aiding Obama’s campaign through the 2008 Iowa Caucuses.

Hans Riemer, who served as national youth vote director for the Obama campaign, said of the how to write up ipa, camp: 'We are training them, teaching them how to be effective, showing them what their role is in our strategy to win the election We’re taking people from raw enthusiasm to capable organizers.' Support from Jodie Evans of Code Pink: In February 2007, Evans co-hosted (along with her now-deceased husband Max Palevsky and the Dreamworks team of essay, Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg) a key Obama fundraiser just weeks after he announced his presidential candidacy. Evans donated the maximum $2,300 to Obama’s campaign. In April 2007, the Obama campaign announced that Evans was one of its early fundraising bundlers. In June 2008, Evans met with Obama at a high-priced fundraiser.

In late August 2008, Evans attended the essay, Democratic National Convention and, because of her status as a bundler, was invited to two private receptions with Obama and his running mate, Joe Biden. In September 2008, Evans attended two exclusive Hollywood fundraisers with Obama. Two weeks later, she met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in New York City. In October 2008, Evans worked with Code Pink’s Los Angeles chapter on a get-out-the-vote campaign in Obama's behalf. Robert Malley and the Hamas Incident: In 2007 Obama appointed Robert Malley, the essay test, Middle East and North Africa Program Director for the International Crisis Group, as a foreign policy advisor to and spondylolithesis his campaign. ICG receives funding from the Open Society Institute (whose founder, George Soros, serves on the ICG Board and Executive Committee).

Prior to joining ICG, Malley had served as President Bill Clinton’s Special Assistant for Arab-Israeli Affairs (1998-2001); National Security Advisor Sandy Berger’s Executive Assistant (1996-1998); and the National Security Council’s Director for Democracy, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Affairs (1994-1996). Malley’s father, Simon Malley, had been a key figure in the Egyptian Communist Party. Essay! Rabidly anti-Israel, Simon Malley was a confidante of the late PLO leader Yasser Arafat; an sip research, inveterate critic of “Western imperialism”; a supporter of various leftist revolutionary “liberation movements,” particularly the essay test, Palestinian cause; a beneficiary of Soviet funding; and a supporter of the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. “Thanks to all of you at how to up ipa, Planned Parenthood for construction test, all the work that you are doing for women all across the argumentative essay high students, country and for families all across the countryand for men, who have enough sense to realize you are helping them, all across the country. Planned Parenthood is the largest abortion provider in construction essay the United States, with some 850 clinics across the country. It purports to offer “a wide range of medical and counseling services and health care education,” but its primary business is providing abortion services. In 2004 Planned Parenthood completed 138 abortions for and spondylolithesis, every adoption referral it made to an outside agency. During the 2004-2005 fiscal year, the organization reported 1,414 adoption referrals (one adoption for every 180 abortions).

During its 2005-2006 fiscal year, Planned Parenthood performed a record 264,943 abortions; garnered $345.1 million in clinic income; took in $212.2 million in donations; and construction essay received record taxpayer funding of essay leader, $305.3 million. Total income reached a record $902.8 million. In August 2007, Obama appeared at the national convention of the leftist political weblog Daily Kos. According to a New York Times report: Mr. Obama, who has built his candidacy upon the mantra of construction essay test, change, received booming applause when he was introduced to the audience of more than 1,500. When the moderator mentioned that the senator turned 46 years old on Saturday, several of vs small family essay, those gathered in the ballroom began to serenade him with 'Happy Birthday.' In October 2007 Obama stated that, if elected, he would offer a high-level position in his administration to former Vice President Al Gore. On December 4, 2007, Obama’s campaign announced the creation of its African American Religious Leadership Committee. Among the committee's more notable members were Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Rev. Essay! Otis Moss III, and Rev.

Joseph E. Lowery. From March 1972 until February 2008, Jeremiah Wright -- whom Barack Obama described as his “spiritual advisor,” his “mentor,” and “one of the greatest preachers in how to write America” -- was the pastor of Chicago's Trinity United Church of Christ (TUCC), where Obama had attended services since 1988, and where he (Obama) had been a member since 1992. Said Obama of Wright: “What I value most about construction essay Pastor Wright is not his day-to-day political advice. He’s much more of a sounding board for me to make sure that I am speaking as truthfully about what I believe as possible and that I’m not losing myself in some of the hype and hoopla and on the qualities good leader stress that’s involved in national politics.” Rev. Otis Moss III -- whom Obama has extolled as a “wonderful young pastor” -- served as assistant pastor of test, TUCC from 2006-2008 and then succeeded Jeremiah Wright as pastor when the latter retired. And Spondylolithesis! In one notable sermon, Moss likened the construction, condition of contemporary black Americans to that of the hapless lepers referenced in biblical stories. He further implied that whites -- who, in his estimation, continue to subjugate blacks both socially and on the qualities economically -- are the construction essay, “enemy” of paper, African Americans. Construction Essay Test! “Our society creates thugs,” Moss added. “Children are not born thugs. Thugs are made and not born.” Rev. Joseph Lowery is a prominent figure in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Viewing the United States as a nation that is custom research pay with “not committed to construction serious efforts to address the essay on the qualities good, issue of racism,” he has warned that “white racism is gaining respectability again,” and construction essay test that “there’s a resurgence of racism at almost every level of life.” Lowery has expressed contempt for essay high school, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, specifically because the black conservative Thomas opposes the use of affirmative action (i.e., race preferences) in construction essay business and academia. Says Lowery: “I have told [Thomas] I am ashamed of him, because he is becoming to the black community what Benedict Arnold was to the nation he deserted; and what Judas Iscariot was to Jesus: a traitor ; and what Brutus was to Caesar: an assassin .” Another notable religious supporter of Barack Obama is Rev. Michael Pfleger, a white Roman Catholic priest who has been the research papers pay with paypal, pastor of Saint Sabina Catholic Church in Chicago since 1981. A great admirer of Louis Farrakhan and Jeremiah Wright, Pfleger views America as a nation plagued by construction essay “classism and racism,” and he identifies white racism as “the number one sin in this country.” Pfleger has had a longstanding friendly relationship (since the late 1980s) with Obama and has played a significant role as a spiritual advisor who, Obama once said, had helped him maintain his moral compass. Yet another religious figure affiliated with Obama is Rev.

James Meeks, a Democratic member of the Illinois state senate, where he served alongside Obama from 2002-2004 (prior to Obama’s election to the U.S. Sip Research! Senate). Meeks also has been the pastor of Chicago’s 22,000-member Salem Baptist Church since 1985, and construction essay he was once the executive vice president of Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow/PUSH coalition. For his 2008 presidential run, Obama formed a Black Advisory Council whose members included, most notably: (a) Marxist professor Cornel West, a longtime member of the Democratic Socialists of America and china research pay with paypal a great admirer of Obama’s former pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Wright; and (b) Harvard law professor Charles Ogletree, a reparations-for-slavery proponent who has advised Obama on such matters as criminal-justice reform. Obama Clearly Articulates His Desire to Remake the World and Change This Country: After Obama's victory in construction the Iowa Caucus, longtime Communist Party USA supporter Frank Chapman -- who had previously chaired the National Alliance Against Racist Political Oppression and served as a board member of the U.S. Peace Council, both Communist Party fronts -- wrote a letter that was published in the January 12, 2008 edition of the CPUSA publication, Peoples Weekly World : Now, beyond all the optimism I was capable of mustering, Mr. Obama won Iowa!

He won in a political arena 95 percent white. It was a resounding defeat for big family, the manipulations of the ultra-right and their right-liberal fellow travelers. Also it was a hard lesson for liberals who underestimated the political fury of the masses in these troubled times. Accusing Republicans of Having Failed Minorities: During a Democratic presidential debate on January 21, 2008, Obama expressed his belief that Republican politicians had failed to provide adequate opportunities for the social and economic advancement of minorities: “I am absolutely convinced that white, black, Latino, Asian, people want to construction essay test move beyond our divisions, and they want to join together in order to create a movement for change in this country. The Republicans may have a different attitude. The policies that they have promoted have not been good at providing ladders for upward mobility and how to opportunity for all people.” Tony Rezko, the Federally Indicted Real-Estate Developer:

Also in January 2008, Obama’s relationship with a federally indicted real estate developer came to light when rival candidate Hillary Clinton said, during a South Carolina Democratic Party presidential debate: “I was fighting against construction essay, [Republican] ideas when you were practicing law and representing your contributor, Rezko, in paper his slum landlord business in inner city Chicago.” Clinton’s reference was to Tony Rezko, a Syrian-born, Chicago-based restaurateur and real estate developer who had been one of the first major financial contributors to construction test Barack Obama’s political campaigns in the 1990s. For a full explanation of and spondylolithesis, Rezko’s relationship with Obama, see footnote number [10] . At a February 12, 2008 campaign stop in Wisconsin, Obama said: The politics of hope does not mean hoping things come easy. Because nothing worthwhile in this country has ever happened unless somebody somewhere stood up when it was hard, stood up when they were told, no you can't, and said, yes we can. And where better to affirm our ideals than here in Wisconsin, where a century ago the test, progressive movement was born.

It was rooted in the principle that the voices of the people can speak louder than special interests, that citizens can be connected to their government and to one another, and custom china papers paypal that all of us share a common destiny, an American Dream. On other occasions, Obama described himself as a pragmatic progressive who tries to make decisions based on what works. Praise from construction test Louis Farrakhan: In February 2008 Louis Farrakhan called Obama “a herald of the Messiah.” “Barack has captured the youth,” said the Nation Of Islam leader, referring to the passionate support Obama had drawn from young people in America. Big Family! “And he has involved young people in construction a political process that they didn’t care anything about. On The Good! That’s a sign. When the messiah speaks, the youth will hear. And the construction, messiah is absolutely speaking.” In March 2008 the argumentative essay students, controversial Al Sharpton, a strong supporter of Obama’s presidential candidacy, revealed publicly that he was in construction the habit of speaking to Obama on a regular basis -- “two or three times a week.” Sharpton also said that he had told Obama four months earlier, “I won’t either endorse you or not endorse you. But I will tell you I can be freer not endorsing you to help you and everybody else.” According to Sharpton, Obama then protested and asked for how to write, his public support: “No, no, no. Test! I want you to endorse.”

In early 2008, MoveOn executive director Eli Pariser announced that he and his organization were endorsing Obama for essay high students, U.S. President. “We’ve learned that the key to achieving change in essay test Washington without compromising core values is having a galvanized electorate to back you up,” said Pariser, “and Barack Obama has our members ‘fired up and china pay with ready to essay test go’ on argumentative essay students that front.” In April 2008 Ahmed Yousef, a political advisor for the terrorist group Hamas, told interviewer Aaron Klein that his (Yousef’s) organization was hopeful that Obama would win the presidential election and change America’s foreign policy vis a vis the Arab-Israeli conflict. When reporters subsequently asked Obama what he thought of the construction test, Hamas leader’s endorsement, Obama said: “My position on research papers paypal Hamas is indistinguishable from the position of Hillary Clinton or [Republican presidential candidate] John McCain. I said they are a terrorist organization, and I've repeatedly condemned them. I’ve repeatedly said, and essay test I mean what I say: Since they are a terrorist organization, we should not be dealing with them until they recognize Israel, renounce terrorism, and abide by previous agreements.” During an April 2008 campaign stop in San Francisco, Obama said: “You go into vs small some of these small towns in Pennsylvania, and like a lot of construction essay, small towns in the Midwest, the jobs have been gone now for school, 25 years, and nothing’s replaced them.

And they fell through the construction, Clinton administration and the Bush administration, and each successive administration has said that somehow these communities are gonna regenerate, and they have not. And it’s not surprising then they get bitter, they cling to guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to china papers pay with explain their frustrations.” Anthony Lake, Foreign Policy Advisor: In June 2008, Obama named former New Leftist Anthony Lake as one of his leading foreign policy advisors. Lake served as a special assistant for national security affairs under President Nixon in 1969-70, but soon thereafter he stepped down from construction test that post to protest the Nixon administration’s bombing raids in Cambodia -- raids that were designed to essay of a good leader support the existing government against the power-grabbing efforts of Pol Pot and his bloodthirsty Khmer Rouge.

At a June 2008 campaign stop in Jacksonville, Florida, Obama suggested that his political opponents were trying to exploit the issue of race to undermine his candidacy. Essay! “It is write up ipa going to be very difficult for Republicans to run on their stewardship of the economy or their outstanding foreign policy,” he said. Construction! “We know what kind of custom china papers pay with, campaign they’re going to run. They’re going to try to essay make you afraid. They’re going to try to make you afraid of how to write up ipa, me. He’s young and inexperienced and he’s got a funny name. And did I mention he’s black?” Speaking at a July 2008 gathering of hundreds of minority journalists in Chicago, Obama said the United States should acknowledge its history of poor treatment of certain ethnic groups: “There's no doubt that when it comes to our treatment of Native Americans as well as other persons of color in this country, we've got some very sad and difficult things to account for. I personally would want to see our tragic history, or the tragic elements of our history, acknowledged. I consistently believe that when it comes to essay test whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the most important thing for the U.S. government to do is qualities of a good leader not just offer words, but offer deeds.” Joe Biden, Running Mate:

In August 2008, Obama named Senator Joe Biden to be his vice presidential running mate. Fannie Mae . has been under increasing pressure from the construction test, Clinton Administration to expand mortgage loans among low and moderate income people and felt pressure from stock holders to maintain its phenomenal growth in profits. In addition, banks, thrift institutions and mortgage companies have been pressing Fannie Mae to help them make more loans to so-called subprime borrowers. These borrowers whose incomes, credit ratings and savings are not good enough to qualify for conventional loans, can only get [so-called 'subprime'] loans from custom research finance companies that charge much higher interest rates -- anywhere from three to four percentage points higher than conventional loans. Demographic information on these borrowers is sketchy. But at least one study indicates that 18 percent of the loans in the subprime market went to black borrowers, compared to 5 per cent of loans in the conventional loan market. In moving, even tentatively, into this new area of lending, Fannie Mae is taking on essay significantly more risk, which may not pose any difficulties during flush economic times.

But the government-subsidized corporation may run into trouble in an economic downturn, prompting a government rescue similar to that of the savings and china pay with loan industry in the 1980's. The Editors of construction essay, National Review Online explain the connection between the foregoing policies and Barack Obama: One of the reasons so many bad mortgage loans were made in the first place is that Barack Obama’s celebrated community organizers make their careers out of forcing banks to do so. ACORN, for argumentative high students, which Obama worked, is one of many left-wing organizations that spent decades pressuring banks and bank regulators to construction essay do more to custom research make mortgages available to people without much in the way of construction essay, income, assets, or credit. These campaigns often were couched in racially inflammatory terms. The result was the Community Reinvestment Act. The CRA empowers the FDIC and other banking regulators to punish those banks which do not lend to the poor and sip research minorities at the level that Obama’s fellow community organizers would like. Construction Essay! Among other things, mergers and acquisitions can be blocked if CRA inquisitors are not satisfied that their demands which are political demands have been met. And Spondylolithesis! There is a name for loans made to people who do not have the credit, assets, income, or down payment to construction essay test qualify for vs small family, a normal mortgage: subprime. As Forbes magazine points out, Obama has been a staunch supporter of the essay test, CRA throughout his public life.

In an October 15, 2008 presidential debate, Republican John McCain raised the issue of Obama’s ties to and spondylolithesis ACORN. At the time, ACORN was in the news for test, two major reasons. Custom Research Pay With! First, the organization was under investigation in 14 separate states for massive voter fraud. Strongly pro-Democrat, ACORN claimed to have registered 4 million new voters (most of whom were Democrats) during the preceding four years. Essay! Many tens of thousands of these registrations already had been found to be fraudulent -- they bore phony names, fake or nonexistent addresses, inaccurate personal information, duplicate signatures, etc. The full extent of the fraud, however, was impossible to determine. “The only on the of a good leader, involvement I’ve had with ACORN was I represented them alongside the essay, U.S.

Justice Department in making Illinois implement a motor voter law that helped people get registered at DMVs. Paypal! ACORN is a community organization. Construction! Apparently what they’ve done is write up ipa they were paying people to go out and register folks, and apparently some of the people who were out essay test there didn’t really register people, they just filled out a bunch of names. It had nothing to do with us. We were not involved.” He said nothing about the years he had spent training ACORN activists; nothing about the laudatory statements he had made about ACORN in the recent past; and nothing about the $800,000+ his campaign had given to the ACORN front group Citizens' Services Inc. (an ACORN-dominated subsidiary whose headquarters were located at precisely the same address as ACORN's national headquarters in New Orleans, Louisiana) to vs small family fund his campaign's 2008 voter-registration efforts.

To conceal the purpose of these payments to ACORN and Citizens' Services Inc., the construction, Obama campaign misidentified the $800,000+ payment as money that had been spent for election services. Well, first of all my relationship with ACORN is pretty straightforward. It’s probably 13 years ago when I was still practicing law, I represented ACORN and my partner in argumentative high school students that investigation was the US Justice department in essay test having Illinois implement what was called the research pay with, motor voter law, to essay test make sure people could go to DMV’s and driver license facilities to get registered. Research Papers Pay With Paypal! It wasn’t being implemented. That was my relationship and is my relationship to ACORN. There is an ACORN organization in Chicago. Construction Test! They’ve been active.

As an elected offiical, I’ve had interactions with them. But, they’re not advising my campaign. Argumentative High Students! We’ve got the best voter registration in politics right now and we don’t need ACORN’s help. Obama's statements from the aforementioned debate and interview are contradicted, however, but the words he himself had spoken in other venues. Construction Test! For example, during his presidential campaign, Obama was a featured speaker at one particularly notable political event in which ACORN played a prominent role -- a December 1, 2007 forum exclusively for argumentative essay students, thousands of community organizers from across the United States. He was inroduced to the crowd by construction test Deepak Bhargava, ACORN's leader of community reinvestment and fair housing (and Executive Director of the Center for Community Change). In his introductory remarks, Bhargava characterized America as a society that is still deeply structured by racism and sexism. When Obama took the microphone (to thunderous applause), he did not refute Bhargava's comments in any way. He was then asked, If elected President of the and spondylolithesis, United States, would you agree, in your first one-hundred days, to meet with a delegation of representatives from these various community organizations . Obama replied: Yes, but let me even say, before I even get inaugurated, during the transition we're gonna be calling all of test, you in to and spondylolithesis help us shape the agenda.

We're gonna be having meetings all across the country with community organizations so that you have input into the agenda for essay, the next presidency of the United States of on the leader, America. Similarly, in an interview with ACORN representatives in 2007, candidate Obama said the following: You know you've got a friend in me. And I definitely welcome ACORN's input. You don't have to ask me about that.

I'm going to call you even if you didn't ask me. Test! When I ran Project Vote, the voter registration drive in how to write Illinois, ACORN was smack dab in the middle of it. Once I was elected, there wasn't a campaign that ACORN worked on down in test Springfield that I wasn't right there with you. Since I have been in the United States Senate I've been always a partner with ACORN as well. I've been fighting with ACORN, along side ACORN, on issues you care about my entire career. In 2008, Obama's presidential campaign furnished the ACORN affiliate Project Vote with a list of and spondylolithesis, donors who had already contributed (to the construction, campaign) the maximum amount of money permitted by law. Anita Moncrief, a former Washington, DC staffer for Project Vote, later revealed that her organization had contacted these big donors and urged them to give money to Project Vote -- money which could then be funneled directly into paper the Obama campaign coffers, thereby evading election-law limits on campaign contributions.

F oreign Contributions to Presidential Campaign: A Federal Election Commission (FEC) employee has reportedly been warning for months about evidence that the construction essay, Obama campaign has received as much as $200 million, almost half of his total donations, in amounts less than $200. That is below the threshold for donor information [which] Mr. Obama has chose[n] to report to the FEC -- unlike the Clinton and McCain campaigns, which have reported all donor information. In August 2008, Pamela Geller wrote, in the American Thinker , that among the myriad foreign donations Obama had received was a $33,000 contribution from Palestinian brothers based in the Hamas-controlled Rafah refugee camp in Gaza, who had proudly declared their love for Obama. And Spondylolithesis! The Obama campaign claimed that it had returned that money to construction essay the brother donors, but the latter said they had never received such a return. Moreover, Geller catalogued several dozen of the foreign cities and nations from which illegal contributions to the Obama campaign had originated. In many cases, the donors' names and contact information were fraudulent -- sometimes consisting of nothing more than letters arranged in random, nonsensical sequence. On October 30, 2008, Obama told a large crowd of cheering supporters: We are five days away from fundamentally transforming the United States of America. What makes Obama different is essay on the of a leader that he has also been a community organiser. He has read left literature, including my works, and he understands what socialism is.

A lot of the people working with him are, indeed, socialists with backgrounds in the Communist Party or as independent Marxists. There are a lot of construction essay test, people like that in Chicago who have worked with him for years. Obama’s Policy Positions and Voting Record as State Senator, U.S. Senator, and Presidential Candidate: During his eight-year career in the Illinois state senate, Barack Obama avoided making controversial votes approximately 130 times -- which, according to other Illinois state senators, is much higher than average.

Rather than vote yea or nay on the legislation in question, Obama on those occasions simply voted present. In the Illinois state senate, this was the equivalent of big family family, a nay vote when tallying up support or opposition to a given bill. But, as David Freddoso points out: [F]or rhetorical purposes, a 'present' vote is different in that critics and journalists must discuss it differently. For example, Barack Obama did not vote against a bill to prevent pornographic book and construction essay test video stores and strip clubs from setting up within 1,000 feet of custom papers paypal, schools and churches -- he just voted 'present.' Obama voted 'present' on an almost unanimously passed bill to essay test prosecute students as adults if they fire guns on schol grounds. He voted 'present' on the partial-birth abortion ban and big family vs small other contentious issues . [11] Obama favors racial preferences for minorities in construction test university admissions, public employment, and state contracting. “I still believe in affirmative action as a means of overcoming both historic and potentially current discrimination,” said Obama in April 2008. [W]henever we define a pre-viable fetus as a person that is protected by the equal protection clause or other elements in the Constitution, what we're really saying is, in fact, that they are persons that are entitled to the kinds of vs small essay, protections that would be provided to a -- a child, a nine-month-old -- child that was delivered to term.

That determination, then, essentially, if it was accepted by a court, would forbid abortions to test take place. And Spondylolithesis! For that reason, I think it would probably be found unconstitutional. As David Freddoso observes, Obama's argument: implies that babies born prematurely without abortions might not be 'persons.' They might have to be 'nine months old' before they count. Construction Test! [O]ne might even conclude from [his words] that he actually does think they are persons. But, he argues, we cannot legally recognize them as 'persons.' Because if we do, then somewhere down the road it might threaten someone's right to an abortion. On The Qualities Leader! Barack Obama's actions indicate he thinks that before any other rights are granted to 'persons,' the Constitution exists to guarantee abortion rights. Essay Test! [13]

Though it did not in any way conflict with, or compromise, Roe v. Wade , Obama voted against this same legislation in 2003. As chair of the Health and Human Services Committee, he blocked another attempt to bring the bill to essay of a the floor of the Illinois Senate. As I understand it, this [bill] puts the essay, burden on on the qualities good leader the attending physician who has determined, since they were performing this procedure, that, in fact, this is a nonviable fetus; that if that fetus, or child however way you want to describe it is construction essay test now outside the mother’s womb and the doctor continues to china papers paypal think that it’s nonviable but there’s, let’s say, movement or some indication that, in test fact, they’re not just coming out limp and dead, that, in fact, they would then have to call a second physician to monitor and check off and make sure that this is not a live child that could be saved. But Obama knew quite well that children were being born alive and essay high students were not looked after by the abortion doctors; that in 10 to 20 percent of the cases where induced labor abortion was practiced, the infants survived and construction test were then being left, uncared for, to die; and that these facts were precisely what had prompted the legislation in the first place. In committee he took the big family vs small family essay, opinion of the essay, ACLU attorney and good leader said that he thought that this would be something that would overturn Roe v. Wade , and he opposed it in committee, and then he took a leadership role opposing this to go on and be the sole senator to speak against this bill on the Senate floor, not once, but two years in a row. And he brags on his Web site now that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to defeat this bill. He said on the Senate floor as a matter of fact that he thought that this would ultimately be considered unconstitutional, and he said that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to vote present because in Illinois a present vote is the same as a no vote. And he thought by construction test doing this that he would lure some squeamish senators who didn't really want to vote to endorse infanticide. In 2006 Obama voted “Yes” on a Senate Budget amendment allocating $100 million to: “increas[e] funding and access to family planning services”; “fun[d] legislation that requires equitable prescription coverage for contraceptives under health plans”; and china research papers paypal “fun[d] legislation that would create and construction essay expand teen pregnancy prevention programs and education programs concerning emergency contraceptives.” [14]

Well, you know, I think that whether you're looking at it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity, you know, is above my pay grade. “Latinos have such a high dropout rate. What you see consistently are children at a very early age are starting school already behind. That’s why I’ve said that I’m going to put billions of dollars into early childhood education that makes sure that our African-American youth, Latino youth, poor youth of every race, are getting the kind of help that they need so that they know their numbers, their colors, their letters.” [20] Obama opposed the custom china research papers pay with paypal, Supreme Court’s 2007 split decision that invalidated programs in Seattle and Louisville (Kentucky) which sought to maintain “diversity” in local schools by factoring race into construction essay test decisions about which students could be admitted to any particular school, or which students could be allowed to transfer from one school to and spondylolithesis another. Under these programs, parents were not free to send their children to the schools of their choice. Instead they were obliged to construction test abide by the quotas preordained by research pay with bureaucrats who had never met any of the children whose educational lives they sought to micromanage. Construction Test! Both the Seattle and Louisville programs were representative of similar plans in hundreds of other school districts nationwide.

In 1997 Obama opposed an Illinois welfare-reform bill, proposed by Republican senator Dave Syverson, which sought to move as many people as possible off the state welfare rolls and into paying jobs. He tried to weaken the legislation by calling for exceptions not only to the requirement that welfare recipients make an effort to find employment, but also to the bill's proposed five-year limit on benefits. My commitment is to make sure that we've got universal healthcare for all Americans by the end of and spondylolithesis, my first term as President. I would hope that we can set up a system that allows those who can go through their employer to access a federal system or a state pool of some sort. But I don't think we're going to be able to eliminate employer coverage immediately. There's going to be, potentially, some transition process. I can envision a decade out, or 15 years out, or 20 years out. Essay Test! On April 3, 2007, Obama said: Let's say that I proposed a plan that moved to a single payer system. Let's say Medicare Plus. It'd be essentially everybody can buy into Medicare for example.

Transitioning a system is a very difficult and costly and lengthy enterprise. It's not like you can turn on a switch and and spondylolithesis you go from one system to another. Construction! So it's possible that upfront you would need not just, I mean, you might need an additional $90 or $100 billion a year. On August 4, 2007, Obama said: This [health care] is a two-trillion dollar part of our economy. And it is my belief that, not just politically but also economically, it's better for us to start getting a system in place, a universal health care system signed into law by essay the end of my first term as president, and build off that system to further, to construction test make it more rational. By the up ipa, way, Canada did not start off immediately with a single payer system. They had a similar transition step. On November 21, 2007, Obama said he favored the implementation of a transitional system building on the existing systems that we have.

He elaborated: [T]ransitional hopefully because the system currently is so, such a patchwork of inefficiency that over time I would want to essay see Medicaid, Medicare, the children's health insurance program, SCHIP -- all those integrated more effectively. In the sip research paper, summer of construction essay test, 2008, when asked by a campaign audience about single-payer healthcare, Obama said, If I were designing a system from scratch, I would probably go ahead with a single-payer [government-run] system . my attitude is let’s build up the sip research, system we got, let’s make it more efficient, we maybe over time . decide that there are other ways for us to provide care more effectively. (Obama would sound this theme again in June 2009, when he told an unreceptive American Medical Association: I'll be honest, there are countries where a single-payer system works pretty well.) “It is essay hard to qualities good overstate the degree to construction essay which our addiction to oil undermines our future. A large portion of the $800 million we spend on foreign oil every day goes to some of the world's most volatile regimes. Paper! And there are the essay, environmental consequences. Write Up Ipa! Just about every scientist outside the White House believes climate change is real. We cannot drill our way out of the problem. Instead of subsidizing the essay, oil industry, we should end every single tax break the industry currently receives and demand that 1% of the revenues from oil companies with over $1 billion in essay quarterly profits go toward financing alternative energy research and infrastructure.”

At a July 30, 2008 campaign stop in Missouri, Obama said: “There are things that you can do individually . to save energy; making sure your tires are properly inflated, simple thing, but we could save all the oil that they’re talking about getting off [from] drilling, if everybody was just inflating their tires and getting regular tune-ups. You could actually save just as much.” To produce five gallons of essay, ethanol from corn, one must spend the energy equivalent of roughly four galons of ethanol for farming, shipping, and high students processing. (In other words, ethanol has a 25 percent net energy yield.) . Construction Essay! America's entire 6.5 billion gallon ethanol production created the net energy equivalent of 2.2 days' worth of American gasoline consumption. [24] (Emphasis in sip research original) In exchange for that miniscule output, adds Freddoso, federal and state governments provide between $6.3 billion and $8.7 billion in construction essay annual direct and indirect subsidies. When government subsidized corn ethanol production in 2007, it was like spending $9.00 to create a gallon of gasoline, and doing it 853 million times. [25] “When I was asked earlier about the issue of coal, you know, under my plan of custom china research, a cap and trade system, electricity rates would necessarily skyrocket. Even regardless of what I say about whether coal is good or bad. Because I’m capping greenhouse gases, coal power plants, you know, natural gas, you name it, whatever the plants were, whatever the industry was, uh, they would have to retrofit their operations. That will cost money. They will pass that money on to consumers.” “Global warming is real, is happening now and is the result of construction, human activities. The number of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes has almost doubled in the last 30 years. Glaciers are melting faster; the polar ice caps are shrinking; trees are blooming earlier; oceans are becoming more acidic, threatening marine life; people are dying in heat waves; species are migrating, and eventually many will become extinct.

Scientists predict that absent major emission reductions, climate change will worsen famine and drought in some of the poorest places in the world and wreak havoc across the globe. In the U.S., sea-level rise threatens to cause massive economic and ecological damage to our populated coastal areas.” [26] During a 2008 campaign stop in Oregon, Obama called on the United States to “lead by big family vs small example” on construction test global warming. “We can’t drive our SUVs and eat as much as we want and keep our homes on 72 degrees at all times . and then just expect that other countries are going to say OK,” he said. “That’s not leadership. Vs Small Family Essay! That’s not going to happen.” In 2004 Obama spoke out against construction essay test, the Republican-led Congress' budgets generally, and against the 2001 anti-terrorism bill known as the Patriot Act specifically, suggesting that the Act infringed upon Americans' civil liberties.

Said Obama: When you rush these budgets that are a foot high, and nobody has any idea what's in them and nobody has read them . It gets rushed through without any clear deliberation or debate, then these kind of things happen, and I think this is in some ways what happened to the Patriot Act. I mean, you remember, there was no real debate about that. Big Family Family! It was so quick after 9/11 that it was introduced, that people felt very intimidated by the [Bush] administration. Obama voted “No” on a bill to remove the need for a FISA [Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act] warrant before the government may proceed with wiretapping in terrorism-related investigations of suspects in other countries. “Warrantless surveillance of construction essay, American citizens, in defiance of FISA, is unlawful and unconstitutional,” said Obama. Research Pay With Paypal! [27] “Why don’t we close Guantanamo and restore the right of habeas corpus, because that’s how we lead, not with the might of our military, but the power of our ideals and the power of our values. Essay Test! It’s time to show the world we’re not a country that ships prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far off countries.” On June 19, 2008, political analyst Dick Morris described Obama's prescription for dealing with terrorism as follows: [Obama has] urged us to go back to and spondylolithesis the era of criminal-justice prosecution of terror suspects, citing the construction essay test, successful efforts to imprison those who bombed the World Trade Center in vs small 1993. Construction Essay! [He said] 'It is my firm belief that we can crack down on vs small family threats against essay, the United States, but we can do so within the argumentative essay high school students, constraints of our Constitution. In previous terrorist attacks -- for example, the construction, first attack against the World Trade Center, we were able to arrest those responsible, put them on trial. They are currently in china research pay with U.S. prisons, incapacitated.' The War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War: In July of '04 [you said]: 'I'm not privy to Senate intelligence reports.

What would I have done? I don't know,' in construction terms of how you would have voted on the war [in 2002]. In June 2006 Obama spoke out against the idea of setting a firm withdrawal date for U.S. troops in Iraq. Big Family! Immediately after the midterm election five months later, however, Obama declared that it was vital to change our policy and to bring home all American troops. In January 2007 Obama proposed legislation calling for the withdrawal of all troops within 14 months.

“. would immediately begin to pull out troops engaged in combat operations at a pace of one or two brigades every month, to be completed by the end of [2009]. He would call for a new constitutional convention in construction Iraq, convened with the United Nations, which would not adjourn until Iraq’s leaders reach a new accord on argumentative high reconciliation. He would use presidential leadership to surge our diplomacy with all of the nations of the region on behalf of a new regional security compact. And he would take immediate steps to confront the humanitarian disaster in Iraq, and to hold accountable any perpetrators of test, potential war crimes.” Claiming that the U.S. How To! presence in Iraq was “illegal,” Obama campaigned publicly in construction 2007 and 2008 for a speedy withdrawal of American troops from Iraq. But in a July 2008 discussion he held with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad, Obama privately tried to argumentative students persuade them to delay an agreement on a timetable for such a withdrawal until after the November elections. According to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari, “He asked why we were not prepared to essay test delay an agreement until after the U.S. elections and the formation of a new administration in Washington. However, as an Iraqi, I prefer to sip research have a security agreement that regulates the activities of foreign troops, rather than keeping the essay, matter open.” “Because . it's pretty straightforward. By us putting $10 billion to $12 billion a month, $200 billion, that's money that could have gone into on the of a Afghanistan. Those additional troops could have gone into Afghanistan. That money also could have been used to shore up a declining economic situation in test the United States.

That money could have been applied to vs small family having a serious energy security plan so that we were reducing our demand on essay test oil, which is helping to fund the and spondylolithesis, insurgents in many countries. So those are all factors that would be taken into consideration in my decision -- to construction test deal with a specific tactic or strategy inside of Iraq.” In mid-July 2008, the portions of Obama's campaign website that had emphasized his opposition to the troop surge and his statement that more troops would not change the course of the war, were suddenly removed. On the matter of using enhanced interrogation techniques (such as waterboarding) on argumentative essay students high-level terrorist suspects, Obama emphatically pledged to end that practice: “This means ending the practices of shipping away prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far-off countries, of detaining thousands without charge or trial, of maintaining a network of secret prisons to jail people beyond the reach of law. That will be my position as president. That includes renditions.” Which passages of scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and test that eating shellfish is an abomination? Or we could go with Deuteronomy which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith.

Or should we just stick to Sermon on the Mount, a passage that is so radical that it's doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application. Obama has consistently opposed America's development of big family, a missile defense system. In a February 2008 campaign ad, he stated: “I will cut tens of essay test, billions of sip research, dollars in wasteful spending. I will cut investments in unproven missile defense systems. I will not weaponize space. I will slow our development of future combat systems. I will institute an independent Defense Priorities Board to test ensure that the Quadrennial Defense Review is of a good leader not used to justify unnecessary defense spending. I will set a goal of a world without nuclear weapons. To seek that goal, I will not develop new nuclear weapons.

I will seek a global ban on the production of fissile material.” Redistribution of Wealth: You know, if you look at construction, the victories and argumentative essay school students failures of the civil-rights movement, and its litigation strategy in the court, I think where it succeeded was to vest formal rights in previously dispossessed peoples. So that I would now have the right to construction vote, I would now be able to sit at a lunch counter and order and as long as I could pay for it, I’d be okay, but the Supreme Court never entered into up ipa the issues of redistribution of wealth, and sort of construction, more basic issues of political and economic justice in this society. A caller then asked: “The gentleman [Obama] made the point that the Warren Court wasn’t terribly radical. My question is (with economic changes) my question is, is it too late for that kind of reparative work, economically, and and spondylolithesis is that the construction essay, appropriate place for china research pay with paypal, reparative economic work to change place?” You know, I’m not optimistic about bringing about major redistributive change through the courts. The institution just isn’t structured that way. You start getting into all sorts of separation of powers issues, you know, in terms of the construction test, court monitoring or engaging in a process that essentially is administrative and takes a lot of time. Sip Research Paper! You know, the court is just not very good at it, and politically, it’s just very hard to legitimize opinions from the court in that regard. In October 2008, Bill Whittle of National Review Online analyzed Obama's words (from 2001) as follows:

There is construction nothing vague or ambiguous about this. Nothing. His plan would boost the top marginal [income tax] rate to well over write, 55 percentbefore the inclusion of construction essay, state and local taxesresulting in many individuals seeing their marginal tax rate double. Senator Obama would end the Bush tax cuts and allow the top two tax rates to return to argumentative school 36 and 39.6 percent. Essay Test! He also would allow personal exemptions and deductions to be phased out for those with income over $250,000 [and] would end the Social Security payroll tax cap for those over $250,000 in write up ipa earnings. Construction! (The cap is currently set at $102,000.) These individuals will then face a tax rate of argumentative essay students, 15.65 percent from payroll taxes and construction the top income tax rate of 39.6 percent for a combined top rate of over 56 percent on each additional dollar earned. In an April 2008 Democratic primary debate, Obama was asked, by journalist Charlie Gibson, a question about his proposal to nearly double the capital gains tax (from 15 percent to 28 percent). Said Gibson: “ In each instance when the rate dropped [in the 1990s], revenues from the tax increased. Paper! The government took in more money. And in the 1980s, when the [capital gains] tax was increased to essay test 28 percent, the revenues went down.

So why raise it at all, especially given the fact that 100 million people in this country own stock and would be affected?” Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama’s plan to cut taxes on 95 percent of vs small, taxpayers would effectively increase government spending by construction essay an average of $64.8 billion a year and on the qualities of a good leader effectively raise income tax rates for many Americans, even on some earning $20-$50,000 per year, according to the non-partisan Tax Policy Center. The net result of the essay test, tax plan, according to the figures above, will be to increase by sip research paper more than 25 percent the number of households that pay no taxes at all, thereby effectively increasing the essay, size of the welfare state. At an how to up ipa, October 2008 campaign appearance in Ohio, Obama was approached by a man named Joe Wurzelbacher (who thereafter would become widely known in the media as “Joe the plumber”). Construction Essay Test! Wurzelbacher told Obama that he was planning to purchase a business which was projected to earn in sip research paper excess of $250,000 per hear, and that Obama’s tax plan, which would raise taxes (by 8.5 percent) on all small businesses earning over $250,000, would impose an unfair financial burden on him. Essay! Obama replied that the tax increase on businesses like his was justified because it would enable the government to give tax breaks to how to write people earning considerably less than $250,000. “I think when you spread the wealth around, it’s good for test, everybody,” said Obama. Earmarking refers to the commonplace congressional practice of directing federal tax dollars to sip research local projects which are often frivolous and test of extremely limited utility.

In fiscal year 2008, Obama was the sole Senate sponsor of 29 earmarks whose aggregate sum was $10.7 million. Earmarks are often informal quid pro big family vs small, quo arrangements, where recipients show gratitude by giving money to the political official who steered the earmarks their way. Construction Essay! For example, after Obama inserted earmarks into a 2008 defense appropriations bill, the recipients sent $16,000 in contributions to Obama's presidential campaign. In 1998 Obama proposed the up ipa, creation of a study panel to examine the feasibility of having the government regulate and construction test cap automobile insurance rates. In January 2000 he spoke out in favor of price controls for prescription drugs. A year later he called for the establishment of big family family essay, a five-person government review board to place a cap on drug prices in construction test Illinois. To read economist Thomas Sowell's explanation of why price controls have historically failed to essay high school students lower costs or improve products and services, click here. Construction Essay! [31] In September 2005, Obama sponsored Senate Concurrent Resolution 53, which expressed the sense of and spondylolithesis, Congress that any effort to impose photo identification requirements for voting should be rejected. “I will never walk away from the essay test, 12 million undocumented immigrants who live, work, and china papers contribute to our country every single day.

In July 2008, Obama again spoke to NCLR. Among his remarks were the construction test, following: “The theme of this [La Raza] conference is the china papers paypal, work of your lives: strengthening America together. It's been the construction essay test, work of this organization for four decades --lifting up families and on the qualities leader transforming communities across America. Construction Essay! And for that, I honor you, I congratulate you, I thank you, and I wish you another forty years as extraordinary as your last. The U.S. Border Control (USBC), a nonprofit citizen's lobby dedicated to high students ending illegal immigration and securing America’s borders, reports that Obama’s immigration-related votes are consistent with USBC’s values only 8 percent of the time. Construction Essay Test! By USBC’s definition, Obama’s stance on immigration qualifies him as an “open borders” advocate. Obama voted against custom china research paypal, a bill to declare English the official language of the U.S. government. Under this bill, no person would be entitled to have the government communicate with him (or provide materials for him) in any language other than English. Nothing in construction essay the bill, however, prohibited the use of a language other than English.

“When we get in a tussle, we appeal to the Founding Fathers and the Constitution’s ratifiers to and spondylolithesis give direction. Some, like Justice Scalia, conclude that the original understanding must be followed and if we obey this rule, democracy is essay test respected. Big Family! Others, like Justice Breyer, insist that sometimes the original understanding can take you only so far -- that on essay the truly big arguments, we have to take context, history, and the practical outcomes of big family family essay, a decision into account. I have to construction side with Justice Breyer’s view of the Constitution -- that it is not a static but rather a living document and must be read in the context of an ever-changing world.” When President Bush in 2005 nominated John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Obama stated that few Supreme Court cases involve any controversy at all, “so that both a [conservative like] Scalia and a [leftist like] Ginsburg will arrive at the same place most of the time on those 95 percent of cases.” In the essay on the qualities, other 5 percent, he said, “the critical ingredient” was neither the law nor the Constitution says, but rather “what is in the judge’s heart.” “[W]hen I examined Judge Roberts’ record and construction test history of public service, it is my personal estimation that he has far more often used his formidable skills on behalf of the strong in opposition to paper the weak. In his work in the White House and the Solicitor General’s Office, he seemed to have consistently sided with those who were dismissive of essay, efforts to eradicate the remnants of racial discrimination in write our political process. In these same positions, he seemed dismissive of concerns that it is harder to make it in this world and in essay this economy when you are a woman rather than a man.”

Obama was also “deeply troubled” by “the philosophy, ideology and record” of yet another Bush nominee to the Supreme Court, Samuel Alito. “There is no indication that he [Alito] is not a man of fine character,” Obama said in write a floor speech on January 26, 2006. “But when you look at his record, when it comes to construction test his understanding of the sip research, Constitution, I found that in almost every case he consistently sides on behalf of the powerful against the powerless.” “In contrast to test his soaring campaign rhetoric about big family family bringing America together, Obama’s Senate speeches against Roberts and construction essay test Alito revealed a polarizing vision of America. And Spondylolithesis! Minorities, women, employees and criminal defendants were among the weak; majorities, men, employers and prosecutors were among the essay, strong.” In April 2007, newsman Wolf Blitzer asked Obama, Are there . Justices right now upon whom you would model [appointments to custom china research papers pay with paypal the Supreme Court]? Obama replied, Well, you know, I think actually Justice [Stephen] Breyer, Justice [Ruth Bader] Ginsburg are very sensible judges. I think that Justice [David] Souter . is a sensible judge. We need somebody who's got the heart, the empathy, to recognize what it's like to be a young teenage mom, the construction essay, empathy to understand what it's like to be poor or African-American or gay or disabled or old--and that's the criterion by which I'll be selecting my judges. I've spent my entire adult life working with SEIU. I'm not a newcomer to this. I didn't just suddenly discover SEIU.

Your agenda's been my agenda in up ipa the United States Senate. Before debating health care, I talked to [SEIU President] Andy Stern and test SEIU members. Before immigration debates took place in Washington, I talked with [SEIU Executive Vice President] Eliseo Medina and argumentative school students SEIU members. Test! Before the EFCA [Employee Free Choice Act], I talked to SEIU. Obama supports an initiative known as the Global Poverty Act (GPA), which, if signed into law, would compel the U.S. President to big family vs small essay develop “and implement” a policy to “cut extreme global poverty in half by test 2015 through aid, trade, debt relief,” and other means. “With billions of people living on just dollars a day around the and spondylolithesis, world, global poverty remains one of the greatest challenges and construction test tragedies the international community faces.

It must be a priority of American foreign policy to sip research paper commit to eliminating extreme poverty and ensuring every child has food, shelter, and clean drinking water. As we strive to rebuild America’s standing in construction test the world, this important bill will demonstrate our promise and commitment to those in the developing world. Argumentative Essay High School! Our commitment to the global economy must extend beyond trade agreements that are more about increasing profits than about helping workers and small farmers everywhere.” According to a February 2008 report by essay test Accuracy in essay on the good Media editor Cliff Kincaid, the adoption of the GPA could “result in the imposition of a global tax on the United States” and would make levels “of U.S. foreign aid spending subservient to essay the dictates of the United Nations.” Kincaid stated that the legislation would earmark some 0.7 percent of the essay on the qualities leader, U.S. gross national product to foreign aid, which over a 13-year period would amount to roughly $845 billion “over and above what the U.S. already spends.” During a July 2007 Democrat primary debate, Obama was asked: [W]ould you be willing to meet separately, without preconditions, during the first year of your administration, with the leaders of Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba and North Korea, in order to bridge the gap that divides our countries? In January 2008 the National Journal published its rankings of construction essay, all U.S. senators -- based on how they had voted on a host of sip research, foreign and domestic policy bills -- and rated Barack Obama “the most liberal Senator of 2007.” “Obama’s [foreign policy] liberal score of 92 and conservative score of 7 indicate that he was more liberal in that issue area than 92 percent of the senators and more conservative than 7 percent,” the researchers explained. In the area of test, domestic policy voting, the study found that “Obama voted the china research papers, liberal position on 65 of the 66 key votes on which he voted [and] garnered perfect liberal scores in both the economic and social categories.” President Barack Obama: On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States.

He defeated Republican opponent John McCain, capturing 364 electoral votes vs. Construction Essay Test! McCain's 162. Obama received a total of 64,538,980 votes (52.5%), vs. McCain's 56,802,609 (46.2%). [1] David Horowitz and big family family Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (2012), Chapter 2. [10] Rezko had initially met Obama in 1990, when the former was a low-income housing developer in Chicago and the latter was a Harvard Law School student. In fact, Rezko offered Obama a job with his company, Rezmar Corporation, but Obama turned it down. When Obama announced in 1995 that he was running for an Illinois Senate seat (which would be up for test, grabs in 1996), two of Tony Rezko’s companies donated a total of $2,000 to Obama’s campaign. And Spondylolithesis! Over the course of the construction, entire primary season, Rezko raised between $10,000 and $15,000 of the roughly $100,000 Obama collected overall. Obama won the November 1996 election, and the district he represented included 11 of Rezko's 30 low-income housing projects.

Rezko served on the campaign committee for Obama’s failed congressional run against U.S. Rep. Bobby Rush in 2000, raising between $50,000 and $75,000 of the sip research, estimated $600,000 Obama collected for that race. In 2001 Rezko’s Rezmar Corporation stopped making its mortgage payments on the old nursing home it had converted into construction essay test apartments, and the state of Illinois foreclosed on the building, which was located in Obama's Senate district. In 2003 Obama announced that he would run for write up ipa, an Illinois seat in the U.S.

Senate which would be open the construction essay test, following year. He again named Rezko to his campaign finance committee. It is vs small essay estimated that Rezko raised some $160,000 for Obama during the Senate primary season. In November 2004 Obama was elected U.S. Construction Test! Senator. A few months later, he and Rezko's wife, Rita, purchased adjacent pieces of property in Chicago's Kenwood neighborhood. Obama’s portion of the write, deal involved a mansion for which he paid $1.65 million -- $300,000 below the seller’s asking price. Meanwhile, Rezko's wife (who earned only $37,000 per year and owned few assets) paid the full asking price -- $625,000 -- for a vacant lot adjacent to construction essay Obama’s mansion. At this time, Mr.

Rezko was being pursued by creditors seeking more than $10 million which Rezko owed on defaulted loans and failed business ventures. At least 12 lawsuits had been filed against essay on the good, Rezko and his businesses from construction essay November 2002 to January 2005, including one by big family family the G.E. Commercial Finance Corporation, which had extended more than $5 million in construction loans for Rezko’s 17 Papa Johns’ Pizza parlors in Detroit, Chicago and argumentative students Milwaukee. In November 2004, G.E. Construction Test! obtained a court judgment against Mr. Rezko for the $3.5 million that it said was outstanding on its loans. Obama says he does not know why the Rezkos decided to purchase the vacant lot at essay qualities of a leader, that time. But the essay test, Rezkos’ involvement was crucial because the owners of the essay on the of a good leader, house and construction the lot had stipulated that neither property could be sold unless a deal for the other also closed on and spondylolithesis the same day.

Both deals indeed closed on the same day in June 2005. At the time of the test, purchase, Mr. Rezko was ostensibly destitute; that is why his wife was named officially as the sole purchaser of the vacant lot. In December 2005 Obama paid Rita Rezko $104,500 for a strip that constituted one-sixth of her newly acquired lot, so that he could increase the width of custom research papers paypal, his yard by construction essay ten feet. At the time of this deal, Tony Rezko was under federal investigation on charges that he had solicited kickbacks from companies seeking state pension business under his friend, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich, for whom Rezko reportedly had raised as much as $500,000. For more than two years before the property purchases, news articles also had raised questions about Mr. How To Write Up Ipa! Rezko’s influence over state appointments and contracts. Construction Essay Test! Moreover, reports swirled that the FBI was investigating accusations of a shakedown scheme in paper which Mr. Rezko had suggested appointments to a state hospital board. Obama rejects any suggestion that the Rezkos, by paying full price for the vacant lot, had enabled him to save $300,000 on test his home’s purchase price and argumentative high school were perhaps seeking political favors in construction return. “Frankly, I don’t think he [Mr.

Rezko] was doing me a favor,” Obama has said. In October 2006, Mr. And Spondylolithesis! Rezko was indicted on extortion charges. According to federal prosecutors, Rezko had funneled $10,000 in kickback fees to Obama's 2004 Senate campaign. Rezko remained free on bail until January 28, 2008, when a U.S. District Judge jailed him for having disobeyed a court order to keep the Judge apprised of his (Rezko’s) financial status. Most notably, Rezko had failed to tell the judge about a $3.5 million loan he had received (in mid-2005) from London-based Iraqi billionaire Nadhmi Auchi -- a loan that Auchi later forgave in construction test exchange for shares in vs small essay a prime slice of Chicago real estate. Construction! According to the Associated Press, Rezko “gave $700,000 of the [$3.5 million] to his wife [for the purchase of the vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion] and used the rest to pay legal bills and china research pay with paypal funnel cash to various supporters.” [11] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 116. [14] Such an approach to “pregnancy prevention” had been tried before, with disastrous results. In the 1960s, leftists in politics and academia demanded that sex education be added to construction essay public-school curricula nationwide, and that government-funded “family planning” (abortion) services be made more widely available.

By 1968, almost half of sip research paper, all U.S. schoolspublic and private, religious and secularhad instituted sex education programs for construction, their students; these programs continued to big family vs small essay spread widely throughout the American educational system in the 1970s. “Family planning” clinics also proliferated exponentially from the mid-Sixties to the mid-Seventies. Between the late Sixties and 1978, federal expenditures for essay test, “family planning” and “population” legislation grew from $16 million annually to $279 million. Whereas in 1969 fewer than 250,000 teenagers used the services provided by abortion clinics, by 1976 their number had risen to 1.2 million. And Spondylolithesis! Between 1970 and 1980, the pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year-olds rose by construction more than 40 percent. How To Up Ipa! Among unmarried girls aged 15 to construction test 17, birth rates rose 29 percent between 1970 and 1984even as the number of abortions more than doubled during the paper, same period. [15] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. Essay Test! 203. [17] These rules to deter racial profiling, say critics, lead to sip research “de-policing.” To avoid charges of racism if they question or arrest too many minority suspects, police find it easier to protect their careers by turning a blind eye and leaving minority criminals alone. [18] Obama’s premise of a discriminatory justice system is entirely mistaken, as Manhattan Institute scholar Heather MacDonald points out: “Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by construction essay crime victims matches arrest data.

As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in and spondylolithesis victim identifications and in arrestsa finding replicated many times since, across a range of construction essay test, crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. “Moving up the paper, enforcement chain, the campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and sentencing. They concluded that ‘large racial differences in criminal offending,’ not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of Georgia felony convictions, for example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of construction essay, felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did, and that they [blacks] were less likely to vs small essay be found guilty at construction test, trial. Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, howeveran outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. “Another criminologisteasily as liberal as Sampsonreached the same conclusion in 1995: ‘Racial differences in patterns of offending, not racial bias by police and china research pay with other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,’ Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in construction essay test prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest.” [21] Many critics of the Court’s decision contended that it had undone the big family vs small family essay, landmark Brown v. Board of Education ruling of 1954.

But these charges were untrue. Essay! The Brown case addressed the issue of good leader, mandatory racial segregation in construction America’s public schools, an issue which had become an international embarrassment for the United States. The case centered around a black third-grader named Linda Brown who had been denied admission to an all-white school located just a few blocks from her home in essay of a good Topeka, Kansas, and test was forced instead to custom china paypal take a bus to an all-black school in a more distant neighborhood. Because millions of test, other blacks nationwide faced the same dilemma, her case had far-reaching, monumental implications. Miss Brown’s father successfully sued the Topeka Board of Education on grounds that, contrary to a previous Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), segregated schools were separate but not equal and how to thus failed to fulfill the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the laws. On May 17, 1954, the Court handed down a 9-0 decision which stated unequivocally: “Where a State has undertaken to provide an construction, opportunity for and spondylolithesis, an education in its public schools, such an construction test, opportunity is paper a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.”

In other words, Brown overturned the notion that it was permissible to use race as the basis for denying students the right to construction attend the essay high school students, schools they preferred. Like the 1964 Civil Rights Act that would become law ten years later, Brown was intended to remove barriers to integration by outlawing de jure segregation, but it issued no mandate for measures (like busing or racial quotas) to forcibly integrate America’s schools or workplaces. [22] Hoover Institution fellow and essay Stanford University sociologist Thomas Sowell, who has studied this matter in great depth, explains that the and spondylolithesis, “‘compelling’ benefits of ‘diversity’ are “as invisible as the proverbial emperor’s new clothes”; that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence that mixing and construction essay test matching black and argumentative school students white kids in construction essay school produces either educational or social benefits, there have been a number of studies of all-black schools whose educational performances equal or exceed the national average”; that “[s]ome black students -- in high fact, whole schools of construction essay test, them -- have performed dramatically better than other black students and exceeded the norms in white schools,” and that this phenomenon dates back as far as the late 19th century; that black students who have been bussed into white schools have seen no discernible rise in their standardized test scores -- “not even after decades of bussing”; and that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence” for the dogma “that there needs to be a ‘critical mass’ of black students in a given school or college in order for them to perform up to standard,” but that “such hard evidence as there is points in the opposite direction. Bright black kids have benefited from being in classes with other bright kids, regardless of the and spondylolithesis, other kids’ color.” [23] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 114. [26] Contrary to Obama’s claim, in May 2008 it was announced that more than 31,000 scientists across the U.S. Essay Test! -- including more than 9,000 Ph.D.s in on the of a fields such as atmospheric science, climatology, Earth science, environment and essay dozens of other specialties -- had signed a petition rejecting the claim that the human production of greenhouse gases is causing global warming that damages the Earth's climate. Vs Small Essay! There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is essay test causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and and spondylolithesis disruption of the Earth's climate, the petition stated. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the construction test, Earth. [27] Most legal scholars believe the vs small family, president has inherent constitutional authority to conduct warrantless wiretaps to collect foreign intelligence, and essay test no statute -- including FISA -- can reverse that.

Citing a 22-year-old precedent, the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review ruled in 2002 that “the president did have inherent authority to and spondylolithesis conduct warrantless searches to obtain foreign intelligence information. Construction Essay Test! We take for granted that the president does have that authority and, assuming that is so, FISA could not encroach on the president’s constitutional power.” John Schmidt, President Clinton’s associate attorney general from 1994-97, wrote that NSA [National Security Agency] surveillance against al-Qaeda “is consistent with court decisions and with the positions of the Justice Department under prior presidents”; FISA, he explained, “did not alter the constitutional situation.” Schmidt quoted Clinton Deputy Attorney General Jamie Gorelick’s 1994 testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee: “The Department of Justice believes, and argumentative high school the case law supports, that the president has inherent authority to conduct warrantless physical searches for foreign intelligence purposes.” [28] Obama and construction test his fellow critics of argumentative school, military commissions accuse such tribunals of trampling on the civil rights and liberties of defendants who, the critics contend, should be entitled to construction essay test all the how to write, rights and protections afforded by essay the American criminal court system -- where the standards that govern the custom research, admissibility of evidence are considerably stricter than the counterpart standards in military tribunals. In November 2006 Congress passed the Military Commissions Act of 2006, formally authorizing the adjudication of war crimes and terrorism cases in military courts. The House of Representatives vote was 253 to test 168 (Republicans voted 219 to 7 in favor, Democrats 160 to paper 34 against); the overall Senate margin was 65 to construction 34 in favor. According to write the Defense Department, military tribunals, where military officers serve as the judges and jurors, are designed to deal with offenses committed in the context of warfare including pillaging; terrorism; willfully killing or attacking civilians; taking hostages; employing poison or analogous weapons; using civilians as human shields; torture; mutilation or maiming; improperly using a flag of surrender; desecrating or abusing a dead body; rape; hijacking or hazarding a vessel or aircraft; aiding the enemy; spying; providing false testimony or perjury; soliciting others to commit offenses that are triable by military jurisprudence; and intending or conspiring to commit, or to aid in essay the commission of, such crimes. The issue of family, whether it is appropriate to try someone accused of the aforementioned transgressions in a military court depends upon how one answers a single overriding question: Is terrorism a matter of war, or is it a legal issue where redress should be pursued via the construction essay test, criminal-justice system like robbery, vandalism, or murder. [29] “Our government, the Supreme Court has ruled, “by thus defining lawful belligerents entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, has recognized that there is a class of unlawful belligerents not entitled to that privilege, including those who, though combatants, do not wear ‘fixed and distinctive emblems.’” Apart from the question of whether military tribunals are a good idea philosophically, trying terrorists and war criminals in civilian rather than military courts poses a number of serious problems from how to up ipa a practical standpoint. For one thing, the rules defining admissible and inadmissible evidence in each venue differ dramatically. In civilian trials, neither coerced testimony, nor confessions made in test the absence of argumentative high students, a Miranda warning, nor hearsay evidence can presented to the court; in test military tribunals the opposite is true, provided that the court determines such evidence to have “probative value to a reasonable person.”

Attorneys Spencer J. Argumentative Essay High School! Crona and Neal A. Richardson explain the construction test, profound significance of this: “A relaxation of the hearsay rule might become critical in a prosecution for terrorism where it may be impossible to produce live witnesses to an event which occurred years earlier in high school students a foreign country. For example, the indictment in the Pan Am Flight 103 case details the alleged purchase of test, clothing, by Libyan intelligence agent Abdel Bassett, for placement in the suitcase with the bomb. The clothing was used to disguise the contents of the qualities, suitcase containing the bomb, which was placed inside a radio-cassette player. Under the rules of essay, evidence applicable in U.S. District Court, the prosecution would have to produce in custom china research pay with person the Maltese shopkeeper to identify Abdel Bassett as the test, man who allegedly purchased the big family family essay, clothing back in construction 1988, as opposed to producing the investigator who tracked down the shopkeeper and showed him a photograph of Abdel Bassett. Even if we assume that the shopkeeper could be located six years or more after the fact, we recognize that it is nearly impossible to secure involuntary testimony from a witness who is sip research a citizen of construction essay, a foreign country, especially one that historically has been less than sympathetic to the United States. The reach of a federal court subpoena simply does not extend to Malta.” Another exceedingly significant weakness inherent in civilian trials for terrorists is the fact that in up ipa such proceedings, there exists a high likelihood that classified intelligence sources will be compromised. Construction Essay Test! If the government wishes to present certain incriminating evidence in a civilian trial, which is open to the public, it must disclose its sources as well as the techniques it used for obtaining the information from them.

This obviously would place those sources in grave danger and would quickly lead to the non-cooperation or disappearance of many of them to say nothing of the big family vs small family, future potential informants who would undoubtedly choose to avoid placing themselves in similar peril. Moreover, the effectiveness of any publicly disclosed information-gathering techniques would thereafter be permanently compromised. By contrast, military tribunals permit incriminating evidence to be presented to essay test the judge and jury, while being kept secret from the how to write up ipa, public as well as from the construction, defendant and his attorney. For those who are concerned about write up ipa legal precedent, it must be understood that the use of military tribunals for the adjudication of war crimes is in no way a departure from past practices. military commissions were used commonly during the construction test, Civil War. Prior to that, General George Washington employed such tribunals during the American Revolution in paper the late 18th century.

In the era following the essay test, ratification of the U.S. Constitution, military tribunals were first convened by Major General Winfield Scott during the custom china papers pay with paypal, Mexican-American War of 1846-48, to construction adjudicate the custom china papers, alleged war crimes of construction test, American troops and Mexican guerrilla fighters alike. World War II also saw the use of military courts, the most famous case involving eight marines of the Third Reich (one of whom was an American citizen named Herbert Haupt ) who rode a Nazi U-boat to essay on the the east coast of the United States, where, laden with explosives, they disembarked and set off toward various locations with the intent of bombing railroads, hydroelectric plants, factories, department stores, and essay defense facilities across the country. The saboteurs were wearing no military uniforms or identifying emblems when they were captured, meaning that they were, in the eyes of the essay on the good, law (as defined by the Supreme Court in Ex parte Quirin , quoted earlier in this article), “unlawful combatants.” Refusing to grant the perpetrators civilian jury trials, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quickly created a secret military commission to hear their cases. All eight were convicted and sentenced to death, though two turncoats later had their sentences commuted to life in prison. [30] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 96. [31] Thomas Sowell, Price Controls, Capitalism (November 16, 2005). Dr. Sowell writes: It so happens there is a history of price controls and construction essay test their consequences in and spondylolithesis countries around the world, going back literally thousands of years.

But most people who advocate price controls are unaware of, and essay uninterested in, that history . [32] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama, pp. 205-206. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Since Feb 14, 2005 --Hits: 61,630,061 --Visitors: 7,024,052.

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Running head: WHY DO I WANT AN MBA? 1 Why Do I Want An MBA? Sandra . R. Schubert MGT/521- Management December 10, 2010 Edward Darley Running head: WHY DO I WANT AN MBA? 2 Why Do I Want An MBA? A Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) degree not only opens many doors of opportunity for the possessor of the and spondylolithesis, degree, it also increases one’s potential for earning higher salaries and construction developing a better career path.

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Philosophies vary from time to paper time . because we live in a world that moves at a very fast pace, and we have to move our ideas with it. I have pursued a BA in Communications and a MA in Secondary Education with a concentration in construction educational technology. Now, I teach with my English minor, and I absolutely love it. Essay On The Of A Leader! As an educator, I want prepare students not only for college, but for the world we live in essay test today. Argumentative Essay High School Students! My philosophy of education. 21st century , Academic degree , Education 499 Words | 2 Pages. language. Being good at construction test, English, i can travel to any place or any country which i like.

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Who I Want to Become When I Am Older. Who I Want to be When I am Older Every human historically and presently, thrives for the same thing, success. . Some seek it through monetary values, while others perceive success as the amount of power one possesses. Ralph Waldo Emerson however, offered a new perspective of the meaning of success. He claimed, “To laugh often and much, to essay test win the respect of up ipa intelligent people and the affection of children… to leave the construction test, world a better place, to know one life has breathed easier because you have lived. Albert Einstein , American philosophers , Concord, Massachusetts 1030 Words | 3 Pages.

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Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Share this article. Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Is it really possible to essay test, completely eliminate homework or at least to assign it rarely, only when it#8217;s truly needed even in custom pay with high school? We keep hearing from test, educators who say it#8217;s not only possible but preferable to how to up ipa, do so.

Some of these folks were influenced by the arguments and data contained in construction essay test The Homework Myth , while others came to realize on their own that it simply isn#8217;t necessary to make students work a #8220;second shift#8221; after a full day in school. One example, whose comments are included in the book, is Phil Lyons, a high school social studies teacher. Essay? He noticed that homework contributes to a situation where students see learning as just an unpleasant means to an end #8220;a way to accrue points.#8221; Homework typically consists of tasks that are #8220;time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and serve only to construction, kill whatever motivation remains in students,#8221; Lyons says. Interestingly, he confesses having assigned a lot of homework at the beginning of custom china research papers his career #8220;as a crutch, to compensate for construction test, poor lessons. . . . How To? But as I mastered the material, homework ceased to be necessary.#8221; And so he assigned less and construction test, less of it as the years went by. Argumentative High? Today he assigns none at all, even to his A.P. Test? classes. #8220;In addition to reinforcement type worksheets which I do not assign for and spondylolithesis, homework I also do not assign reading to be done at home,#8221; says Lyons. #8220;Instead, I begin each day with an article (1-2 pages tops) that relates to the topics we#8217;re studying. Using just ten minutes a day, students end up reading over 100 college-level articles in the course of the year. Construction Essay? Using class time enables us to go over the information collectively and immediately.#8221; And the result? #8220;Each year my students have performed better on the [A.P.] test#8230;.I would feel justified encroaching on students#8217; free time and I#8217;d be willing to do the and spondylolithesis grading if I saw tangible returns, but with no quantifiable benefit it makes no sense to impose [homework] on construction essay them or me.#8221; However, Lyons did notice one clear difference after eliminating homework: #8220;Students come in all the time and custom research papers pay with paypal, hand me articles about something we talked about in class or tell me about a news report they saw. When intrigued by a good lesson and given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out essay test, more knowledge.#8221; Academically speaking, then, the absence of homework #8212; even in a high-level high school course #8212; created absolutely no problems.

Intellectually speaking, it has been positively beneficial. Yet, Lyons observes, the prospect of questioning homework leads some people to react in much the same way that creationists do #8220;when you try to explain evolution to and spondylolithesis, them….Despite all the logical arguments, they refuse to believe less homework can lead to more and essay, better learning.#8221; But he quickly adds that, even in custom china papers pay with the sorts of construction test communities where high school is research papers paypal, regarded mostly as a source of credentials for the purpose of admission to selective colleges, people can be successfully invited to reconsider their assumptions: I#8217;ve encountered a lot of hostility from parents who think their children are being shortchanged because they came home and said they didn#8217;t get any homework. But after I explain, most turn quite friendly and supportive of the policy. Construction Essay Test? Adults freely admit that they can#8217;t remember anything about the election of 1876 from their high school U.S. Sip Research? History class, and that other skills and experiences were more important. Once I explain that those important skills and experiences are better served without repetitive homework assignments, they usually concur. Testimony from construction test, other teachers has been rolling in since The Homework Myth #8216;s publication. To wit: #8220;For the past month of the final term I assigned no outside homework. I teach English, so all reading and writing was done in class. Essay Qualities? I had to essay test, plan more carefully and navigate those times when the quicker readers or writers finished earlier.

There are many positives that resulted. Research Papers Pay With Paypal? The kids were better rested, more interested in what we were doing in test class, and the quality of the work they did in class was better. I thought I might have some parent calls, but the only feedback I got was a few parental remarks that they were glad to see their kids not so stressed. [The students#8217; written] reflections convinced me that homework has a long-term detrimental impact on custom china research papers student learning. Construction Essay Test? More importantly it seems to harm them in other ways, emotionally, developmentally, socially, etc. I regret not having done this earlier in the year. I plan to go homework-free next year in all my classes except AP Literature.#8221; #8212; Jim Drier, English teacher, Mundelein (IL) High School. #8220;I#8217;ve assigned homework once this semester. That was Geometry. High School? In Algebra, I#8217;m not sure I#8217;ve assigned any… [I believe] students need a certain amount of practice for each new concept. That amount certainly varies by the student, however. [And] if my kids evaluate and graph forty points over a class period, why would I send them home with any more?#8230;.The issue for most math teachers, I believe, is one of time management.

The only year I assigned homework with any regularity was during my student-teaching, when my class management plainly sucked. By assigning whatever practice we didn#8217;t finish [as] homework, I was transferring the cost of my poor teaching onto my students.#8221; [Mr. Meyer investigated this issue for his Masters thesis and found no statistically significant difference in achievement between students who were and were not assigned homework. Students#8217; attitudes about learning, and construction, about math, were much lower for those who got homework, however.] #8212; Dan Meyer, high school math teacher in CA [from his blog] #8220;I always felt weird about big family essay assigning specific books for kids to read. How could you possibly find a book that is at all 34 kids#8217; reading levels. Not to mention the fact they would all have to be excited about reading the book! . . . [With most homework, students] do what they already did in construction essay test class, and the ones that get it waste their time doing it again and the ones that didn#8217;t just get discouraged and struggle through it. Sip Research? It particularly would break my heart when parents would tell me. . . Construction Test? how nights would be ruined. How could any teacher not feel bad about that? Then I would correct it and put it in and spondylolithesis their files and construction essay, then they would stuff it in and spondylolithesis their backpacks never to be looked at again.

Not to construction essay test, mention the sip research inequity of some kids#8217; parents being able to construction essay, help and papers, some not. . . . Test? I have gone from assigning pre-arranged one-size-fits-all drill homework to virtually none now.#8221; #8212; Richard Coleman, San Diego teacher. #8220;Assigning homework was something I did without really thinking because it was something that had always been done…. Not assigning homework has drastically cut down on and spondylolithesis the amount of essay test time I spend mindlessly grading student homework and big family family, has increased the amount of time I spend preparing for lessons . . . looking for essay test, interesting activities and … finding #8216;real world#8217; examples of mathematics…#8221; #8212; Kate Degner, math teacher, Williamsburg (IA) High School. [from her Master#8217;s thesis] #8220;I first read The Homework Myth while trying to get my daughter through a middle school that was obsessed with making kids do 2-3 hours of homework every night. We have since moved her to a great alternative school where homework is minimal, and she is making great progress. After reading your book, I thought about how I was teaching my [college] classes #8212; lecture, then assign pages in the text workbook to be turned in at the next class. I realized that what I needed to do was more #8216;hands on#8217; teaching in the classroom. I eliminated most of the homework assignments (except for major projects), and argumentative school, had the students do the exercises in class while I walked around giving help where needed. Essay? I told the students that the few assignments I would give are for the purpose of and spondylolithesis giving me feedback #8212; #8216;Are they getting it?#8217; This has made for a lot less busywork for me and for the students, and construction test, has brought me into closer contact with the students and how they are learning.#8221; #8212; David Moore, music theory teacher, Univ. of high school Tulsa. #8220;Many kids are burned out on construction school and learning before they leave 3rd grade due to the increasing amount of homework being demanded of them. Having read your book this summer, I decided to try doing very limited homework in my 2nd grade classroom. Essay Qualities Of A Leader? What I#8217;ve found is that the kids are less confused in math [as a result].

I encourage reading, studying math facts, and let parents know that the kids are responsible for learning any missed spelling words. (I think they are putting more effort into construction essay, writing the words correctly so as to avoid taking them home.) My parents are all happy and other 2nd grade teachers are trying it.#8221; #8212; Carol Tuveson, elementary school teacher, Stratham (NH) Memorial School. We#8217;ve also heard about whole schools that have virtually eliminated homework rather than merely adjusting the amount or tweaking the essay high school details of its implementation: #8212; After Christine Hendricks, the principal of Grant Elementary School in Glenrock, WY, implemented a no-homework policy, a survey of construction parents revealed that children had more time to play, sleep, read, and eat dinner with their families and big family family, spent less time watching TV. Children also had an essay test, improved attitude towards going to school and parents found themselves in fewer conflicts with their children. [Source:] #8212; Banks County Middle School in big family family Homer, GA, a lower-income, rural, public school, has eliminated virtually all homework. Principal Matthew Cooper explained: #8220;First, I want our students to construction essay, have the of a good opportunity to be kids. If they cannot learn what they need in seven hours, something is wrong. A #8216;No Homework#8217; policy actually results in construction essay test better classroom instruction. It puts more responsibility on teachers to maximize class time. Custom China Papers Paypal? Second, homework was setting many of our students up for test, failure.

It resulted in lower grades and lower self-esteem. Homework also creates an adversarial relationship between the teacher and essay on the, students. In short, homework does not create happy students, nor does it create happy teachers. And it definitely does not create successful students.#8221; The abolition of homework, he reports, has had a positive effect even when judged by conventional measures such as grades and construction essay, the number of students meeting state standards. Vs Small Family Essay? [Source: personal communication from Matthew Cooper] #8212; #8220;Oak Knoll Elementary in Menlo Park [California] has mostly banned homework, except reading, occasional projects or catch-up work. Addison Elementary in construction test Palo Alto and the Berryessa School District in San Jose are discussing the issue.

Since Bubb Elementary School in Mountain View relaxed its homework regimen, fourth-grader Elyse Fitzsimons has been reading on her own, #8216;devouring books,#8221; said her mother, Renee Fitzsimons. Write? The new policy also allows the family more time together in the evening, she said.#8221; [Source: San Jose Mercury News February 25, 2007] ( For more examples of teachers who have eliminated homework, and suggested strategies for parents who are concerned about the toll homework is taking on their children, please see the book The Homework Myth and the DVD No Grades + No Homework = Better Learning.)

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Whilst studying at University I undertook a part-time role for a local Architectural practice. To provide administrative support to all aspects of the business Receptionist duties Coordination of Director’s meetings and events Coordination of Director’s travel requirements Stationary and supplies stock control Marketing activities Minute taking. 2013 Association of Proposal Management Professionals (APMP) HND Business and Marketing. 20 0 3 – 2004 Canterbury College. ECDL Certificate in IT. City Guilds Level 1 Diploma in Office and Business Technologies.

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12) Management Representative for HACCP. June 2010 Zest.O Corporation (Noodle Manufacturing Plant) El Salvador, Misamis Oriental, Philippines. 2) Expert in water/wastewater tests and oil tests. 3) Document and test organize lab reports for Quality Management Systems (QMS) records. 4) Ensure that raw material, production processes, and product quality meet local and international standards. 5) Implement and check Good Manufacturing Practices on factory workers and china research machine operators.

6) Give/decide corrective actions on raw materials and product not conforming to standard. 7) Liase with other managers and company staff to ensure product quality is met. 8) Receive and construction analyse delivered raw material such as flour, oil, etc. 9) In charge in chemical preparation and standardization needed for laboratory analysis. • Experience with C#, WebApplications, Web Services, WCF, Entity Framework, LINQ, Asp.NET, MVC, WindowForms. • Experience with MS SQL Server Management Studio, Profiler, Transact SQL, Stored Procedures, cursors and triggers. • Reporting Service, Crystal Report.

• CSS y Javascript (jQuery). • Experience with Team Foundation Server. • Experience with agile development (Scrum). • Experience with n-layers Programming. • Experience working remotely. • Experience WPF y MVVM. Proyect Leader, Organizacion Italcambio C.A.

Barquisimeto, Venezuela April—2009-Present. Planning, Development and Application Control for Italbank International, Inc. Puerto Rico (Appications for transfers, accounting and essay on the good leader treasury) Planning, Development and Control of applications for Italcambio Casa de Cambio C. A (Applications Italdocumento and Italregistro, destined to the digitization of files including photos, footprints and signatures.) Venezuela and Panama. Caracas, Venezuela — January 2007-April 2009. Analysis, design and development of applications within the process of construction essay, migration to open source software according to decree 3390. Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela —April 2006-January 2007. Analysis, design, development and paper maintenance of applications for essay test Italbursatil Casa de Bolsa C.A and Italcambio Casa de Cambio C.A (Appications for treasury, accounting, checkout and ticket office) Venezuela.

Business Developer seeks Work in Middle East. Masters of big family vs small, Science in construction Management with 7 years of essay on the good leader, experience as a Business Analyst with extensive experience in test process improvement, lean management, testing, quality assurance, change management, and and spondylolithesis strategy implementation. Saf Aldin Petroleum L.L.C Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A. March 2013 --July 2017. Bachelor in commerce from Delhi University. Pursuing MBA from Hisar University. Vishal Retail Limited 2009 to 2012.

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Electrician seeking work in Europe. Diploma in Electrical. Alfanar Construction 380KV BSP S/S. Mainframe developer seeking work in Europe. Bachelor of engineering in construction essay Electronics and china papers communication field from sri Sairam engineering college. as Senior Associate in Cognizant technology solution from Aug/2007 to Mar/2010. Administration Manager Seeking Job in construction essay Europe. Post Graduate Diploma in Computer Application.

Microsoft Certified Office Specialist. September 2015 to Present: Head of the write up ipa Institute, Infoprism Solutions Pvt Ltd - (As a Head of the Institute coordinating and heading the activities of the Institution such as organizing admissions and examinations, developing budgets, monitoring staff performance, and managing human resources. Providing administrative support on a daily basis to the Heads of Departments, academic, research staff and construction essay students. Directing 151 instructional staff providing training to 1800 University degree diploma students annually at essay of a good, the largest media school in construction essay test the Cultural Capital of God’s Own Country - Kerala, India) Bachelors in paper Manufacturing Engineering. Surface Well Testing Junior Field Engineer (2012-2013) Surface Well Testing Field Engineer (2013-2014) Surface Well Testing Field Specialist (2914 till Date) Accountant seeking work in United Kingdom, Canada, USA.

Advanced Diploma in Accounting Business. : Education International- Africa Office as an accountant from March 2016 – June 2017. : Altra Electricals Limited as an accountant from April 2011 – February 2016. : Royal Majesty Hotel as an accountant from September 2010 – April 2011. All in Ghana.

M.Sc Physics, 2017 with aggregate 70% from SRM University. B.Sc Physics, 2015 with aggregate 58.8% from St. Thomas' College. Higher Secondary, 2012 with aggregate 75.6 from Kerala State Board. High School (SSLC), 2010 with aggregate 78% from Kerala State Board.

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Jean Watson’s Caring Theory Essay Sample. The Implementation of Jean Watson’s Caring Theory in Nursing Dr. Essay. Jean Watson defined nursing as a “Human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and of a leader, ethical human“(Watson, 1988, p. 54). Construction Essay Test. The Caring Theory of write up ipa, Nursing is a relational caring for self and others based on a moral, ethical, and philosophical foundation of love and values (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010). Watson‘s core concepts formulate the practice of loving-kindness, enabling the authentic presence of deep belief and construction essay test, cultivating one’s own spiritual practice towards’ wholeness (Butts Rich, 2011). This is better worded as a holistic approach to mind, body, spirit, and beyond the ego which releases the “being’ in the caring healing environment allowing miracles to flow from the openness of the unexpected (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010). The major elements allow the nursing world to how to take focus on Carative factors, grasp onto transpersonal caring relationships, and in doing so provide what is known as a critical “caring moment”(Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010). The caring theory and tools are practiced in every aspect of nursing in construction, today’s modern medical world and are supported by ethical research that celebrates the healing environment. Watson truly applied a clinical practice that has grown the nursing world into how to, a genuine and loving atmosphere for the sick, lamed, and broken. The Components of Human Caring Theory (Jean Watson)

The human caring theory birthed by Dr. Jean Watson derived from a solid background founded in essay test, education counseling, nursing and psychology (Butts Rich, 2011). Watson’s theory took shape around 1979, as a response to wide gap she witnessed in health care, which was technology oriented and simply focused on diagnosis and treatment of disease overlooking the art of healing recognizing humanity as a whole and scope of individual relation between patient and health care provider (“Jean Watson’s theory of Human Care”, 2010). Watson was motivated to write the sip research, theory as she pursued to develop an integrated baccalaureate curriculum in a school of nursing (Butts Rich, 2011). Construction Essay Test. Jean Watson has stated that her caring theory was developed while she was having a personal experience, her husband’s death, in her life. She molded her professional and personal life in order to develop her theory. China Research. According to Jean Watson’s definition of construction essay, metaparadigm, a person is a human being whose needs should be respected, supported, and cared for.

The environment should be contributing to holistic healing. Health was examined by sip research paper, Watson holistically, where a human being should be able to function mentally, physically, spiritually, and socially to construction essay test its full aptitude (Jean Watson, 1988). Watson’s theory was developed on a foundational approach which focused on both deductive and inductive methods. The inductive approach was set out to prove theory through research and in contrast the deductive approach was developed based on experience (Tomey and Alligood, 2006). The central theme of the caring theory is allowing an individual to encompass their approach to nursing through loving-kindness and equanimity (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010). Major elements in this theory according to Watson are the essay on the of a good leader, carative factors, the transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring occasion or caring moment.

It is said that “Jean Watson is one of the construction essay, few nursing theorists who considers not only the cared for but the caregiver”, which is supported by her core concepts of the caring theory (Tomey and Alligood, 2006). Carative factors are considered the essay of a good leader, guide of the nursing core which attempt to construction test honor all human dimensions. The nurse’s work and the intimate world are idiosyncratic experiences of the individuals they serve and contrast the curative factors of medicine. Carative literally means “to cure a disease;” and in the caring theory the carative factors evolve into the caritas factors (Watson, 1997). There are ten carative factors that Watson considers foundational to the theory: “Formation of sip research, humanistic-altruistic system of values, Instillation of faith and essay, hope, Cultivation of sensitivity to oneself and to others, Development of a helping-trusting, human caring relationship, Promotion and acceptance of the sip research paper, expression of both positive and negative feelings, Systematic use of essay test, a creative problem-solving caring process, Promotion of transpersonal teaching-learning, Provision for supportive, protective and corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment, Assistance with gratification of human needs, Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces” (Butts and Rich, 2011, Pg. 510). This pathway of thinking emphasizes the connection of spirituality and human love in essay on the good leader, the patient-nurse relationship that are held in high respect and considered equally important to both parties (Butts and Rich, 2011). Caritas carry grand spiritual dimension into the heart of this theory.

In Greek, caritas mean “to cherish and to give special loving attention” hence Watson’s core principle of exercising loving-kindness (Watson, 1997). The caritas field is the center for the conscious healing presence which has evolve into a clinical process: “Embrace altruistic values and construction essay test, practice loving kindness with self and others, instill faith and hope and honor others, be sensitive to self and others by nurturing individual beliefs and sip research, practices, develop helping-trusting-caring relationships, Promote and accept positive and negative feelings as you authentically listen to essay another’s story. Use creative scientific problem solving, share teachings and learning, create a healing environment, assist with basic physical, emotional, and spiritual human needs. Be open to mystery and allow miracles to big family family enter” (Butts and Rich, 2011, Pg 511-512). The Transpersonal caring relationships go beyond the construction test, human ego into a more “spiritual” caring environment. This type of caring allows moral commitment to protect and enhance human dignity. This creates a respect and true love for research papers pay with the person which honors their “needs, wishes, routines, and rituals (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010). The concept of the Caring consciousness allows the caregiver to construction test place themselves in the similar situation as the patient, allowing deep connection between the two. This also allows the giver to manifest an honest heart-centered spirit that practices and honors the big family vs small family essay, wholeness of essay test, mind, body, and spirit (Watson Caring Institute, 2010).

When these core concepts are practiced in unity they form what is on the of a, known as equanimity or inner harmony that maintains the balance of the environment. Harmoniously, the principles agree together and the intention of “doing” for another and construction essay test, “being” with another who is in need, providing the skills and a formula to properly care for a specific need (Watson, 1999). China Research Papers. Subsequently, this enables the caregiver to be open “to the unexpected and essay, inexplicable life events, “birthing what is called the “Authentic Presence (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010). In this particular presence or moment there is an paper, assembling and essay, joining to the patient at the heart of their treatment, painting an atmosphere for the “Caring Moment” (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010). Heart-centered encounter with another person is known as the “Caring Moment” or “Caring Occasion.” Essentially, when two individuals meet, they link together their own personal backgrounds which in turn creates a “human-to human transaction that is meaningful, authentic, intentional, honoring that person, and sharing human experience that expands each persona’s worldview” (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010, Pg 1). This union provides new discoveries and new possibilities that are expanded by the spirit of caring and the art of knowing the needs of your patient.

The Impact of Human caring theory in Practice. Implementing Dr. Jean Watson’s caring theory into big family vs small family essay, practice has significantly impacted nursing world as we know it. Research has suggested that to study the overall effects of caring, a qualitative study would better fit the overall outcome. For example, phenomenological research that conducted interviews with open-ended questions gives attention to the individual who experienced the test, theory first hand. This enables an appropriate analyzing of the major elements focused on and spondylolithesis the carative factors; Transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring occasion or moment. What better way to investigate a theory of loving-kindness than to construction test sit and grasp a painted picture from the paper, patient themselves. One illustration of construction essay, this theory in practice was focused on six women, with two volunteers, who met once a week, and shared stories or thoughts in paper, a circle format (Watson, 1988).

This was followed by positive feedback from the members. There is a certain ease of essay test, comprehension on this theory and it seems applicable to the nursing practice. In a world with budget cuts technology this theory can be easily practiced into today’s modern world. The special interaction between the nurse and patient is foundational in nursing. This is leader, caring and sympathetic approach to holistic health which enables the nurse to see the patient as a whole being and not just illness or brokenness. Construction Essay. Viewing the individual in the holistic sense allows the patient to feel justified and promotes awareness for all current needs during their experience. The family can also feel validated in knowing the spirit of the caregiver is loving and bringing forth the and spondylolithesis, art of caring openly with no limits. Construction Test. In Watson’s words nurses “are searching for the way to care in a society that refused to value caring, and the way to qualities good serve without being a subservient”(Watson, 2001). Harmonization is needed to balance the professional image of nurses and maintain a nurturing image. Construction Essay Test. The changes in the health care world has produced an increase in essay qualities of a leader, acuity and complexity of the medical field which require an enormous sense of caring.

For example, under the provision of Watson’s theory, hospitals throughout the United States have used the theory with various patient care delivery systems (Butts Rich, 2011). Nursing schools have used this theory as teaching strategies and to promote course content within the field. Research studies have used Watson’s famous principles as foundation in human caring that are both “reflective and subjective, and as well as objective-empirical” (Butts Rich, 2011, pg 512). The effectiveness of Watson’s Caring Model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension (Watson, 2001) “demonstrated a relationship between care given according to Watson’s Caring model and increased quality of life of the patients with hypertension” (Watson, 2001). Moreover, the patients who received this type of essay test, caring model practice appeared to demonstrate a relationship between the Caring model and a decrease in patient’s blood pressure (Watson, 2001).

As a result of sip research, this research, Watson’s model was recommended as a benchmark to nursing patients with hypertension, “as one means of decreasing blood pressure and essay test, increase in quality of big family vs small family essay, life” (Watson, 2001). Unfortunately, this theory is not useful in some aspects of the medical field such as biomedical, bureaucratic health system, and sometimes presents problems for test nurse’s work in the sense that it requires deeper evaluation of self. The strengths, is vs small essay, that the construction test, theory places the client in the context of the community and culture which is a focus of practice rather than technology. The limitations are that the biophysical needs of the patient are put the back burn and the ten carative factors primarily delineate the psychosocial needs of the person. How to Implement Caring Theory. The caring theory strengthens our practice by providing a structure of common caring and linking with the paper, patient through holistic wellness. Test. The theory allows the practitioner to affirm their personal beliefs, values, and to paint the very picture of and spondylolithesis, why they became nurses. Test. Their deep roots of caring are manifested forward and provide a profound joy in how to, the caring of construction test, their patients. Caring as we know it personally is the continuous healing of relationships, friendships, wounds, and emotions just to name a few. Patients are the center of our caring hands and focus, therefore produced is sip research paper, a good quality treatment and healing encompassed in one.

Working in the mental health field as a psychiatric nurse, where there is a strong need to care for the entire individual rather than just the “mental illness”. This enables a personal growth in handling, caring, and construction, loving honorably the entire individual while they are under my care for a short period of time. To fully engage with my patients, I incorporate Watson’s first and second caritas into qualities, my regular nursing routine. Her first caring process is, “practicing loving-kindness within the context of an intentional caring consciousness “and the construction test, second, “being fully present in the moment and acknowledging the deep belief system and sip research, subjective life world of self and other” (Watson, 1988). When I enter the room for the first time, I make eye contact as I introduce myself with a touch on their hand and a warm smile. This action lets the patient to know that I genuinely care. This loving and caring environment opens the ability to construction essay instill faith and hope into my patient’s existing condition. The caring theory disables the ability to pass judgments, enabling to all patients the same respect and level of care (Watson, 2001). I instill hope to my patients with mental illness or chemical dependency issues that helps them to get through a rough time.

Caring allows me to discuss the patient’s feelings and perception of and spondylolithesis, their quality of construction, life and managing their conditions. Moreover, I can advocate for china papers pay with my patients through our established rapport developed throughout their treatment. Essay Test. Importantly, the mind, body, and on the good, spirit are extremely important to observe and consider in psychiatric treatment to develop a treatment plan beneficial for acute care. A high quality nurse is essay test, not defined simply by her ability and china paypal, skills but rather how well she interacts with the client and test, family while implementing care. Transparency is imperative and can only be discernible by the caring process wrapped in the best interest of the patient. After reviewing several theories on human caring it is concluded that Jean Watson’s and Kristen Swanson’s theories have some similarities. Their philosophy of nursing is similar in some aspects of nursing metaparadigm. Both theories focus on caring and thoughtful approach that promotes healing relationships with patients. I would incorporate both theories in my nursing practice in research pay with paypal, order to essay test provide holistic care (Butts and Rich, 2011). Vs Small. Conclusion.

In conclusion, Watson’s human caring theory allows nursing to embrace the positive energy that flows from an incorporated mind, body, and spirit and is equally rewarding to both the patient and the nurse. Jean Watson asserts that caring restores life energies and potentiates our abilities. The benefits are beyond measure and promote self-actualization on both personal and professional level. Caring is a mutually beneficial experience for both the patient and the nurse, as well as between all health team members. It improves patient outcomes and customer satisfaction. Butts, J. B., Rich, K. L. (2011). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice. Ontario, Canada: Jones Bartlett Learning. Tomey, A. M., Alligood, M. R. (2006).

Nursing Theorists and Their Work (6 ed.). St. Construction Essay. Louis: Mosby. Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human care. A theory of nursing. New York: National League for Nursing. Watson, J. (1997). The theory of human caring: Retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52.

Watson, J. (2001). Jean Watson: Theory of human caring. In M.E. Parker (Ed), Nursing Theories and nursing practice. Philadelphia: Davis Watson Caring Science Institute, 2012. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and how to up ipa, order Jean Watson’s Caring Theory. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and construction test, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for paper Jean Watson’s Caring Theory.

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