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rpi thesis format The latest implementation of the F-RISC processor, F-RISC/G, has been designed for current-mode logic (CML) with GaAs/AlGaAs HBTs from powerpoint Rockwell International. Networking Sites! All on-chip wiring is differential with the wires in each pair placed in adjacent tracks to slider, improve noise immunity. The CML switches are stacked three-high to allow high-functionality gates. The gates use a non-standard resistive current source. The low yield of Rockwell's HBT process forced us to new pages writing, partition the F-RISC/G central processor into powerpoint five chips#151;an instruction decoder and a four-chip bit-sliced datapath. Award! The caches, designed by slider, another student, are direct-mapped with write-back logic. For the lowest possible inter-chip communication latency, the chips would be packaged in a thin-film MCM. A novel system for clock distribution, also designed by another student, employs feed-back to essay on advantages of social networking sites, reduce chip-to-chip clock skew.

The bit-sliced datapath architecture caused some minor architectural changes including: a severely limited shifter, simplified protected-mode support, and new restrictions on interrupt handlers. Shortly after the publication of the Berkeley RISC processor, the idea of a GaAs RISC was raised[Keir85]. The pairing seems natural. GaAs (and heterojunction) technologies, while providing faster devices than their silicon contemporaries, have much lower yields. The low yields, and relatively high prices, had previously relegated GaAs mostly to a supporting role providing a few small, fast parts to powerpoint slider, speed up critical paths in multi-chip designs. Recently, two GaAs super computers, the Cray-3 and the Convex C3, were introduced.

Each contains thousands of on advantages of social small GaAs MESFET chips[Cost93]. In volume, GaAs chips can be as inexpensive as silicon at the same performance due to the fewer processing steps required for the GaAs devices[Isco92]. Because RISC processors use only a fraction of the transistors included in a CISC design, RISCs require relatively few GaAs chips. Powerpoint Slider! In his book, Microprocessor Design for creative writing, GaAs Technology, Milutinovic collects papers describing various GaAs microprocessors[Milu90]. Presently, there are many projects underway to develop GaAs RISC processors using MESFET, H-MESFET, and slider JFET devices[Mudg91] . However, GaAs bipolar devices seem to essay on advantages, promise even more impressive performance figures. Powerpoint! Also, since the bipolar devices do not rely on the extremely fine-line lithography of modern CMOS, they may eventually surpass CMOS for yield and cost at essay on advantages high performance.

In 1990, DARPA awarded Rensselaer a contract to develop a GaAs/AlGaAs RISC machine that would run at a peak of 1000 MIPS. This machine was christened FRISC/G. The F-RISC architecture responds to slider, this need and the F-RISC/G implementation serves as a test vehicle for the Spartan RISC ideas contained in the architecture. To achieve its 1000 MIPS performance goal, F-RISC/G needs the dtp resume, best available technology. Previous implementations of the F-RISC architecture had used silicon bipolar transistors[Greu90b]. Also under development is a version using an HMESFET technology jointly developed by Rockwell International and IBM[Tien91].

More recently, work has begun on adapting the powerpoint slider, F-RISC/G implementation for use in Xilinx FPGAs and Si/Ge HBTs. (Adapted from cali award [Asbe89].) 3.1.1 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors. The circuits in F-RISC/G use a AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology from Rockwell International[Asbe89]. The devices are formed in MBE-grown epitaxial layers on semi-insulating substrates as shown in figure 3.1. The devices of primary interest have 1.4 mm ? 3 mm emitter stripes and a DC current gain as high as 400. Some key SPICE parameters are in table 3.1. The Rockwell process uses two levels of gold interconnects formed by liftoff processes and a polyimide dielectric.

AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs are useful because the heterojunction provides a high emitter injection efficiency with a high base doping. The high base doping lessens various effects that limit speed in homojunction bipolar transistors. Powerpoint Slider! The benefits include: low base resistance, less chance of punch-through, reduced Early effect, and lower emitter-base capacitance[Sze81]. 3.1.2 Current Mode Logic. F-RISC/G arranges the HBTs into dtp resume differential current tree logic with differential wiring[Nah91; Greu91].

The building block of the gates is the current switch : two transistors with a common emitter terminal arranged as a differential amplifier. A simple gate with one current switch is slider, shown in figure 3.2. The lower resistor, , acts as a current source. Depending on the input signal, the essay offenders, two transistors steer that current either through the left or through the right load resistor. The resulting voltage difference is the output signal.

The voltage swing is fixed at powerpoint slider 250 mV by the current source and the load resistors. This gives a current ratio between the on and off transistors of [Trea89]. Essay On Advantages Of Social Networking Sites! The switching characteristics of powerpoint this gate are shown in figure 3.3. Figure 3.2: Differential current switch The use of differential wiring provides three advantages. First, differential wires (if run in parallel) give common mode noise immunity and allow for the use of a lower voltage swing (250 mV). Second, the need to generate and personal on add distribute three reference voltages is eliminated. Finally, since inverting a differential signal incurs no penalty, logic design is simplified and the gate library can be reduced through the use of dual gates. On the other hand, differential wiring increases wiring area and average wire capacitance.

Each time one line in a differential pair switches, the slider, other line switches in the opposite direction. Since these lines are placed in proximity, (for noise immunity) the effective capacitance doubles. The area penalty of differential CML as compared to single-ended ECL is partially offset by the availability of more complex gates in the CML family[Bari92]. F-RISC/G uses circuits with up to three levels of stacked current switches. This arrangement allows the realization of any gate with three or fewer inputs, many special-purpose gates of four or more inputs including a four-input multiplexer, and latches with any two-input gate at the input. Award On Resume! Systematic techniques are available to translate a binary logic tree to a CML realization[Choy89]. Two examples of complex gates are shown in figure 3.4. The ALU gate, shown as Fig.

3.3(a), can generate the XOR, AND, and OR of its A and B inputs. It realizes the function: The lower portion of the circuit forms a 2-to-4 decoder. The two odd parity terms together become the XOR term. Then the upper portion of the circuit determines which of these terms should be included in the output. For addition operations, the XOR operation is selected, with the carry incorporated by the final XOR stage as shown.

The carry chain, explained in detail later, has its output forced to zero if an operation other than addition is desired. Powerpoint! In this case, the final XOR stage passes the on resume, ALU result unchanged. Carry propagation gate. Switching delays as low as 20 ps are possible from the top-level input to the output. The lower level inputs to a gate have longer delays because the signal must propagate through additional current switches. (These delays are summarized for high-powered gates in table 3.2.) Whenever possible, critical paths are arranged so that the latest signals arrive on the top level with the powerpoint slider, early signals setting up the on resume, lower levels ahead of time. Powerpoint Slider! This idea can be seen in the carry propagation gate of essay offenders figure 3.4(b).

The critical carry-in signal arrives at the top level of the powerpoint slider, gate. In the less critical ALU gate, the dtp resume, levels for slider, the A and B signals were chosen to be the same as in the carry propagation gate. To prevent the transistors from saturating, the signals to the three levels of the tree must have different voltage levels. As shown in figure 3.5, each level is offset from the award, adjacent levels by . Each gate generates, as its output, only one of the three voltage levels. In this way, the triple-level current switch logic complicates logic design significantly because signals cannot be arbitrarily connected to gates. Also, commonly available synthesis tools cannot handle triple-level current switch logic. Designers use level 1 (the top level) for data, and levels 2 and 3 for powerpoint, control and clocking. One unusual feature of the circuits used in F-RISC/G is the use of a resistive current source. This decision was prompted by the high V BE of the Rockwell devices#151;1.35 V compared to networking sites, 0.85 V for a typical silicon bipolar transistor[Greu91]. Powerpoint Slider! The required supply voltage depends on resume pldt, the V BE of the transistors as follows: for an active current source: for a resistive current source: where V S is the desired voltage across the supply resistor. If the usual transistor current source were used with a V S of 1 V, then a supply voltage of 6.4 V would be required.

For FRISC/G, we desired a power supply compatible with standard ECL parts. Powerpoint! With the resistive current source, a standard 5.2 V power supply is sufficient. Figure 3.5: Three-input NAND gate showing input voltage levels The most important circuit parameter for a CML gate is the current flowing through the tree. Figure 3.6 shows the delay behavior of a gate as the current changes. The upper chart shows the basic delay of the gate changing as the current changes. The gates simulated were loaded with one driven gate and a 50 fF load capacitance. The lower chart shows the gate's sensitivity to load capacitance. The higher this sensitivity, the more the personal on add, gate speed degrades as the fan-out or interconnect length increases. To allow the designers to make speed/power trade-offs, three power levels were chosen.

Each gate is available as high power, medium power, and low power. High powered gates use 1.6 mA; medium powered use 1.0 mA; low powered use 0.6 mA. Various authors have attempted to provide a theoretical framework in slider which to analyze the behavior of CML and ECL gates. Ronald Treadway provides some interesting DC techniques[Trea89]. He gives equations for gate propagation, assuming that the new pages creative writing, current switch has zero delay. His values should correspond to the output sensitivities in my digital model. Table 3.3 shows the results of such a comparison. Notice that the CML sensitivities are estimated well, especially for high powered gates. (For gates with outputs at levels 2 or 3, the CML sensitivity refers to the sensitivity of the delay to the input capacitance of the emitter follower.) The ECL sensitivities are estimated rather poorly by powerpoint slider, Treadway's equation. I suspect that the difference is in of social networking sites the differential logic. Treadway's analysis considers only the falling edge of the output signal as this is the worst case for a single-ended ECL driver.

However, in CML, as one emitter follower is going through its worst-case falling edge, the other driver has a faster rising edge. The differential pair switches with an slider intermediate speed. Power, Output Level. Impact of Resistor Current Source. With the resistor current source, the current through the gate is fixed by the signal voltage of the lowest input. Cali Award On Resume! For 2-input gates, this causes an ambiguity as the lower input could be either at level 2 or at level 3, depending on the circuit requirements, see figure 3.7. The source resistor will have a different voltage drop in each case. Powerpoint! Thus, two versions of dtp resume each 2-input gate are required, each with the appropriate source resistor for the expected voltage drop. Figure 3.7: Two configurations of 2-input gates The passive current source has an important disadvantage. The current through a gate (and thus its output swing) is not constant. Powerpoint Slider! From basic principles, where V I is the voltage of the lowest gate input and V EE is, in this case, the local supply voltage at the bottom of the current tree.

Looking at the top of the tree, Equations 3.1 and 3.2 have some important implications for designers. First, control of the on advantages, supply voltage across the chip is critical to insuring consistent gate performance. A reduced V EE can cause slower gate operation (due to reduced I S) and smaller noise margins (due to reduced V SW). Powerpoint! I have designed a CAD tool that models the power rails on creative, the chip and identifies regions where the powerpoint slider, voltage drops are unacceptably high. Second, common-mode noise, which would be rejected by the differential amplifier, can be detrimental to gate performance by essay offenders, reducing noise margins and slowing gate operations as described above. Among two-input gates, the slider, top configuration (in figure 3.7) is less susceptible to this effect, due to essay, its higher R S. Thus, designers are advised to choose the top gates whenever possible.

3.1.3 Advanced Packaging. If a multiple-chip system is to have a cycle time of 1000 ps, then clearly the system requires advanced packaging. One possibility would be to slider, use wafer-scale integration (WSI) techniques[Sauc86; McDo84]. In WSI, each wafer contains all necessary chips for the multi-chip system plus extra chips for resume pldt, use as spares[Beus90]. The working chips are connected into a system using discretionary wiring or fusible links, like in an EPROM. The wafer is packaged as a whole. Much has been written about the merits and powerpoint slider demerits of such an approach.

If the cali award on resume, inter-chip wiring could be fabricated using techniques similar to on-chip metalization, the powerpoint slider, process could be reliable and dense. However, such processes usually produce slow RC lines rather than the more desirable transmission lines. The thicker, wider lines needed to produce transmission lines and minimize signal losses due to the skin effect are less dense and require special processing techniques[Donl85]. For the F-RISC/G project, WSI would be unsuitable because of other concerns as well. Networking Sites! First, the powerpoint, low yield of the GaAs/AlGaAs HBT processes would preclude the fabrication of any wafers with sufficient chips to form a whole system. Also, the need to fabricate many chip designs on the wafer, in differing numbers proportional to writing, system requirements, would complicate the lithographic processes and require changing reticles during stepping operations. Finally, as we shall see later in this chapter, the timing constraints of the F-RISC/G module do not allow connections to remote spare chips to powerpoint, replace a malfunctioning die. The working chips must be positioned with minimal separation.

Multi-chip Module Packaging. The best packaging option for the F-RISC/G processor would be a thin-film multi-chip module (MCM) [Greu90b]. Similar to WSI, an MCM contains multiple chips in a single packaging. The primary difference is that the chips and personal the wiring substrate are fabricated and powerpoint tested independently before assembly. Each can be optimized separately. The thin film dielectric provides the required low dielectric constant needed for on advantages sites, highspeed, transmission line interconnect. One disadvantage of MCM technology as compared to WSI is that the working dies are separated from the wafer and subjected to handling. Powerpoint! Die breakage and essay poor connections to the wiring substrate are important concerns[Donl86]. Initially, it was assumed that the package would be developed and manufactured by the advanced packaging group at Rensselaer. However, it is increasingly apparent that this will not be the case.

While much work is ongoing to develop wiring technologies for thin-film MCMs, Rensselaer does not have the expertise in-house to put together and characterize a complete packaging scheme. Items such as die attach, high-yield interconnect, and slider external connections remain difficult. Since the contract that funded the F-RISC/G development work does not provide for packaging, the implementation needed to be flexible to accommodate various alternatives. Some commercial and dtp resume research vendors are developing such packages for high-speed applications. One possibility would be to use General Electric's High-Density Interconnect package (GE-HDI)[Hall93]. It is powerpoint, a commercial packaging scheme that has already seen various military applications and commercial test vehicles developed.

Chips in a GE-HDI package are mounted into recesses in a ceramic substrate, see figure 3.8. The dies are packed tightly with multiple chips in a single recess and attached using a glue that provides placement to within 1 mil of the desired location. Adaptive routing makes the proper connections once the exact locations of the chips have been measured. F-RISC/G is a multi-chip processor with a system clock of 1 ns. Because of the short clock cycle, inter-chip transfers cannot be assumed to be instantaneous, even on a high-speed, thin-film MCM. ECL poses especially difficult problems[Hamb93]. New Pages! The floorplan of the proposed MCM is shown in powerpoint slider figure 3.9. The cache memory has been simplified for the purposes of new pages writing illustration. For a fuller treatment of the cache, see [VEtt93]. An important consideration in developing a timing strategy for slider, F-RISC/G is the essay offenders, time spent transferring signals between and among chips.

The worst-case transfer within the central processor is a daisy-chain broadcast from the instruction decoder to all four datapath chips, see figure 3.10. The minimum distance for a broadcast signal is: However, conditions do not often permit the minimum routing specified in equation 3.3. If the slider, control signal must be broadcast early in the DE stage, then it is better to broadcast from the left side of the instruction decoder. Transfers on the MCM are faster than transfers across the chips. Also, pad layout restrictions may force the crossing of the instruction decoder or the last datapath chip. In the average case, the distance for the broadcast signal is:

Figure 3.9: Floorplan of the F-RISC/G MCM package Our initial studies in essay on advantages networking sites this area were with the slider, assumption of using C4 (Controlled Collapse Chip Connections#151;IBM's flip-chip technology) to attach the dtp resume, chip to an MCM using a parylene dielectric. The signal propagation velocity on this MCM (with ) would be [Bako90]: The major question was: Could the broadcast depicted in slider figure 3.10 be achieved in a single clock phase? The criterion for a single-phase broadcast is: where D f is the maximum allowed clock skew between chips. Since the essay offenders, allowable clock skew is the dependent variable, a more useful form is: In my estimates, I allowed 70 ps for driver and receiver delay, 20 ps for each gate delay.

On the MCM, I assumed chips measuring 5 mm ? 8 mm were placed 1 mm apart. The allowable clock skew for a single-phase transfer was 20 ps, which is a barely acceptable skew. Thus, initially we assumed that most signal transfers within the FRISC/G processor would complete in one clock phase. Later, we decided to use a mini-TAB package for the prototype, possibly on polyimide dielectric. The inter-chip signal delays were recalculated. Two changes were made to the assumptions. First, the chip-to-chip distance increased to 3 mm. Also, the chip size increased to 8 mm due to the addition of boundary scan testing (see chapter 4) and the need for extra power pads to slider, compensate for networking sites, the increased inductance in the power leads.

Repeating the same calculation yields a maximum skew below zero. Thus, the system timing needed to be changed to allow two clock phases (500 ps) for any transfers of this length. Transfers between adjacent chips could still be made in one phase of the clock. Figure 3.10: Distances for broadcast within F-RISC/G central processor More recently, we have been considering the GE-HDI package. This would again allow us to place chips only 1 mm apart, but the use of Kapton increases the dielectric constant to powerpoint, 3.5.

Invoking equation 3.4 gives , which is over a 10% loss in cali award on resume propagation velocity. Taken together, the closer chip spacing has more effect. Powerpoint Slider! Using the results of equation 3.5, the dtp resume, new MCM is powerpoint, 20 ps faster in new pages creative the average broadcast, 25 ps faster in the best-case, and about equal in the worst-case adjacent chip transfer. Powerpoint Slider! The savings are not enough to allow single-phase broadcasts, but could allow an personal essay additional gate before or after the transfer. Table 3.4 compares the slider, MCM technologies using 8 mm chips. 3.2 IMPLEMENTATION DECISIONS. The F-RISC architecture description leaves some latitude for adapting the architecture to essay offenders, the particular implementation technology. Powerpoint Slider! This section describes the major implementation decisions that were made during the design of F-RISC/G. Of course, since the F-RISC architecture was influenced by the intended HBT implementation, it can be said that some implementation decisions were placed into essay on add the architecture.

Figure 3.11: System diagram for GaAs/AlGaAs HBT implementation of F-RISC Figure 3.12 shows a diagram of the powerpoint slider, F-RISC/G implementation with clock signals indicated for the major latches in the design. The RFA and RFB latches serve to essay offenders, hold the two register file results#151;they are required by the single-port register file. (Figure adapted from [Greu90a]) 3.2.1 Chip Descriptions. Due to the small capacity of the HBT chips, the slider, architecture must be partitioned into multiple chips. On Add! This partitioning is shown in figure 3.11. The core processor is divided into powerpoint slider two sections: the instruction decoder and dtp resume the datapath. Two copies of a cache controller chip are needed, one serving as the instruction cache controller and powerpoint slider the other as the data cache controller. The cache memories consist of sixteen memory chips#151;eight for dtp resume, each cache. The optional data alignment chip shown in powerpoint slider figure 3.11 will not be present in essay of social sites the initial F-RISC/G prototype. It would have extracted bytes and half-words from the powerpoint, memory.

Clock management will be handled by a clock de-skewing chip, not shown in the system diagram. The low yield of the HBT devices forces a simplified cache implementation. FRISC/G will have direct-mapped caches. Essay On Advantages Of Social Networking Sites! The data cache will be write-back. (The instruction cache is powerpoint, read-only in the F-RISC architecture.) Each cache will be divided into 32 lines. This choice of size was made so that the main register file memory can be copied and used directly as tag memory for the cache. The cache line size will be 16 words. To minimize the time of bus transfers between the primary cache and the second-level cache, the bus will be 16 words wide. Thus the entire cache line can be refreshed in one bus cycle. Instruction cache controller.

Data cache controller. The instruction decoder contains the pipeline controllers, state machines, register tags, and control logic required to operate the F-RISC architecture. I designed and laid out this chip. The datapath contains the ALU, the shifter, the program counter history, and the register file. On Advantages Of Social Networking Sites! To meet the yield expectations, the datapath is itself partitioned into four eight-bit slices. The advantage of a bit-sliced (or byte-sliced) approach is that few control signals are needed to communicate among the chips.

I designed and laid out the datapath chip, with the exception of the built-in register file (which was designed by Kyung-suc Nah). Each of the powerpoint, two caches will communicate with the instruction decoder through its cache controller. The cache controller contains the tag memory, which is resume pldt, consulted to determine whether an access is a hit or a miss. Slider! Also, the instruction cache controller contains the remote program counter. This chip is being designed by John Van Etten.

Each memory chip contains eight copies of the register file with added redundancy to improve yield prospects. This chip is being designed by John Van Etten. This chip performs the multiplexing, masking, and shifting necessary to resume pldt, extract bytes and half-words from a word read by slider, the cache. Also, it inserts a byte into a word for STORE instructions. Because LOAD and STORE instructions use this chips at different points in their pipelines, it must be bi-directional and perform two operations simultaneously.

It is not being designed at present. Transmission of the 2 GHz system clock must be carefully managed to avoid excessive clock skew between any two chips. This function is new pages writing, handled by a special analog clock de-skewing chip, which is being designed by another student (Kyung-suc Nah). The clock distribution system is discussed briefly in slider section 3.2.3. 3.2.2 Instruction Set Changes. After considering the resume pldt, technology choices and the partitioning, certain changes were made to the architecture and instruction set to allow an powerpoint slider easier implementation. The complete instruction set of F-RISC/G is documented in appendix C. Contrast this with the full instruction set of the F-RISC architecture in cali appendix A.

Shifters are notoriously difficult to include in a bit-sliced implementation. Slider! The basic idea of a shifter involves communication among bits that are widely separated in the data word. To reduce the impact of the shifter on the total hardware of the FRISC/G implementation, the scope of the shift instruction was greatly reduced. The shift amount and direction were limited to one-bit shifts right. This eliminated both the need for cali award, the communication ports associated with a larger shifter and the need to decode the shift amount as specified in the SHIFT instruction.

While the programming rules indicate that a fixed shift amount of one bit right should be specified in all cases, the actual amount specified is ignored by the hardware. A one-bit left shift is available through the powerpoint slider, addition operation. To support extended ( 32-bit) shifts, the /SHEX flag on a SHIFT instruction will cause the dtp resume, contents of the C flag (in the PSW) to be placed in the MSB of the result. Also, the LSB of the operand will be available as the new C flag. PSW Bits for Logical Operations. The F-RISC architecture does not define the carry (C) and powerpoint overflow (V) flags in the PSW after a logical instruction (AND, OR, XOR, ANDI, ORI, XORI) with the /SCC flag. The F-RISC/G implementation guarantees that these flags will be zero. Thus, the essay on add, /AT flag has no effect on these logical instructions as an overflow trap cannot occur. As noted in the chapter covering the F-RISC architecture, the write-back cache in F-RISC/G requires the STORE instruction to occupy the cache for two cycles. Thus, the instruction following a STORE instruction cannot be a LOAD or a STORE.

The F-RISC architecture provides a protected mode for use in interrupt handling. This mode has two purposes. First, it freezes the slider, program counter history so it can be read and stored for interrupt recovery. Essay Offenders! During the beginning of an interrupt service routine (ISR) the history registers should point into the interrupted program#151;not into the ISR itself. Second, protected mode disables external interrupts so that ISR code is not interrupted during critical sections. In addition, internal interrupts are redirected to alternate interrupt vectors to indicate that the slider, processor was in protected mode when the interrupt occurred. Resume Pldt! ISR code should be written to avoid triggering any internal interrupts. The code should be locked into memory to avoid page faults. Protected mode is automatically entered upon an interrupt. When the ISR has successfully saved the powerpoint slider, state of the processor, it exits protected mode using the resume pldt, /RES flag on a JUMP instruction.

Later, when the slider, ISR is preparing to resume the interrupted program, it must re-enter protected mode because the interrupt recovery code cannot be restarted if it is interrupted. The F-RISC architecture provides for a /SPM (set protected mode) flag on cali, the MPSW instruction to force the processor into protected mode. The /SPM flag must only function if the code is operating in supervisory state, because user programs must not be allowed to turn off external interrupts. In F-RISC/G, the protected mode bit is maintained on the instruction decoder and the supervisor mode bit is maintained on powerpoint slider, a datapath slice. Thus implementing the /SPM flag would require an additional communication path between these two chips. Instead, in new pages creative F-RISC/G the /SPM flag is disabled under all conditions. The ISR should re-enter protected mode with the TRAPI instruction and a specific value of the trap code. The operating system must then only allow supervisory processes to use that trap code. The INTPC instruction is powerpoint, used to read the value of PC_DW during interrupt processing. The F-RISC/G implementation places some restrictions on the use of resume pldt this instruction. These rules stem from the fact that the program counters are advanced late in the D1 stage of the pipeline.

Since the PC_DW register is read early in the DE stage of an slider INTPC instruction, this results in a three-cycle latency from resume pldt one INTPC to slider, the next. In other words, the two instructions following an INTPC cannot be INTPC instructions themselves. This time can be used to essay offenders, store the result of the INTPC instruction into memory. The second rule comes from the fact that once the INTPC instruction enters its D1 stage, the program counters will advance even if a preceding instruction has an powerpoint slider interrupt in dtp resume its D2 or DW stage. Powerpoint! Thus, the operating system must insure that the instructions surrounding an INTPC are never interrupted. This provision should be straightforward as all external interrupts are disabled in new pages protected mode (when INTPC is executed) and the operating system can insure that no page faults or user-requested interrupts (such as TRAP instructions or arithmetic faults) can occur. All external interrupts, except page faults, experience a three-cycle latency between the raising of the interrupt line and the recognition of the interrupt by the processor.

This latency results from the inclusion of a three-cycle synchronization delay between external interrupt signals and powerpoint slider the processor state machine. Likewise, the ID bit in award on resume the PSW (which disables user interrupts) has an additional latency of powerpoint three cycles after it is changed by an MPSW instruction. Overflow of dtp resume Remote Program Counter. The F-RISC architecture provides memory protection by forcing the most-significant bit of all addresses generated by user processes to one. Thus, the user cannot LOAD from or STORE to addresses with a most-significant bit of powerpoint zero. Also, user mode processes cannot BRANCH or JUMP to instruction addresses with the most-significant bit reset. However, the remote program counter can complicate matters. If a user process is executing at essay of social networking sites address FFFFFFFF (hex), the powerpoint, RPC will increment to 00000000 (hex) for the next instruction. This address is in the supervisor space.

Because the supervisor flag is maintained on a separate chip from the remote program counter, no error condition will result. This would appear to be a hole in the security. However, there is, in fact, no potential for mayhem. Location 00000000 (hex) must be a NOOP to provide for proper interrupt recovery. The instructions between 00000001 (hex) and 00000003 (hex) could include a JUMP or a BRANCH to prevent the code from falling through to the error interrupt service routine.

This JUMP will be subject to essay offenders, the memory protection features, and thus will result in a jump to a location in the user's space. Another possibility is to powerpoint, disable the carry into the most-significant bit of the RPC. While this would prevent the situation from occurring, it would also allow code that would not be portable onto a F-RISC machine with a larger address space. In the end, however, the point is moot for an engineering prototype such as F-RISC/G. Because of the limited fan-in of CML gates and our desire to reduce the complexity of the writing, F-RISC/G instruction decoder, the F-RISC/G CPU has some implementation-specific initialization requirements. 1. Powerpoint Slider! RESET interrupts always use the dtp resume, protected mode interrupt vector, 20 (hex), regardless of the previous state of the processor. 2. After a RESET interrupt, before any registers are referenced (as either the source or the destination of an ALU operation), a LOAD instruction must take place. Powerpoint Slider! This LOAD instruction will serve to cali on resume, reset the latch tag on the DIN latch. The student designing the register file has determined that a single-port register file is the best choice for powerpoint slider, F-RISC/G based on creative, considerations of transistor count, speed, area, and slider power consumption.

To support the F-RISC architecture, this register file must be read twice and written once during a cycle. To accomplish this and to control other events in the processor, the system clock is divided into four phases, as shown in figure 3.13. Each of the phases is nominally 250 ps. Resume Pldt! The phases are not guaranteed to be non-overlapping. They may overlap slightly or be slightly disjoint. The register file is read during each of f 2 and f 3. The address is slider, set up for the write in the beginning of f 4 and resume pldt the write occurs during the end of f 4 and the beginning of f 1. The system clock is distributed at 2 GHz with a special circuit within each chip generating a phase change for each transition of the input clock.

The chip-to-chip transmission of the system clock uses a novel approach to reduce the skew among the slider, chips. Essay On Advantages! A central clock distribution and deskew chip generates a clock signal for each system chip and powerpoint slider applies a controlled phase shift to each signal. Cali On Resume! Each chip receiving a clock echoes it back along adjacent tracks in the wiring substrate. Phase-lock loops in the deskew chip adjust the phase shifts to powerpoint, keep all clocks synchronized. Essay Sites! The deskew scheme is powerpoint, being designed to provide 2 GHz clocks to award, eight chips with a maximum 30 ps of skew among them. That is, each signal may differ from the ideal by only 15 ps. The system's clock distribution scheme requires that all chips have the same delay between the 2 GHz input clock and the four on-chip clock phases[Nah92].

Only in this way can we insure that f 1 occurs at the same time on all chips in the system. Therefore, the on-chip clock buffering is critical to the proper timing of events within the powerpoint slider, F-RISC/G system. Figure 3.14 shows various clock buffering schemes. In each case, some initial buffering logic generates the clock, which is personal, then distributed to powerpoint, multiple loads. Essay Networking! Each of these loads is a super-buffer that drives five to slider, eight loads. The loading capacitances are estimates based on average wiring distances. They do not include the active loads of the driven gates#151;this loading is calculated separately. The first circuit uses a standard buffer to essay offenders, drive the distribution network. As the clock distribution is performed at levels 2 and 3, this buffer has an emitter follower at its output. The emitter follower provides a lower sensitivity to capacitive fanout than a level 1 buffer would. The circuit in figure 3.14(b) adds a super-buffer to increase performance in high-fanout conditions.

The standard emitter follower cannot handle loads of more than one super-buffer without rise-time degradation. In (c) the initial buffer is slider, replaced by a super-buffer. This serves only to reduce the total delay. Finally, circuit (d) uses a special clock buffer (developed for the boundary scan testing scheme described in chapter 4) for essay networking, additional drive capability. This would be ideal for the highest fanout conditions. Figure 3.14: Various clock buffering schemes If the fanout were always constant, only one of powerpoint these circuits would be necessary. Resume Pldt! However, in practice the number of super-buffers driven in the final stage can vary from one to powerpoint slider, five.

Thus different buffering schemes are used to balance the delays between differently loaded clock lines. Table 3.6 shows the initial estimates of delays using the various schemes. The delays were calculated from the digital gate parameters for each circuit. Essay Offenders! Both the capacitive loads shown and powerpoint slider the applicable active loads are added. The standard buffer has different performance figures for level 2 and level 3 signals. On Advantages Of Social Sites! Thus, these cases are treated separately. Some uninteresting cases are omitted.

The cases marked with a dagger (#134;) are chosen for initial use in slider F-RISC/G chips. The basic delay time is fixed by the high-fanout cases. In these cases, the extra power consumed by writing, the clock buffer is tolerable because it is the only way to obtain good signals with high fanout. Other cases are chosen to closely match these times while expending the minimum power possible. Powerpoint! These figures and designs should be taken as starting points only. Cali On Resume! The loadings on the various buffers will change based on the locations and numbers of loads. Only through repeated post-route digital simulation can the on-chip clock skew be reduced to acceptable values. #134; Configuration chosen for powerpoint slider, F-RISC chips. There is considerable communication between and among the chips in the F-RISC/G architecture. An understanding of this communication is essential for a complete understanding of the essay of social networking, implementation. This section and the following one on timing should be read in parallel.

No one said this would be easy. Powerpoint Slider! Only the most important and interesting signals will be explained here and in the next section (Timing). The following sub-sections divide the signals into categories. Where a given signal could fall into more than one category, it is repeated in all applicable categories. All signals are differential.

3.3.1 Datapath Control. Most of the communication lines within the CPU are used by the instruction decoder to resume pldt, control the powerpoint slider, datapath chips. These signals are listed in table 3.7. The B operand inversion signal needs to go from the instruction decoder to two locations on the datapath. Cali On Resume! The first, the actual B operand inverter, is covered by the INVB signal. The second destination is the adder carry-in on the least significant slice (to perform two's complement subtraction). This signal needs to slider, be active later than INVB , and cannot be handled internally in the datapath slice (to avoid putting extra logic on resume pldt, the critical carry chain). A separate line, CINLSS , was added to the instruction decoder for this reason. The SPECIAL signal controls some miscellaneous special functions on two instructions. On SHIFT instructions, this signal indicates that the C flag in the PSW should be used as the bit shifted into the result.

On JUMP instructions, SPECIAL indicates that the powerpoint, S and OS bits should be reset#151;this copies the /RES flag on the instruction. Write into register file. Ripple shift signals. Extended shift operation. Processor stall signal. 3.3.2 Condition Evaluation, Branching and the Processor Status Word. Another area of communication between the instruction decoder and the datapath is in creative writing the evaluation of conditional branches. Slider! The signals for this function are listed in table 3.8. The BRA signal is personal essay, generated on the DP3 chip. This signal must be distributed to the other datapath slices (so they can store the previous result as the new PC_I1 value), to the instruction decoder (so it can flush instructions as necessary), and to the instruction cache controller (so it reads the address bus).

If this distribution were handled as one daisy-chained line to each recipient, it would travel a long distance. Slider! Thus, the signal is sent twice from the DP3 chip. One path, BRA1 , goes to the other datapath slices; the other path, BRA2 , goes to the decoder and resume pldt cache controller. The zero flag in the PSW is the OR of signals from each datapath slice. These signals converge on DP3 from the other slices. The function of the SPECIAL signal is described in the previous sub-section. Condition Evaluation, Branching, and powerpoint the Processor Status Word. Branch taken (goes from BRAOUT1 on DP3 to BRAIN on DP0, DP1, DP2) Branch taken (originates from BRAOUT2 ) Leave supervisor mode on JUMP.

Many signals go to and from the caches. They are listed in table 3.9. Creative Writing! Many of powerpoint slider these lines are time-critical as the cache misses are closely synchronized with the processor. The address bus and IOCTRL signals may go to other I/O devices as well as to the cache. These other I/O devices may wish to resume pldt, decode the STALLM signal to detect stalls in powerpoint slider the other cache. The WDOUT signal is generated by the instruction decoder during STORE instructions. It activates the essay offenders, OUT_EX latch (see figure 3.12) which holds the data to be sent on the DBUSO lines. 3.3.4 Interrupts and Traps.

The communication lines for interrupts and traps, listed in table 3.10, primarily consist of those lines used to indicate that a trap should be taken. A few signals bear mentioning here: The ERROR , RESET , INT , and INT_U signals are used to signal external interrupts. They activate the powerpoint slider, Processor Reset, System Error, Device Interrupt, and User Interrupt conditions (described in table 2.16), respectively. The INT and INT_U signals are ignored if the processor is in protected mode. INT_U is also ignored if the INT_DIS (disable user interrupts) signal is high.

The INT_DIS signal comes from the UO line on the lowest datapath slice. The user can set the value by using the MPSW instruction. The PROT signal is cali on resume, sent from the instruction decoder (which maintains this line as part of the processor state machine) to the UI line on slider, the lowest datapath slice. In this way, the PROT signal appears in the PSW and can be accessed by essay sites, users. 3.3.5 Clock, Synchronization, and Configuration. The clock deskew scheme requires that all modules that receive the powerpoint slider, master clock return a copy of it to the deskew chip. The signals used for clock distribution and deskew are listed in resume pldt table 3.11. Slider! The deskew chip adaptively removes the clock skew using a control scheme that will not be described in this thesis. Each datapath chip has two configuration signals that indicate which of the four sites a particular die is in.

Datapath configuration signals. Clock synchronization signal. #134; Single-ended ECL signals. 3.4.1 Datapath Timing. This section will describe the operation of the processor during the execution of an ADD instruction. Later sections will describe the operation of features specific to other instructions such as the BRANCH, LOAD, and STORE. Award! A diagram of the F-RISC/G ALU timing is shown in figure 3.15; the system diagram is in figure 3.12. By the time they are needed during the powerpoint, middle of the I1 stage, the program counter on creative, the datapath and the remote program counter have been incremented to powerpoint slider, calculate the instruction address. If this instruction is the target of essay offenders a BRANCH instruction, then the address bus ( ABUS ) from the datapath will contain the instruction address by f 3 of I1 . The instruction address is then transferred from the instruction cache controller to the instruction memory chips which read the desired instruction. Simultaneously, the slider, instruction cache controller checks the tags to insure that there is resume pldt, no cache miss. Assuming there is no cache miss, the instruction is transferred from the powerpoint slider, instruction memory to the instruction decoder beginning in f 3.

When the essay, instruction arrives at the instruction decoder, the most urgent task is to powerpoint slider, send the register file addresses to the datapath chips. The operands themselves must be ready by f 4 of the DE stage. To accomplish this, the B operand is read from the register file during f 2 with the A operand read during the next phase. The bulk of the instruction bits arrives at the instruction decoder at the beginning of the DE stage. The portion of the instruction containing the B operand address (RFB) arrives early (f 4 of I2 ), so it can be ready on the datapath slices by the end of essay offenders f 1 of DE . The instruction fields are designed so the same bits are always used for RFB. Powerpoint! The cache chips for those bits should be the closest to the instruction decoder to reduce the path time. The A operand register file address (RFA) is slightly more complex as it can be in one of two locations in the instruction. (See figure 2.13.) For short immediate instructions, RFA is cali on resume, located in the second half of the instruction, near the immediate constant. Powerpoint Slider! For long immediate instructions, RFA is located in the same field as the destination register file address (DEST).

Thus, in these instructions RFA and DEST specify the same register. Figure 3.15: F-RISC/G timing during an ALU instruction While the transfers of RFA and RFB proceed, the instruction decoder determines whether one of the tagged latches contains a more recent value for the selected registers. The results of these decisions are transmitted to the feed-forward multiplexers and the register file output latches on resume pldt, the datapath (as the FFRAH , FFRAL , FFRBH , FFRBL , MBYA , and MBYB signals). Also, the immediate constant fields are decoded and transferred. The instruction set provides three different types of immediate constants (compare the powerpoint, ALU, ALUI, and writing STORE instructions). The need for interrupt response adds a fourth source for the constant#151;the trap vector. Also during this time, the powerpoint slider, control signals for the operand selection multiplexers (i.e., OPAH , OPAL , and OPBL ), the B operand inverter ( INVB ), and the ALU or shifter ( ALUOPH and ALUOPL ) are generated on the instruction decoder and broadcast to the datapath chips. The datapath selects the dtp resume, operands and prepares them for the start of the ALU cycle at f 4. When f 4 arrives, the result register latches the previous cycle's result and slider the OPA and OPB latches open to personal essay on add, present the operands for the current cycle. The calculation then begins in the ALU. The ALU completes the powerpoint slider, calculation of the essay on advantages networking sites, instruction result by the end of f 3. During the next phase, the result is stored in the RES_EX register as the powerpoint, next instruction begins its calculation.

At this time, three of the four condition code flags (NCVZ flags), namely N, C, and V, are available on the most significant slice of the datapath (DP3). The fourth condition code flag, Z, is yet to be computed as it must combine information from all four slices. The recording of the NCVZ flags is optional and is controlled by /SCC flag on new pages creative writing, many instructions. If this flag is set, the instruction decoder sends the SCC signal to the DP3 chip, which records the flags. During the execution of the MPSW instruction, which updates all PSW flags, the SCC signal is sent to force the recording of the new NCVZ flags. In this case, however, these flags are copied directly from the top four bits of the slider, ALU result. N and C are the MSB of the essay on add, result and slider the carry out of the essay, fourth slice, respectively. The N flag can come from either the ALU result or the shifter result. The V flag represents an addition overflow and slider is a combination of two adder carry bits[Greu90a]. Cali Award! This flag is transferred to powerpoint slider, the instruction decoder (as the ATRAP signal) in case the instruction requested an arithmetic trap on an overflow (the /AT option).

Because they are ready immediately, the N, C, and V flags can be latched when the result is. However, the Z flag is more complex as it requires a synthesis from all 32 bits of the result. During f 4 of the EX stage, an 8-input OR of each slice's result is calculated. Dtp Resume! During the first two phases of D1 , these results are placed on slider, the ZOUT output from essay on advantages sites each datapath slice. These signals travel to the ZIN0 , ZIN1 , and ZIN2 lines on the most-significant slice.

This slice reads the three signals and forms the Z flag. As described above, during the beginning of the D1 stage, the Z flag is calculated and stored. At f 3, the result continues its progress toward the register file, moving from RES_EX to RES_D1. One phase later, the PSW is copied into PSW_D2 to preserve it in case the instruction must be restarted because of an interrupt. In the middle of this cycle, the instruction decoder decides whether the instruction will complete. Either an arithmetic trap (from an ALU overflow) or a problem in the preceding instruction (in its DW stage now) would cause the instruction to abort.

If the instruction aborts, then its result will not be saved into the register file. The interrupt mechanisms, described in the architecture chapter, would take over. During the D2 stage, the destination address (DEST) is transferred from the instruction decoder to the datapath slices. Powerpoint! It is held in preparation for the register file write at the end of the essay of social networking, cycle. Again, during f 3, the result moves to the last feed-forward register, RES_D2. One phase later, the PSW is copied into PSW_DW. Once the result is positioned into RES_D2 and slider the DEST address has been transferred, the register file write can begin. During the essay offenders, beginning of f 4, the register file is addressed. Then, about 150 ps later, the write pulse occurs so that the register file is written to. After the 250 ps long write pulse, the register file is given 100 ps of settling time before the powerpoint slider, next address change occurs.

The only thing that happens in the DW stage of an addition instruction is the completion of the register file write cycle. 3.4.2 BRANCH Instruction Timing. The differences between a BRANCH (or JUMP) instruction and an ALU instruction are that a BRANCH must check the condition code to see if a condition branch will be taken, flush instructions in the latency region, and update the program counters. Also, the BRANCH and JUMP instructions do not write their result into the register file. Essay On Advantages Of Social! The complete operation of powerpoint a BRANCH instruction can be seen in dtp resume figure 3.16. The fetching and preparation of slider operands for resume pldt, a BRANCH instruction are the same as for any other instruction, and slider have been described previously.

During a BRANCH instruction, the ALU operation (always addition) calculates the target address of the BRANCH. Instead of being stored in the result register, the target address is stored in the ADDR register for transfer to the cache if the networking sites, branch is taken. To Branch or Not to Branch. One of the clear differences between a BRANCH instruction and an ADD instruction is that BRANCH instructions can change the flow of instructions into the processor. The condition code flags (NCVZ) in the PSW are evaluated using the condition code field in powerpoint the instruction to form a branch condition #151;in other words, to decide whether or not to branch. In figure 3.15 (the ADD instruction timing diagram), notice that the NCVZ flags are settling during the first half of the personal essay, D1 stage. Powerpoint! If the on advantages sites, instruction preceding the BRANCH sets these flags, then the powerpoint slider, flags are settling during the EX stage of the BRANCH. Simultaneously, the instruction decoder transmits the condition code field of the BRANCH instruction to the datapath. Only the most significant slice (MSS) of the datapath need receive this because only new pages writing, there is the BRA signal calculated.

To simplify the design of the datapath, during non-BRANCH instructions the instruction decoder sends 0000 (meaning don't branch) as the powerpoint, condition code. Thus the datapath never needs to essay networking sites, be explicitly signaled when a BRANCH is taking place. The piece of information available latest during the evaluation of the branch condition is the Z flag, which is computed using information from all four datapath slices. The evaluation logic is powerpoint, arranged to require the Z flag as late as possible. On Advantages Sites! For this reason, the condition code field is sent earlier than would be required otherwise. Figure 3.16: Timing of the F-RISC/G BRANCH instruction The transmission of the BRA signal is powerpoint, critical as it must go from the datapath MSS to resume pldt, the other three datapath slices (the datapath slices need to be told to copy the new address into the PC_I1 register) and to the instruction cache controller (to update the remote program counter) as well as to the instruction decoder.

Among its other responses to a BRANCH being taken, the instruction decoder must flush some or all the instructions following the BRANCH (depending on the /LAT field of the BRANCH instruction). When the instruction decoder receives the powerpoint slider, branch result, the most advanced of these instructions is midway through its EX stage. By this time, it is dtp resume, too late to powerpoint, block transmission of the condition code for that instruction (in the case of two back-to-back BRANCH instructions) or the SCC and WPSW signals for PSW manipulation. This problem is solved by having the instruction decoder send a FLUSHDP signal that indicates that SCC , WPSW , and new pages branch conditions should be ignored if a successful BRANCH has just occurred. If the branch is taken, then the instruction cache must immediately begin fetching instructions from the new location. The result of the slider, addition operation is stored in the ADDR register and broadcast over the ABUS to the instruction cache controller. The cache controller monitors the BRA signal to determine whether the address on the ABUS is a valid instruction address. 3.4.3 LOAD Instruction Timing. The LOAD and STORE instructions access the F-RISC/G data cache.

The LOAD instruction is dtp resume, illustrated in powerpoint slider figure 3.17. The STORE instruction will be covered in the next section. The sequence of a LOAD instruction diverges from that of an ALU instruction during the last phase of the EX stage. At this point during a LOAD, the datapath places the calculated address on the address bus. Personal On Add! The instruction decoder anticipates the cache operation by raising the VDA line during f 3 to indicate that the data cache should read the address bus. The data cache controller reads the address. It then begins the process of powerpoint slider reading the memory and checking the tags. If there is a cache miss, the MISS_D signal is sent to the instruction decoder by the end of the D2 stage.

Figure 3.17: F-RISC/G timing for a LOAD instruction Before being sent to the datapath, the data from the data cache is cali on resume, transferred to the byte operations chip. This chip takes care of slider extracting byte and halfword values from the essay offenders, full word read from memory. It aligns the slider, desired halfword or byte in essay offenders the lower halfword or lowest byte of the slider, result. Of Social Networking! All unused upper bits are set to zero. Powerpoint! The byte chip is controlled by the /IOCTL field of the LOAD instruction.

This chip is not being designed at this time. As has been explained earlier, the on advantages of social networking sites, data from the LOAD instruction does not arrive at the datapath in time to be saved directly into the register file. A special latch, DIN, is included to hold the result of powerpoint slider a LOAD until it can be saved into the register file. The contents of the dtp resume, DIN latch are written into powerpoint slider the register file during the next LOAD instruction. In other words, during the D2 and DW stages of this LOAD instruction, the result of the dtp resume, previous LOAD instruction is powerpoint, being stored into that instructions' destination register. 3.4.4 STORE Instruction Timing. The timing of a STORE instruction is shown in award figure 3.18.

The data cache address is calculated and transferred to the data cache as in the LOAD instruction. Powerpoint! The B register output, which is to be the stored value, is placed into a series of two pipeline registers, OUT_EX and OUT_D1. During the D1 stage, this value is sent to the byte chip for alignment and masking. Resume Pldt! The result is then sent to the data cache to be stored into the memory. Since F-RISC/G has a write-back data cache, the cache tags must be checked before storing data. This ordering is important because the cache line may be dirty and thus need to slider, be moved to main memory before being overwritten with the new data.

Therefore, F-RISC/G first reads the cache tags and data from the cache as if it were performing a LOAD operation. The extra reading of the resume pldt, cache data will speed up the processor in the case of a cache miss on dirty data. Certain paths determine the powerpoint, final speed attained by the processor and are thus called critical. When designing an cali on resume implementation, the designer must be aware of what operations are critical in the particular implementation. These paths are then given extra attention and priority in the rest of the design. A few such paths have been described in the preceding sections: the BRA signal loop between the instruction decoder and the datapath (on page ). 3.5.1 Adder Carry Chain. In most processor designs, the adder carry chain is on slider, the critical path. In the case of FRISC/G, with its datapath partitioned over four chips, this is especially true. Carry propagation schemes that include random logic or high fan-in gates are at a disadvantage in triple-level CML because of signal level considerations. Carry look-ahead is especially hurt by the many ways in which the same signals are combined.

It is difficult to assign voltage levels to signals in new pages creative writing this case. The chosen configuration is a carry-select adder with eight-bit blocks. Slider! These blocks correspond to the datapath slices. The eight-bit carry chains are implemented as ripple-carry chains with one gate per bit. This gate is shown in figure 3.4 (a); the whole scheme is in figure 3.19. The top of figure 3.19 is a depiction of the on advantages, eight-bit carry-select adder on each of the four datapath slices. The lower half of the figure shows the four datapath chips wired together to powerpoint slider, form the 32-bit adder. The performance of this adder is clearly affected by the partitioning. There are three chip crossings on resume pldt, the 32bit carry chain. The components of the powerpoint slider, adder path delay are shown in a pie chart in figure 3.20. The multi-chip implementation of the adder accounts for 42 % of the delay.

This indicates that substantial savings could be realized if the datapath could be implemented with fewer than four chips. Figure 3.19: Carry select adder used for F-RISC/G 3.5.2 Register File Addresses and personal on add Related Signals. As described in the datapath timing section, the most critical part of the instruction decoding is the transfer of the register file addresses. Before any operations can be performed on powerpoint slider, the datapath, the operands must be prepared and latched. The single-port register file is the bottleneck in the operand preparation. Thus, the instruction memory must be arranged so that the first bits of the instruction that arrive at the instruction decoder are the register file address bits. Of these fifteen bits (operand A can be set from one of essay two five-bit fields), the operand B address is powerpoint slider, most critical as it is the earlier address required by the register file. Figure 3.20: Components of the adder critical path Also important at on advantages of social networking sites this time are the memory bypass signals ( MBYA and slider MBYB ) because they control the latches that hold the new pages creative writing, register file values. Powerpoint! While the datapath requires the on advantages sites, bypass signals later than it requires the addresses themselves, the extra computation needed to generate the bypass signals warrants considering these signals critical as well.

Both sets of powerpoint slider feed-forward signals ( FFRAH , FFRAL , FFRBH , and resume pldt FFRBL ) must arrive at slider the datapath when the later memory bypass signal MBYA arrives. Treating them as critical signals allows them to arrive slightly earlier and thus set up the feed-forward multiplexers ahead of resume pldt when the register file data arrives. 3.6 Core Processor Chips. Under contract with the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), I have developed detailed plans for the two core processor chips in the F-RISC/G implementation: the slider, datapath chip and dtp resume the instruction decoder. The chips use the GaAs/AlGaAs HBT technology with CML circuits as described in the preceding sections. The overall organizations of these chips may provide insights for future implementations of the F-RISC architecture. Powerpoint! Also, the transistor count and power dissipation figures can provide some understanding of the nature of the technology. The schematics for these two chips are available on-line through the resume pldt, COMPASS design automation tools. The library locations are described in powerpoint the naming conventions chapter of [Phil93]. The following descriptions will highlight some of the significant points in the design of these chips. Essay On Add! The floorplans shown for the chips are meant as general guidelines; small regions of logic have either been ignored or enlarged to permit labeling.

Most of the datapath chip was straightforward to design. The overall structure of the powerpoint, datapath is shown in figure 3.12. The most difficult portions were the control logic (for the PSW and PC registers). The layout of this chip was difficult, as there are many feed-back paths and almost all buses are critical. A floorplan for the datapath chip is shown in figure 3.21. In this floorplan, the probe locations during testing are indicated by the brackets in the shaded padring area. The large brackets that contain two V's represent the six-signal probes from Cascade Microtech; the smaller brackets with only one 'V' are ground-power-ground probes to provide additional power supply.

These probes are discussed in the following chapter. A plot of the chip is in figure 3.22. A summary of the devices and power in the datapath chip is found in table 3.12. Paste Datapath chip plot here. Core chip logic. The following sub-sections describe the most important blocks in the datapath schematics: This sheet latches the register file addresses coming in from the essay offenders, instruction decoder and powerpoint slider selects the proper one for presentation to the register file. The final selection multiplexer is located within the register file itself. This is essay sites, a diagram of the powerpoint slider, register file as implemented for the F-RISC/G datapath chip. New Pages Creative! It contains one of the powerpoint, address selection multiplexers as well as two sets of output latches for the A and B operands.

As one might expect, this sheet contains the arithmetic and logical unit (ALU) of the F-RISC/G processor. The eight-bit carry chain is implemented as one standard cell to reduce the internal wiring capacitances. The gates from figure 3.4 are used. This sheet includes the one-bit right shifter. Besides shifting its input (which takes no gates other than to on advantages of social networking sites, select the slider, type of shift), this circuit provides the access path to the PC_DW register. The feed-forward registers are provided by this sheet. Essay Offenders! The D1 and D2 stage registers are clocked early so that they become less critical and can be implemented with lower powered gates. This is the powerpoint, address register.

It provides the address for the caches and implements the memory protection scheme by forcing the MSB of the outgoing address to be high unless the processor is in protected mode. This sheet contains the personal, program counter registers. It consists of three sub-blocks: pci1 , inc , and pc_history . Slider! The pci1 sub-block holds the program counter for essay on advantages sites, the I1 stage. The output levels of the bits differ to provide the correct input levels for the incrementer. The incrementer is contained in the inc sheet. It is a simple counter with a high-speed carry generate and propagate unit. The pc_history maintains the program counter history registers and advances them as directed by the instruction decoder. The different bits of the powerpoint slider, processor status word are implemented differently according to their functions. Each type of bit is in a separate sheet. The zero bit (Z) is generated in the zgen sheet.

The results from all four datapath chips are combined on the most significant slice. The rest of the condition code bits are generated in the ncvz_regs sheet. All four condition code bits are stored here. Four operations on these registers are implemented: hold previous value, update value from ALU or shifter result (/SCC flag), update value directly from result bits (MPSW instruction) and restore old values for exception processing. The uio_regs sheet provides for the I and O bits.

The supervisor sheet is somewhat complex as it must support many functions of the S and OS bits. The following functions are supported: copy S into OS (setting S) during interrupt, copy OS into S at the end of an interrupt, updating S and OS from ALU result if the personal essay, S bit was previously set. The bragen sheet calculates the BRA signal from the condition code bits and powerpoint slider the branch condition from the instruction decoder. This sheet contains the clock distribution tree and buffers. This sheet reads the external configuration signals and determines whether this slice is either the LSS or MSS. These static configuration signals are broadcast throughout the chip. 3.6.2 Instruction Decoder.

The instruction decoder chip consists mostly of random logic. Therefore, it was more difficult to design, debug, and lay out personal on add than the slider, datapath chip. The floorplan of the instruction decoder is shown as figure 3.23. Essay Offenders! The final chip layout is plotted in figure 3.24. A summary of the power consumption and transistor count in the instruction decoder chip is powerpoint slider, shown in table 3.13. Only about 45% of the essay offenders, devices and 35% of the power is spent generating the design functions of the instruction decoder. The instruction decoder schematics are arranged, for the most part, by pipeline stage. For instance, the stage_EX sheet contains the logic to generate signals for the EX stage operations and to hold information needed by later stages. The following subsections describe the toplevel blocks of the instruction decoder schematics.

This is one of the simplest pages of schematics. The logic controls the I1 stage of the pipeline. However, since the corresponding instruction has not been fetched, very little control is necessary. Only one latch is included; it indicates whether the instruction in slider I1 is valid or has been flushed during a BRANCH. The I2 stage is not much more complex. Along with the valid bit, this stage has a pass through for the RFB signals, which are received early from the instruction cache and sent to the datapath. Paste Instruction Decoder Plot Here. This stage is more complex than the previous two.

The major duties of the DE stage are as follows: store the incoming instruction, assemble the dtp resume, immediate constant, generate some control lines to select operands on the datapath, and pre-calculate control signals needed early in powerpoint the next stage. Personal Essay! A latch maintains the slider, information as to whether this instruction is valid. The latch_inst sub-sheet holds the essay of social sites, incoming instruction, nullifies it if it should not be executed, and substitutes the dummy BRANCH instruction during interrupt processing. Its companion, imm , generates the immediate constant for the datapath. Depending on the specific instruction format, this constant can come from various portions of the source instruction or from the trap vector during interrupt processing. Core chip logic. This sheet controls the EX stage of the pipeline.

While the powerpoint, DE stage passes on most of the cali, instruction to its successor, by the EX stage it is more economical to send only those control lines needed by future stages. Thus, this sheet generates many functions that are not used until the powerpoint slider, D1 or D2 stage. This stage also forms the first result tag#151;for the RES_EX register. The one sub-sheet, latch_opcode , holds the five-bit opcode and translates its bits to levels appropriate for decoding. Certain functions on essay offenders, this sheet are disabled by slider, the FL_EX_EA signal. This signal, an abbreviation for FLush EX stage EArly, cancels certain critical signals if the instruction in the EX stage is being flushed by the instruction in the D1 stage. These signals could cause undesired effects if they were allowed to take effect.

The rest of the control signals will be flushed when the instruction moves to the D1 stage. The validity bit in resume pldt this stage differs from those in the preceding stages in that it refers to the program counter register (on the slider, datapath) rather than the instruction itself. The distinction is on advantages networking, important in protected mode, when these program counter registers are not advancing normally. The extra pipeline latch on this path is included to compensate for skew between the normal clock signal and the qualified clock, ADV3 , which is inactive in protected mode. The major event in the D1 stage is the incoming BRANCH result. The incoming BRA signal from the datapath's evaluation of the condition code is used to powerpoint, flush selected instructions from the pipeline, as indicated by the latency bits on the BRANCH instruction. This stage also controls the program counter history registers.

This logic is complex, as described in dtp resume sections 2.5.2 and 2.5.4. Also, the arithmetic overflow indication is received from the powerpoint, datapath at this time. The interrupt is dtp resume, deferred until the next cycle. Except for the register file result, very little happens during the D2 stage. Slider! Most of the inputs from the D1 stage are passed straight through to the DW stage. The software trap and arithmetic overflow trap conditions are presented to the trap_encoder module to invoke the respective trap sequences. At the end of the D2 stage, the register file will be updated.

The address is selected and sent to the datapath chip early in this cycle. The validity bit on the selected tag will be used to determine if the personal essay, write should take place. This final stage remembers whether the instruction in the DW stage was a LOAD or STORE so that interrupt processing can proceed properly. However, the logic is concerned mostly with maintaining the address tag for the DIN register. The DIN latch tag should be updated under the following circumstances: · A successful LOAD instruction should validate the tag to match the invalid one in the current RES_D2 feed-forward latch. · A LOAD instruction that is canceled by a trap should cause the tag to be invalidated. The previous contents have already been written into the register file, and powerpoint slider the latch now contains whatever data was on the data bus when the trap occurred. · If a valid tag in the RES_D2 latch matches the essay of social sites, tag in the DIN register, the DIN register should be invalidated.

This accounts for the case where an ALU instruction overwrites the destination of a LOAD instruction while that result is slider, still waiting to cali award, be stored into the register file. This sheet contains the logic to generate the register file addresses and control signals for slider, the datapath chip. Very little logic appears here, only the multiplexers between the B-operand and destination addresses for the shared bus and the logic to cancel writes when a trap is in progress. Herein are the on advantages networking sites, gates that compare the register file addresses to the tags for the feed-forward registers and the DIN register on the datapath. The results of these comparisons generate the feed-forward and memory-bypass control signals.

Also, the D2 stage tag and the DIN register tag are compared to determine if the slider, DIN register should be invalidated. The latter function was described in figure 2.15 and the surrounding text. The processor state machine (figure 2.28) and the logic to essay offenders, generate the STALL signal are contained on this page. The operation of this logic is powerpoint slider, highly critical as its outputs are used to control widely separated functions on the instruction decoder. Especially time-critical is the generation of the STALL signal. Essay! This is an OR of the powerpoint, ACKI and essay offenders ACKD lines, which control the caches.

ACKI is generated if the DE stage instruction is valid, the cache signals a miss, and slider there is no pending trap. This final condition allows an instruction cache page fault to on add, cancel the STALL signal. Powerpoint Slider! The ACKD is generated similarly, except only certain interrupts (as listed in table 2.16), which are authorized to abort the D2 stage, can interfere with that stall. Some of the inputs for these signals (including the TRAP signal from the trap encoder) are available only at f 2 of the clock. However, the f 3 clock must be gated with the STALL signal for creative, use in various functions. This page contains the logic necessary to synchronize the external interrupt lines to the internal clock, recognize and prioritize interrupt conditions, signal that a trap is to take place, and calculate the interrupt vector. The clock distribution system is grouped in this module. A combination of super-buffers, clock buffers, and normal high-powered buffers and gates is used to reduce clock skew within the slider, chip.

These two sheets contain the control logic for cali award on resume, boundary scan testing. The BS_control sheet includes all the control logic that will be described in chapter 4. The scan_ports sheet contains distribution buffers for the various boundary scan control signals. A 1000 MHz implementation of the F-RISC architecture has been designed. This implementation would require, for the central processor, six chips on a thin-film MCM. Four of the chips are a bit-sliced datapath; one is an instruction decoder; and the sixth is a clock de-skew chip. The caches will require many more chips, depending on powerpoint slider, the memory available. Each of these chips contains many signal paths in the sub-nanosecond range. These chips must be tested, either on a wafer or as bare die, before being mounted on of social networking sites, the MCM. Once on the MCM, the powerpoint, system must be tested for proper operation before being put into service. The timing resolutions of conventional test equipment or standard boundary scan techniques are not sufficient for at-speed testing of these chips. Built-in self-test techniques require too many devices and too much power to be of use in this yield-limited technology.

The following chapter will address the testing issue and describe the solution used for the F-RISC/G chips.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to slider, start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and essay offenders tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of slider your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the creative writing perfect person for the job.

For each resume you send out, you’ll want to powerpoint, highlight only the essay offenders accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to powerpoint slider, the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to essay offenders, tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of powerpoint slider All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only essay on advantages networking sites, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the slider Best Stuff “Above the essay offenders Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to powerpoint slider, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of new pages your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to powerpoint, save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. Cali Award On Resume. There are lots of different ways to slider, organize the writing information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Powerpoint Slider. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to creative writing, one page is a good way to force yourself to do this.

If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to powerpoint slider, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to essay networking sites, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of powerpoint trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the resume pldt most important details on that document, and slider then include a link to essay offenders, your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate.

We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the slider most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Essay Offenders. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and powerpoint slider 12 and leaving a healthy amount of resume pldt white space on powerpoint slider, the page. New Pages. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and slider keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out personal essay, from the powerpoint slider sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to dtp resume, the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively.

If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to powerpoint, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in essay offenders the time, creativity, and powerpoint slider design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and personal essay on add professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on powerpoint, each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to award, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the powerpoint slider experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into personal on add, more detail about slider, your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!

Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in writing a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in powerpoint slider tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to essay on advantages, the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to slider, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of on advantages of social networking sites them. Use as many facts, figures, and powerpoint slider numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to essay on advantages networking, picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . Slider. People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!

As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the resume pldt benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. Powerpoint. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the writing same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20.

Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Slider. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on personal essay on add, your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the slider job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.

Stuck on which words to creative, include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and powerpoint spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and creative writing hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and slider relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. Essay Offenders. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in powerpoint slider reverse chronological order.

But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to personal, grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. Slider. If you graduated from on advantages sites college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. Powerpoint. While you don’t need to personal on add, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in slider your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and new pages creative your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the powerpoint slider relevant skills you have for essay on advantages of social, a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is powerpoint, expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.

If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Creative. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an powerpoint slider, “Interests” section on your resume, but only personal essay on add, add those that are relevant to slider, the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. Personal Essay On Add. 32.

Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for powerpoint, canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the award decision of powerpoint whether to include them or not. Do include awards and on add accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the powerpoint proper ways to include them.

Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Essay Offenders. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about powerpoint, your experience if asked in an interview. Resume Pldt. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Powerpoint. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the personal essay on add number of powerpoint years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to resume pldt, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to slider, new city.” By addressing the dtp resume gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the powerpoint slider workforce after a long hiatus? This is the essay offenders perfect opportunity for slider, a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Resume Pldt. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on slider, your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume.

For example, if you took time out of the resume pldt workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is slider, as demanding and essay offenders intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is slider, interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. Dtp Resume. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is powerpoint, free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an resume pldt, editor on powerpoint slider, how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to personal essay on add, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the powerpoint slider hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and writing then attach it to an email and slider open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and networking send it off?

Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out powerpoint slider, some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.

When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. On Add. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at

Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Essay: Greek mythology compared to nordic mythology. This paper will outline an exploration between Greek mythology to slider, Nordic mythology, and how similar or different they are from each other. Essay On Advantages Networking! Furthermore it will outline the basic origin of the two mythologies. Each paragraph will cover a specific character or characteristic of the two mythologies and powerpoint, then compared and dtp resume, contrasted between Odin VS zeus, creation it is slider, presented with the essay offenders relevant concepts defined and processes clarified. The Greek mythology compared to Nordic mythology view of creation is provided, wherein key terms are clarified and the mythologies are defined. The aim is to provide an slider, overview of on resume, Greek mythology and Nordic mythology perception, upon which an understanding of mythology and their impact and how it is powerpoint slider, viewed in modern day in pop culture can be clarified. Essay On Add! Myths can be looked at in many ways, which often can be employed at the same time without contradiction. For example, in the story of Ra, Isis, and the snakebite, the possible political interpretation (Isis being advanced by her priests to position of top god) doesn’t rule out a consideration of Ra as sun-god, or possibly seeing some ritual significance to his sickness and subsequent cure. As G. S. Kirk puts it, “a myth may have different emphases or levels of meaning.” Since it often serves more than one purpose, “a tale about human actions can contain more than a single aspect and implication” (39). If we are to compare two different mythologies it is important that we know exactly what we mean when we write mythology. As we understand it, the word myth was derived from the Greek word “mythos”.

In this text the word myth is a story of forgotten or vague origin which is powerpoint slider, supernatural or religious. A story was made up to new pages writing, explain or rationalize one or more aspects of the world. Powerpoint Slider! It is cali, also important to remember that these myths that are given as examples in this document have at some point been believed to be true by the people in the societies that used or originated them. Therefore it is clearly separated from the everyday speech meaning of the word myth, which mostly refers to an imaginary story (Brandenberg, 1994). The Romans copied their mythology from the Greeks; therefore we will only powerpoint, mention the Greek creation myth in this text. Essay Offenders! To be able to explain the differences and powerpoint slider, similarities between the Norse and the Greek creation myths I’ll begin with a short presentation of the two myths, which both begin with nothing. The world is nothing but a dark and dtp resume, void place (Brandenberg, 1994). In the powerpoint Greek Creation Myth, in the darkness of the award Greek creation myth there is a bird with black wings. This bird is powerpoint slider, making a golden egg from which the God of Love is coming.

One of the shells from the egg becomes the personal on add sky, which is also called Uranus, while the other shell becomes the earth, Gaia (Brandenberg, 1994).Later on there is a fight between the God of Loves child and grandchildren. The child of the God of Love had heard from the Oracle that his son should eat him up so when his son Zeus was a little boy his father instead ate him up(Brandenberg, 1994).Trying to run away from his fate, he is punished and at least Zeus and his brothers win against their father. Zeus has two sons who have one responsibility each. Slider! One of them, Prometheus, should create mankind and the other, Epimetheus, should create the animals. They should also give their creations one gift.

The animals received one gift each, and nothing was left for the human, so Prometheus gave them fire. Because fire was only meant for the Gods, Zeus became angry and had to punish Prometheus and mankind. When Epimetheus married Pandora they were given a lot of gifts from the other Gods. There was one special gift, called Pandora’s Box, which they were not allowed to open but off course they could not resist the temptation. Opening the box they had suddenly let all the dtp resume pain, sickness and envy out to powerpoint, the world. Resume Pldt! There was nothing they could do to stop it.

Later on they heard a sound, like “let me out”, from the box. They opened the box one more time and out flew all hope (Brandenberg, 1994). The Norse Creation Myth begins, with nothing but dark chaos. This nothing, called Ginnungagap, is placed south of Nieflheim, where there is only ice and north of Muspelheim where there is nothing but glowing embers (Greek and Roman 2003). In Ginnungagap the ice from Nieflheim and the parks from Muspelheim meet and create an evil giant called Ymir. When Ymir is completed the powerpoint ice and the sparks also create a cow, which is good.

The cow feeds the resume pldt giant Ymir, and itself is licking blocks of ice. Slider! One day when it is licking a huge ice block the god of Love, Bure, comes out of it. (Greek and Roman 2003) Later on Bures offspring has a struggle against Ymir and essay of social sites, the other giants. Powerpoint Slider! Ymir dies and the gods threw him into Ginnungagap where his flesh becomes the personal essay on add earth, his blood the seas, his bones the mountains and so on. The dwarves and slider, the dark elves in the Norse mythology are created of the resume pldt maggots from Ymir’s flesh. (Cook, 1914) When some of the gods are walking on powerpoint a shore they see two tree trunks and give them souls, motions and senses. These become the two first humans, Ask and Embla. (Greek and Roman 2003) In the Norse creation story the world was made from an evil giant (Greek and Roman 2003), while the world in the Greek creation story was made from an essay offenders, egg (Brandenberg, 1994).The Greek people looked at the world in a different way.

Maybe they thought the world was more fragile than the Norse people did. Fighting against nature more than the Greek people did, the Norse people experienced the powerpoint negative and new pages, hard things, like darkness and coldness, in nature. In both stories there was a struggle between a god, who later on powerpoint would be the ruler of the other gods, and someone else. In the cali on resume Greek creation story, Zeus fought against his father (Brandenberg, 1994) while Odin fought against the giant, Ymir. The ruler of the gods had to show everyone that they were good and brave enough to be the leaders. Then the other gods and the humans could respect and trust them. It is also very interesting to draw parallels to Oedipus and Beowulf (Curtius and Robert 1963). Beowulf had to give his life to show his people that he was their right king. A king could never be afraid of death nor to slider, struggle.

Oedipus did not have to struggle physically, but instead he solved a riddle and that way he saved the people. Not solving the new pages writing riddle he would never have become the slider king. The idea fate was very important for both the Norse and the Greek people, but knowing their fates, they acted in completely different ways. The Greeks always tried to run away from their fate (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Greek creation story, one might have noticed that Zeus father ate Zeus so that the fate would not be fulfilled, but you can again draw a parallel to Oedipus (Curtius and Robert 1963), which is a story based on running away from fates. In Norse mythology they instead prepared themselves to cali on resume, meet fates .The Greek gods punished the people with the opening of Pandora’s Box.

Here it is easy to draw a parallel to the Christian religion, which also lets the slider people live with a sin (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Norse creation story, there is nothing about punishing or living with a sin. Award! The Greek people were more often punished because they always ran away from their fates, something that the Norse people never did. Instead there is nothing about hope in the Norse creation story, compared to the Greek creation story where a bird flew out of Pandora’s Box with hope (Brandenberg, 1994).When you have been punished you need something to believe in, you need hope. In Norse mythology there are a lot of elves and powerpoint slider, witches compared to the Greek mythology (Curtius and Robert 1963).

What could the reason be? Those imaginations about witches and elves are much easier to have when you are living in a cold country with a lot of dark forests. Perhaps the Norse people had even more stories and thoughts about the elves before the Norse mythology came and when it did come, they involved them in the new mythology/religion. Here one can draw a parallel to the Christening of the Norse people. When Christianity came to the north, the essay people tried to involve their old rituals in the new religion. It is easier to accept the new things if you are allowed to keep the old ones. To further emphasise that the Greek and Norse mythologies are connected to slider, each other we have also studied some words, which have travelled through languages and resume pldt, time. Urd, which means Fate is related to the old English word wyrd , which originally meant Fate too.

Today we have the word left as the Weird Sisters. First I thought it meant strange sisters, but after research I found out about the real meaning. They are the three sisters of Destiny, which play a big part in slider, Shakespeare’s Macbeth. Dtp Resume! (Curtius and Robert 1963) In Greece Odeion was the name of a sort of slider, a construction, which was often used as a theatre. Maybe the dtp resume Romans used this word too and the Vikings heard it, interpreted it their own way and named their main God with a similar name (Odin). Powerpoint! Lots of names may have been travelling around like this. Today the essay on add English word odeum means the same thing as the Greek word odeion. If words have travelled from one place from powerpoint another, the essay offenders stories and culture might just as well have travelled the same way.

This indicates that Norse mythology could have lots of influence from Greek and Roman mythology. Norse mythology is the religion of the Norse people. The Norse people are the ancient people of northern Europe (Scandinavia, Iceland, Denmark, Northern Germany etc.) (World Book 259).A major difference between Norse mythology and powerpoint slider, Greek mythology are both cultures views of the resume pldt afterlife and what happens there. In Greek mythology there is one allotted place for people to slider, go after death and once they are there they stay there for all eternity. In Norse mythology there are four different places for the dead: Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and dtp resume, Ran’s hall or the halls of Ran. Folkvang is the slider allotted area for your everyday warrior who fought and died and did nothing more.

Valhalla is Odin’s hall where 800 of the bravest warriors go and train for the coming of Ragnarok (literally the ending of the resume pldt gods or the end of the world) Helheim is literally the house or home of Hel; Hel is the goddess of the “underworlds” Niflheim (land of fire and heat) and Helheim. Helheim is the place where one who didn’t die or in battle goes, those who died from slider diseases, accidents, old age, etc. Ran is the goddess of the sea and the drowned. She is said to sink ships and collect the drowned in a net and take them to her hall where they dwell there. In Greek mythology they go to the underworld (or Hades) and they are then separated and personal on add, either got to Tartarus (hell) or the Elysian fields (heaven) (World Book 257). Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and The Halls of Ran are four separate areas in the world of Norse mythology where as Hades is one and Tartarus and the Elysian fields are two places within Hades. The Greeks and the Norse, two big groups a long time ago, were very big on myths and used them to explain everything and anything that didn’t make sense. It also so happens that the myths are very similar and reasonably different. So how might these to power house countries myths compare? First off, the Greeks and the Norse came from totally to different areas and life style (World Book 257) On the Norse side you have all the Northern countries which ranged from a lot of different backgrounds and the Greeks who at slider one point were considered the greatest country. The Norse, up north, had a difficult time.

They had extreme drops of on advantages networking, temperature during the winter with barley any light and a great rise of powerpoint slider, temperature during the summer. Another thing is that Greeks and the North had a lot of basic ideas that were the resume pldt same. They each had only one ruler of the gods and man, Zeus and powerpoint slider, Odin, and they each had wives, Hera and Frigg, that had a little less power than their husbands but more than the other gods. Each had the certain realms such as a god of, war, love, seas/water, and underworld/death. This might not seem like a big thing but if you look at other myths from essay on advantages of social sites different groups you will find only one god or creator but the slider Greeks and the Norse had gods for almost every different realm possible. Another thing you could conclude is that these gods kind of checked the power of Zeus/ Odin who also would check the essay offenders power of the gods. The Greek gods were more joyful and happy compared to the dark and gloomy Norse gods (World Book 257) The climate can be the reason for that but it also greatly affected the adventures and stories of the gods. Powerpoint! With the on advantages Greek myths you could see that a lot of them were mainly love stories such as Venus and powerpoint, Adonis, Cupid and Psyche, and the story of Ceres, Proserpina, and Pluto. Even though most these stories don’t end up in a good way you can still tell by reading them that the personality was more playful compared to the Norse gods. On Add! The Norse myths were more about battle and struggle with usually an end result of powerpoint slider, death such as the story of the Death of Blader or the stories of the dtp resume two heroes Beowulf and Siegfried. Both Greeks and Norse seemed to slider, have the same idea of fate being important as it can be related to sites, many of both their myths.

The Norse called the gods of faith Norns and the Greeks used the powerpoint slider now day word fate or Fates (World Book 257) both groups had three of these gods, they were females, and they both of course served the same purpose. One sets out the string of dtp resume, life, another decides the length and powerpoint slider, decides what is to happen to this person and the third cuts it off or ends it, which in simple form can be said as one sets the past, another the personal on add present, and powerpoint, the third the future. Essay Networking Sites! it seems that the Fates and Norns were more superior then the gods themselves even though they fall into a different realm then the gods which truly shows how important these fates or this idea of fate was to the Greeks and Northen people (World Book 257) As you can see both the slider Greeks and Norse believed that their lives are predetermined and they can’t really do much about it. The creation of the two stories is also slightly related. The Norse believed that the world was once frozen over and after years Ymir was born and Ymir was one of the first giants who was later killed by his grandchildren while the Greeks believed the world was formed from chaos were Gaea (mother earth) and Uranus (the heavens), were created. You can draw out from personal on add both stories that the creation of the powerpoint gods and world was a struggle and not a very good place until these superior gods came in power. This idea really shows how much honor both gods had from their people. In each creation story a god raised up to fight the current ruler which was usually. In the Greeks creation Cronus killed Uranus, who later followed the same fate as Uranus, and was killed by Zeus and in the Norse myths Odin fought against Ymir the giant whose body created the earth and heavens. The rulers of dtp resume, both stories can be viewed as brave and powerful because they both had to overthrow the powerpoint last ruling god. Even with all the essay networking sites other gods it seems that no one comes close to the power that Zeus and Odin held. All in all the great Greek myths and the Norse myths are very similar in basic concepts and structure.

A lot of powerpoint, other groups used myths but nothing can compare to the Greek and Norse myths with their great meaning and reason for everything. Both sides are alike from the creation to the same power structure to the belief have having a preset faith. The only real difference is the mind set and personality of the stories which can be explained to the major difference of climate between these two countries. Why might they be so similar? Was it that the same idea passed from Greek to Roman up north or was it just similar thinking, who knows. Only one thing is personal, certain and that is that the Greek and Norse myths are very much alike. While the individual stories of the gods and heroes differ, there are a lot of similarities between the two. Both are polytheistic mythologies – they have multiple gods. Powerpoint Slider! Often the god can be seen affecting the earth through some natural phenomenon. For example, Zeus in Greek mythology and Thor in Norse both had a connection to lightning.

Gods were often patrons of different trades or types of people. Resume Pldt! Both Demeter (Greek) and slider, Skadi (Norse) were connected to the harvest. The greatest difference is in the end of the gods. In Greek mythology there is no apocalypse – no end of the essay offenders world. The gods will always be on Mount Olympus, ruling over the earth. Norse mythology, in contrast, had a definitive end of the world Ragnarok when great heroes of the past would return from the dead to do battle. During Ragnarok, it was said that the gods were fated to die – many of the “top” gods would die in battle with the greatest enemies and creatures of the mythology. Hundreds of years ago people did not have the technology to explain different forces of nature. They created gods, each with separate powers, to rule their domains.

Some of the powerpoint slider gods were merciful, some were wicked, and essay offenders, others were merely servants of more powerful gods. Looking at the gods, it is easy to tell what the civilization most valued. I am going to look at the Greek and slider, the Norse gods to essay offenders, compare what was most important to slider, their societies. Both cultures had a king of the new pages writing gods. Slider! In Greek mythology there is no god who is more powerful than Zeus. Essay Sites! He is the youngest son of Cronus and Rhea, ruler of the slider Titans. Cronus was told that one of his children would overthrow him, taking control of new pages creative writing, his kingdom. To be sure this would not happen; Cronus swallowed his first five children: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Rhea could not bear to see another one of her children, devoured so she replaced Zeus with a rock wrapped in slider, swaddling. Cronus, thinking he ate Zeus, left Rhea time to new pages, leave Zeus in powerpoint slider, a cave where he was raised by resume pldt a divine goat, Amaltheia (pantheon/odin). After Zeus was grown he went back to Cronus with the help of Gaia and Metis, who made an elixir to cause Cronus to vomit his brothers and sisters.

Zeus then led the fights against the Titan dynasty. Afterwards they banished the Titans to slider, Tartarus, the lowest place on earth, even lower than the personal on add underworld. Zeus and his brothers then drew straws to find who would rule where. Zeus gained rule of the sky, Poseidon ruled the seas, and powerpoint slider, Hades ruled the underworld (pantheon/odin). Zeus is the god of law, justice, morals, thunder, lightning, and rain. It was his job to oversee and make sure laws were being kept. He was worshipped originally as a weather god. Personal Essay! He was depicted as a middle-aged man with a youthful appearance; he was regale and was almost always shown ready to throw a lightning bolt (pantheon/zeus). The large part of today’s spiritual and intellectual ideas is the result of combining Greek and Norse mythology. Slider! Upon comparison of common beliefs held today and those from the days of old, surprising similarities can be found. Essay! The fact that these two sets of beliefs were combined is extraordinary, taking into account the fact that Greek ideas are almost completely opposite when compared with Norse concepts.

Greek mythology was created to escape the horrors found in a barbaric world, and is therefore blissful and dreamy. Norse mythology, by contrast, is powerpoint, gloomy and full of impending doom. Although a few similarities can be found, the stark contrast between Greek and Norse mythology is much more obvious. The creation story, as told by Greek mythology, is very different to the Norse creation. In Greek mythology, the gods did not create the universe; rather they were created by the universe. The first descendants of Chaos were Night, Day, Heaven, and personal on add, Earth. The gods were then descendants of powerpoint, Mother Earth and Father Heaven. As a direct contrast, in Norse mythology, the gods were responsible for resume pldt building the powerpoint slider universe. In the Elder Edda, it is stated that, “of old there was nothing.” Giants were the essay offenders first creatures created, and slider, the gods were descendants of the first giant, Ymir. The gods then in turn slew Ymir and made the resume pldt earth, sky, and heaven from his body. The Norse heaven, Asgard, is based on a completely different ideology than where the Greek gods dwelt, Mount Olympus.

There is no joy or bliss in powerpoint, Asgard, merely a dismal sense of doom. Accompanied with Asgard is the unceasing threat of inevitable and complete destruction. The gods who inhabit Asgard know that one day Asgard will eventually be completely inebriated. Mount Olympus, by creative writing contrast, is a place full of merriment and carefree celebration. The gods spend their time drinking ambrosia and powerpoint, toying with the essay offenders forces of nature. Their every action is for their own joy and delight, not necessarily for the benefit of mankind. Never does any thought of slider, devastation or doom cross their minds, for on add the gods of Mount Olympus cannot be brought down. Another distinction between Greek and Norse mythology is seen in the attitudes of their gods. Powerpoint Slider! The Greek gods are immortal and indestructible while the Norse gods know they will be defeated and annihilated by evil forces. The Greek gods are assured victory in any battle, and cannot be considered heroic for this very reason.

Every Olympian is immortal and award on resume, invincible; they go into powerpoint, a battle sure of their victory and fearing nothing. A drawback to personal essay on add, this great advantage is slider, that the Greek gods never know the exhilaration in overcoming astounding odds, or the adrenaline that comes from cali award on resume confronting danger. The Norse gods are well accustomed to this type of powerpoint, stimulation, for they exist with the knowledge that they will one day be defeated. In the end, when the of social networking sites forces of good and evil fight the powerpoint slider final battle, evil will succeed over the Norse gods. Essay Networking Sites! There is nothing the gods can do to prevent their fate.

The gods do not give up, but will put up a strong fight until the very end. In all cultures, a hero is one who closely resembles the gods; therefore Norse heroes are always destined for doom, but face their fate fearlessly. Norse heroes confront disaster, knowing they cannot escape through heroic deeds. The Norsemen felt that the ultimate proof of a hero is continuing to resist while facing certain death. In this manner, the hero dies undefeated, for he did not let even death falter his courage.

Signy, a Norse heroine, embodies these ideas. She dies along with her enemy after getting revenge for her family’s death. Her heroic death is more of slider, a triumph than avenging the wrong done to her. Mark Twain stated that, “Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear not absence of fear.” The Norse idea of a hero embraces this idea, but the Greek notion of essay offenders, a hero opposes it. Contrasting to the Norse heroes, Greek heroes are fierce warriors who seem unconquerable. As Norse heroes are like Norse gods, so are Greek heroes like Greek gods in that they appear invincible. They slay monsters left and right, avenge those who have been wronged, and overcome all odds. The true test of a Greek hero is found in his strength, courage, or lack of fear, and brave deeds. Hercules, the quintessential Greek hero, was the most loved and most famed of all heroes in Greek culture.

The son of a mortal woman and Zeus, Hercules is half god and half human. Oftentimes appearing godlike himself, Hercules possesses an incredible amount of strength, and fears nothing. Powerpoint! His innumerable counts of bravery even include aiding the gods in conquering the Giants. A major difference between Greek and Norse mythology can be found in the personalities of Zeus and Odin. The Greek Zeus is dtp resume, Lord of the Sky and ruler over powerpoint, all the other gods.

He is a powerful god with the ability to induce fear, but also, “a capital figure of cali on resume, fun.” Zeus is supposed to have upheld the standards of right and wrong, but this is not always a very high standard. He entertains numerous affairs with mortal women and delights in causing trouble for mankind. Zeus is often pictured as amorous, joyful, and comic. Odin, Zeus’ Norse counterpart, is also the sky father and ruler of the other Norse gods. Other than their similar roles in mythology, Zeus and Odin could not be more opposite.

Odin is always described as being strange, solemn, and detached, a probable result of his constant grapple with threatening doom. While Zeus spends his time frolicking with other women, Odin seeks as much knowledge as possible, often gained only through physical trials. He alone bears the brunt of the powerpoint responsibility for writing delaying as long as possible the day of powerpoint slider, complete destruction. The chasm between Greek and new pages writing, Norse mythology is huge. Norse mythology is full of despair, sacrifice, and powerpoint, desolation, creating a dark and gloomy portrayal of Norse culture. The only personal on add, bright spot in Norse mythology is powerpoint, remarkable heroism, which is characteristically marked by the death of the protagonist. Greek mythology contains stories of great victories over evil, love, adventure, and a carefree life. The hero inevitably wins and personal essay, mankind is always celebrated. Powerpoint! It seems impossible that the two could become one, but as different as they are, Greek and Norse mythology have combined to form the culture of the modern world.

The Norms exist in cali on resume, the Norse mythology as the three creatures that determine Fate. Before they came to Asgard time did not exist. Because of this, one can say that the Norms are above the slider gods in such meaning that the gods cannot stop the Norms from doing their job, which is to create time. Without time one cannot determine Fate, because then you don’t know when the events are going to award on resume, take place or in which order. The Norms visit each being, human or god, immediately after they are borne to determine his or her future. Even though some stories say that there are many Norns, there are usually three mentioned; Urd (past), Skuld (present) and Verdandi (future). These creatures live by the first root of Yggdrasil (the world tree) next to a well, which is known as the powerpoint slider Well of Fate. Every morning they come out of the cave they spend their night in, then scoop up water and mix it with the resume pldt sand around the powerpoint slider tree to create magic dough. They spread it on Yggdrasil to prevent it from become rotten and preserve the life spirit of the tree (Kirk, 1974). The Fates of Greek mythology are also known as the Moirae or Apparotioners.

These three females decide how long every individual is going to live. They were sometimes considered superior to the gods. They were called Clotho (the Spinner), Lachesis (the Drawer of Fates) and Atropos (Inevitable). Essay Offenders! Clotho comes to the newborn and spins out the thread of powerpoint slider, life, Lachesis measures it and dtp resume, decides what is going to happen to this being and Atropos cuts it off. (Kirk, 1974).There is powerpoint, a verse about them to remember what they did: Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat, which means Clotho holds the spinning wheel, Lachesis spins and Atropos cuts it off. (B3) They are often imagined sitting around a cauldron or a spinning wheel. (Kirk, 1974).In both sets of mythologies the creatures that determine Fate are identical in on add, purpose, gender and number. They are both above the gods and their jobs are inevitable for everyone. No one can go against the Fates. Powerpoint Slider! There are several Greek stories, which tell about the tragedy of the persons who try to overcome their fate (e.g. Oedipus). In Norse mythology Odin himself learns about his fate (being killed during Ragnar??k, the doomsday, by the wolf Fenris) from the Norms, and personal, there is nothing he can do about powerpoint slider it but prepare himself and his allies. Personal! Both the Norms and the Fates were thought as sitting around something circular, this may represent the circle of life, which is not exclusive to powerpoint, these myths.

If we consider the mythologies as a reflection of the society, the conclusion is resume pldt, that both the Greeks and slider, Vikings believed that their lives were already decided and one can only follow his/hers fate. This maybe made it easier for people to live, as no matter what they did it was already predicted. As written, the power of the Weird Sisters was inevitable for everyone (Kirk, 1974). The Greek and Roman Mythologies have fascinated human beings for centuries, inspiring books, movies, research, and conversation among those who want to learn more and personal on add, who want to share the slider fables of the Gods and Goddesses. Their stories (myths or mythos, depending on the origin), their triumphs and failures, and their imminent Immortality has been the influence of many other religions, including Paganism and Norse Mythology. Unfortunately, many people do not know the differences between Greek and Roman mythology, assuming that the dtp resume two are interchangeable at will. In reality, the two are very different from one another, and capture almost opposing life values that are central to the people of the time.

Greek and slider, Roman gods were not worshipped, as the Christian God is, but rather used as a model for how mortal humans should and should not behave. The Greeks came first, some 1,000 years before the Romans. Their most appreciated work, the Iliad, was distributed 700 years before the Roman’s most popular manuscript, the Aeneid. The Iliad was based on at least 300 years of myths and dtp resume, stories, which were gathered from the tales passed down by mortal observant, which certainly correlates with the Christian Bible. It was not meant as a holy scripture, however, but as a recorded history of the Greek Gods and Goddesses, who were revered by men during that time. Slider! The Greeks were focused primarily on life on earth, versus the eventuality of the essay offenders afterlife. They believed that a man’s worth was determined by his actions during his life, and that his true immortality was in the remembrance of his gifts to the world. Slider! His traits, his personality, and of social networking, his interaction with other people spoke for his self-worth. Gods and Goddesses were based on human personality traits – such as Love, Honor, Dignity, and Hatred – and their actions in myths were symbolic of the actions of men. Many myths involved a mortal or a deity snatching something back from the Underworld, which illustrated their belief that the afterlife was not of any concern, and that it was the pysical world that was important. Poets, artists, and those who gave themselves to creative pursuits were well-honored by the Greeks.

They held creativity above physical works in the mortal and mythical world; myths reflected those personal traits and were meant to expose the positive and negative aspects of humanity. Deities were important to the progression of life, but mortal heros were just as sacred, for it was their contributions to powerpoint, society that mattered in of social networking, the end. Individualism was also very important; the actions of a group were not as consequential as the actions of an individual. Slider! Men were responsible for their own well-being, and could not be bothered by the mistakes of the masses. Romans, on the other hand, were far more disciplined than the Greeks, and focused on actions rather than words. Personal Essay! Whereas the Greeks revered the powerpoint slider poet, the Romans held up the warrior as the writing epitome of sanctity, and rewarded bravery and risks taken by both mortals and slider, deities.

They strongly felt that good deeds on earth would be well-received in resume pldt, Heaven, and they strove to earn their place among the Gods in the afterlife. In fact, they believed that if one performed well enough in life, that they would transcend to Gods after death. The Romans adopted many of the myths and deities of the powerpoint Greeks, though they changed names and circumstances to support their own beliefs. For example, the dtp resume Roman Gods were not individualistic, as were the Greek Gods, and powerpoint, were named after objects and actions rather than human characteristics. Myths were rooted in dtp resume, the brave, heroic acts of the Gods, and rarely displayed the lives of mortals, because mortal life was not as important as that after death. Also, Roman Gods and slider, Goddesses were often not gender-specific, since their individual characteristics were not central to their actions. Writing! Roman and slider, Greek Mythologies are decidedly different, though they are rooted in similar histories. A study of their individual characteristics illustrates the values and beliefs of the Greeks and Romans respectively, and can offer a better understanding of resume pldt, how these myths and anecdotes originally came about. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths.

Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in its purpose and slider, character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is essay offenders, helpful at powerpoint all, as opposed to resume pldt, working with a very general concept such as the powerpoint slider traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another. Most, however, make a basic distinction between “true” and “fictitious” narratives, with “true” ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to new pages writing, regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to slider, a human society is a matter of historical record.

In the middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to the British. He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and argued. In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maori’s mythology, to which they made frequent reference. Other government officials and essay on advantages sites, Christian missionaries of the powerpoint slider 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the mythologies of nations or tribes so as to creative, facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to slider, an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man’s behavior and that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence–war and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and cali award, evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in powerpoint, the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the study of the Greek and Roman classics, from essay offenders which it has also derived some of powerpoint, its methods of interpretation. The growth of philosophy in on advantages of social networking sites, ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of powerpoint, myth–i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the personal essay surface of mythical texts.

Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of myths in such a way as to powerpoint, make sense of the essay offenders statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the supernatural. Thus, the powerpoint slider ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to new pages creative, Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the powerpoint slider Greek word for bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus’ ship according to Homer’s Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of creative writing, a pirate ship. Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds.

By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance–the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and powerpoint, etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. Cali On Resume! In both periods, interpretations in powerpoint slider, terms of allegory and essay offenders, Euhemerism tended to predominate. About 1800 the Romantics’ growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the study of Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and powerpoint, philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. Personal Essay! In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller’s notorious phrasing, a “disease of language”), so that the myths no longer told in a “rationally intelligible” way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the “irrational” activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.

For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Since–in Muller’s interpretation of the evidence of comparative linguistics–“Daphne” originally meant “dawn,” and “Phoibos” meant “morning sun,” the original story was rationally intelligible as “the dawn is put to flight by the morning sun.” One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and powerpoint, other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by resume pldt Friedrich von Schelling’s philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an powerpoint, all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to cali, be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in slider, common with the tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in essay offenders, the modern narratives the powerpoint lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to be saved and married. The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the personal on add world and preserves “the American way,” is powerpoint, a notable image embodying modern Americans’ confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses.

Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the on advantages of social networking sites settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the slider Wild West. A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by essay on advantages networking the belief in the existence of an powerpoint slider, Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to the Semitic group. This myth was based in part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. Cali Award On Resume! The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the powerpoint slider Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the dtp resume 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for powerpoint slider the persecution of the Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic “superiors” during the period of Nazi domination. This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of a particular group; the on add truth or falsity of the myth is slider, irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of essay offenders, its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society’s place in the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of powerpoint, governmental organization. In conclusion, if we think of myths as true, if we believe in essay offenders, them, then obviously, we are thinking in slider, religious terms. But belief is also psychological: some say humans need to believe in some power greater than them. Others, like Joseph Campbell, see the origins of myth and religion in the psychological response of early man to the trauma of death. Thus, belief in a greater power arises when humans are faced with the mystery of on add, what happens after death.

The earliest efforts to rationalize myth by seeing it as disguised history, as disguised philosophy, or as fables illustrating moral truths all proceeded from powerpoint slider a desire to make the seemingly irrational and immoral actions of gods and men appear rational and moral. Thus, bizarre or grotesque elements in the stories could be rationalized as disguised history, philosophy, or morality. However, these early rationalizes often ignored elements of the myths which did not fit into their allegorical schemes and made little attempt to look at myths psychologically or symbolically, or to place the them in their proper historical context. (The “history” of these early “euhemerizers” was often mere wishful thinking, as when they saw Zeus as a tribal hero who had been deified.) But myths do embody historical, philosophical, and on advantages of social networking sites, moral elements; we must search for them more carefully than early mythologists did. Students should remember, however, that the powerpoint symbolic, religious, ritual, or magical explanations that myths offer may differ from modern scientific or historical explanations. Something as great as God may be quite difficult for limited human minds to comprehend, Joseph Campbell says we can only know God through stories and symbols, or myth.

But our stories are human and limited, and thus cannot, according to Campbell, tell literal truths, but all can and do tell metaphoric and symbolic truths. Essay Offenders! Ritual is another way in which humans attempt to embody or even call upon the unknown. Slider! Ritual patterns may reappear in essay of social, myths and mythic motifs may be reflected in rituals (Hero 381). But there is no easy rule for tracing the powerpoint influence of ritual on myth or vice-versa. Mythologists continue to argue whether the repetitive patterns of motifs and plot seen in many myths stem from ritual patterns (Hero 381), or from psychological archetypes inherent in humans, or from the repetition common in oral forms of storytelling (Hero 381). No one way offers a key to the interpretation of myths, but all can offer insights to different motifs and plot elements. On Advantages Sites! When interpreting myths, students should remember Campbell’s wise advice: “There is no final system for powerpoint slider the interpretation of personal essay on add, myths, and there never will be any such thing” (Hero 381). This may sound like a cheerless sentence, but cheer up: there may be no foolproof system, but there are ways to trap the truth in myths. According to Campbell, myths are like the god Proteus (sometimes called the Old Man of the Sea) in the Odyssey who “always speaks the truth” (Homer 52, my emphasis). Powerpoint! But first you must catch him and hold onto writing, him, which isn’t easy because he constantly changes shapes in order to get away. “He will turn into all sorts of shapes to try you, into all the slider creatures of that live and dtp resume, move upon the earth, into water, into powerpoint, blazing fire; but you must hold him fast and press him all the harder” (Homer 53). Great advice for any student of myth!

Hold onto that story, no matter how much it changes or how weird it seems, and eventually it will calm down and dtp resume, answer your questions. But Proteus only answers the specific questions put to him. So, to get good answers, you have to powerpoint slider, ask a lot of different questions. Brandenberg, Aliki .The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. p. 30. 1994. Burkert, Walter. Ancient Mystery Cults. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. Campbell, Joseph. Resume Pldt! The Hero with a Thousand Faces.

2nd ed. Powerpoint Slider! Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398. Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper, 1963. David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191. Dundes, Alan. “The Flood as Male Myth of Creation.” The Flood Myth.

Ed. Alan Dundes. Resume Pldt! Berkeley: U of California P, 1988. 167-182. Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon Schuster) 1939:23. Eliade, Mircea.

The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History. 1949. Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. Finley, M. I. The World of Odysseus. New York: Meridian Books, 1959. Gennep, Arnold van.

The Rites of Passage. 1909. Trans. Monika B. Vizedom and powerpoint slider, G. L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1960. Greek and Roman Mythology”, Mythology: Myths, Legends, Fantasy, Sweet Water Press, 2003, p. 21, ISBN 9781468265903. Thorfinnsson, Snorri . The prose Edda: Norse mythology. London: Penguin, 2005. Print. Hesiod. Works and essay on add, Days / Theogony.

Trans. Slider! Stanley Lombardo. Essay Networking! Indianapolis: Hacket, 1993. Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Powerpoint Slider! W. H. D. Cali On Resume! Rouse. New York: NAL 1937. Hamilton, Edith .Mythology (1998 ed.). New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467. 1942.

ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1. Jung, Carl Gustav and Carl Ker??nyi. Essays on a Science of Mythology. 1949. Powerpoint Slider! Princeton: Princeton UP, 1963. Kirk, G. S. The Nature of Greek Myths. New York: Penguin, 1974. Leach, Edmund. Claude L??vi-Strauss. New York: Penguin, 1970.

Morford, Mark P. O. and Robert J. Lenardon. Personal Essay On Add! Classical Mythology. Slider! 4th ed. New York: Longman, 1991. Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is personal essay on add, no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, “The Minoan belief-system” (Routledge) 1990:125. Seznec, Jean. The Survival of the Ancient Gods. New York: Harper, 1961. Wells,JohnC.

Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman.1990. ISBN 0582053838. Search our thousands of powerpoint slider, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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