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How to essay Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the most popular in statements for grad school the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the essay most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to school?” For new and research paper emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to put on your CV, but to apply for “experience” in the form of exhibitions, grants, and for marriage schooling, you are asked to provide a CV.
Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into an artist’s CV format. Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist. Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. If you haven’t already read How to Create an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps, start there. Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the citing within points, aimed specifically at for marriage “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an statements for grad artist. Refer to for marriage point 1 in the original article. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of other material and experiences to add to and the great the rest of the for marriage CV, this is proxemics research, a good opportunity to tell your reader about yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about essay for marriage experiences which don’t fit into for a job the rest of the CV. If you are going to do this, just remember to keep it brief and essay for marriage concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest.
You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of bad contact details: Sometimes called the world’s most famous artist. Email me! [email protected] Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for citing within an essay mla, some reason the education section of a CV tends to for marriage be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way.
DON’T list any education on open papers, your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of a good education history, for essay for marriage, those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of letter for teachers philippines a bad education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund. Has received feedback from for marriage, Geoff Parker.
Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to include it on letter for teachers, your CV before it’s happened. Just add “(forthcoming)” to each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky. I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV. Essay For Marriage. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. In other words, someone made art and put it somewhere without invitation or the formal facets of a traditional exhibition. Writing Personal Statements School. I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property. It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and certainly an essay artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history.
Just make sure you classify it properly, as to application letter for teachers not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list. Refer to point 5 from the essay original article. If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in personal for grad school any public collections. Essay. Luckily, it’s fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by their location. Research. You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to for marriage be listed as a collector of your work, and / or if you have some other reason to personal statements for grad school do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of for marriage these you can convert to research “Private collection,” followed by location.
DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of for marriage some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better).
Center your text with large margins. Yes, this is cheating when you’re writing an essay. But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and proxemics striking. Include an artist statement and CV on essay for marriage, one single page. Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, it’s a great way to proxemics research paper make your presentation look great.
69 thoughts on essay for marriage, “ How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to personal school read this again for sure. Have a lovely day. God Bless. Nice.
Always a pleasure to read a well thought out post. Hello, I’m an emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. I am an assistant for essay, two artists – one well-known in my area and one very well-known in the larger art world. For Teachers Philippines. I would like to include this work experience in essay my CV somewhere. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid. Within An Essay. While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in essay order to gain experience in the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist.
I believe it would be helpful to have their names on my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Adoption Papers. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to essay add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to great depression essays list them under. I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this! I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002)
A lot of young and emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to add to essay their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to their passions and to their craft. Your blog reminds me of citing within mla a women who is essay for marriage, currently offering a very unique service by open adoption research papers, showcasing her skills in spray-painting. For Marriage. I implore anyone and everyone to click the following link to see what she has to offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for citing within mla, this help, i really need it! Questions : In the exhibitions should i also include the title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”? My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and for marriage it looks a little repeating!!
Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the australia great title of the show if there is one. Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you! How should I include online features? I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to essay do with features/interviews that are not in English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and proxemics research paper include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary).
and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it! I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in essay for marriage my about me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners.
I’d like to proxemics research get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading. For Marriage. I have had my work in a few short term shows (not in galleries), and I’ve also just been juried in to show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling. Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to be in a “gallery” or does a bunch of artists getting together to put on a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in a gallery for five years count, and if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an citing mla exhibition. I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for the date.
This is one of the best, and easiest articles to understand,I would refer you to everyone.Thank you. Thank you for such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for for marriage, an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the open research papers residency. I feel proud to be invited, should I add this to my resume? Certainly you should!
Just make sure that it is worded in such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the essay for marriage residency. This is australia great essays, super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to put together a CV [I am mainly an for marriage abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to answering questions job list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery. For Marriage. Through this I have had some press and many juried shows.
Should I include some of that in my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is part of your artistic experience. You don’t have to differentiate between the australia and the depression two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the exhibitions together. Likewise with press. I’m kind of wondering the same thing as the business person in a reply a few posts up. I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to essay do with art. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. What I’ve learned about australia great art is from (lots of) reading and doing. I feel like I’m creating a body of for marriage work that is relevant and has plenty to letter for teachers say, but my only meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is slowly, but steadily gaining followers. For Marriage. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that I’d rather not get into australia and the great essays here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for for marriage, now, and I would really like my work to just speak for itself. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about australia this?
Thanks very much. This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to submit works for an upcoming arts festival. I’m using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of artists and writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to me. I also plan on enrolling in school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college.
Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey… Thank you for this great article. I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to essay for marriage put on research paper, CV — should I put them all??– or only the award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in essay for marriage art major so I’m very new to research paper the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the most recent awards, as well as the largest or the for marriage ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. Questions For A. You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the for marriage “winner”, just make sure to indicate. This is research paper, extremely helpful. Thank you.
Echoing the long line of thank yous for this and a quick question – I’m primarily trying to essay promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and australia great depression while I think I probably should include it because it’s in a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to essay for marriage include and what to answering essay questions job talk about. This is essay for marriage, very helpful! I wonder how best to research show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to stop for financial reasons. hi there all again…. Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bio’s by any chance?!
Thanks for essay, the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV. I also had my work on citing within an essay mla, display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on my CV?
You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the agricultural fair. If the works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is wonderful and this post has been most helpful. My query: I sold one of my photographs to a large, well-known company for use in a film, and for marriage I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for essays, your help and essay time in proxemics research replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the essay for marriage well-known company is now the owner of the questions job work.
Side note: since the piece was in essay a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by name unless they have given you permission to within share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to whether I could list them under “collections”. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is commissioned for personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on a CV? It’s remarkable in support of essay for marriage mee to citing within an essay mla have a site, which is beneficial designed for my knowledge. Thanks so much for for marriage, this. Writing Statements For Grad. It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to have on the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao!
This is essay, great info…i am an writing personal statements abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to for marriage put in the pictures of the works you had done for citing within an essay mla, an artist in for marriage your portfolio. I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works. For Teachers. Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the for marriage work. thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at an art market and wanted to open papers include this on for marriage, my CV. Where would this fit under? Also, just to clarify on the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the same state(or county in England). Open Research. Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in?
Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for this– it’s so useful. One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV? I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in for marriage a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and letter for teachers what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and for marriage commented: I’m entering the answering for a job Ellarslie Open in Trenton NJ and for essay for marriage, the first time encountered a request to submit an artist’s resume along with my work. This led me to a post on open adoption research, The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to essay for marriage all artists.
hi there, thank all of you very much to share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and citing mla not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in advance best regards berkeley. I have an essay interesting situation. I started out as a fine artist in the 80’s. Then I veered off and became very successful as an illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an actor. Answering Essay For A. I came back to illustration at the turn of for marriage century and had lots of success. About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to australia great depression fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at essay high profiles competitions. Personal School. I’ve sold and for marriage still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and through an agent in Germany. I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that.
All of a sudden I’m getting interest from several representational galleries. I’m given speaking engagements and an essay mla workshops. And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though I’ve been doing art for a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of my winnings and exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. Essay For Marriage. What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you!
Very helpful the australia great comments too. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”. As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in for marriage my CV. As you say, don’t OVER play it. Thank you again for this. Writing the CV is putting a knot in my stomach.
You helped me break it down simplify it. Essays. I think I can actually manage it now. For Marriage. #128578;
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Whenever you do include such material, i.e. Proxemics Paper! things that go in the direction opposite to for marriage your main thesis, be careful to australia great depression essays put it into for marriage only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the answering essay for a, reader unnecessarily. Essay! In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an application letter for teachers, unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. For Marriage! Without good transitions, the australia great essays, reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to essay for marriage be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from answering essay questions for a job, one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the for marriage, paragraph begins and ends.
If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to citing within an essay finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to essay for marriage do it takes a lot of practice at first, and proxemics paper, actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. Essay! One rule of proxemics research paper, thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . Essay For Marriage! , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much.
In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only application for teachers philippines when necessary. Once the organization is essay, good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the open, words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to for marriage a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the for teachers, words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from essay for marriage, now or in another part of the within an essay, world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and essay, should mean precisely what you have written.
Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. Depression! When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Essay! Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over open research, it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the essay, real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and letter for teachers, diplomatic When writing about for marriage another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and personal for grad, the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. For Marriage! At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea.
In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and research papers, not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). Essay! E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).).
A formal document needs to statements for grad be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is essay for marriage, to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of within an essay mla, your thesis in the body of the paper, and essay for marriage, (3) restate the citing, thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for essay an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the and the great depression, introduction.
Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in essay for marriage a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in within the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of for marriage, your document; if not, either the application letter philippines, paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in for marriage extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an job, entire thought, not just a fragment or the essay, beginning of australia great depression essays, a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of essay for marriage, one.
To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to an essay mla be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. For Marriage! However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in an essay turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an for marriage, error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to australia and the essays leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the for marriage, reader will get out of that section. Australia And The Great Depression! In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion.
If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. For Marriage! if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about citing an essay what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the essay for marriage, document. Australia And The Depression! Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of for marriage, person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in research your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and for marriage, those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in school those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the for marriage, introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the adoption, paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in essay for marriage subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and application letter for teachers philippines, 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections.
That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and for marriage, 1.1 should be merged. Proxemics Paper! Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of for marriage, what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on proxemics paper to the essay, next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on within an essay what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at essay, interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article.
In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the writing personal statements, article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in for marriage the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the citing within, main text. Even in essay such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is within an essay, clear. Essay! You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to questions job avoid ambiguous references Conversation is essay for marriage, replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the and the great depression, context. Essay For Marriage! In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over answering questions job, anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For Marriage! For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?.
For such a reference to and the great essays make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Essay! Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in open your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the essay, reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the an essay mla, actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the essay for marriage, type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is research, less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is essay for marriage, a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for answering essay questions job detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is essay for marriage, confused with other actual words.
As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of personal statements for grad school, your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to essay for marriage use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and application letter philippines, trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. For Marriage! If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the open adoption papers, result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation.
I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item.
Thus it is essay for marriage, not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the answering essay, first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in essay English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case.
Capitalization is great depression essays, appropriate only for essay specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only great essays when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is for marriage, a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. Citing An Essay! President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of essay for marriage, several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the proxemics, meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the for marriage, parentheses in a mathematical expression.
They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the essay questions for a, meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by essay default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. Writing For Grad! But the essay for marriage, phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and research paper, using the essay for marriage, hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and essay questions for a job, so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an essay for marriage, early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). Adoption Research Papers! You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes.
In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. Essay! For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the australia great, phrase would be quite difficult to read. Essay For Marriage! But in and the essays such cases it is often clearer just to essay for marriage reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the proxemics research paper, hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and for marriage, so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is research paper, not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the essay for marriage, phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation).
Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. Statements For Grad! all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the for marriage, document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to writing school how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and essay for marriage, reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents.
If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. Citing Within An Essay Mla! most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is essay for marriage, necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is personal statements for grad, not an acceptable substitute for for marriage a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the school, results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends.
They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to essay for marriage draw attention to that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in application letter for teachers a database lookup -- if the name is for marriage, misspelled (e.g. Open Research! Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work.
So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the essay, same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to letter philippines other texts Use double quotes around the title of an essay for marriage, article when you refer to within mla it in the text.
Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of essay, indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on open any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into for marriage discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on personal statements for grad such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the essay for marriage, author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive.
Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into personal for grad a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the for marriage, text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. Essay Questions Job! if the essay for marriage, work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in citing within an essay this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for essay your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to writing for grad criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to essay verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of answering questions for a job, British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the essay for marriage, paper A lot of research, students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy.
If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Essay! Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to within an essay mla be reminded of this. Essay For Marriage! Academic writing is always about papers and letter for teachers, authors, and essay for marriage, thus those topics should only essay questions for a job be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of for marriage, research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is answering for a, going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and essay, how you are going to do some of for a job, what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the for marriage, limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is and the great depression, a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely.
Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. For Marriage! In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to letter tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to essay see if you got the open research papers, right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to essay for marriage answer, the proxemics research paper, specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the for marriage, discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to philippines see in essay for marriage the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. Citing! The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to essay for marriage assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant.
In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and proxemics paper, explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to for marriage understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of within mla, allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the essay for marriage, correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in adoption papers all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow.
One common approach is to essay use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and research, Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . Essay! known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in answering for a job parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the essay, sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Proxemics Paper! Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and essay, not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to adoption research distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Essay! Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and answering essay, scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Essay For Marriage! Others argue that omitting I and we results in open adoption research awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences.
Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. For Marriage! When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and writing personal statements school, thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in essay academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to personal school fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. For Marriage! :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation.
However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the application letter, whole notion of essay, quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is open, hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to essay make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is australia depression, a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and for marriage, after the dash. Without the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to writing personal statements make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash.
Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to essay for marriage be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list.
For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and open adoption, eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is essay, ambiguous. Moreover, in for grad school the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at essay, least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by proxemics research paper the computer programmer in essay for marriage me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and letter, e.g. Essay! Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and within an essay, e.g. Essay For Marriage! used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for proxemics this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know).
However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to essay for marriage Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to answering essay for a omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in for marriage the public domain. Application For Teachers! You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.
If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the essay, original author.
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2008 essay contest 2008 DNA Day High School Essay Contest Winners. Essay For Marriage? Question 1: Discuss the practical implications that genetics research is playing in our lives today. Paper? Discuss where is might lead us in the next 10 years. Kristin Young (11) Athol High School. As I spin around in essay for marriage, my computer chair, I see many different things. Application Letter For Teachers? I see a picture of my friends, one of whom has watched her mother battle breast cancer over the last few years. Through the essay, doorway I spot my parents making salad out of, what I feel safe assuming are, genetically modified vegetables.
Then I pass by the television, knowing that, were I to turn it on, I could probably catch a news story about one of the many continually emerging biological controversies of today. The one thing that all of these thoughts have in and the great depression essays, common is the same thing that every living being has in common: genetics. Everything from a weed to an elephant has DNA, and advancements in the field of genetics are helping us to understand and, in more recent years, manipulate these complex macromolecules that determine who and what we are. Elaine Chung (11) Montgomery Blair High School. Essay For Marriage? Using Genetics to Find the Right Fit Genetic testing is research, a necessity in personalizing medications. In the future, with more genes being identified that affect a patient#8217;s reaction to a drug, people will no longer have to take a genetic test for essay, each drug. Instead a more efficient approach would be to and the great simply map the patient#8217;s genome. This advancement can lead to a positive feedback cycle; with more patients getting their genomes mapped, scientists will be able to identify genes that determine how patients react to medications, thus giving people more of an essay incentive to writing personal for grad school get their genomes mapped. Christian Fagel (12) Health care in the US is founded primarily upon for marriage the relatively inefficient method of reacting to symptoms as patients encounter them. Writing Personal? From brain tumors to heart disease, various illnesses are rarely detected until patients become physically aware of the symptoms and essay for marriage see their physicians for diagnosis.
This problem of delayed discovery and intervention often results in letter philippines, less effective treatment as the small window of opportunity during which the disease could be most easily stopped had most likely passed. Furthermore, our current methods of essay for marriage, treatment and administration of answering essay for a job, drugs are rather indiscriminate. About 100,000 cases per essay, year results in adverse reactions due to application letter usage of mass-produced, #8220;one-size-fits-all#8221; drugs (Philipkoski). Essay For Marriage? Question 2: If you were a genetics researcher, what would you like to study and why? Aracdia High School. Alzheimer#8217;s is a disease that afflicts about four million Americans, including my two surviving grandparents. Over the past five years I have watched first one and writing personal for grad then the other struggle with the forgetfulness, withdrawal, and for marriage loss of philippines, independence that manifest themselves in Alzheimer#8217;s disease.
They have difficulty recognizing me and remembering conversations we have only moments before. Simple, everyday tasks have become laborious chores that others must help them execute. Alzheimer#8217;s is the most common disease to affect the adult brain and takes its toll on families across the globe. Research is being done to accumulate knowledge of the disease and explore possible methods for preventing or alleviating its symptoms. If I were a human genetics researcher, I would find it thrilling to be a part of the encouraging headway being made in the research of Alzheimer#8217;s disease. Briana Skalski (12) An Alternative to essay Alzheimer#8217;s. Researchers today have found that genetic therapy can affect the progression of open research papers, Alzheimer#8217;s.
Scientists have successfully injected patients with skin cells genetically altered to rejuvenate neurons. As a genetics researcher, I would like to pursue further research on gene therapy. My experiments would focus on the human APP gene, the gene responsible for the build up of amyloid plaque. The mutated gene damages neurons by producing a mutated amyloid precursor protein which blocks protein transports in the mitochondrial membrane of neuron cells. The blockage makes it impossible for mitochondria to import proteins and produce metabolic energy, causing the neuron to die and plaque to build from beta amyloid protein. Scientists are unsure what characteristics of the protein create blockage within mitochondria of for marriage, neurons; however, they are led to believe the blockage results from its partial negative charge or large size as a result of improper protein folding. Interestingly, one of the six APP gene mutations does not create a blocking amyloid precursor protein.
In my experiment, I would like to analyze six groups of mice, each with one of the questions job, six APP gene mutations. First, I will work with the mice with the mutated APP gene that does not block mitochondrial pathways. With information on the genetic sequence, I will compare it to essay the other five sequences and proxemics decipher the reason for the blockage, whether it is the negative charge or incorrect folding of the amyloid precursor protein. After successfully isolating the for marriage, part of the sequence causing the adoption papers, harmful blockage, I will use RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the gene. Silencing the gene will make it unproductive in essay, nervous tissue, yet productive and harmless in other tissues.
If successful, this experiment will partially solve one of Alzheimer#8217;s related gene mutations. Razan Dababo (10) Mercy High School. About a century and a half ago, in letter, an abbey garden, a monk named Gregor Mendel commenced a breeding experiment that shed light on the #8220;heritable factors#8221; that are passed from parents to offspring. Essay? According to the Mendelian model of writing personal statements for grad school, inheritance, discrete factors, known today as genes, account for traits present in offspring. However, it is evident today that genes and the sequence of bases found in DNA are not the sole determinants of traits.
Epigenetics, an emerging science, confirms that a variety of factors, including chemicals, influence gene expression, and thus, phenotype and predisposition to disease. A clear understanding of and extensive experimentation on these external factors and essay for marriage how they affect gene expression holds great therapeutic and scientific potential, and as a genetics researcher, this would be a field I would definitely investigate. The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated.
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example phd proposal Sample Proposals for for marriage, the Undergraduate Engineering Review. Before an article, report, or brief is accepted into the Undergraduate Engineering Review, the essay, author must first submit a proposal that specifies the importance of the research, the scope and limitations of the research, and the methods for the research. For Marriage! Submitters should read the journal's Request for Proposals before submitting. A Proposal to Research the Storage Facility.
for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain. There are many questions regarding the safety of the Yucca Mountain waste repository. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the letter for teachers, proposed high level nuclear waste site located in Nevada. In 1994, Charles Bowman, a researcher at for marriage Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of storing waste in australia and the essays the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and explode, similar to an atomic bomb [Taubes, 1995]. Essay! The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at statements for grad school Yucca Mountain. Bowman's theory that Yucca Mountain could explode is based upon the idea that enough waste will eventually disperse through the essay for marriage, rock to create a critical mass. A critical mass is an amount of fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to start a neutron chain reaction [Murray, 1989]. Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the rocks in the ground would help keep the system compressed and speed up the writing for grad school, chain reaction [Taubes, 1995]. Essay For Marriage! A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of energy in a fraction of a second, resulting in answering essay for a job a nuclear blast. A nuclear explosion of this magnitude would emit large amounts of radioactivity into the air and ground water.
Another safety concern is the possibility of a volcanic eruption in Yucca Mountain. Essay For Marriage! The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to writing statements for grad remain stable for at least 10,000 years to allow the radioactive isotopes to for marriage decay to natural levels [Clark, 1997]. There are at least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the proposed Yucca Mountain waste site [Weiss, 1996]. Research! The proximity of Yucca Mountain to these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository. Essay For Marriage! Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of radioactivity to proxemics research paper the environment. (1) explain the criteria for a suitable repository of high-level radioactive waste; and. (2) determine whether Yucca Mountain meets these criteria. According to for marriage the Department of Energy (DOE), a repository for letter for teachers, high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including safety, location, and economics [Roush, 1995].
Safety includes not only the effect of the repository on people near the site, but also people along the transportation routes to the site. In my research I will consider both groups of people. As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply. For Marriage! Also, because one of the most significant factors in determining the life span of a possible repository is how long the waste storage canisters will remain in tact, the waste site must be located in a dry climate to eliminate the moisture that can cause the waste canisters to corrode. Open Adoption! The economics involved in for marriage selecting a site is another criterion. Answering Questions For A! At present, the Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than 1.7 billion dollars on essay the Yucca Mountain project [Taubes, 1995]. For that reason, much pressure exists to select Yucca Mountain as a repository site; otherwise, this money would have been wasted.
Other costs, though, have to be considered. For instance, how economical is it to transport radioactive waste across several states to a single national site? I will try to account for as many of and the great depression, these other costs as possible. After explaining the criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. In this assessment, I will not assign a numerical score for each criterion. Rather, I will discuss qualitatively how well Yucca Mountain meets each criterion. In some situations, disagreement exists among experts as to how well Yucca Mountain meets a criterion.
In such cases, I will present both sides. In this assessment, only Yucca Mountain will be considered as a possible site. Although many sites in the United States could meet the DOE's established criteria, I will consider only Yucca Mountain because the DOE is considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995]. The first goal of my research is to explain the criteria for determining whether a nuclear waste repository is suitable. Essay For Marriage! For example, will the rock structure be able to withstand human invasion in the future [Clark, 1997]? What will happen if the waste containers corrode and do not last as long as predicted? Will the natural setting contain the waste? To achieve this goal, I will rely on Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Standards for Yucca Mountain [Clark, 1997], the DOE Yucca Mountain home page , and the book Understanding Radioactive Waste [Murray, 1989]. A second goal of my literature review is to evaluate Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. I will base my evaluation on the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards. Australia And The Essays! I also intend to research the validity of possible environmental disasters, such as the essay, explosion theory.
To accomplish this goal, I will rely on application letter the paper presented by Clark , and on the book Blowup at Yucca Mountain [Taubes, 1995]. Because engineering students are the primary audience for my proposed research topic and may not be familiar with the history of nuclear waste, I will provide a background on past methods used for waste storage. For Marriage! People in the nuclear field with some knowledge of the waste problem facing the industry may be a secondary audience. Figure 1. Open Adoption Papers! Schedule for completion of the literature review. The formal presentation will be on October 27, and essay the formal report will be completed by December 5.
Given that all my sources are available through the University of application for teachers philippines, Wisconsin library system, there is for marriage no appreciable cost associated with performing this review, unless one takes into consideration the amount of tuition spent on maintaining the adoption research, university libraries. The only other minor costs are photocopying articles, creating transparencies for my presentation, printing my report, and binding my report. I estimate these expenses will not exceed $20. I am a senior in essay the Engineering Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, majoring in nuclear engineering and physics. Questions For A! I have taken several classes related to nuclear waste, economics, and environmental studies. I believe that these courses will aid me in preparing the proposed review. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume. Kerr, R., New Way to Ask the essay, Experts: Rating Radioactive Waste Risks, Science, vol.274, (November1996), pp. 913-914. Murray, Raymond L., Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989). Roush, W., Can Nuclear Waste Keep Yucca Mountain Dry-and Safe?
Science, vol. Letter! 270, (December 1995), pp. 1761-1762. Taubes, G., Blowup at Yucca Mountain, Science, vol.268, (June 1995), pp. Essay! 1836-1839. A Proposal to proxemics research paper Review How Geophysical Precursors. Can Help Predict Earthquakes.
Throughout the world, devastating earthquakes occur with little or no advance warning. Some of essay, these earthquakes kill hundreds of people. If the times, magnitudes, and locations of these earthquakes could be accurately predicted, many lives could be saved. This document proposes a review of how monitoring geophysical precursors can help in the short-term prediction of earthquakes. And The Great Depression Essays! The proposed review will discuss the physical principles behind the monitoring of essay for marriage, three common precursors and writing personal statements school evaluate how accurate each monitoring is in for marriage predicting earthquakes. Included in writing personal statements for grad school this proposal are my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications. On the essay for marriage, morning of April 18, 1906, the population of San Francisco was awakened by violent shaking and by the roar caused by the writhing and collapsing of buildings [Hodgson, 1964]. The ground appeared to be thrown into waves that twisted railways and paper broke the pavement into essay for marriage, great cracks. Many buildings collapsed, while others were severely damaged.
The earthquake caused fires in fifty or more points throughout the city. Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken. As a result, the fires quickly spread throughout the city and continued for three days. The fires destroyed a 5 square-mile section at the heart of the proxemics paper, city [Mileti and essay for marriage Fitzpatrick, 1993]. Even more disastrous was the Kwanto earthquake in research papers Japan that devastated the essay, cities of Yokohama and Tokyo on September 1, 1923 [Hodgson, 1993].
In Yokohama, over 50 percent of the buildings were destroyed [Bolt, 1993], and as many as 208 fires broke out and spread through the city [Hodgson, 1964]. When the disaster was over, 33,000 people were dead [Bolt, 1993]. In Tokyo, the damage from the essay questions for a, earthquake was less, but the resulting fires were more devastating. The fires lasted three days and destroyed 40 percent of the city [Hodgson, 1964]. After the fire, 68,000 people were dead and 1 million people were homeless [Bolt, 1993]. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the Kwanto earthquake were two of the most famous and devastating earthquakes of this century. These earthquakes struck without warning and with disastrous results. If earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to evacuate from buildings, bridges, and overpasses, where most deaths occur. Some earthquakes have been successfully predicted. One of the most famous predictions was the essay, Haicheng Prediction in China. In 1970, Chinese scientists targeted the Liaoning Province as a site with potential for a large earthquake.
These scientists felt that an earthquake would occur there in 1974 or 1975. On December 20, 1974, an earthquake warning was issued. Answering Essay For A! Two days later, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck the Liaoning Province; however, further monitoring suggested a larger earthquake was imminent [Mileti and others, 1981]. On February 4, 1975, the Chinese issued a warning that an earthquake would strike Haicheng within 24 hours [Bolt, 1993]. The people in Haicheng were evacuated, and about 5.5 hours later, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake shook the city of essay for marriage, Haicheng.
If the australia depression, people hadn't been evacuated, the death toll could have exceeded 100,000. Using geophysical precursors, the Chinese have predicted more than ten earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 [Meyer, 1977]. For example, the Chinese predicted a pair of earthquakes of magnitude 6.9 that occurred 97 minutes apart in Yunnan on May 19, 1976 [Bolt, 1993]. For Marriage! Despite these successes, the Chinese failed to predict the earthquake that struck the research, city of Tangshan on July 27, 1976; this earthquake killed 250,000 people and injured 500,000 more [Bolt, 1988]. This earthquake wasn't completely unexpected, but the Chinese believed it to be a few years away. Other earthquakes have been predicted, but the predictions didn't have enough precision for warnings to be issued.
For example, in 1983, a young geophysicist predicted that an earthquake of magnitude 8 would strike Mexico City within four years [Deshpande, 1987]. Two years later, an essay for marriage, earthquake of magnitude 8 did strike Mexico City. An Essay! Because the prediction was not more precise, no warning was issued and the earthquake took the for marriage, population of research papers, Mexico City by surprise. Other predictions have turned out to be false warnings. For example, an earthquake warning was issued in August 1976 near Hong Kong [Bolt, 1988]. During the earthquake alert, people slept outdoors for two months. No earthquake occurred. I propose to review the available literature on how geophysical precursors can be used for short-term predictions of earthquakes. Essay! In this review, I will achieve the following three goals: explain three commonly monitored geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks; show what happens to each of these precursors during the proxemics paper, five stages of an for marriage, earthquake; and.
discuss how each of essay, these precursors is used for short-term earthquake predictions. Geophysical precursors are changes in the physical state of the earth that are precursory to earthquakes. In addition to monitoring geophysical precursors, there are other strategies for predicting earthquakes-in particular, analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes. Analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes, however, is solely a long-term prediction technique [Bolt, 1993]. For that reason, I will not consider it. In my review, I will discuss three common geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks. For Marriage! Earthquakes occur in five stages as there is a build up of elastic strain within faults in the earth, followed by the development of cracks in the rocks, then the proxemics paper, influx of water into those cracks.
The fourth stage is the essay for marriage, actual rupture of the fault and answering questions for a job the release of seismic waves. The fifth stage is the sudden drop in stress in the fault. In this stage, aftershocks occur. During these five stages, the geophysical precursors follow distinct patterns. For instance, the ground uplift and tilt increases during the second stage as the volume of rock increases. In my review, I will relate how the three geophysical precursors relate to essay the five stages of an earthquake and research paper how well this relation can be used to predict the oncoming fault rupture.
This section presents my plan for essay for marriage, obtaining the objectives discussed in the previous section. Personal Statements! Because of the recent earthquakes in California and Japan, there has arisen a strong interest to predict earthquakes precisely. Essay For Marriage! As a consequence of that strong interest, many books and journals have been written on earthquakes and earthquake prediction. I have gathered five books and several articles on research the subject. Essay! In addition, there are dozens of writing personal statements, books and for marriage articles available in the library. These books and articles should provide sufficient information for application philippines, me to for marriage write my review. The following paragraphs discuss how I will use these sources in my research. The first goal of my research is to explain the physical principles behind monitoring geophysical precursors. For example, why does the electrical resistivity of rocks decrease before an oncoming earthquake? Or, what does a sudden increase in personal statements radon emissions reveal about the future likelihood of for marriage, a massive earthquake?
The second goal of my research is to show what happens to each of these precursors during the an essay mla, five stages of an earthquake. To achieve these two goals, I will rely on three books that give an overview to earthquake prediction: Earthquakes [Bolt, 1988], Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993], and Earthquakes and Earth Structure [Hodgson, 1964]. A third primary goal of the literature review is to cover the accuracy of monitoring each precursor. Essay For Marriage! By accuracy, I mean how well does the method work in predicting the time, place, and size of earthquakes. This discussion will not include many statistics on the predictions of earthquakes, because at present there just haven't been enough successful predictions to validate these types of statistics. Instead, I intend to evaluate the potential accuracy of monitoring each precursor based on the opinions of experts and preliminary data. To achieve this goal, I will rely on two of my most recent sources: The Great Earthquake Experiment [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993] and Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993]. Should I require additional sources other than the letter for teachers, ones I have, I will search for them in the library system at the University of Wisconsin. Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly. Because the primary readers for my proposed literature review are engineering students who are probably not familiar with the theories behind earthquakes, I will have to provide selected background information frommy sources. These engineering students already know that earthquakes are devastating.
They also know that if earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to essay prepare for them and and the great lives would be saved. However, they may not know the different methods of predicting earthquakes. Essay! My intent is to inform these students of three methods of predicting earthquakes. A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in earthquake-prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur. My proposed literature review will provide this group with an questions for a, unbiased discussion of three methods for earthquake prediction. This discussion, drawing much from overview chapters in Earthquakes, Animals and Man [Deshpande, 1987] and California Quake [Meyer, 1977], will put into perspective how accurate, or inaccurate, the named methods are and what hurdles face engineers who try to predict earthquakes. This section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for performing the proposed research. Essay! The proposed research project culminates in a formal report that will be completed by proxemics paper December 6, 1995. To reach this goal, I will follow the schedule presented in Figure 1. Because I already possess several books and essay articles on earthquake prediction, most of my time will be spent sifting through the information, finding the key results, and presenting those results to proxemics paper the audience. Figure 1. Schedule for completion of literature review.
The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the first being the formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and the second being the formal report on December 6, 1996. Given that I can obtain all my sources for the literature review from the essay for marriage, library, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this literature review. The only citing within an essay costs, which will be minor, are for copying articles, printing the essay, review, and spiral binding the depression essays, review. I estimate that I can do these tasks for under $10. I am a senior in the Geological Engineering Department at for marriage the University of Wisconsin at Madison. In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and stratigraphy, all of which have included the principles of seismology and stress-strain relationships. In addition, I have taken field courses on australia great essays structural geology that have introduced me to subsurface behaviors. I believe that these courses and my hands-on experience will aid me in assimilating the essay for marriage, proposed literature review. Australia And The Depression! For further information about essay for marriage my qualifications, see the proxemics research, attached resume (not attached on essay for marriage this web site) . Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988). Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993). Deshpande, Prof.
B. G., Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for proxemics paper, the Cultivation of Science, 1987). Hodgson, John H., Earthquakes and essay for marriage Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964). Meyer, Larry L., California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977). Mileti, Dennis S., and Colleen Fitzpatrick, The Great Earthquake Experiment (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993). All materials at this web site are the intellectual property of the editors and open research papers authors.
You are more than welcome to make hypertext links as long as you give proper credit. If you have comments, suggestions, or questions, please direct them to one of the editors.
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Ligue 1, Paris-SG 3-1 Brest : Termine ( 37e journee ) match Temps Forts Notes Resultats et Classement Videos. En champion, le PSG s'impose logiquement face à Brest et peut faire la fête. Essay For Marriage! Le sourire est sur le visage des joueurs de la capitale, qui ont rendu hommage à Beckham, pour le dernier match de l'Anglais. Australia Great Depression Essays! Ibrahimovic, lui, y est allé d'un nouveau doublé. Le ballon circule dans les pieds bretons dans ces dernières secondes de jeu. Essay! Paris temporise tranquillement en attendant la fin du match. Temps additionnel : 3 minutes. Du coup, la rencontre est plutôt décousue depuis la sortie en jeu de Beckham. Research! Les Parisiens ne pensent plus vraiment au replacement défensif et Brest tente d'en profiter.
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Encore une fois, Brest ne démérite pas mais manque de tranchant dans le dernier geste. Raspentino est remplacé par Khaled pour Brest. Encore une fois, Areola est impeccable sur sa ligne suite à une frappe aux 20 mètres de Lesoimier, côté droit. And The Great Essays! Le gardien se couche parfaitement sur le ballon. La joie d'Ibrahimovic après l'ouverture du score de l'attaquant suédois. Jallet s'infiltre sur son côté droit et sert Lucas en retrait aux 25 mètres. Essay For Marriage! Le Brésilien arme un tir enroulé du droit complètement dévissé qui s'envole dans le ciel parisien. Encore une fois, Chafni tente de sauver l'honneur pour Brest.
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David Beckham, capitaine d'un soir du Paris-SG. Brest continue de vouloir aller de l'avant mais les Finistériens sont bien trop brouillons lorsqu'il s'agit de combiner dans la moitié de terrain adverse. Grougi prend sa chance d'une frappe lointaine aux 35 mètres, plein axe. Citing! Le tir du Brestois est puissant mais passe complètement au-dessus du cadre. Le Parc scande le nom d'''Ancelotti''. Essay! Le public parisien semble clairement vouloir garder son entraîneur la saison prochaine.
Brest est l'équipe qui a subi le plus de défaites en Ligue 1 cette saison (23). Statements For Grad! Dans les 4 grands championnats européens L1, seul Pescara en a subi davantage (27). Entré en jeu, Areola va donc lui aussi pouvoir goûter au titre de champion de France. Sirigu est remplacé par Areola pour le PSG. Essay For Marriage! Le tout premier match du jeune espoir parisien en Ligue 1 ! Chantôme est remplacé par Lucas ''Champion mon frère'' à la pause pour le PSG. C'est reparti entre le PSG et Brest. Paris fête comme il se doit son titre de champion en écrasant une équipe bretonne qui tente malgré tout de faire le jeu. Statements School! Ibrahimovic s'est offert un doublé et cristallise la suprématie francilienne.
Il n'y aura pas de temps additionnel. Encore une fois, Chafni teste Sirigu d'une frappe puissante du pied droit aux 30 mètres, plein axe. For Marriage! Le portier est vigilant et boxe le ballon en corner, des deux poings. Chafni réclame un penalty suite à une intervention de Tiéné sur le Brestois dans la surface parisienne. Adoption! Monsieur Buquet laisse le jeu se poursuivre.
Trouvé plein axe aux 30 mètres, Ibrahimovic contrôle le ballon de la poitrine avant de se l'amener en passant entre Makonda et Dieng. For Marriage! Le Suédois arme une frappe en force du pied droit qui manque le cadre pour quelques centimètres ! Brest reste sur 9 défaites de rang (2 buts marqués, 20 encaissés), soit la plus mauvaise série lors d'une saison de L1 depuis les 11 revers consécutifs de Grenoble en 2009/10. Le PSG fait le show pour son dernier match à domicile de la saison. Letter For Teachers! Ibrahimovic a marqué au passage son troisième coup franc direct en Ligue 1 cette année. Depuis le coup d'envoi du match, Brest a déjà armé 7 tirs, contre seulement 4 pour le PSG.
But d'Ibrahimovic ! Matuidi obtient un bon coup franc aux 25 mètres, côté gauche. For Marriage! Ibrahimovic arme une frappe surpuissante du pied droit qui vient contourner le mur avant de se loger dans la lucarne droite de Thébaux, impuissant ! Quel but ! Le PSG a gardé 23 ''clean sheets'', c'est un record pour une équipe lors d'une saison de L1. Le break est fait pour le club de la capitale. Answering! Sur sa frappe, Matuidi est chanceux, puisqu'il tire du tibia et que le dos de Makonda permet au ballon de lober Thébaux. But de Matuidi ! Sur un corner frappé côté gauche par Beckham, Matuidi est trouvé au niveau du point de penalty. Essay For Marriage! Le Parisien arme une reprise de demi-volée ratée qui vient taper le dos de Makonda avant de lober Thébaux ! Le rythme du match a perdu de son intensité depuis de très longues minutes. Letter Philippines! Les passes sont imprécises, de chaque côté du terrain. Titulaire face à Brest, Tiéné n'avait plus joué en Ligue 1 depuis 384 jours.
Paris ne parvient plus vraiment à être entreprenant depuis de longues minutes. For Marriage! Le début de match du club francilien était bouillant, mais le jeu du PSG manque désormais de mordant. Sirigu ! Ba prend sa chance d'une frappe puissante des 25 mètres, plein axe. Essay Questions For A! La trajectoire du ballon est déviée par le dos de Sakho et oblige l'Italien à une magnifique parade du bout du gant pour empêcher l'égalisation ! Le PSG de Carlo Ancelotti a gagné 34 matches et marqué 108 buts en L1 depuis l'arrivée du technicien italien en janvier 2012. Essay For Marriage! Aucune équipe ne fait aussi bien. D'ailleurs, la légende anglaise est particulièrement entreprenante depuis le coup d'envoi. Answering Job! Beckham vient chercher et récupérer de très nombreux ballons dans l'entrejeu.
Beckham veut se faire plaisir sur un coup franc direct aux 30 mètres, excentre côté gauche. Essay! Le ballon retombe derrière le but de Thébaux. Ibrahimovic n'est plus qu'à deux buts pour égaler le record de ''JPP'' de 30 buts inscrits en une saison en Ligue 1. Du côté de Brest, c'est Ba qui a été préféré à Benschop à la pointe de l'attaque bretonne. Proxemics Research Paper! Raspentino et Chafni l'épaulent sur les côtés.
Le PSG n'est pas aussi pressant qu'en début de rencontre. Essay For Marriage! Le club de la capitale laisse Brest prendre le jeu à son compte depuis quelques minutes. Le PSG aura attendu 19 ans avant d'être de nouveau sacré champion de France. Open Adoption Papers! Seuls le LOSC (57 ans de 1954 à 2011), les Girondins de Bordeaux (34 ans entre 1950 et 1984) et l'OM (23 ans de 1948 à 1971) ont attendu plus longtemps entre 2 titres. Pour l'instant, la rencontre est particulièrement agréable à suivre.
Malgré la rapide ouverture du score parisienne, les Bretons ne se découragent pas et tentent de repartir de l'avant. Le match aller entre Brest et le PSG a produit 41 tirs, aucune rencontre n'a été plus prolifique en L1 cette saison. Pastore oblige Thébaux à une parade en deux temps sur sa ligne de but suite à un tour aux 25 mètres, légèrement excentré côté gauche. Chafni remet ça, cette fois-ci des 25 mètres. Essay! Le tir puissant de l'ancien Auxerrois oblige Sirigu à une parade décisive sur sa ligne de but, repoussant le ballon en corner du bout du gant ! Chafni hérite du ballon aux 30 mètres, plein axe. Citing Within An Essay! Le Brestois prend sa chance d'une frappe croisée du gauche qui passe à côté de la cage de Sirigu, pas véritablement inquiété. Brest n'a gagné qu'un seul de ses 12 déplacements sur la pelouse du PSG en L1 (2-1, le 12 septembre 1981), subissant 5 nuls et 6 défaites. Le public du Parc des Princes fait déjà la fête dans les tribunes. Essay! Brest n'y est absolument pas et subit la domination francilienne.
Sur son banc de touche, Corentin Martins savait qu'il allait voir sa formation souffrir. And The Essays! Sans doute pas aussi rapidement. Gameiro hérite du ballon à l'entrée de la surface adverse, côté gauche, et dépose un caviar sur la tête d'Ibrahimovic qui double la mise. Essay! Seul souci, l'ancien Lorientais était en position de hors-jeu au départ du ballon. Sur une sublime ouverture de Beckham, Ibrahimovic est lancé dans le dos de la défense adverse. Research! Le Suédois se précipite vers le ballon dans la surface mais Thébaux gagne son duel face à l'attaquant en venant repoussant le ballon au loin ! Sur leur première véritable occasion de but, les Parisiens sont donc parvenus à ouvrir le score ! Le 28e but de la saison pour ''Ibra''.
But d'Ibrahimovic ! Sur son côté droit, Chantôme remet pour Ibrahimovic dans l'axe. Essay! Le Suédois mystifie Dieng d'un coup de rein pour pénétrer dans la surface adverse et armer une frappe croisée dans le petit filet opposé de Thébaux ! Brest reste sur 15 matches sans victoire face au PSG dans l'élite (7 nuls, 8 défaites). Paper! Le dernier succès du club breton face au PSG remonte au 26 janvier 1985 (3-1). Le PSG arbore donc son maillot domicile 2013/2014. Essay For Marriage! Brest évolue avec son maillot extérieur rouge. Le Parc affiche complet pour le dernier match de la saison à domicile. Within! Il pleut sur Paris mais la pelouse est pour l'instant en excellent état.
Monsieur Buquet siffle le coup d'envoi de la rencontre ! Pour le dernier match de David Beckham, Carlo Ancelotti a donné le brassard de capitaine à la légende anglaise. Pour fêter le titre, le PSG a notamment voulu en faire profiter ses anciennes gloires : Rai, Ginola, Weah, Guérin, Cobos ou encore Bravo ont été célébrés par les supporters du Parc. Durant l'échauffement, les Parisiens ont arboré un t-shirt en hommage à Nick Broad, préparateur physique du PSG décédé au début de l'année. En face, Brest est relégué. Essay For Marriage! Les Finistériens, auteurs d'une seconde partie de saison assez catastrophique, et minés par des soucis internes, n'ont jamais su relever la tête. Assuré d'être champion après sa victoire à Lyon dimanche dernier (1-0, but de Ménez), le club de la capitale peut terminer la saison en roue libre mais aura à coeur de faire plaisir à ses supporters pour son dernier match à domicile.
Bienvenue au Parc des Princes pour ce match de la 37e journée de Ligue 1 opposant le PSG à Brest.