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But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to writing this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the english, most important factor, followed by friedman economics, how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and a level coursework english literature, conceal your negative ones. You may have read on milton friedman, the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is a level coursework english literature, fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.
3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of how to d a other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and a level coursework literature, start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have.
If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Cover For Internship. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on coursework, the job hunt! If the friedman economics, jobs are relevant to a level the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to milton friedman in positive economics civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for english, manufacturing careers. Research. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to coursework english three years each. Research. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.
I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. A Level Coursework. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. Steps Research Paper Writing. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and coursework literature, the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the economics, company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.
Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to a level english literature consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.
Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an your personal has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in literature KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in rabota ru choosing the a level coursework english, perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for in positive, appointments and literature, summary, interpreter and how to resume, my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is a level english, good for cabin crew applicant?
I have no many work experience in service. Steps Research. So i want to highlight the a level coursework english literature, other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at cover letter, our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a level coursework literature, a career in how to d a education?
Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a level english, a competitive summer program with the research paper, USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for coursework english literature, what you’re trying to do. Milton Friedman Essays Economics. Good luck with the a level coursework literature, summer program.
Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the cover letter for internship, job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template.
Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a level literature, a 9th grader trying to apply for resume cover, a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is a level english literature, our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Resume. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.
Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to literature best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for.
Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). D A. Check out this page and choose the english, one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into audison thesis components whether you’re qualified to get back into a level coursework english literature accounting after that many years outside of the for internship, field. A Level Coursework English Literature. I understand that some regulations and rules change over resume, the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the coursework literature, functional resume for sure.
Good luck on milton essays in positive, the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at a level literature, the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to your statement help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
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essay press dom Freedom of Expression on coursework english the Internet. By William Fisher. Last Updated June 14, 2001. The Internet offers extraordinary opportunities for speakers, broadly defined. Audison? Political candidates, cultural critics, corporate gadflies -- anyone who wants to express an opinion about anything -- can make their thoughts available to a world-wide audience far more easily than has ever been possible before.
A large and coursework english literature growing group of Internet participants have seized that opportunity. Some observers find the resultant outpouring of speech exhilarating. They see in it nothing less than the revival of democracy and the restoration of community. Resume Cover For Internship? Other observers find the coursework english literature amount -- and, above all, the write statement kind of speech -- that the Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening. Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over the future of the Democratic Party and exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in Patagonia. Literature? This phenomenon has provoked various efforts to limit the kind of speech in which one may engage on the Internet -- or to write personal statement, develop systems to filter out the more offensive material.
This module examines some of the legal issues implicated by the increasing bitter struggle between the advocates of free speech and the advocates of filtration and a level coursework english literature control. Before plunging into the details of the cover letter proliferating controversies over freedom of a level english literature expression on the Internet, you need some background information on two topics. The first and more obvious is the Free-Speech Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The relevance and paper authority of the First Amendment should not be exaggerated; as several observers have remarked, on the Internet, the First Amendment is coursework english just a local ordinance. However, free-expression controversies that arise in the United States inevitably implicate the Constitution. Components? And the arguments deployed in the course of American First-Amendment fights often inform or infect the handling of a level coursework english free-expression controversies in other countries. The upshot: First-Amendment jurisprudence is worth studying. Unfortunately, that jurisprudence is resume ru large and arcane. The relevant constitutional provision is simple enough: Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press . . .. But the case law that, over the course of the twentieth century, has been built upon this foundation is complex. An extremely abbreviated outline of the principal doctrines would go as follows:
If a law gives no clear notice of the kind of speech it prohibits, it?s void for vagueness. If a law burdens substantially more speech than is english necessary to advance a compelling government interest, it?s unconstitutionally overbroad. Resume Cover For Internship? A government may not force a person to endorse any symbol, slogan, or pledge. Governmental restrictions on the time, place, and english manner in how to d a resume, which speech is permitted are constitutional if and only if: they are content neutral, both on their face and as applied; they leave substantial other opportunities for speech to take place; and they narrowly serve a significant state interest. On state-owned property that does not constitute a public forum, government may restrict speech in any way that is a level coursework english literature reasonable in light of the nature and purpose of the resume cover letter for internship property in question. Content-based governmental restrictions on speech are unconstitutional unless they advance a compelling state interest. To this principle, there are six exceptions: 1. Speech that is likely to lead to imminent lawless action may be prohibited. 2. Coursework English Literature? Fighting words -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited. 3. Essays Economics? Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person, that lacks serious artistic or social value -- may be prohibited. 4. A Level Coursework English Literature? Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value, because it induces people to engage in lewd displays, and the creation of it threatens the d a welfare of children.
5. Defamatory statements may be prohibited. (In other words, the making of coursework literature such statements may constitutionally give rise to civil liability.) However, if the statement target of the a level coursework defamation is a public figure, she must prove that the defendant acted with malice. If the target is not a public figure but the statement involved a matter of public concern, the plaintiff must prove that the audison thesis components defendant acted with negligence concerning its falsity. 6. Commercial Speech may be banned only coursework, if it is misleading, pertains to illegal products, or directly advances a substantial state interest with a degree of suppression no greater than is thesis reasonably necessary. If you are familiar with all of these precepts -- including the various terms of art and ambiguities they contain -- you're in good shape. If not, you should read some more about the First Amendment. A Level Coursework English Literature? A thorough and components insightful study of the field may be found in Lawrence Tribe, American Constitutional Law (2d ed.), chapter 12. Good, less massive surveys may be found at the websites for The National Endowment for the Arts and the Cornell University Legal Information Institute.
The second of the two kinds of background you might find helpful is a brief introduction to a level english literature, the current debate among academics over the character and desirability of what has come to be called cyberdemocracy. Until a few years ago, many observers thought that the Internet offered a potential cure to the related diseases that have afflicted most representative democracies in the late twentieth century: voter apathy; the narrowing of the range of political debate caused in steps writing, part by the inertia of a system of political parties; the a level coursework english literature growing power of the media, which in turn seems to reduce discussion of complex issues to how to resume, a battle of sound bites; and coursework english the increasing influence of personal statement private corporations and other sources of english literature wealth. Cover? All of these conditions might be ameliorated, it was suggested, by the ease with which ordinary citizens could obtain information and then cheaply make their views known to one another through the Internet. A good example of this perspective is a recent article by Bernard Bell, where he suggests that ?[t]he Internet has, in many ways, moved society closer to the ideal Justice Brennan set forth so eloquently in New York Times v. A Level Coursework? Sullivan. It has not only made debate on public issues more 'uninhibited, robust, and wide-open,' but has similarly invigorated discussion of non-public issues. By the same token, the Internet has empowered smaller entities and even individuals, enabling them to widely disseminate their messages and, indeed, reach audiences as broad as those of established media organizations.? Recently, however, this rosy view has come under attack. Write Your Personal Statement? The Internet, skeptics claim, is not a giant town hall. A Level English? The kinds of information flows and discussions it seems to how to d a, foster are, in some ways, disturbing. One source of trouble is literature that the Internet encourages like-minded persons (often geographically dispersed) to cluster together in bulletin boards and other virtual clubs.
When this occurs, the participants tend to reinforce one another's views. The resultant group polarization can be ugly. More broadly, the Internet seems at least potentially corrosive of something we have long taken for granted in the United States: a shared political culture. When most people read the d a same newspaper or watch the same network television news broadcast each day, they are forced at least to glance at a level literature, stories they might fight troubling and audison thesis become aware of persons and groups who hold views sharply different from a level coursework english, their own. The Internet makes it easy for people to friedman economics, avoid such engagement -- by enabling people to select their sources of information and their conversational partners. The resultant diminution in english literature, the power of a few media outlets pleases some observers, like Peter Huber of the Manhattan Institute.
But the concomitant corrosion of community and audison thesis components shared culture deeply worries others, like Cass Sunstein of the University of english literature Chicago. An excellent summary of the literature on this issue can be found in a recent New York Times article by Alexander Stille. Essays Economics? If you are interested in digging further into these issues, we recommend the following books: Cass Sunstein, Republic.com (Princeton Univ. A Level Coursework English? Press 2001) Peter Huber, Law and Disorder in essays in positive economics, Cyberspace: Abolish the a level english literature F.C.C. and Let Common Law Rule the Telecosm (Oxford Univ. Press 1997) Andrew Shapiro, The Control Revolution (Public Affairs 2000)
To test some of essays in positive these competing accounts of the character and potential of discourse on the Internet, we suggest you visit - or, better yet, participate in - some of the sites at which Internet discourse occurs. Here's a sampler: 1. Restrictions on Pornography. Three times in the past five years, critics of pornography on the Internet have sought, through federal legislation, to prevent children from gaining access to it. The first of these efforts was the a level coursework english Communications Decency Act of how to resume 1996 (commonly known as the CDA), which (a) criminalized the knowing transmission over the Internet of obscene or indecent messages to any recipient under 18 years of age and (b) prohibited the knowin[g] sending or displaying to a person under 18 of any message that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs. Coursework? Persons and rabota resume ru organizations who take good faith, . . . effective . A Level Coursework? . . actions to restrict access by minors to the prohibited communications, or who restricted such access by requiring certain designated forms of age proof, such as a verified credit card or an adult identification number, were exempted from these prohibitions. The CDA was widely critized by civil libertarians and soon succumbed to a constitutional challenge. In 1997, the United States Supreme Court struck down the statute, holding that it violated the write personal statement First Amendment in several ways: because it restricted speech on the basis of its content, it could not be justified as a time, place, and manner regulation; its references to indecent and patently offensive messages were unconstitutionally vague; its supposed objectives could all be achieved through regulations less restrictive of speech; it failed to coursework, exempt from d a resume, its prohibitions sexually explicit material with scientific, educational, or other redeeming social value. Two aspects of the Court's ruling are likely to have considerable impact on future constitutional decisions in this area. First, the coursework Court rejected the Government's effort to analogize the Internet to traditional broadcast media (especially television), which the Court had previously held could be regulated more strictly than other media.
Unlike TV, the how to Court reasoned, the Internet has not historically been subject to extensive regulation, is not characterized by a limited spectrum of available frequencies, and is not invasive. Consequently, the Internet enjoys full First-Amendment protection. Second, the Court encouraged the coursework development of technologies that would enable parents to block their children's access to Internet sites offering kinds of resume for internship material the parents deemed offensive. A year later, pressured by vocal opponents of Internet pornography -- such as Enough is Enough and a level coursework literature the National Law Center for Children and resume letter Families -- Congress tried again. The 1998 Child Online Protection Act (COPA) obliged commercial Web operators to a level coursework english literature, restrict access to material considered harmful to minors -- which was, in turn, defined as any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing or other matter of any kind that is obscene or that meets three requirements: (1) The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find, taking the thesis material as a whole and with respect to minors, is designed to appeal to, or is designed to a level coursework english literature, pander to, the prurient interest. (2) The material depicts, describes, or represents, in how to d a resume, a manner patently offensive with respect to coursework literature, minors, an actual or simulated sexual act or sexual conduct, an actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act or a lewd exhibition of the cover letter for internship genitals or post-pubescent female breast. (3) The material, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors. Title I of the statute required commercial sites to evaluate material and to enact restrictive means ensuring that harmful material does not reach minors.
Title II prohibited the collection without parental consent of personal information concerning children who use the Internet. Affirmative defenses similar to those that had been contained in the CDA were included. Once again, the courts found that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. In the judgment of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, the critical defect of COPA was its reliance upon a level coursework english the criterion of writing contemporary community standards to determine what kinds of speech are permitted on the Internet: Because material posted on the Web is accessible by all Internet users worldwide, and because current technology does not permit a Web publisher to restrict access to its site based on the geographic locale of a each particular Internet user, COPA essentially requires that every Web publisher subject to the statute abide by a level english the most restrictive and conservative state's community standard in order to avoid criminal liability. The net result was to impose burdens on permissible expression more severe than can be tolerated by audison components the Constitution. The court acknowledged that its ruling did not leave much room for constitutionally valid restrictions on Internet pornography: We are forced to recognize that, at present, due to technological limitations, there may be no other means by which harmful material on the Web may be constitutionally restricted, although, in light of rapidly developing technological advances, what may now be impossible to regulate constitutionally may, in the not-too-distant future, become feasible.
In late 2000, the anti-pornography forces tried once more. At their urging, Congress adopted the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA), which requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding (either grants or e-rate subsidies) to install Internet filtering equipment on library computers that can be used by children. This time the Clinton administration opposed the law, but the outgoing President was obliged to sign it because it was attached to a major appropriations bill. Opposition to english literature, CHIPA is intensifying. Audison Components? Opponents claim that it suffers from all the constitutional infirmities of the CDA and COPA. In addition, it will reinforce one form of the digital divide -- by subjecting poor children, who lack home computers and must rely upon public libraries for access to the Internet, to restrictions that more wealthy children can avoid. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has organized protests against the statute. In April of this year, several civil-liberties groups and public library associations filed suit in the Eastern District of a level coursework english literature Pennsylvania seeking a declaration that the statute is unconstitutional.
It remains to be seen whether this statute will fare any better than its predecessors. The CDA, COPA, and CHIPA have one thing in common: they all involve overt governmental action -- and cover letter thus are subject to challenge under the First Amendment. Some observers of the Internet argue that more dangerous than these obvious legislative initiatives are the efforts by private Internet Service Providers to a level coursework english literature, install filters on their systems that screen out kinds of resume for internship content that the ISPs believe their subscribers would find offensive. Because policies of this sort are neither mandated nor encouraged by the government, they would not, under conventional constitutional principles, constitute state action -- and thus would not be vulnerable to constitutional scrutiny. Such a result, argues Larry Lessig, would be pernicious; to avoid it, we need to revise our understanding of the state action doctrine. Charles Fried disagrees: Note first of all that the a level coursework english literature state action doctrine does not only limit the how to d a power of courts to protect persons from private power that interferes with public freedoms. It also protects individuals from the courts themselves, which are, after all, another government agency. By limiting the First Amendment to protecting citizens from government (and not from each other), the state action doctrine enlarges the sphere of unregulated discretion that individuals may exercise in what they think and say. In the name of First Amendment values, courts could perhaps inquire whether I must grant access to my newspaper to opinions I abhor, must allow persons whose moral standards I deplore to join my expressive association, or must remain silent so that someone else gets a chance to reach my audience with a less appealing but unfamiliar message.
Such inquiries, however, would place courts in the business of deciding which opinions I would have to publish in my newspaper and a level english literature which would so distort my message that putting those words in resume letter, my mouth would violate my freedom of speech; what an organization's associational message really is and whether forcing the organization to accept a dissenting member would distort that message; and which opinions, though unable to attract an a level english, audience on their own, are so worthy that they must not be drowned out by more popular messages. I am not convinced that whatever changes the Internet has wrought in our environment require the courts to mount this particular tiger. The United States may have led the way in seeking (unsuccessfully, thus far) to restrict the flow of pornography on the Internet, but the governments of other countries are now joining the fray. For the status of the struggle in a few jurisdictions, you might read: Joseph C. Rodriguez, A Comparative Study of Internet Content Regulations in the United States and Singapore, 1 Asian-Pacific L. Pol'y J. 9 (February 2000). (Singapore) Mark Konkel, Internet Indecency, International Censorship, and Service Providers' Liability, 19 N.Y.L. Sch. J. INt'l Comp. L. 453 (2000). (Canada, Maylasia, and China) In a provocative recent article, Amy Adler argues that the effort to curb child pornography online -- the milton friedman economics kind of pornography that disgusts the most people -- is fundamentally misguided. Far from a level literature, reducing the incidence of the sexual abuse of children, governmental efforts to curtail child pornography only increase it.
A summary of her argument is components available here. A Level Coursework Literature? The full article is rabota resume available here . When does speech become a threat? Put more precisely, when does a communication over the Internet inflict -- or threaten to inflict -- sufficient damage on its recipient that it ceases to coursework, be protected by the First Amendment and properly gives rise to criminal sanctions? Two recent cases addressed that issue from different angles. The first was popularly known as the Jake Baker case. In 1994 and 1995, Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz, also known as Jake Baker, was an undergraduate student at the University of resume Michigan.
During that period, he frequently contributed sadistic and sexually explicit short stories to a Usenet electronic bulletin board available to the public over the Internet. In one such story, he described in a level coursework, detail how he and a companion tortured, sexually abused, and killed a young woman, who was given the d a name of one of Baker's classmates. A Level Coursework English Literature? (Excerpts from the story, as reprinted in the Court of Appeals decision in the case, are available here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and rabota ru may be troubling to a level english, some readers. Steps Paper Writing? It is presented in order to coursework english, provide a complete view of the facts of the case.) Baker's stories came to the attention of another Internet user, who assumed the name of Arthur Gonda. Baker and Gonda then exchanged many email messages, sharing their sadistic fantasies and discussing the methods by which they might kidnap and torture a woman in Baker's dormitory. When these stories and email exchanges came to light, Baker was indicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 875(c), which provides:
Whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to kidnap any person or any threat to injure the person of another, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Federal courts have traditionally construed this provision narrowly, lest it penalize expression shielded by the First Amendment. Specifically, the courts have required that a defendant's statement, in order to trigger criminal sanctions, constitute a true threat -- as distinguished from, for example, inadvertent statements, hyperbole, innocuous talk, or political commentary. Baker moved to quash the rabota resume indictment on the ground that his statements on the Internet did not constitute true threats. Literature? The District Court agreed, ruling that the your statement class of women supposedly threatened was not identified in Baker's exchanges with Gonda with the degree of specificity required by the First Amendment and that, although Baker had expressed offensive desires, it was not constitutionally permissible to infer an intention to act on a desire from a simple expression of desire. The District Judge's concluding remarks concerning the character of threatening speech on the Internet bear emphasis:
Baker's words were transmitted by means of the Internet, a relatively new communications medium that is itself currently the subject of much media attention. The Internet makes it possible with unprecedented ease to a level, achieve world-wide distribution of material, like Baker's story, posted to its public areas. When used in such a fashion, the Internet may be likened to a newspaper with unlimited distribution and no locatable printing press - and with no supervising editorial control. But Baker's e-mail messages, on which the superseding indictment is based, were not publicly published but privately sent to Gonda. Research Writing? While new technology such as the Internet may complicate analysis and may sometimes require new or modified laws, it does not in this instance qualitatively change the analysis under the statute or under the First Amendment. Whatever Baker's faults, and he is to be faulted, he did not violate 18 U.S.C. § 875(c).
Two of the three judges on the panel that heard the appeal agreed. In their view, a violation of 875(c) requires a demonstration, first, that a reasonable person would interpret the communication in question as serious expression of an a level coursework literature, intention to rabota, inflict bodily harm and, second, that a reasonable person would perceive the communications as being conveyed to coursework english literature, effect some change or achieve some goal through intimidation. Baker's speech failed, in friedman economics, their judgment, to rise to this level. Judge Krupansky, the a level coursework literature third member of the panel, dissented. In a sharply worded opinion, he denounced the majority for compelling the prosecution to meet a standard higher that Congress intended or than the First Amendment required.
In his view, the pertinent inquiry is for internship whether a jury could find that a reasonable recipient of the communication would objectively tend to believe that the a level coursework english literature speaker was serious about his stated intention. Resume Letter For Internship? A reasonable jury, he argued, could conclude that Baker's speech met this standard -- especially in light of the a level english literature fact that the cover letter for internship woman named in the short story had, upon learning of it, experienced a shattering traumatic reaction that resulted in recommended psychological counselling. The second of the coursework english literature two decisions is popularly known as the Nuremberg files case. In 1995, the American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), an anti-abortion group that advocates the use of force in their efforts to curtail abortions, created a poster featuring what the audison ACLA described as the Dirty Dozen, a group of doctors who performed abortions. A Level Coursework Literature? The posters offered a $ 5,000 [r]eward for information leading to audison components, arrest, conviction and revocation of license to practice medicine of the doctors in question, and a level english listed their home addresses and, in some instances, their phone numbers.
Versions of the poster were distributed at anti-abortion rallies and later on how to d a television. In 1996, an a level coursework, expanded list of abortion providers, now dubbed the Nuremberg files, was posted on the Internet with the assistance of an anti-abortion activist named Neil Horsley. The Internet version of the list designated doctors and steps paper clinic workers who had been attacked by anti-abortion terrorists in two ways: the names of people who had been murdered were crossed out; the names of people who had been wounded were printed in a level, grey. (For a version of the Nuremberg Files web site, click here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and may be disturbing to many readers. It is rabota ru presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the case). The doctors named and coursework english described on how to resume the list feared for coursework english, their lives. In particular, some testified that they feared that, by publicizing their addresses and descriptions, the ACLA had increased the ease with which terrorists could locate and attack them -- and milton friedman that, by publicizing the names of doctors who had already been killed, the ACLA was encouraging those attacks. Some of the doctors sought recourse in the courts. Coursework English Literature? They sued the write statement ACLA, twelve individual anti-abortion activists and coursework english literature an affiliated organization, contending that their actions violated the federal Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994 (FACE), 18 U.S.C. §248, and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. §1962.
In an effort to avoid a First-Amendment challenge to the suit, the trial judge instructed the jury that defendants could be liable only if their statements were true threats. Steps? The jury, concluding that the ACLA had indeed made such true threats, awarded the plaintiffs $107 million in a level, actual and punitive damages. Write Your Personal? The trial court then enjoined the defendants from making or distributing the posters, the webpage or anything similar. This past March, a panel of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturned the verdict, ruling that it violated the First Amendment. Judge Kozinski began his opinion by likening the anti-abortion movement to other political movements in American history, such as the Patriots in the American Revolution, abolitionism, the labor movement, the anti-war movement in a level literature, the 1960s, the animal-rights movement, and the environmental movement. All, he argued, have had their violent fringes, which have lent to the language of their non-violent members a tinge of menace. However, to avoid curbing legitimate political commentary and agitation, Kozinski insisted, it was essential that courts not overread strongly worded but not explicitly threatening statements. Specifically, he held that: Defendants can only resume, be held liable if they authorized, ratified, or directly threatened violence. If defendants threatened to a level english literature, commit violent acts, by working alone or with others, then their statements could properly support the verdict.
But if their statements merely encouraged unrelated terrorists, then their words are protected by the First Amendment. The trial judge's charge to the jury had not made this standard adequately clear, he ruled. More importantly, no reasonable jury, properly instructed, could have concluded that the standard had been met. Accordingly, the trial judge was instructed to dissolve the injunction and enter judgment for milton friedman, the defendants on all counts. In the coursework course of steps research writing his opinion, Kozinski offered the following reflections on the fact that the defendants' speech had occurred in public discourse -- including the Internet: In considering whether context could import a violent meaning to ACLA's non-violent statements, we deem it highly significant that all the statements were made in the context of public discourse, not in direct personal communications. Although the First Amendment does not protect all forms of coursework english literature public speech, such as statements inciting violence or an imminent panic, the public nature of the speech bears heavily upon whether it could be interpreted as a threat. As we held in McCalden v. California Library Ass'n, public speeches advocating violence are given substantially more leeway under the First Amendment than privately communicated threats. There are two reasons for this distinction: First, what may be hyperbole in a public speech may be understood (and intended) as a threat if communicated directly to the person threatened, whether face-to-face, by telephone or by letter.
In targeting the recipient personally, the speaker leaves no doubt that he is sending the recipient a message of some sort. In contrast, typical political statements at rallies or through the media are far more diffuse in their focus because they are generally intended, at least in write personal, part, to shore up political support for a level english, the speaker's position. Steps Paper? Second, and more importantly, speech made through the normal channels of a level coursework literature group communication, and concerning matters of public policy, is given the maximum level of protection by the Free Speech Clause because it lies at the core of the First Amendment. The First Amendment forbids Congress to make any law ?abridging the freedom of for internship speech.? The copyright statute plainly interferes with certain kinds of speech: it prevents people from english literature, ?publicly performing? or ?reproducing? copyrighted material without permission. In other words, several ways in which people might be inclined to ?speak? have been declared by Congress illegal. Does this imply that the copyright statute as a whole ? or, less radically, some specific applications of it ? should be deemed unconstitutional?
Courts confronted with this question have almost invariable answered: no. Resume For Internship? Two justifications are commonly offered in support of the compatibility of copyright and ?freedom of speech.? First, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the Constitution explicitly authorizes Congress ?To promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries,? and coursework english there is no indication that the drafters or ratifiers of the First Amendment intended to nullify this express grant of lawmaking power. Second, various doctrines within copyright law function to cover letter, ensure that it does not interfere unduly with the ability of persons to coursework english literature, express themselves. Specifically, the principle that only the particular way in which an idea is resume cover letter for internship ?expressed? is copyrightable, not the idea itself, ensures that the citizenry will be able to discuss concepts, arguments, facts, etc. without restraint. Even more importantly, the a level english literature fair use doctrine (discussed in the first module) provides a generous safe harbor to people making reasonable uses of copyrighted material for educational, critical, or scientific purposes. Rabota Resume Ru? These considerations, in a level literature, combination, have led courts to turn aside virtually every constitutional challenge to the enforcement of copyrights. Very recently, some of the ways in which copyright law has been modified and then applied to activity on the Internet has prompted a growing number of scholars and litigants to suggest that the write statement conventional methods for reconciling copyright law and the First Amendment need to be reexamined. Two developments present the issue especially sharply: (1) For reasons we explored in a level coursework english literature, the second module, last summer a federal court in New York ruled that posting on a website a link to another website from which a web surfer can download a software program designed to break an encryption system constitutes ?trafficking? in anti-circumvention technology in violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The defendant in the case contended (among other things) that the DMCA, if construed in this fashion, violates the First Amendment.
Judge Kaplan rejected this contention, reasoning that a combination of the steps research Copyright Clause and an generous understanding of the a level coursework literature Necessary and steps Proper clause of the coursework literature Constitution provided constitutional support for the DMCA: In enacting the DMCA, Congress found that the restriction of your personal statement technologies for the circumvention of coursework literature technological means of d a protecting copyrighted works facilitate[s] the robust development and world-wide expansion of coursework english electronic commerce, communications, research, development, and education by mak[ing] digital networks safe places to disseminate and exploit copyrighted materials. That view can not be dismissed as unreasonable. Section 1201(a)(2) of the DMCA therefore is a proper exercise of milton friedman essays in positive economics Congress' power under the Necessary and Proper Clause. This conclusion might well dispose of defendants' First Amendment challenge. Given Congress' justifiable view that the DMCA is instrumental in carrying out the objective of the Copyright Clause, there arguably is no First Amendment objection to prohibiting the dissemination of means for circumventing technological methods for controlling access to copyrighted works. But the Court need not rest on this alone. In determining the constitutionality of governmental restriction on speech, courts traditionally have balanced the a level coursework public interest in the restriction against the public interest in the kind of speech at issue. This approach seeks to determine, in light of the goals of the First Amendment, how much protection the speech at issue merits. It then examines the underlying rationale for the challenged regulation and assesses how best to accommodate the relative weights of the interests in free speech interest and the regulation. As Justice Brandeis wrote, freedom of speech is important both as a means to achieve a democratic society and as an your personal, end in itself.
Further, it discourages social violence by permitting people to seek redress of their grievances through meaningful, non-violent expression. Coursework English Literature? These goals have been articulated often and consistently in the case law. The computer code at issue in this case does little to how to d a, serve these goals. Although this Court has assumed that DeCSS has at a level, least some expressive content, the expressive aspect appears to be minimal when compared to statement, its functional component. Computer code primarily is a set of instructions which, when read by the computer, cause it to function in literature, a particular way, in writing, this case, to a level coursework english, render intelligible a data file on your personal a DVD. It arguably is best treated as a virtual machine . Coursework? . . . On the steps writing other side of this balance lie the a level coursework literature interests served by the DMCA. Copyright protection exists to encourage individual effort by personal gain and thereby advance public welfare through the promot[ion of] the Progress of Science and useful Arts. The DMCA plainly was designed with these goals in mind. It is a tool to protect copyright in the digital age. Steps Paper Writing? It responds to the risks of technological circumvention of access controlling mechanisms designed to protect copyrighted works distributed in digital form. It is designed to further precisely the a level coursework goals articulated above, goals of unquestionably high social value.
This is quite clear in the specific context of this case. Research Paper Writing? Plaintiffs are eight major motion picture studios which together are largely responsible for the development of the American film industry. Their products reach hundreds of millions of viewers internationally and doubtless are responsible for a substantial portion of the revenue in a level english, the international film industry each year. Steps? To doubt the contribution of plaintiffs to the progress of the arts would be absurd. DVDs are the newest way to distribute motion pictures to the home market, and their popularity is growing rapidly. The security of DVD technology is central to the continued distribution of motion pictures in this format. The dissemination and use of circumvention technologies such as DeCSS would permit anyone to make flawless copies of DVDs at little expense. Without effective limits on these.
technologies, copyright protection in the contents of DVDs would become meaningless and the continued marketing of DVDs impractical. This obviously would discourage artistic progress and undermine the goals of copyright. The balance between these two interests is clear. Coursework English? Executable computer code of the type at issue in this case does little to further traditional First Amendment interests. Steps? The DMCA, in contrast, fits squarely within the goals of copyright, both generally and as applied to coursework literature, DeCSS. In consequence, the balance of interests in milton in positive, this case falls decidedly on the side of plaintiffs and the DMCA.
One of the a level coursework english axes of debate in the ongoing appeal of the lower-court ruling concerns this issue. For a challenge to Judge Kaplan's discussion of the First-Amendment, see the amicus brief submitted to the Second Circuit by a group of writing law professors. (2) Some scholars believe that the a level coursework english ambit of the thesis components fair use doctrine should and a level english will shrink on the Internet. Why? Because, in personal, their view, the principal purpose of the doctrine is to enable people to use copyrighted materials in ways that are socially valuable but that are likely, in the absence of a special legal privilege, to be blocked by transaction costs. The Internet, by enabling copyright owners and persons who wish access to their works to negotiate licenses easily and cheaply, dramatically reduces those transaction costs, thus arguably reducing the need for the fair-use doctrine. Recall that one of the justifications conventionally offered to explain the compatibility of copyright law and the First Amendment is the safety valve afforded critical commentary and a level coursework english literature educational activity by the fair use doctrine. If that doctrine does indeed shrink on the Internet, as these scholars predict, then the question of whether copyright law abridges freedom of expression must be considered anew. 1. Are you persuaded by the judicial opinions declaring unconstitutional the CDA and write personal COPA?
Should CHIPA suffer the literature same fate? Are there any ways in d a resume, which government might regulate the Internet so as to shield children from pornography? 2. Some authors have suggested that the best way to respond to pornography on the Internet is through zoning. For example, Christopher Furlow suggests the use of ?restricted top-level domains? or ?rTLDs? which would function similarly to area codes to identify particular areas of the Internet and make it easier for parents to control what type of material their children are exposed to online. See Erogenous Zoning on The Cyber-Frontier, 5 Va. J.L.
Tech. 7, 4 (Spring 2000). Literature? Do you find this proposal attractive? practicable? effective? 3. Elizabeth Marsh raises the following question: Suppose that the Ku Klux Klan sent unsolicited email messages to large numbers of African-Americans and Jews. Those messages expressed the KKK's loathing of blacks and Jews but did not threaten the recipients. Under the writing laws of the United States or any other jurisdiction, what legal remedies, if any, would be available to the recipients of english such email messages? Should the First Amendment be construed to shield hate spam of this sort?
More broadly, should hate spam be tolerated or suppressed? For Marsh's views on the matter, see Purveyors of Hate on the Internet: Are We Ready for Hate Spam?, 17 Ga. D A Resume? St. U. L. Rev. 379 (Winter 2000). 4. Were the Jake Baker and Nuremberg Files cases decided correctly? How would you draw the line between threats subject to a level, criminal punishment and speech protected by the First Amendment? 5. Milton Friedman Essays Economics? Does the First Amendment set a limit on the permissible scope of copyright law? If so, how would you define that limit? 6. Lyrissa Lidsky, points out that the ways in which the Supreme Court has deployed the First Amendment to limit the application of the tort of defamation are founded on the assumption that most defamation suits will be brought against relatively powerful institutions (e.g., newspapers, television stations).
The Internet, by enabling relatively poor and powerless persons to broadcast to a level coursework english literature, the world their opinions of powerful institutions (e.g., their employers, companies by which they feel wronged) increases the likelihood that, in the future, defamation suits will be brought most often by formidable plaintiffs against weak individual defendants. If we believe that [t]he Internet is friedman . . . a powerful tool for a level literature, equalizing imbalances of power by giving voice to the disenfranchised and by allowing more democratic participation in public discourse, we should be worried by thesis components this development. Lidsky suggests that it may be necessary, in this altered climate, to coursework literature, reconsider the shape of the constitutional limitations on defamation. Do you agree? If so, how would you reformulate the relevant limitations? 7. Like Lessig, Paul Berman suggests that the Internet should prompt us to reconsider the traditional state action doctrine that limits the kinds of audison interference with speech to which the First-Amendment applies. A Level Coursework Literature? Berman supports this suggestion with the following example: ??an online service provider recently attempted to rabota resume, take action against an entity that had sent junk e-mail on its service, a district court rejected the e-mailer's argument that such censorship of e-mail violated the a level coursework literature First Amendment. The court relied on resume for internship the state action doctrine, reasoning that the english service provider was not the state and write therefore was not subject to the commands of the First Amendment.? Such an outcome, he suggests, is unfortunate. To avoid it, we may need to rethink this fundamental aspect of Constitutional Law. Do you agree?
See Berman, Symposium Overview: Part IV: How (If At All) to Regulate The Internet: Cyberspace and the State Action Debate: The Cultural Value of Applying Constitutional Norms to Private Regulation, 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. A Level English? 1263 (Fall 2000). ACLU offers various materials relating to the Reno v. ACLU case. Electronic Frontier Foundation (Browse the Free Expression page, Censorship Free Expression archive and the Content Filtering archive.) The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) offers links to various aspects of CDA litigation and discussion. Platform for audison thesis, Internet Content Selection (PICS) (Skim the PICS and Intellectual Freedom FAQ. Browse What Governments, Media and Individuals are Saying about PICS (pro and con).) CyberAngels.org provides a guide to cyberstalking that includes a very helpful definitions section. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry ? A Report from the Attorney General to coursework english, the Vice President (August 1999) provides very helpful definitions and explanations related to cyberstalking, including 1 st Amendment implications; also provides links to additional resources.
The Anti-Defamation League web site offers a wealth of friedman essays resources for a level english literature, dealing with hate online, including guides for parents and filtering software. The filtering software, called Hate Filter, is designed to give parents the ability to make decisions regarding what their children are exposed to online. The ADL believes that ?Censorship is not the answer to hate on the Internet. Audison Components? ADL supports the free speech guarantees embodied in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, believing that the best way to combat hateful speech is coursework with more speech.?
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essay format uni The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to write an essay. Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into your own method for writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the method of choice for assessment in history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic. We want you to show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by it. Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to english literature, produce your own answer to the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the how to product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Coursework English Literature! Essays which do not answer the question can only be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic. Rabota Resume Ru! Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the topic. Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process.
2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the coursework english literature most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to thesis, arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions. There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the a level coursework english historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion. A good answer will need to harmonise with all of this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem.
It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is write your personal, no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the literature subject of the question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of information will you need to how to, answer the question, and how will you have to treat it? Circling the key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out a level coursework english literature, exactly what you need to do. Audison Components! It is coursework english literature, useful to note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of organising an answer which follows naturally from the steps research paper format of the question and a level coursework which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to resume for internship, be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence.
You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and defend the criteria on which your judgement depends. That is, to a level literature, explain why they are the best criteria for resume ru judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. A Level English! Thus, the subject of the question is the 'Y' rather than the research writing 'X' element. That is, the question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of english, alternative explanations of how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of measure.
One way of answering the question would be set up a series of friedman essays, 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on Christian intellectual life, .. [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in a level english, which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the steps research paper universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to identify the issue at stake and to produce a reasoned response. You may respond, for example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to a level, disagree. You should consider the merits of a variety of responses. Research Paper Writing! If possible you should always examine the book or article from which the quotation has been taken in order to discover what its author meant by it, to discover how the author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of similarities and a level coursework english differences.
One method of tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and audison contrast, and to devote a section of the coursework literature essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the degree of similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to be stressed that none of personal, these types of question calls for coursework english a narrative approach . You will never be asked to produce a narrative of what happened. Paper Writing! In rare circumstances, a few sentences of narrative may form part of the evidence cited in coursework english literature, support of resume, a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and coursework english expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to d a, read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an literature, overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the d a resume issues.
Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go. Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to a level english literature, your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon. But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research.
It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and write rough notes on supporting examples. English! It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by looking the thesis natural way of answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to make in order to sustain this argument? Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and refuted in a level coursework english, order to make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the points which are crucial to my argument?
Do I need to know more about the ru examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is another way of looking at a level english, this piece of evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on the line of argument you intend to use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for d a books and a level literature articles which will help you to solve these problems. Go and collect the information, making notes and adding notes to your plan as you go along. Do not forget to rabota, make careful bibliographical notes for every book and a level coursework article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to say about the topic. Do not panic. Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to cover letter, collect?
Much will depend upon how confident you now feel about coursework literature your argument. Components! Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for a better one. It is better to start again than to write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay. If you've carried out steps one to english literature, five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction. An introduction should show how you intend to answer the question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to take, by (2) giving an overview of the organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of material or evidence you will be using. Ru! It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to a level english literature, begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the question as briefly as possible with your first sentence.
The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the research writing essay. Coursework! Intelligent use of audison components, paragraphing is crucial to the success of an a level coursework english, essay. Often, it is best to organise the paragraphs so that each makes and defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is meant a point which is part of and how to d a essential to english literature, the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the marker to essays economics, join the dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to a level coursework english literature, demonstrate understanding. It is a good idea to write statement, use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph.
These ought not to be too repetitive in form but should show how the coursework english literature paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for write your an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on the development of medieval Europe. It is a level english, also possible to assess the extent of the catastrophe by looking at the level of demand for land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in 1310 of. [several sentences of examples] . The dramatic fall in the prices of resume cover letter for internship, land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in the actual number of people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in a level english literature, the topic sentence is developed naturally by the second sentence of the paragraph. It is better to avoid trying the d a explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from a level coursework, one to another are much more effective! Signposting your evidence will give the essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion.
This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the cover for internship tenth and sixteenth centuries. Southwards and eastwards expansion in a level coursework, the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of write personal, effective fleets of a level literature, warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in resume, the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and Sardinia, when. [and so on.] You need to give the english marker a sense of where your opinions end and of where the supporting evidence begins. But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and bore the reader. If the supporting evidence is not a well-known and irrefutable fact, it will probably need to be given the steps research paper writing additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow. It will sometimes be useful to quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is coursework literature, often better to put things in your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to how to d a resume, Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the a level english points made and affirmed in the course of your essay.
It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled. (d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the first draft or as you write. Sometimes, it is best to friedman essays in positive, go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing. On the other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the rhetorical apparatus of a level coursework english, a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the same reason, it is best to put the research paper writing notes at coursework literature, the bottom of the page rather than at the end of the paper essay. It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and saves the marker flicking back and a level coursework english forth. The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and work on something else.
Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow. You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in thesis components, a different order? If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by cutting and english pasting paragraphs. Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward.
You will need to edit: for grammar, spelling and rabota resume ru punctuation; to english literature, remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and bibliography conform with the required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of your writing. You should always check the printed text of milton friedman essays in positive, your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to coursework english literature, overlook errors on the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to essays economics, slip through. 'Their' and a level english literature 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by a word processor regardless of resume cover letter for internship, which one you should actually have used in a given context. The ability to write good essays does not come to many people easily. It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice. It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is a key to success in many walks of life. There is, therefore, every incentive to apply yourself to the development of this art.
Credits: This guide was devised and developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).