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Animation in education essay

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Reporters, Correspondents, and Broadcast News Analysts. Reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts inform the public about animation in education, news and events happening internationally, nationally, and locally. They report the news for newspapers, magazines, websites, television, and and contrast essays, radio. Reporters, correspondents, and animation in education, broadcast news analysts spend a lot of time in structure research paper, the field, conducting interviews and animation essay, investigating stories. The work is often fast paced, with constant demands to meet deadlines and to be the first reporter to informal essay about myself, publish a news story on a subject. How to animation in education essay, Become a Reporter, Correspondent, or Broadcast News Analyst. Employers generally prefer workers who have a bachelor’s degree in journalism or communications along with an internship or work experience from a college radio or television station or a newspaper. The median annual wage for broadcast news analysts was $56,680 in May 2016. The median annual wage for reporters and correspondents was $37,820 in necklace essay, May 2016. Employment of reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts is projected to decline 9 percent from 2014 to 2024. Declining advertising revenue in radio, newspapers, and television will negatively impact the employment growth for these occupations.

Explore resources for employment and wages by animation, state and for conference, area for reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations. What Reporters, Correspondents, and Broadcast News Analysts Do About this section. Reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts inform the public about news and events happening internationally, nationally, and locally. They report the news for newspapers, magazines, websites, television, and radio. Reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts typically do the following:

Research topics and stories that an editor or news director has assigned to animation essay, them Interview people who have information, analysis, or opinions about a story or article Write articles for newspapers, blogs, and magazines and write scripts to be read on television or radio Review articles for accuracy and proper style and buy resume york, grammar Develop relationships with experts and contacts who provide tips and leads on animation in education essay, stories Analyze and interpret information to best york, increase their audiences’ understanding of the news Update stories as new information becomes available. Reporters and correspondents , also called journalists , often work for a particular type of media organization, such as a television or radio station, newspaper, or website. Those who work in essay, television and radio set up and conduct interviews, which can be broadcast live or recorded for future broadcasts. These workers are often responsible for editing interviews and other recordings to structure of a scientific research, create a cohesive story and for animation writing and recording voiceovers that provide the audience with the best application, facts of the story. They may create multiple versions of the same story for different broadcasts or different media platforms. Most television and radio shows have hosts, also called anchors , who report the news and introduce stories from animation, reporters. Journalists for print media conduct interviews and write articles to be used in how to write a paper, newspapers, magazines, and online publications. Because most newspapers and magazines have print and online versions, reporters typically produce content for both versions. In Education? Doing so often requires staying up to date with new developments of a story so that the structure of a, online editions can be updated with the most current information. Some journalists may convey stories through both broadcast and print media, as well as help manage the organization’s web content. Animation In Education? For example, television stations often have a website, and a reporter may post a blog or an article for the website.

Similarly, a reporter working for newspapers or magazines may create videos or podcasts that people access online. Stations are increasingly relying on multimedia journalists to publish content on a variety of platforms, including radio and television stations, websites, and necklace essay, mobile devices. Multimedia journalists typically record, report, write, and edit their own stories. They also gather the essay, audio, video, or graphics that accompany their stories. Reporters and gilgamesh statement thesis, correspondents may need to maintain a presence on social media networking sites. Many use social media to cover live events, provide additional information for readers and viewers, promote their stations and newscasts, and engage better with their audiences. Some journalists, particularly those in large cities or large news organizations, cover a particular topic, such as sports, medicine, or politics. Journalists who work in small cities, towns, or organizations may need to cover a wider range of subjects. Some reporters live in other countries and cover international news.

Some reporters—particularly those who work for print news—are self-employed and take freelance assignments from news organizations. Freelance assignments are given to writers on an as-needed basis. Because freelance reporters are paid for the individual story, they work with many organizations and animation in education, often spend some of their time marketing their stories and looking for and contrast their next assignment. Some people with a background as a reporter or correspondent work as postsecondary teachers and teach journalism or communications at colleges and universities. Broadcast news analysts are another type of media occupation. Broadcast news analysts are often called upon to provide their opinion, rather than reporting, on animation in education, a particular news story. They may appear on television, radio, or in print and offer their opinion to viewers, listeners, or readers. However, most broadcast news analysts come from fields outside of journalism and have expertise in a particularly subject—for example, politics, business, or medicine—and are hired on a contract basis to informal essay about myself, provide their opinion of the subjects being discussed. Becoming a broadcast news analyst is typically not a career path for new journalists. Work Environment About this section. Reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts held about 54,400 jobs in animation in education, 2014.

Most reporters and buy resume, correspondents work for newspaper publishers or in radio or television broadcasting. About 1 in essay, 6 were self-employed in 2014. Reporters and correspondents spend a lot of time in the field, conducting interviews and investigating stories. Many reporters spend little to no time in an office. And Contrast Essays Grade? They travel to be on location for events or to meet contacts and file stories remotely. Reporters and correspondents covering international news often live in in education, other countries. Working on stories about natural disasters or wars can put reporters in dangerous situations. In addition, reporters may often face pressure or stress when trying to meet a deadline or cover breaking news. Reporters may also collaborate with editors , photographers , videographers , and other journalists when working on a story.

Most reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts work full time. The work is often fast paced, with constant demands to meet deadlines and to be the first reporter to letter essay, publish a news story on a subject. Animation In Education Essay? Reporters may need to work additional hours or change their work schedules in order to follow breaking news. Because news can happen at any time of the day, journalists may need to work nights and necklace essay, weekends. How to Become a Reporter, Correspondent, or Broadcast News Analyst About this section. Employers generally prefer to hire reporters and correspondents who have a bachelor’s degree in journalism or communications along with an in education essay, internship or work experience from a college radio or television station or a newspaper.

Most employers prefer workers who have a bachelor’s degree in informal letter essay myself, journalism or communications. However, some employers may hire applicants who have a degree in a related subject, such as English or political science, and relevant work experience. Bachelor’s degree programs in journalism and communications include classes in journalistic ethics and in education essay, techniques for researching stories and conducting interviews. Some programs may require students to take liberal arts classes, such as English, history, economics, and political science, so that students are prepared to informal letter essay about myself, cover stories on a wide range of subjects. Some journalism students may benefit from classes in multimedia design, coding, and programming. Because content is increasingly being delivered on television, websites, and mobile devices, reporters need to animation in education essay, know how to develop stories with video, audio, data, and graphics. Some schools offer graduate programs in journalism and communications. These programs prepare students who have a bachelor’s degree in another field to become journalists. Employers generally require workers to have experience gained through internships or by working on school newspapers. While attending college, many students seek multiple internships with different news organizations. These internships allow students the opportunities to work on stories and put together a portfolio of for conference their best writing samples or on-air appearances.

After gaining more work experience, reporters and correspondents can advance by moving from news organizations in small cities or towns to in education, news organizations in large cities. Larger markets offer job opportunities with higher pay and more responsibility and challenges. Reporters and correspondents also may become editors or news directors. Communication skills. Journalists must be able to report the news both verbally and in writing.

Strong writing skills are important for journalists in all kinds of informal essay myself media. Computer skills. Journalists should be able to use editing equipment and other broadcast-related devices. Interpersonal skills. To develop contacts and animation in education essay, conduct interviews, reporters need to build good relationships with many people. They also need to epic statement, work well with other journalists, editors, and news directors.

Objectivity. Journalists need to report the facts of the news without inserting their opinion or bias into the story. Persistence. Sometimes, getting the facts of a story is difficult, particularly when those involved refuse to be interviewed or provide comment. Journalists need to be persistent in their pursuit of the story. Stamina. The work of journalists is animation in education often fast paced and exhausting. Reporters must be able to keep up with the additional hours of work. Reporters, Correspondents, and write, Broadcast News Analysts.

Median annual wages, May 2016. Broadcast news analysts. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics.

The median annual wage for broadcast news analysts was $56,680 in animation, May 2016. Paper? The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and animation essay, half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,690, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $163,490. The median annual wage for reporters and correspondents was $37,820 in May 2016. Buy Resume? The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,120, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $86,610. Most reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts work full time. Animation? The work is often fast paced, with constant demands to meet deadlines and to be the statement, first reporter to animation in education essay, publish a news story on a subject. Reporters may need to work additional hours or change their work schedules in order to follow breaking news. Because news can happen at any time of the day, journalists may need to work nights and weekends.

Reporters, Correspondents, and Broadcast News Analysts. Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24. Total, all occupations. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Employment of reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts is projected to decline 9 percent from 2014 to best buy resume york, 2024. Employment of reporters and correspondents is projected to decline 8 percent, while employment of broadcast news analysts is projected to decline 13 percent from 2014 to 2024. Declining advertising revenue in radio, newspapers, and television will negatively impact the employment growth for essay these occupations. Readership and circulation of newspapers are expected to continue to decline over the next decade. In addition, television and radio stations are increasingly publishing content online and on mobile devices. As a result, news organizations may have more difficulty selling traditional forms of advertising, which is often their primary source of revenue. Declining revenue will force news organizations to downsize and employ fewer journalists. Increasing demand for online news may offset some of the downsizing. However, because online and mobile ad revenue is epic gilgamesh statement typically less than print revenue, the growth in digital advertising may not offset the decline in print advertising, circulation, and readership. News organizations also continue to consolidate and increasingly are sharing resources, staff, and animation in education, content with other media outlets.

For example, reporters are able to gather and report on news for multiple media stations owned by epic gilgamesh statement thesis, the same corporation, while television stations reuse news and material already gathered by other stations and reporters. As consolidations, mergers, and news sharing continue, the demand for journalists may decrease. Following a merger or content-sharing agreements, some news agencies may reduce the number of reporters and correspondents on staff. However, in some instances, consolidations may help limit the animation, loss of jobs. Mergers may allow financially troubled newspapers, radio stations, and television stations to keep staff because of increased funding and resources from the larger organization. Reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts are expected to face strong competition for structure of a research jobs, because of the large number of animation in education workers who are interested in entering the field and epic gilgamesh, the projected employment declines in animation essay, both occupations. Of A Research Paper? Those with experience in the field—experience often gained through internships or by animation in education, working for school newspapers, television stations, or radio stations—should have the best job prospects. Multimedia journalism experience, including recording and editing pieces, should also improve job prospects. Because stations are increasingly publishing content on multiple media platforms, particularly the web, employers may prefer applicants who have experience in epic gilgamesh thesis, website design and coding.

In addition, opportunities will likely be better in small local newspapers or television and radio stations. Competition will be particularly strong in animation in education, large metropolitan areas, at national newspapers with higher circulation figures, and at network television stations. SOURCE: U.S. Informal Letter About? Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. News analysts, reporters and correspondents. Reporters and correspondents. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. Animation Essay? These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by of a scientific paper, state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at

Information on essay, this site allows projected employment growth for how to a paper an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is essay also a salary info tool to search for gilgamesh statement wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section.

This table shows a list of in education essay occupations with job duties that are similar to those of reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts. Announcers present music, news, and sports and may provide commentary or interview guests about these or other important topics. Some act as masters of ceremonies (emcees) or disc jockeys (DJs) at weddings, parties, or clubs. Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists. Atmospheric scientists study the weather and climate, and how those conditions affect human activity and the earth in of a research, general. Broadcast and Sound Engineering Technicians. Broadcast and sound engineering technicians set up, operate, and maintain the electrical equipment for radio programs, television broadcasts, concerts, sound recordings, and movies. Editors plan, review, and revise content for publication. Film and Video Editors and Camera Operators. Film and video editors and camera operators manipulate moving images that entertain or inform an audience. Photographers use their technical expertise, creativity, and in education, composition skills to buy resume, produce and preserve images that tell a story or record an event.

Postsecondary teachers instruct students in a wide variety of academic and career and technical subjects beyond the high school level. They also conduct research and publish scholarly papers and animation essay, books. Public Relations and Fundraising Managers. Public relations managers plan and direct the creation of material that will maintain or enhance the public image of their employer or client. Statement? Fundraising managers coordinate campaigns that bring in donations for their organization. Public relations specialists create and maintain a favorable public image for the organization they represent.

They design media releases to shape public perception of their organization and to in education essay, increase awareness of its work and goals. Technical writers, also called technical communicators , prepare instruction manuals, how-to guides, journal articles, and other supporting documents to communicate complex and technical information more easily. Essays? They also develop, gather, and essay, disseminate technical information through an organization’s communications channels. Writers and authors develop written content for scientific research advertisements, books, magazines, movie and television scripts, songs, blogs, or other types of in education essay media. Contacts for More Information About this section.

For more information about write a paper, broadcast news analysts, visit. For more information about careers in journalism and about internships, visit. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of animation in education essay Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Reporters, Correspondents, and necklace essay, Broadcast News Analysts, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015.

The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the essay, number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the informal essay about myself, level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is essay used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses.

Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. This tab may also provide information on earnings in how to write a paper, the major industries employing the occupation. The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and in education, area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and structure of a scientific research, the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in in education, the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of of a paper associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on essay, the occupation. This tab also includes links to epic gilgamesh statement thesis, relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in essay, the skills needed in this occupation.

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for informal letter essay about myself more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in animation in education essay, employment from 2014 to compare and contrast essays for 4th, 2024. The average growth rate for all occupations is 7 percent. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024.

Typical level of animation in education essay education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to for conference, attain competency in animation, the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in best buy resume york, employment from animation in education essay, 2014 to 2024. The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2014 to necklace essay, 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024.

The projected percent change in animation in education, employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at which half of the workers in scientific research, the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Animation Essay? Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

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analizing essay We are reading this article not for its content – although I expect it to be of interest to many of you, especially the criminology majors – but as an illustration of how to animation in education, think in terms of arguments. That is, we shall be using this article as a way of illustrating some of the key concepts brought out in necklace essay, the previous lecture. Further, this essay can serve as a model of the kind of writing I expect you to be doing in your essays (with some important caveats that I will mention at animation, the end of this lecture). Recall from the previous lecture that the two key component of an argument are the premises and the conclusion. Typically, the thesis statement of a given piece of writing states the conclusion. In today’s lecture I shall walk you through the process of informal letter about reading an essay for its argumentative structure. Step 1: Identifying the thesis/conclusion. …society should discuss the urgent need to reform practices that contribute to false confessions and to require mandatory videotaping of all interviews and interrogations. In Education? (26) Such reforms [of interrogation techniques] are sorely needed. Only then can society trust the epic statement thesis process of interrogation and animation in education the confessions that it produces—and help to promote justice for all. (31) Some of you may have taken the of a scientific research task as trying to in education essay, summarize the primary thesis of the article in your own words. That is fine, provided your own statement of the thesis does differ substantially from the sentences provided above. But a well-written argumentative essay will have a clearly-articulated thesis statement, and one need not to write a paper, put in the extra work of trying to figure out what the central point is animation in education, that the author is write a paper for conference, trying to communicate.

Thesis statements makes things easier on the reader, which is one of the primary communicative goals of good writing – at least in philosophy (mystery authors may have different goals). Once we have identified the thesis statement, it is much easier to essay, figure out the argumentative structure of the best essay. Essay? While both of the how to a paper above sentences can serve as a thesis statement, the first is basically a statement only of the central conclusion, while the second is probably best interpreted as including elements of the central premise. Let me explain what I mean. Identifying an author’s conclusion is a matter of some finesse. Recall that we are constrained by two overarching principles: charity and accuracy. But even given these constraints, there is a certain amount of leeway in animation essay, deciding just how narrowly to construe the conclusion. Except in the very rare case in which an compare and contrast essays, author explicitly says, “My thesis is…” it is possible that more than one specification of the author’s conclusion are consistent with the principles of charity and accuracy.

For example, the following all seem equally reasonable construals of the author’s primary conclusion: C1: Reform of police interrogation techniques are necessary. C2: Reforms such as mandatory videotaping of police interrogation are necessary for social justice. C3: Social justice requires reforming police interrogation techniques. C4: Reforms such as mandatory videotaping of in education essay police interrogations are necessary for social justice. And there may be others as well. I personally prefer the last one as it is the gilgamesh statement thesis most specific and thus better enables one to see the precise nature of the argument. But this is to some extent a matter of preference. One doesn’t want to animation essay, be overly anal retentive about exactly how the conclusion is to be specified. That said, it is crucial to understand that not just any construal will do. Structure Of A Paper? For example, the following construals would be unacceptable: C5: Police should not be allowed to interrogate suspected criminals.

C6. Animation? It is more important to respect the research rights of criminals than to make sure that criminals are convicted. Animation In Education? C7. A just society should respect the rights of criminals. Once we have settled on a conclusion that is at least as charitable and accurate as all others, the next task is to fill out the structure of the argument. Step 2: Filling out the structure of the Argument. Best Buy Resume Application? The above considerations give us some sense of the shape of the argument, but it does not yet let us determine the precise nature of the argument.

To do that I suggest just working through each section and animation identifying the main point of that section. Necklace Essay? Here is what I came up with. Discerning the Truth Interrogations are often influenced by a bias on the part of the interrogator. Protections Averted Subjects, especially innocent ones, often waive their Miranda rights. Interrogation Tactics Aggressive interrogation tactics can often produce false confessions. False Confessions This section has no overarching point. It first distinguishes three different types of false confessions. It also identifies three specific problems that can lead to animation in education, such false confessions. But the most important point made in this section is that “trial jurors…can be overly influenced by confessions.” The Need for Reforms The conclusion of the article. It summarizes the main argument and thesis, identifying videotaping of interrogations as one specific reform that is how to write a paper, likely to be effective in reducing the problems brought out in animation, the article. Epic Gilgamesh Statement Thesis? So how do we put these together to animation in education, form a series of premises?

Again, we must respect the constraints of charity and accuracy. One might begin by simply listing each of these claims in order. P. Interrogations are often influenced by a bias on structure scientific the part of the interrogator. P. Aggressive interrogation tactics can often produce false confessions. P. Trial jurors are often heavily influenced by confessions. C. Reforms such as mandatory videotaping of police interrogations are necessary for social justice. Is this a cogent argument? Not yet. This is simply a summary of the main points of the article.

An argument needs to link these up in some way. For example, since the conclusion has a mention of social justice, so too must at least one of the premises. In Education Essay? So how do we proceed? Recall that charity requires that we make a good-faithed effort to how to a paper for conference, tidy it up, while accuracy requires that we not go too far beyond the text itself and/or the author’s intentions. The difference between a charitable reconstruction of an author’s argument and a friendly amendment to the argument is a matter of degree, and it doesn’t really matter what we call it. In Education Essay? Our goal, insofar as we proceed with intellectual honesty, is to best application, come up with the in education essay best reconstruction we can of the author’s argument. So, on with the business of refining the argument. I suggest the how to for conference following: P1. Social justice requires that we try to minimize the potential of convicting innocent persons. Animation Essay? [P2.

Interrogations are often influenced by a bias on the part of the interrogator. P3. Myself? Unrestricted interrogation tactics can often produce false confessions. P4. Trial jurors are often heavily influenced by confessions; they are inclined to treat confessions as decisive evidence of guilt. P2 is in brackets because it seems unnecessary to me. It seems better interpreted as offering support for P3, which is really what is essay, pulling the weight. What we need is a sub-conclusion, a conclusion that we establish on best application the way to the ultimate conclusion.

It is both a conclusion derived from prior premises and serves as a premise used to establish the ultimate conclusion. SC. Therefore, (from P3 and P4) unrestricted interrogation tactics increases the animation essay potential for innocent persons to be convicted (by increasing the potential for false confessions which trial jurors are often inclined to count as decisive evidence of compare and contrast essays grade guilt). C. Therefore, (from P1 and SC) social justice requires that we restrict interrogation tactics. Summarizing this so far we have: The Argument P1. Social justice requires that we minimize the potential for innocent persons to be convicted.

P2. Unrestricted interrogation tactics can often produce false confessions. P3. Trial jurors are often heavily influenced by in education essay confessions; they are inclined to treat confessions as decisive evidence of guilt. SC. Therefore, (from P3 and P4) unrestricted interrogation tactics increases the potential for innocent persons to necklace essay, be convicted (by increasing the potential for false confessions which trial jurors are often inclined to count as decisive evidence of guilt). C. Therefore, (from P1 and SC) social justice requires that we restrict interrogation tactics. Now, if we want to justify the specific proposal of videotaping interrogations, one would need further premises defending that requirement. But I will leave this as a take-home exercise.

Only once one has an accurate and charitable reconstruction of an author’s argument is essay, one in a position to critique it. Critique does not necessarily mean “object to,” for one may find the argument utterly convincing. Best Buy Resume Application? But critique does require critical scrutiny. One can’t simply say “I agree” or “This argument resonates with me.” That may be fine when evaluating poetry (I would disagree, but that’s an issue for the English profs to deal with), but its not fine when engaging in philosophic argument. Even when you agree, it is important to consider a potential counter-argument; otherwise, you risk being dogmatic. In critically evaluating an argument it is important to distinguish the moral/ethical premises from the empirical premises. Essay? In our argument P1 is a moral premise; it makes a claim about gilgamesh statement social justice. P2 and P3 are empirical premises; they are based on scientific evidence.

In this class, we are not in a position to debate the scientific merits of the empirical claims made in this article. One would need to look at the studies cited and determine whether they were based on sound methodology. We can, however, debate premise P1. Are there any reasonable objections to that premise? No one could reasonably deny that a perfectly just system would never convict innocent persons; however a perfectly just system would also always convict the actually guilty.

Thus, the best place to gain traction against P1 is to point the need to balance these two competing goals. Animation? One might think that a better premise is necklace essay, something along the lines of: P1’. Social justice requires that we balance the need to minimize the potential for innocent persons to be convicted against animation in education the need to maximize the potential for actual criminals to be convicted. For example, which of the following results is more in thesis, line with social justice? Suppose that 200 defendants are put on trial. In each case, 150 are guilty and animation 50 are innocent. Result 1. Only 75 are convicted. For 4th Grade? Of the persons convicted, 74 are guilty and in education essay 1 innocent. About Myself? Of the remaining 125 exonerated defendants, 76 are guilty and 49 innocent.

Result 2. 150 are convicted. Of those convicted, 140 are guilty and animation in education essay 10 innocent. Of the informal essay myself 50 exonerated defendants, 10 are guilty and 40 innocent. If one believes that result 2, though imperfect, is more in line with justice, then one must reject the animation in education original P1 in favor of the revised P1’. If one can succeed in supporting this claim, would that suffice to and contrast grade, refute the animation argument? Not quite, but both sides have a burden. The opponent of the suggested reform has the burden of showing that videotaping interrogations would so significantly reduce the likelihood of actual criminals being convicted as to outweigh the increased potential for false convictions. But the proponent has the burden of showing that this is not the case. Until either side discharges their burden, the discourse is at a stalemate. Differences between this article and the type of philosophical essay you will write in this class.

Another important difference has to necklace essay, do with the introduction. The article you’ve read was written as a public-interest piece for a general-audience magazine. For such pieces, it is often a good idea to start with an attention-getting story as a way of in education essay introducing the subject matter. In an academic piece, on the other hand, introductions are all business. You do not want to waste precious word-count by starting with a story. Your goal is simply to make your case—to demonstrate you understand the material and to of a scientific research paper, defend your thesis in the most concise and animation convincing manner possible.

You do not need to entertain your audience; rather, you just need to convince your audience that you know what you are talking about and that you have a reasonably well-defended thesis.

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Essay on animation in education, Earth’s Weather and Climate (4258 Words) Here is your essay on Earth’s Weather and Climate! The term ‘earth sciences’ is necklace essay used to describe all the sciences concerned with the structure, age, composition and animation essay atmosphere of the earth. It includes the basic subject of geology, with its sub- classifications of geochemistry, geomorphology, geophysics, mineralogy, seismology and volcanism, oceanography, meteorology, and paleontology. Image Curtsey: An integrated approach or understanding of earth including the oceans is vital if we have to effectively and compare and contrast essays for 4th grade sustainably manage earth’s energy, water, mineral, soil and coastal resources for our future generations. A stand-alone view of various phenomena will not serve any purpose as any independent model is animation in education unable to sustain the compare and contrast for 4th, variability of the complexities involved in the earth and ocean sciences, which are gradually converging. It has therefore become imperative to in education essay understand the interdependence and necklace essay coupling of geological sciences and animation in education essay oceanography. The combined approach to earth and ocean sciences is also the key to predicting and managing natural disasters or hazards like earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunami, etc. In this context, in a significant development in India, a Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) was formed in July 2006 by restructuring the former Ministry of Ocean Development.

The MoES deals with matters relating to meteorology, seismology, climate and environmental science and informal essay about related earth sciences including ocean science and technology. It facilitates an essay, integrated view of scientific research, earth systems viz., ocean, atmosphere and in education essay land to provide best possible services in respect of ocean resources, ocean state, monsoon, cyclone, earthquake, tsunami, climate change, etc. The MoES oversees research in earth system sciences, forecast monsoons and other climate parameters, ocean state, earthquakes, tsunamis and earth science phenomena. The ministry also supports industry in science, aviation, water resources, aquaculture, agriculture, etc., by epic, disseminating weather information. Animation Essay! It also develops and coordinates science and technology related to oceans, Polar Regions besides preserving, assessing and exploiting marine living and non-living resources. Apart from the MoES, an Earth Commission was also set up in January 2007 which acts as a nodal authority on earth sciences set up on the lines of Atomic Energy and Space Commission, The Earth Commission (comprising about 12 members) views in a holistic way phenomena that couple earth, atmosphere and oceans. It formulates policies of MoES, creates suitable executive, networking and legislative mechanisms, approves major projects, budget, etc.

It also establishes recruitment procedures, assesses manpower needs and undertakes HRD and capacity building. Several projects are being carried out to letter get information on animation in education, earth and atmospheric sciences. Application! Deep continental studies are being undertaken to study the structure of the Indian lithosphere. A project has been launched with a view to studying geological, geomorphological, structural and geophysical setting of deep sea fans and is expected to throw light on the nature of animation in education, oceanic crust and various events in evolution of the Himalayas. Organisations like Geological Survey of India, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, National Institute of Oceanography and other concerned universities are participating in the programme. A multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary coordinated project in the field of ‘Himalayan Glaciology’ was initiated during 1986 for studying snow-cover mapping, glacial inventory, hydro-meteorological and hydro- logical, geological and geo- morphological aspects of how to a paper for conference, glaciers. These studies will be helpful in animation in education evaluation of snow-melt/glacial-melt contribution in the northern river system. Efforts are being made to link data collection platforms with INSAT for a paper for conference better understanding of glaciers.

A multi-institutional coordinated programme on arid zone research was launched in 1987 to animation essay enhance productivity of land, man and animal in arid land regions of the epic gilgamesh statement, country with application of animation essay, science and technology. Projects ranging from structure of a scientific research paper, monitoring the in education, process of desertifica­tion, establishment of natural resource data bases, sand-dune dynamics to surface and ground water inter-relationship are being supported. Many of the programmes are of importance in the context of understanding how natural disasters take place and how to mitigate their effect. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), which was set up on an all- India basis in 1875, is the national agency for necklace essay providing services in meteorology. Data collected from over 1,400 observatories of different types including data collection platforms is processed by it. IMD along with the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, conducts fundamental and animation in education applied research in best meteorological instrumentation, radar meteorology, seismology, agricultural meteorology, hydrometeorology, and satellite meteorology and air pollution. IITM has been conducting cloud seeding experiments for animation producing rain artificially. IMD provides grants to compare for 4th certain universities/academic institutions to encourage research in atmospheric sciences and monsoon circulation. It also funds monsoon research by a centre in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. A monsoon activity centre was established at New Delhi under the World Meteorological Organisation Programme.

Meteorological and weather services are provided by IMD from its headquarters at New Delhi and in education essay functional offices responsible for clima­tology and forecasting at Pune. Best Application York! There are five regional Meteorological Centres at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Nagpur and New Delhi. For better coordination, Meteorological Centres have been set up in other state capitals. To render service to agriculturists, weather bulletins are issued daily since 1945 from Meteorological Centres relating to their regions. They give district wise forecasts of weather and in education warnings against adverse weather. How To A Paper For Conference! Agrometeorological Advisory Service Centres have been estab­lished at several places and they issue meteorological advisory bulletins to farmers once or twice a week. Flood meteorological offices have been working at ten different centres to provide meteorological support to flood forecasting organisation of Central Water Commission. Tourism depart­ments at Centre and in states have access to meteorological centres for weather information of interest to animation in education tourists. IMD issues warnings against heavy rainfall, strong winds and cyclonic weather for general public and various private and public organisations including aviation, defence services, ships, ports, fishermen, mountaineering expeditions and agriculturists.

Disaster warning system receivers have been installed in disaster-prone coastal areas of north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh and more would be installed along coastal areas of West Bengal, Orissa, north Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. In addition, IMD operates data collection platforms (DCPs). Cyclone warnings to and contrast ports and ships are issued by Mumbai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneswar and Chennai offices. These are based on conventional meteorological observations from essay, coastal and essay myself island obser­vatories, ships in the Indian seas, coastal cyclone detection radars and animation cloud pictures received from weather satellites. Cyclone detection radar stations are located at Mumbai, Goa, Cochin, Bhuj, Kolkata, Chennai, Karaikal, Paradip, Visakhapatnam and Machilipatnam. Weather satellite pictures transmitted by Indian National Satellite are received at main Data Utilisation Centre at Delhi and processed and transmitted to how to write users. A cyclone warning and research centre at Chennai investigates problems exclusively relating to tropical cyclones. Meteorological data is exchanged with many countries through high-speed telecommunication channels.

As part of India’s cooperation with World Weather Watch Programme of animation in education, World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), a regional meteorological centre and regional telecommunication hub functions at New Delhi. IMD participates in Indian scientific expeditions to Antarctica and scientific cruises of ocean research vessels. Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Bengaluru, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG), Mumbai, and IITM, Pune, which were formerly a part of IMD, have been functioning as autonomous institutes since 1971. IIA conducts research in solar and stellar physics, radio astronomy, cosmic radiation, etc. IIG records magnetic observations and conducts research in compare geomagnetism. Under the Dynamics of Monsoon programme data are collected at animation sites covering continuously moist, periodically moist and mainly dry regions of monsoon by using both conventional and modern techniques like instrumented meteorological tower, Doppler sonar, tether -sonde, mini-radiosonde radiometer, etc. Studies using these and other conven­tional data will lead to understanding of dynamics of monsoon, vagaries of which are intimately related to rainfall distribution in North India. The Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Programme Project is being launched as part of an international programme and includes deployment of data buoys, XBT lines, additional tide gauges, etc. and exchange of specified meteorological and oceanographic data with participating countries. It will lead to improved understanding of oceano­graphic and structure of a scientific research paper atmospheric processes and air-sea interaction mechanism over tropical oceans and to develop reliable climate model relevant to our country.

It will also help increase our capabilities for essay forecasting monsoon and cyclones. The Monsoon and Tropical Climate (MONTCLIM) Programme is necklace essay directed towards undertaking studies on monsoon climate variability/ change, modelling atmospheric processes and technology development for atmospheric science research. Animation! In order to study the informal letter about myself, effect of weather and climate in the tropics, efforts are being made to improve parameterisation of land-ocean-atmospheric processes in the atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). Indian Climate Research Programme. The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP), aimed at animation in education studying short- and medium-term climate variations in India, has become operational. The programme is being implemented under the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and is expected to interface with other regional and international programmes under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). The IRCP consists of: (i) analysis of observational data from ground- based, ship-based and satellite-based measurements; (ii) modelling studies with coupled ocean-atmospheric general circulation models (OAGCMs); and (iii) identification of the climate component of agricultural produc­tivity, impact of climate on environment, global warming and climate change, etc. Under the programme, a pilot study on the Bay of Bengal and monsoon experiment to understand the air-sea interaction processes and monsoon variability have been completed. The Department of Ocean Development has set up buoys, equipped with ocean observation systems, in structure of a scientific research paper the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

The data will be telemetred through the international maritime satellite, INMARSAT, and animation received back in India via France. Scientists are keen to epic gilgamesh thesis gather data on the Bay of Bengal where most cloud formation takes place and moves northwards. They also plan to study how ocean conditions affect rainfall variations in a season (intra-seasonal variation) — a key factor for monsoon forecast models. A similar effort is on to sail buoys to study the animation, warm waters of Kerala and Minocoy and best buy resume the role of the in education, Arabian Sea in monsoon fluctuations. Scientists also plan to sail ships in the Bay of Bengal to study how its water circulation is affected by fresh water discharges from rain as well as major rivers that drain into it—the Ganga, Mahanadi, Irawadi and Brahmaputra.

The ships, to be located at intervals of necklace essay, 10, 15 and 20 degrees North latitude, will be equipped with instruments to measure changes in water circulation during different seasons and the monsoon. The land component of the ICRP has made a beginning with the animation in education, construction of five highly instrumented towers to study the atmosphere from 10 to 30 metres height at Anand in necklace essay Gujarat. The ICRP studies fossil records to animation in education essay analyse climate variations in the past. Scientists are studying fossil pollen in Rajasthan lakes and Himalayan ice cores, pollen in peat in dried up marshy areas, and epic gilgamesh rings on old trees that vary according to climatic conditions. While pollen studies can give data 5,000 to 10,000 years old, the tree ring technique gives data up to 200 years ago. To go further back into history, scientists plan to drill and bring out material from shallow and essay deep ocean waters to analyse climate variability up to for conference 1,000 to 20,000 years ago. The atmosphere component of ICRP consists of analysis of global data on animation essay, atmosphere made available through satellites.

The first operational long-range forecast of seasonal southwest monsoon rainfall (June-September) of India was issued by IMD in 1986. In 1988, a new technique was used to give the operational long-range forecast for the country as a whole. Following the significant deviation in its south-west monsoon forecast for 1999 from the actual rainfall received during the period, the IMD has started reworking its ‘long-range forecasting parametric and power regression model’. It has replaced four out of the original 16 parameters— North Indian Temperature, 10 hPa Zonal Wind, 500 hPa April Ridge Position and Darwin Pressure (Spring)—with entirely new ones, namely, Darwin Pressure Tendency, South Indian Ocean SST, Arabian Sea SST and European Pressure Gradient (January). The model, in operation since 1988, basically relied on essay, data pertaining to 16 regional and global temperature, pressure, wind and snow cover-related parameters, which have been observed to essay physically influ­ence the country’s monsoon rainfall performance. Each parameter or predictor was defined in terms of observations made over informal letter essay myself, a specific location and period, which in some cases stretches till end-May. The forecasting process has a qualitative as well as quantitative dimension, with the former involving an analysis of the configuration of favourable and animation unfavourable signals from the best buy resume application york, pre-monsoon behaviour of the 16 parameters.

Once the qualitative inferences are drawn, the numerical values of the parameters are taken to generate a quantitative estimate of the monsoon rainfall using a standard statistical ‘power regression’ model. While the model theoretically had an estimated error range of only plus or minus 4 per cent of the forecast levels, the deviations from the actuals had, in practice, however, been much larger. The reason for the quantitative forecasting errors being larger than original model error in recent times had mainly to do with the fact that statistical relationship of some of the animation in education essay, predictors had been weakening with time. The new parameters have a stronger statistical relationship to the country’s recent monsoon performance and would, therefore, limit the forecast error to the original model range. The overall formulation of the necklace essay, operational 16-parameter model has remained unaltered. Of the 16 parameters selected the in education, IMD has held 10 to be favourable, which, in epic statement quantitative terms, translates into an all-India monsoon rainfall level amounting to in education 99 per cent of the gilgamesh thesis, long period average of 88 cm, within the in education essay, estimated model error of plus or minus 4 per cent. Indian scientists carry out numerical modelling exercises on the CRAY-XMP supercomputer which was procured in 1987.

The National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) was set up in 1988 under the DST and has the mandate to develop an operational model for medium-range forecasts. The output information predicts the data of wind, rainfall, temperature, humidity, soil temperature, cloud cover and derived information. The centre has been developing a model for 3-10 days forecast, and is now able to issue an application york, operational forecast to the IMD a few days ahead. In Education! The centre has been quite successful at numerical weather prediction using the and contrast essays grade, T80 model and data from INSAT. The centre, through its field units, has been providing medium- range forecasts by using global numerical model and agrometeorological advisories (AAS) to the farmers in essay various agro-climatic zones of the country. Best Application! These units are located at state agricultural universities and ICAR institutes. The state-of-the-art numerical models are being used at NCMRWF for animation in education generation of weather forecasts over the entire globe using mathematical model with initial condition generated after assimilation of global observations. At present, the forecasts are produced for a 150 km resolution grid that would soon be changed to a higher resolution of 75 km grid or less. Apart from the fanning community, NCMRWF is also providing the forecast products to IMD, Indian Air Force, and Indian Navy, Snow and compare for 4th Avalanche Studies Establishment and other non-governmental organisations.

Recently, the animation in education, model generation low-level wind fields have started to best application york be used in the ocean state forecasting. Forecasts are being issued for other applications as well, viz., defence applications, flood forecasting, summer monsoon onset and animation in education its progression, important national functions (Inde­pendence Day/Republic Day, etc.) and festivals, Amarnath Yatra (JK tourism, etc.) and the Everest expeditions. In addition, forecasts of vertical profiles of wind are provided for launch of space vehicles. NCMRWF products were utilised during various field experiments of best buy resume application york, national importance conducted over Indian Seas, viz., INDOEX (Indian Ocean Experiment) and BOBMEX (Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment). A new high-end computer system has been installed recently at the Centre, which will improve the accuracy, range and resolution of weather forecasts, especially of hazardous weather phenomena. These forecasts will be utilised for new additional applications, such as fire hazard manage­ment/prediction, environmental disasters, locust modelling, etc. A regional component of an international study called Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP), the Monsoon Experi­ment (MONEX) was conducted jointly by animation essay, the World Meteorological Organisation and International Council of Scientific Unions in 1979. The IMD was the main executing agency of this project in India. ISRO’s contribution to the project comprised collection of wind data using rockets and meteorological data collected by using Omega Sondes. The Balasore Rocket Launching Station in Orissa was set up by ISRO during MONEX to buy resume launch rockets of meteorological observations.

The Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP) is in education essay a nationwide cooperative effort of structure scientific paper, many scientific departments and organisations to investigate the physical and chemical phenomena and processes taking place in the atmosphere between 10-100 km. The mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar is the second largest such radar in the world (the largest being at animation essay Jicamarca, Peru). It has been installed and it operates at Gadanki, a village near Tirupati, in Andhra Pradesh. It is structure scientific research a national facility of immense use in animation atmospheric research. Gadanki was chosen for setting up of this radar facility because of its geographic location, near the Equator, as well as low level-noise prevalence. Besides, it is near Sriharikota, the york, launch pad of the animation, ISRO, which can also benefit from the data obtained by and contrast, this radar. MST corresponds to three height regions of atmosphere, 50-85 km, 17-50 km and 0-17 km respectively. A radar which is used to study the dynamics of the above heights is called MST radar. Animation Essay! Rockets and balloons are conventionally used for probing the atmosphere. How To A Paper! Different sensors sent up with these devices into the atmosphere, however, can give data only for a few minutes.

The atmosphere can be analysed on a continuous basis every day by the MST radar. A radar uses radio waves to detect and range the objects of interest. It sends radio waves and receives back the echo from the target. Animation In Education Essay! From the time of received echo and shift in frequency of the echo, the range and structure of a research paper velocity of the target can be determined. In normal radars, the animation, target may be airplanes. For an MST radar the target is the irregularities in the radio refractive index of the atmosphere. The strength of the echo is very weak, since reflexivity of the clear atmosphere is extremely small. This dictates the use of informal letter essay, high transmitter power and antenna array with large physical aperture.

The Indian MST radar is operating at a frequency of 53 MHz. It can provide details of the wind velocity of over five to animation in education essay 100 km with a height resolution of structure of a scientific research paper, 150 metres. Animation In Education! The antenna system of this radar is spread over informal about, a high area of 16,000 sq metres, employing 1024 Yagi antennae. There are 32 high power transmitters in the system. The radar has been designed by the engineers of the Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering Research (SAMEER), Mumbai.

The work of the MST radar is coordinated by the Department of in education essay, Space on behalf of the Department of Electronics which provided 30 per cent funds. DST, DRDO, the letter, Department of Environment, and animation CSIR also provided funds to this project. Under the ISRO geosphere-biosphere programme, balloon-based cryo-sampler experiments are planned to be conducted at regular intervals. The scientific information thus obtained is expected to help monitor and regulate ozone depletion substances. ISRO is one among very few organisations in for conference the world to develop and animation successfully employ this advanced cryogenic technique. The indigenously developed cryogenic payload, for measuring ozone depletion and greenhouse warming substances in the atmosphere, was successfully launched from the National Scientific Payload Facility at Hyderabad in April 1994. The payload, comprising 16 cryo probes, was lifted by a balloon of 1, 50,000 cubic metre capacity to the predetermined ceiling altitude of 37 km.

The cryo probes were commanded to collect the ambient samples at various heights during the ascent as well as descent. The trace gas elements include the ozone-damaging chlorofluo- rocarbon (CFC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and different oxides of nitrogen. The detailed analysis of the samples has been carried out at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad. The technique of cryogenic pumping enables the necklace essay, measurement of almost all the ozone-depleting substances mentioned in the Montreal Protocol to which India is a signatory. Animation In Education! According to ISRO sources, most of the compare and contrast essays for 4th, ozone-depleting substances are produced and released into the atmosphere by developed countries, while India’s contribution is less than 0.1 per cent. But, atmospheric dynamics are such that an abundance of these substances in the tropical region is an index of the in education essay, global ozone destructive potential of the substance. A ‘seismology programme’ was initiated in the year 1983 with a view to understand the earthquake processes and the related field manifestations. Epic Statement Thesis! The initial focus of the programme was on two critical earthquake-prone areas, namely, north-west Himalayas and north-east part of India.

Later, as infrastructure such as seismic stations and strong motion seismic networks were established at various locations, new geographical areas like the Delhi region and Bihar plains were also taken up for carrying integrated studies. Animation In Education Essay! Special initiatives were launched for necklace essay the north-east region. Several seismological observatories have been set up, which are operated and maintained by various institutions to complement the essay, national efforts of the necklace essay, IMD. The programme has made considerable progress over the years in terms of generation of new knowledge on understanding earthquake processes, identification of seismogenic features, acceleration values from animation in education, near-source, manpower development and best buy resume york general public awareness. Project Vasundhara by the Geological Survey of India aims to make an integrated evaluation of data received from in education, satellites, air-borne geophysical and ground surveys and draw thematic maps of necklace essay, mineral-rich regions and delineate areas for mineral search. As a spin-off of this project, a Seismo-tectonic map of peninsular India has been brought out which shows this region—once considered to be stable and relatively free of earthquakes— to be a seismically active zone. Only two major earthquakes had occurred in the peninsula till 1967—one in Bellary in in education essay 1843 and the other in Coimbatore in compare and contrast 1900. Their intensity was 7 on the MM scale, but the 1967 Koyna earthquake, which recorded a magnitude of animation in education essay, six on the Richter Scale, and the Bhadrachalam and Broach quakes whose intensities were 5.3 and 5.4 respectively, forced scientists to study the seismicity and tectonics of the peninsular shield. After the Marathwada earthquake in the Osmanabad and Latur region on September 30, 1993, the seismicity of this part of peninsular shield received detailed attention. The seismicity in the region could be related to lineaments lying in the vicinity of zone of uplift deciphered in necklace essay 1975 based on animation, gravity data.

According to the Seismo-tectonic map brought out by structure of a research, the Geological Survey of India, there were 436 epicentres below the 17 degree latitude. The region is said to have low-to-moderate level seismic activity. It was possible to find a relationship between the various epicentres and lineaments, which are surface or subsurface manifestations of in education essay, linear features representing faults, joints, fracture systems and dykes. Many faults and lineaments were identified as active based on reliable seismic activity. A major seismic zone with a cluster of epicentres along the east- west track between Mysore and west of Puducherry was located near the Dharwar Craton-Pandyan zone. This zone included a system of northeast- south-west trending faults. The seismicity of this zone was probably related to these faults.

Clusters of gilgamesh, epicentres were also found in the regions of Ongole, Chittoor and Cuddapah, east of Mangalore, besides Bangalore city and its neighbourhood. The map was drawn after analysing Seismo-tectonic characteristics of the region based on the study of distribution of epicentres and their relation to faults, shear and lineaments. Data published since 1800 were collected from various sources and stored in a digital map. The Latur earthquake of 1993 also prompted the animation in education essay, government to launch a World Bank-assisted project on ‘seismological instrumentation upgradation and other collateral geographical studies in the peninsular shield region’. The various components of the project were—upgrading existing observatories of the IMD; setting up new observatories; setting up of National Seismological Data Centre with improved communication links; geodetic observations using the Global Positioning System (GPS); and electrical conductivity mapping and structural response studies of tall buildings. Deep continental studies (DCS) programme is a collaborative, multi-disciplinary earth science research programme aimed at understanding the deep crustal configuration and related processes of the Indian lithosphere.

The programme’s principal scientific components are built around a few selected geotransects as study areas. The focus of the investigations during the last few years has been multi-disciplinary studies along Nagaur-Jhalwar transect (NW, Rajasthan shield). Central Indian Craton and south Indian shield, integrated studies have also been launched along the NW Himalayan geotransect (HIMPROBE). The national GPS measure­ment programme is aimed at investigating the crustal deformation due to earthquake occurrence processes and other related geodynamic phe­nomena at informal letter myself the Himalayan convergent plate margin and the peninsular shield region. The Himalayan glaciology programme is aimed at understanding the essay, behaviour of glaciers and their interaction with climate and hydrological system and also to train manpower and create research and development related facilities in this vital area. Under the programme, an integrated RD programme on Gangotri glacier was approved recently.

Glaciological studies at some other glaciers are also being conducted. The programme involves undertak­ing field experiments related to modelling studies on the effect of weather and climate on crop growth, yields and pest and disease development. The data generated is used to develop subroutines for simulating agrometeorological processes, testing and validation. An agrometeorological data bank has been initiated at the Central Research Institute for of a research Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad, for collection, compilation and archival of various types of crop and in education essay weather data generated under agrometeorology projects supported by informal letter essay, ICAR and DST. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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