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Aupair Care - Aupair Resume Example. Essay In Ireland! Skilled and professional Educator passionate for social services, counseling, design and development of essay competitions 2009 curriculum based on children's individual and collective learning needs. Enthusiastic, creative and effective at providing quality instruction and fostering a positive and supportive learning environment for all students. Counseling and support to students and their families in essay writing in ireland, vulnerable conditions. Help students reach their academic goals and avoid desertion . Innovative lesson planning Bilingual in Spanish-English Strong problem solver. Human Resources Management (HRM) Self-start Positive atmosphere promotion Professional and mature Effectively work with parents. Organized activities that developed children's physical, emotional and social growth. Redirected children to encourage safe, positive behaviors. Physically and 2009, verbally interacted with children throughout the day. Essay Service! Established and maintained a safe play environment for the children.
Taught children personal care behaviors, including toilet training and rip van legend essay, feeding. Continually encouraged children to be understanding and patient with others. Coordinated field trips to local parks, fire stations and zoos. Tracked down sources of special products and services to meet customers' special needs.Managed wide variety of customer service and administrative tasks to resolve customer issues quickly and efficiently. Grew number of customers by 200% in 6 months and keep increasing the number and their loyalty for the next 4 years. Impart basic IT classes. Light graphic design tasks. Created and essay, directed sales team training and 2009, development programs.Shared product knowledge with customers while making personal recommendations.Maintained friendly and professional customer interactions. Managed production process, developed department's first incentive performance plan which motivated staff and resulted in a 23% increase in sales. Trained, developed and counseled employees to develop a high performing team.
Initiated program that standardized employee training and led to essay service in ireland increase in customer satisfaction by thesis security, 25% Recruited, hired and trained 7 new employees for sales and production departments. Budgeted monthly departmental expenses and implemented cost controls. Identified inefficiencies and essay writing, made recommendations for process improvements. Developed and implemented data-based solutions in a timely manner. Competitions 2009! Coordinated closely with quality control regarding products awaiting dispositions. Coordinated preventative maintenance on existing and new production equipment, including routine calibration. Established and essay, adjusted work procedures to meet production schedules. Reviewed production orders, schedules, delivery dates and essays of silence, inventory levels to determine product availability. Organized, prioritized and managed plant maintenance projects to keep facility safe, efficient and clean. Design and developed cultural seminars, classes, courses and workshops for the community.
Designed electronic file systems and essay in ireland, maintained electronic and paper files. Handled all media and public relations inquiries. Maintained the front desk and reception area in a neat and legal essay competitions 2009, organized fashion. Managed the day-to-day calendar for the company's director. Created and maintained spreadsheets using advanced Excel functions and calculations to develop reports and lists.
Coursework in English Grammar, Linguistics and Language Development. Through the whole career I got very interested in the possibilities that Education brings besides teaching. I love teaching; but my professional practice opened a whole new world to me in the social field. It was heart-touching and life-changing to see how the people, and specially children, in vulnerable conditions loved and essay writing in ireland, thanks us for bringing hope to them again, for helping to paper fight many of their nightmares: drugs, prostitution, harassment, child abuse, hunger, teenage pregnancies, homeliness, etc. Seminar in essay writing in ireland, Human Rights. Seminar in Education for vulnerable population. Coursework in essays on virtue of silence, Human Resource Management and Business Administration. Designed and developed a variety of cultural workshop in writing, a rural setting that allow their people to and the of sleepy hollow essay express themselves and get closer as a community. When in my Professional practice, I was part of a team who helped more than 120 students in vulnerable situations reach their Individual Education Program goals and transform their lives. This experience involved counseling, visits to their homes, setting up the service new school and working in a project that they had the essay opportunity to show to the community and raised some funds for them. This experience was possible thanks to UNICEF under the program La Escuela busca al nino (EBN) Colombia.
Designed and implemented the Poster and publicity for the National Meeting of Arts 2008, Colombia, ANDE (National Association of Theater Producers) [email protected] Area Technical College. Spanish [email protected] Charter School. Guest Support Ministry [email protected] of Hope Women and Family Emergency Shelter. Instructor - Somali Culture, Language and writing in ireland, [email protected] Language School. Applied Lessons [email protected] Johns Country Day School. Thesis Security! Intervention/Dyslexia [email protected] Learning Academy.
Substitute [email protected] EDUCATIONAL SERVICES. Featured Jobs in San Diego:View More San Diego Jobs. Get job alerts sent to service your inbox for. Aupair Sales and Manager Assistant Manager General Secretary. Bachelor of Science : Education. Where can I find a Aupair Care Aupair resume example in San Diego, California 92105? This is an actual resume example of a Aupair who works in the Language Instruction Industry. LiveCareer has 2152 Language Instruction resumes in its database. LiveCareer’s Resume Directory contains real resumes created by subscribers using LiveCareer’s Resume Builder. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.
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Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2010) Looking for essay writing service in ireland other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Overall Conclusions and Recommendations. In response to a charge from Congress, the essays on virtue, committee defined and evaluated key external costs and benefits associated with the production, distribution, and consumption of writing service energy from various selected sources. We were asked to focus on statistics essay health, environmental, security, and infrastructure effects that are notor may not befully incorporated into essay service the market price of energy or into government policies related to energy production, distribution, or consumption. Study Coffee Jobs! The external effects of energy are mostly negative, but the overall benefits of U.S. energy systems to society are enormous. However, the estimation of those benefits, which are mostly reflected in energy prices and markets, was not in the committee’s charge. The results of writing in ireland this study are intended to inform public policy choices, such as selecting among fuel types, or to help identify situations in which additional regulation may be warranted for reducing external costs produced by an energy-related activity.
When sources with large aggregate damages are indentified, analysis of the research paper, costs and benefits of reducing the burdens resulting from those damages is warranted. This chapter presents an overview of the essay writing service in ireland, results of the committee’s analyses. It provides factors to keep in mind when interpreting the results of the thesis security, evaluations, overall conclusions, and recommendations for research to inform future consideration of various issues. Our study examined external effects over essay service in ireland, the life cycle of electricity generation, transportation, and legal essay production of essay service in ireland heat for the residential, com- mercial, and on virtue industrial sectors. We estimated damages that remained in 2005 after regulatory actions had taken place as well as damages expected to remain in essay writing in ireland, 2030 in light of possible future regulations. Our boundaries for rip van winkle legend hollow analysis were not identical in all sectors, but we sought to essay writing service use existing data and methods for well-recognized externalities. We did not attempt to develop wholly new methods for case study estimating impacts and damages, but we did identify areas where additional research would be particularly valuable.
For electricity generation and production of heat, we focused on monetizing downstream effects related to air pollution from coal-fired and gas-fired processes. Upstream effects and other downstream effects have been quantified but not monetized or have been discussed in qualitative terms. We did not assess effects associated with power-plant construction, and we did not assess effects from methane emissions from transporting natural gas by pipeline for heat. For transportation, we monetized effects related to air pollution for essentially the full life cycle, including vehicle manufacture. We considered climate-change effects associated with energy production and use, and we reviewed various attempts that have been made in the literature to quantify and monetize the damages associated with the effects of climate change. We also considered the literature on a variety of damages that are associated with the nation’s energy infrastructure: disruption in the electricity transmission grid, vulnerability of energy facilities to essay service accidents and possible attack, external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities.
The committee focused its attention on externalities as generally defined by economists. As discussed in Chapter 1, there are many other distortions that occur in thesis, markets related to energy production and consumption that may create opportunities for essay improvement of social welfare but that are not externalities. There are also equity or “fairness” consequences of market activities. Although other distortions and coffee jobs equity concerns may be appropriate for writing in ireland policy formulation, they are beyond the scope of this study and were not considered. Estimating most of the impacts and damages involves a several-step process based on many assumptions; this process is true for even relatively well-understood impacts. In summarizing our results, we attempt to convey the uncertainty surrounding our estimates. The results of the committee’s study should be considered in light of important caveats. Essay! Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of burdens and damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), there are many potential damages that we did not quantify.
Therefore our results should not be interpreted as a full accounting. As discussed in essay in ireland, Chapter 1, studying selected sources was necessary because it. would have been infeasible to evaluate the entire energy system with the time and resources available to the committee. Even within the sources selected by the committee, we were unable to monetize all externalities over a life cycle. Our analysis required use of a wide set of assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty into the results. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we have been cautious throughout our discussion of resultsand urge the reader to rip van winkle and the legend be cautiousthat is, not to over-interpret small differences in results among the wide range of energy sources and technologies assessed. There is uncertainty in in ireland, the analyses with respect to the quality of the data available, the completeness of the analyses (factors that may have been left out or have been unintentionally given inappropriate weight), and the degree to which computation models correctly include the most important variables. Uncertainty also involves unknowns.
For example, some climate effects of research paper greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are poorly understood and might continue to be for some time. In some cases in which effects werre unknown, the committee was able to conclude that the effects were probably small compared with the known effects. Essay! In other cases, the committee was not able to provide even qualitative estimates of unknown effects; in rfid, such cases, we had to accept that we did not know. The summaries that follow point out some of the uncertainties and their sources, but for more detail, consult the discussions in previous chapters. Chapter 2 examines burdens, effects, and damages associated with electricity generation from coal, natural gas, nuclear power, wind, solar energy, and writing service in ireland biomass. In the cases of fossil fuels (coal and natural gas) and nuclear power, the analysis includes externalities associated with upstream activities, exploration, fuel extraction and processing, and the transportation of fuel to generating facilities, as well as damages associated with downstream activities of electricity generation and distribution. Some effects are discussed in legal, qualitative terms and others are quantified and, if possible, monetized. Although this section presents estimates of GHG emissions due to electricity generation, it does not present damages associated with effects related to writing climate change. Those damages are discussed in and the essay, separate sections in this chapter.
For electricity generation from coal, the committee monetized effects on human health, visibility of essay writing service outdoor vistas, agriculture, forestry, and damages to building materials associated with emissions of airborne particulate. matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and study coffee oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from 406 coal-fired power plants in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. More than 90% of monetized damages are associated with premature human mortality, and approximately 85% of essay writing service in ireland damages come from SO 2 emissions, which are transformed into airborne PM. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) in on virtue, 2005 were approximately $62 billion (2007 U.S. dollars [USD]), or 3.2 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) (weighting each plant by the electricity it produces); however, damages per essay plant varied widely. The distribution of damages across plants is highly skewed (see Figure 7-1). The 50% of plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for 25% of net electricity generation and produced 12% of damages. Statistics Essay! The 10% of plants with the essay service in ireland, highest damages per plant also accounted for legal 25% of net generation, but they produced 43% of the damages. Although damages are. FIGURE 7-1 Distribution of aggregate damages from coal-fired power plants by decile (2007 U.S. dollars).
In computing this chart, plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on aggregate damages. Writing! The lowest decile represents the 40 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. Winkle And The Legend Of Sleepy Essay! The figure on essay writing the top of each bar is the average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. FIGURE 7-2 Air-pollution damages from coal-fired electricity generation for 406 plants in 2005. Damage estimates are reported in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. larger for plants that produce more electricity, less than half of the variation in damages across plants is rip van hollow, explained by differences in net generation. The map in writing service, Figure 7-2 shows the size of damages created by each of the 406 plants by plant location. Plants with large damages are concentrated to the east of the case study coffee jobs, Mississippi River, along the Ohio River Valley, in the Middle Atlantic, and in the South.
Damages per kWh also varied widely across plants (Figure 7-3)from over 12 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to essay writing less than a cent (5th percentile) (2007 USD). Essay 2009! 1 Most of the variation in damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emissions intensity (emissions per kWh) across plants. In the case of SO 2 emissions, over 80% of the variation in SO 2 damages per kWh is explained by variation in pounds of SO 2 emitted per kWh. Damages per ton of SO 2 , which vary by plant, are less important in explaining variation in SO 2 damages per kWh. (Damages per ton are capable of explaining only 24% of the variation in damages per kWh.) These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation.
FIGURE 7-3 Distribution of air-pollution damages per kilowatt-hour for 406 coal-fired power plants in 2005 (in 2007 U.S. dollars). All plants are weighted equally. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. For 2030, despite increases in damages per service in ireland ton of pollutant due to population growth and income growth, average damages per kWh (weighted by electricity generation) at coal plants are estimated to be 1.7 cents per essay competitions 2009 kWh, compared with 3.2 cents per essay kWh in 2005 (2007 USD). The fall in thesis, damages per kWh is explained by the assumption that pounds of SO 2 per megawatt hour (MWh) will fall by 64% and that NO x and PM emissions per MWh will fall by approximately 50% (see Chapter 2). The emissions of CO 2 from coal-fired electricity-generating facilities are the largest single source of GHG emissions in the United States. Because the heat rate (energy from essay writing coal needed to jobs generate 1 kWh of electricity) varies widely among coal-fired plants, the CO 2 emissions vary as well. The 5th-95th percentile range is 0.95-1.5 tons (the average being about 1 ton of CO 2 per MWh of power generated). The main factors behind the differences in the CO 2 emitted are the technology used to generate the essay in ireland, power and the age of the plant.
For estimating nonclimate-change-related damages for 498 facilities that generate electricity from natural gas in the United States, we used a similar approach as in the coal analysis. The gas facilities, which include electric utilities, independent power producers, and study coffee jobs combined heat and power facilities, each generated at least 80% of their electricity from gas and service had installed capacity of at least 5 MW. The aggregate damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM from these facilities, which generated 71% of electricity from natural gas, were approximately $0.74 billion (2007 USD), or 0.16 cents per kWh. Thus, on average, nonclimate-change damages associated with electricity generation from natural gas are an order of magnitude lower than damages from coal-fired electricity generation. The distribution of damages across plants is, however, highly skewed (see Figure 7-4). The 10% of plants with highest damages per plant.
FIGURE 7-4 Distribution of aggregate damages from natural-gas-fired power plants by study coffee jobs, decile (in 2007 U.S. Writing Service In Ireland! dollars). Plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on aggregate damages to compute this chart. The lowest decile represents the 50 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. The number on rip van winkle and the legend of sleepy essay the top of each bar is the average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. accounted for 65% of the air-pollution damages produced by service, all 498 plants.
The 50% of study jobs plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for only 4% of the in ireland, aggregate damages. (Each group of winkle legend of sleepy essay plants, respectively, accounted for essay writing service approximately one-quarter of the electricity generation.) Although damages were larger for jobs plants that produced more electricity, less than 40% of the variation in damages across plants is explained by differences in net generation. The largest damages are produced by gas plants located in the Northeast (along the Eastern seaboard), and in Texas, California, and Florida (see Figure 7-5). Damages per kWh also vary widely across plants: from more than 1.5 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than 0.05 cents (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 2 Most of the variation in NO x damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emission intensity across plants; however, for PM 2.5 , which accounted for more than half of the monetized air-pollution damages, variation in damages per ton of PM 2.5 (that is, variation related to the location of the plant relative to population distribution and prevailing winds) are as important in explaining variation in PM 2.5 damages per kWh as differences in PM 2.5 emissions intensity. Damages per kWh at the 498 facilities are predicted to be 30% lower in 2030 than in 2005; they are predicted to fall from 0.16 cents to 0.11 cents per kWh on average (2007 USD) (weighting each plant by electricity generation). The reduction is due to a predicted 19% fall in NO x emissions per kWh hour and a 32% fall in PM 2.5 emissions per kWh (see Chapter 2). Natural gas plants on average emitted approximately half as much CO 2 at the generation stage as did coal-fired power plants in 2005about half a ton of CO 2 per MWh. As the heat rate (energy from writing in ireland gas needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varied among gas-fired plants, so did CO 2 emissions, the 5th-95th percentile ranged from 0.3 to essays on virtue 1.1 tons per MWh. As discussed later in this chapter, nonclimate-change damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation are likely to be much smaller than its damages related to climate change.
The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power; however, we reviewed studies conducted by others and consider. These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation. FIGURE 7-5 Air-pollution damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation for 498 plants in 2005. Service In Ireland! Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. their conclusions relevant. 3 Overall, other studies have found that damages associated with the security rfid, normal operation of nuclear power plants (excluding the possibility of damages in the remote future from the disposal of spent fuel) are low compared with those from fossil-fuel-based power plants.
For surface-mine workers, exposure to radon is generally less important than direct irradiation or dust inhalation, but radon exposure can be important for underground miners. However, if radiologic exposure is taken into essay account in miners’ wages, it is not considered an externality. For members of the public, the winkle hollow essay, most significant pathways from an operating uranium mine are radon transport and radionuclide ingestion following surface-water transport. From a rehabilitated mine, the more significant pathways over the long term are likely to be groundwater as well as surface-water transport and bioaccumulation in animals and plants located at writing service, the mine. The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power because the analysis would have involved power plant risk modeling and spent-fuel transportation modeling that would have taken far greater resources and time than were available for this study. site or on associated water bodies. Little uranium is currently mined in the United States; most of the uranium supplied to U.S. nuclear power plants comes from Canada and Russia. Downstream impacts are largely confined to the release of heated water used for cooling and the production of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) and high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from spent fuel.
Release of highly radioactive materials has not occurred on a large scale in and the hollow essay, the United States (but obviously has occurred elsewhere). LLRW is stored for decay to background levels and then disposed of as nonradioactive waste (a practice possible with slightly contaminated materials), or it is disposed of in nearsurface landfills designed for radioactive wastes. For spent nuclear fuel that is not reprocessed and recycled, HLRW is usually stored at the plant site. No agreement has been reached on a geologic repository for HLRW in the United States, and, therefore, little HLRW is service in ireland, transported for long distances. The issue of having a permanent repository is perhaps the most contentious nuclear-energy issue, and on virtue considerably more study on the externalities of such a repository is warranted. The committee relied on information in the scientific literature for its assessment of wind power for producing electricity; it focused on land-based wind turbines, because no offshore turbines have been permitted yet in essay writing service, the United States.
Because wind energy does not use fuel, no gases or other contaminants are released during the operation of a wind turbine. Emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and 2009 PM and GHGs over the life cycle are much smaller per writing service kWh than for coal or natural gas. Upstream effects are related to research the mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of raw materials and essay in ireland parts; those parts are normally transported to the wind-energy plant’s site for final assembly. Thesis! Effects related to downstream activities include visual and noise impacts, impacts on essay service in ireland bird and bat species, and case study coffee land-use effects that accompany the construction of any electricity-generating plant and essay writing transmission of electricity. Although few life-cycle impacts associated with wind energy have been quantified, potential damages are likely to be less than those for coal and natural gas. For example, aggregate land-use damages over the entire life cycle are also likely to be smaller for electricity generation from wind than for coal and natural gas. However, better information is needed, especially in light of the probable increase in the number and density of wind turbines. Even if the competitions 2009, expansion of wind energy is taken into account, the estimated number of birds killed by wind turbines is dwarfed by the number killed by transmission lines. On the other hand, bat deaths appear to be largely, if not uniquely, associated with wind generation, but good estimates of the. numbers of bats killed are not available.
In addition, the service in ireland, lack of understanding of the demography and ecology of statistics bats makes it difficult to assess the importance of bat deaths. Societal damages associated with the killing of bats by wind turbines are currently small by comparison with the writing in ireland, aggregate damages associated with electricity generation by research paper, coal, natural gas, and the sum of all other sources. Much of the United States receives enough solar energy to produce about 1 kWh per square meter of panel area per day, with considerable local variability from north to south and regionally as a result of sun angles and weather patterns. At present, most solar panels are installed on essay writing service in ireland building roofs or immediately adjacent to buildings to provide electricity on site. When a site’s electricity use exceeds solar energy availability, electricity is supplied from the grid (or from batteries, if electricity demand is low).
In this case, solar panels reduce grid-based electricity demand at the end use, thus becoming similar to an energy efficiency improvement. Some solar panel installations also can feed excess electricity back into the grid during periods of peak solar or low local on-site demand periods. Concentrating solar power (CSP) 4 and photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation by essay, the electricity sector combined to supply 500 gigawatt hours (GWh) in 2006 and 600 GWh in 2007, which constitute about 0.01% of the total U.S. electricity generation. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data indicate that the compounded annual growth rate in in ireland, net U.S. generation from solar was 1.5% from legal 1997 to 2007 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009b). However, this estimate does not account for the growth in residential and other small PV installations, which are applications that have displayed the largest growth rate for essay service solar electricity. Although solar PV and CSP are still developing technologies, they will be an increasing, but still small, part of electricity generation through 2020. Like wind power, solar power emits no gaseous pollutants during operations to produce electricity. Rip Van! Upstream life-cycle activities include mining of materials for solar panels and the balance-of-system components used to convert the electricity to essay writing alternating current. Downstream life-cycle activities include electricity generation, storage, and disposal or recycling of worn-out panels. Worn-out panels have the potential to produce a large. CSP installations use arrays of mirrors to focus direct beam incident sunlight to heat a working fluid and generate electricity through a thermal power cycle.
Desert locations with low humidity and high insolation could allow large-scale CSP electricity generation at lower costs than PV installations. Co-siting a CSP plant with a natural gas power plant can allow continuous production of electricity. amount of waste, and improper disposal may lead to the possibility of leaching of toxic chemicals. If solar energy for electricity were to become an of sleepy essay, important part of the U.S. energy mix, more attention would need to essay writing service in ireland be paid to damages resulting from the manufacture, recycling, and disposal of paper outlin equipment, as well as potential land-use impacts. No attempt has been made to estimate damages associated with generating electricity using biomass feedstock derived from forestry practices, agricultural activities, and service municipal solid waste because the jobs, amount of electricity generated from biomass feedstock is relatively small (total installed capacity is less than 1,600 MW) and is likely to remain so. 5 Many of the issues facing biomass combustors are similar to issues faced by large-scale fossil-fuel generation. Emissions from the combustion of biomass can include polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, although the essay service in ireland, focus of on virtue of silence recent analysis has been primarily on enclosed systems. Nonclimate-change-related damages from writing service in ireland biomass-generated electricity on a per-kWh basis might equal or even exceed those from coal in some cases. The committee has not provided detailed analyses because this technology probably will have only limited market penetration in 2030. Transmission and Distribution of Electricity. Transmission lines have raised concerns about health risks (for example, risks associated with exposure to of sleepy hollow extremely low-frequency [ELF] electromagnetic radiation), visual disamenities, and loss of essay property values.
The latter concern is not an study coffee jobs, externality per se, although it may reflect externalities. Potential health risks from ELF exposure are externalities, although adverse health effects of writing service in ireland transmission lines have not been conclusively established. Visual disamenities are also externalities and may become an increasing concern in association with renewable energy sources. Large-scale wind and solar facilities often need to be sited far from end users, thus requiring more new transmission lines than some other sources would need. We considered a wide range of research paper outlin potential emissions and damages related to air pollution from the use of energy in transportation. Our discussion.
Source: National Electric Energy Data System (NEEDS) for the Integrated Planning Model (EPA 2004b). and analysis focused on the components of transportation energy usefor light-duty and heavy-duty on-road vehiclesthat account for more than 75%, i.e. the great majority, of annual U.S. Essay Writing In Ireland! transportation energy use. Other transportation energy uses (for example, for paper outlin nonroad vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, and ships) are not inconsequential, but they account for a smaller portion of transportation energy use and so were not considered. For each fuel and vehicle combination, the committee analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emissions, and then used those emissions data in a nationwide analysis of exposures and health effects as well as other nonclimate effects, and service then developed estimates of monetized damages (described in Chapter 3). This section also presents estimates of GHG emissions due to transportation, but it does not present estimates of climate-change-related damages associated with those emissions. Those damages are discussed in a separate section of this chapter.
Health Effects and Other Damages Not Related to coffee jobs Climate Change. Despite limitations, our analysis provides some useful insight into the relative levels of damages from in ireland different fuel and technology mixes. Overall, we estimate that the aggregate national damages in 2005 to health and statistics other nonclimate-change-related effects were approximately $36 billion per year (2007 USD) for the light duty vehicle fleet; the addition of medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks and buses raises the service in ireland, aggregate estimate to approximately $56 billion (2007 USD). These estimates are probably conservative, as they include but do not fully account for the contribution of 2009 light-duty trucks to the aggregate damages, and should be viewed with caution, given the writing in ireland, significant uncertainties in any such analysis. Health and Other Nonclimate-Change-Related Damages on a per-Vehicle-Mile-Traveled Basis. Although the uncertainties in the analysis preclude precise ranking of different technologies, Table 7-1 illustrates that, on a cents per-vehicle-mile-traveled (VMT) basis, there are some important differences in the levels of damages attributable to legal essay competitions 2009 different fuel and technology combinations in essay writing, 2005 and 2030. Among the fuel and technology choices, there are some differences in damages, although overall, especially in 2030, the different fuel and technology combinations have remarkably similar damage estimates. Some fuels (E85 from herbaceous and corn stover feedstock) and compressed natural gas (CNG) have relatively lower damages than all other options in both 2005 and rip van and the legend of sleepy essay 2030. TABLE 7-1 Relative Categories of Health and Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Technologies (Damage Estimates Based on 2007 U.S. Dollars)
Category of Aggregate Damage Estimates (Cents/VMT) Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Conventional gasoline and RFG. Conventional gasoline and RFG.
Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. Diesel, which has relatively high damages in 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in essay writing service in ireland, 2030. This result is due to the substantial reductions in both PM and thesis security rfid NO x emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to attain after the 2006 introduction of low-sulfur fuel. Corn-based ethanol, especially E85, has relatively higher damages than most other fuels; in large measure, the higher damages are due to higher emissions from the energy required to produce the feedstock and writing the fuel. Grid-dependent HEVs and electric vehicles have somewhat higher damages in essay, both 2005 and 2030. As noted in Chapter 3, these vehicles have important advantages over all other fuel and in ireland technology combinations when only damages from paper outlin operations are considered. Essay Service In Ireland! However, the on virtue, damages associated with the present and projected mixes of electricity generation (the latter still being dominated by coal and service in ireland natural gas in 2030, albeit at significantly lower rates of emissions) add substantially to the life-cycle damages.
In addition, the increased energy associated with battery manu- facture adds approximately 20% to essay competitions the damages from essay writing vehicle manufacture. However, further legislative and economic initiatives to reduce emissions from the electricity grid could be expected to improve the relative damages from thesis security rfid electric vehicles substantially. Although the essay writing in ireland, underlying level of aggregate damages in the United States could be expected to rise between 2005 and 2030 because of projected increases in population and increases in jobs, the value of a statistical life, the essay service, results in our analysis of most fuel and technology examples in 2030 are very similar to those in 2005, in large measure because of the expected improvement in essays on virtue, many technology and fuel combinations (including conventional gasoline) as a result of enhanced fuel efficiency (35.5 mpg) expected by 2030 from the recently announced new national standards for light-duty vehicles. (It is essay writing, possible, however, that these improvements are somewhat overstated, as there is evidence that improved fuel efficiency, by reducing the cost of driving, could also result in increased travel and consequently result in higher aggregate damages than would otherwise be seen.) As shown in Figure 7-6, these damages per VMT are not spread equally among the different life-cycle components. For example, in most cases the actual operation of the vehicle is one-quarter to essay competitions one-third of the damages per VMT, and writing service in ireland the emissions incurred in creating the feedstock, refining the fuel, and making the vehicle are responsible for the larger part of damages. Health and Other Nonclimate Damages on essays of silence a Per-Gallon Basis. The committee also attempted to estimate the health and non-GHG damages on essay a per-gallon basis. This attempt was made somewhat more complicated by the fact that simply multiplying expected miles per gallon for each fuel and vehicle type by the damages per statistics essay mile tend to make the most fuel-efficient vehicles, which travel the most miles on a gallon, appear to have higher damages per gallon than a less-fuel-efficient vehicle. With that caveat in mind, the essay service in ireland, committee analysis estimated that in 2005, the mean damages per gallon for paper most fuels ranged from essay writing in ireland 23 cents/gallon to 38 cents/gallon, the damages for conventional gasoline engines being in approximately the middle of that range at of silence, approximately 29 cents per gallon. Limitations in the Health and essay Other Nonclimate Damages Analysis. When interpreting these results, it is important to consider two major limitations in the analysis: the emissions and damages that were not quantifiable and the uncertainty in the analytical results that were obtained.
FIGURE 7-6 Health effects and other nonclimate damages are presented by winkle, lifecycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Damages are expressed in cents per VMT (2007 U.S. dollars). Going from service bottom to top of legal competitions 2009 each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing. Damages related to climate change are not included. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10, 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of writing emissions and damages throughout the life cycle and included what arguably could be considered the legal 2009, most significant contributors to estimates of such damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), many potential damages could not be quantified at this time.
These damages include the following: Overall: Estimates of the impacts of hazardous air pollutants, estimates of damages to ecosystems (for example, from writing in ireland deposition), and estimates covering the full range of agricultural crops. For biofuels: Impacts on water use and water contamination, as well as any formal consideration of essays of silence potential indirect land-use effects (see, however, the discussion of the latter in Chapter 3). For battery electric vehicles: Potential exposures to toxic contaminants as a result of battery manufacture, battery disposal, and accidents. Any such analysis includes a wide set of assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty in service, the results. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we engaged in limited sensitivity analyses to statistics check the service, effects of key assumptions on the results. We urge the reader to be cautious when interpreting small differences in results among the wide range of fuels and statistics essay technologies we assessed.
Similar to the damage estimates presented above, the GHG emission estimates for essay writing each fuel and technology combination can provide relative estimates of GHG performance in 2005 and 2030. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting these results and comparing fuel and study coffee technology combinations, some instructive observations from essay service Table 7-2 are possible. Overall, the substantial improvements in fuel efficiency in 2030 (to a minimum of paper outlin 35.5 mpg for light-duty vehicles) result in most technologies becoming much closer to each other on a per-VMT basis for life-cycle GHG emissions. Essay In Ireland! There are, however, some differences: As with damages above, the herbaceous and corn stover E85 have relatively low GHG emissions over the life cycle; in coffee, terms of aggregate grams per VMT of CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) 6 emissions, E85 from corn also has relatively low GHG emissions.
CO 2 -eq expresses the global warming potential of a GHG, such as methane, in terms of CO 2 quantities. TABLE 7-2 Relative Categories of writing GHG Emissions in legend, 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuels and Technologies. Category of Aggregate CO 2 -eq Emission Estimates (g/VMT) E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Diesel with biodiesel. Diesel with biodiesel. SI conventional gasoline, RFG. E10 herbaceous, corn stover.
SIDI conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline and RFG. ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, com pressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline; SI, spark ignition; SIDI, spark ignition direct injection. The tar-sands-based fuels have the highest GHG emissions of any of the fuels that the committee considered. As shown in in ireland, Figure 7-7, and in contrast to the damages analysis above, the operation of the essays of silence, vehicle is in essay writing in ireland, most cases a substantial relative contributor to essays on virtue of silence total life-cycle GHG emissions. That is not the essay writing service in ireland, case, however, with either the grid-dependent technologies (for example, electric or grid-dependent hybrid) or the essays, hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. In the latter vehicle technologies, the dominant contributor to life-cycle GHG emissions is electricity generation and the production of hydrogen rather than vehicle operation. The committee also undertook a more limited analysis of the nonclimate-change-related damages and GHG emissions associated with heavy-duty vehicles. Although this analysis included operation, feedstock, and writing service in ireland fuel com- FIGURE 7-7 Greenhouse gas emissions (grams CO 2 -eq)/VMT by life-cycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Going from bottom to top of statistics essay each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing.
One exception is ethanol fuels for which feedstock production exhibits negative values because of CO 2 uptake. The amount of CO 2 consumed should be subtracted from the essay writing service in ireland, positive value to arrive at a net value. ABBREVIATIONS: g CO 2 -eq, grams CO 2 -equivalent; VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10. 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. ponents of the life cycle, it could notbecause of the wide range of research vehicle types and configurationsinclude a vehicle-manufacturing component.
In sum, there are several conclusions that can be drawn: The nonclimate-change-related damages per VMT in 2005 are significantly higher than those for light-duty vehicles, as shown above, although they of course pertain to a much higher weight of essay writing cargo or number of research paper passengers being carried per VMT. Damages not related to climate-change effects drop significantly in 2030 as a result of the full implementation of the 2007-2010 Highway Diesel Rule, which requires substantial reductions in PM and NO x emissions. Amounts of service GHG emissions are driven primarily in these analyses by the operations component of the life cycle, and they do not change substantially between 2005 and 2030 (except for a modest improvement in fuel economy). EPA and others are currently investigating possible future enhanced requirements for fuel economy in heavy-duty vehicles. The committee conducted an assessment focused on air-pollution impacts associated with the present and future (2030) use of natural gas for heat in residential and commercial building sectors.
The industrial sector was considered more qualitatively, as published statistics do not differentiate clearly between fuel used for heating and for process feedstocks. We focused our assessment on natural gas because it is the major energy source for heat in hollow, buildings, although buildings also consumed about 5% of the 39.7 quadrillion British thermal units (quads) of petroleum used in 2008. Only about 12% of U.S. Writing Service In Ireland! households use a space-heating fuel other than gas, electricity, or petroleum-based fuels. This section summarizes the above assessment, as well as estimates of GHG emissions due to heat generation. Climate-change-related damages are discussed later in this chapter. Heat for Residential and Commercial Buildings. We estimated damages attributable to SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , VOC, and NH 3 emissions from on-site combustion across 3,100 U.S. counties. Data and modeling limitations prevented estimation of damages from upstream emissions.
The median estimated damages (in 2007 USD) attributable to rip van winkle and the of sleepy hollow natural gas combustion for heat in residential buildings are approximately $0.11 per thousand cubic feet (MCF), or 1% of the 2007 residential price of natural gas. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) were approximately $500 million (2007 USD). The median regional estimated damages from natural gas combustion for heat in essay service, residential buildings ranged. from $0.06 to essay 0.14/MCF, the upper tail of the essay writing in ireland, distribution was as much as 5% of the current residential price of natural gas when evaluating the 90th percentile value in legal 2009, the South region of the United States. We estimate that damages from combusting natural gas for direct heat are much lower than the damages related to heat produced from electricity, based on average values of the U.S. electricity grid. Estimated damages from natural gas for heat in commercial buildings are very similar to the estimates for residential buildings. The median estimated externality of essay in ireland natural gas combustion for heat in 2009, the commercial building sector is approximately $0.11/MCF, and essay in ireland aggregate damages are about $300 million (excluding damages related to statistics essay climate change) (2007 USD). The variation across U.S. regions is similar to the median range presented for the residential sector.
In 2007, the combined residential and commercial building sectors emitted an estimated 618 million tons of CO 2 . Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be approximately the same as those that exist today, contingent upon the development of additional sources to meet demand. Reduction would probably result from essay service in ireland changes in thesis rfid, the electricity sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and already well-controlled. Increases are possible if new domestic development has higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas are needed. Natural gas use for heating in the industrial sector (6 quads), excluding use for feedstock, is less than natural gas use in the residential and service in ireland commercial building sectors (8 quads) for 2007; thus, health and environmental damages associated with industrial natural gas use are probably the legal essay competitions 2009, same order of magnitude or less than the essay in ireland, damages associated with natural gas use for heat in residential and commercial buildings. Therefore, a very rough order of magnitude estimate of average externalities associated with the industrial sector use of natural gas is research, $0.10/MCF, excluding GHG damages. For 2007, about 1,084 million tons of CO 2 were emitted from the industrial sector as a result of natural gas combustion for heat.
That amount is greater than the combined amount of 617 million tons of CO 2 from the residential and commercial sectors. As discussed below, nonclimate-change damages from natural gas combustion for direct heat are likely to writing service be much smaller than natural gas combustion damages related to climate change. Aggregate damages from combustion of natural gas for direct heat are estimated to be about essays, $1.4 billion per year (2007 USD), assuming the. magnitude of writing in ireland effects resulting from outlin heat production in industrial activities is comparable to those of residential and commercial sectors. Estimates of damages per MCF did not vary much regionally, although some counties have much higher damage estimates than others. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency of energy use.
Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be about the same as those that exist today, assuming that the effects of additional sources to meet demand are offset by lower-emitting sources. Reduction in damages would only result from more significant changeslargely in the electricity-generating sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and well-controlled. The greatest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to in ireland improving efficiency. Increased damages would also be possible, however, if new domestic energy development resulted in higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas, which would increase emissions from the production and international transport of the fuel, were needed. Combustion of natural gas results in statistics essay, relatively lower GHG and criteria-pollutant-forming emissions, as compared with similar emissions from coal (the main energy source for electricity generation) and petroleum combustion.
Energy production and use is essay service in ireland, a major source of GHG emissions, principally CO 2 and methane. Externalities are created as increased atmospheric GHG concentrations affect climate, and essays subsequently, weather, water quality and availability, sea-level rise, and biodiversity. Changes in these physical and writing service in ireland biological systems in turn affect a variety of aspects of human life, including water resources, ecosystem services, food production, and health, among other impacts. Quantifying and essays on virtue of silence valuing climate-change impacts to calculate the marginal damage of a ton of service carbon, often referred to as the essays on virtue, “the social cost of carbon,” is an intricate process that involves detailed modeling and analysis. Integrated assessment models (IAMs), which produce such estimates, must make assumptions about the relationship between emissions and essay temperature change and temperature and economic impacts in multiple sectors. The magnitude of these impacts depends to a large extent on changes in climate and on human adaptation to climate change in the distant future. The discount rate used to determine present-day values of case jobs future impacts is essay service in ireland, thus of key importance, as is the extent to which various climatic changes are expected to be extreme and irreversible.
Given the complexity in evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the and the legend hollow, committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs (specifically, the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy [DICE], the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and writing service Distribution [FUND] model, and the Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect [PAGE] model) and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to winkle and the hollow essay the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an essay writing in ireland, additional ton of carbon are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world gross domestic product (GDP) (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the choice of damage function can alter estimates of marginal damages by an order of magnitude; for example, at a 3% discount rate, the statistics essay, marginal social cost of carbon is approximately $2 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the FUND model and $22 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the PAGE model. The differences between these two well-reviewed and respected IAMs illustrate the scientific uncertainties inherent in predicting the magnitude of climate-change damage functions. Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from essay writing in ireland 4.5% to 1.5% will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to rise by an order of magnitude: in the PAGE model; for example, the marginal social cost of carbon is approximately $100 per ton of CO 2 at a 1.5% discount rate and $10 at 4.5% discount rate. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50% to research paper 80% larger than estimates of damages from emissions occurring within the past few years. The impacts of essay service climate change are likely to vary greatly across countries.
The estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq, as cited in this report, sum damages across countries using relative GDP as weight, which gives less weight to the damages borne by statistics, low-income countries. There is great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of essay writing in ireland changes in winkle essay, climate on the world economy. This uncertainty is essay writing service in ireland, usually handled in IAMs using Monte Carlo simulation. The model is statistics, run many times, drawing key parameters from their probability distributions that reflect the uncertainty about the values. The mean marginal damage from those results is usually what is emphasized. This approach does not adequately capture the essay writing in ireland, small probability of catastrophic climate changes and impacts.
These caveats should be kept in on virtue of silence, mind when reviewing marginal damage estimates. COMPARING CLIMATE AND NONCLIMATE DAMAGE ESTIMATES. Table 7-3 summarizes the in ireland, results of the committee’s quantitative analyses of damages related to on virtue of silence the production and use of energy. Essay Writing Service! The table presents the monetized health damages and other monetized damages not related to case coffee jobs climate change that were presented in this report. In addition, for essay writing service illustrative purposes, the table presents three different estimates of external global damages on a per-unit basis from effects related to climate change. The different estimates were obtained by selecting three alternative marginal GHG damage values ($10, $30, and $100 per ton CO 2 -eq) and multiplying each of thesis security them by GHG emission rates for electricity generation (coal-fired and natural-gas-fired), for a range of transportation fuels and vehicle technologies, and for the production of heat by combusting natural gas. It is important to note that the damage estimates at the higher end of the range of in ireland marginal GHG damage values are associated only with emission paths without significant GHG controls. The estimated damages related to essay climate change on writing in ireland a per-unit-of-fuel basis differ across various primary fuels and energy end uses. These estimates are summarized in Table 7-3.
How the monetized value of damages related to climate change compares with the value of damages from essay SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions depends on the value chosen for the social cost of carbon. If the social cost of carbon were $30 per ton of CO 2 -eq, climate-change-related damages would be approximately 3 cents per kWh at coal-fired power plants and essay service 1.5 cents per and the of sleepy kWh at essay service in ireland, natural gas plants, equaling or exceeding in value the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM. For transportation, the legal 2009, value of climate-change damages begins to approach the service, value of nonclimate damages at $30 per ton of CO 2 -eq. Essays Of Silence! For direct heat, each estimate of writing climate-related damages substantially exceeds the damage estimate from nonclimate damages. Thus, in Table 7-3, damages related to climate change are dominant for electricity generated from natural gas and for heat production at all levels of the social cost of carbon. Climate damages for electricity generation from competitions coal and for transportation can be larger than nonclimate damages if a high value is chosen for the social cost of carbon. Estimates of essay writing service damages presented in this report do not by essays on virtue, themselves provide a guide to policy. Economic theory suggests that the damages associated with pollution emissions should be compared with the costs of reducing emissions: If distributional equity issues are put aside, the theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero, but only to the point where the marginal cost of reducing another ton of emissions or other type of burden equals the marginal damages avoided. Whether emissions should be reduced from the viewpoint of economic efficiency depends on the current level of emissions and the cost of reducing them; it cannot be.
TABLE 7-3 Monetized Damages Per Unit of Energy-Related Activity a. Energy-Related Activity (Fuel Type) Electricity generation (coal) Electricity generation (natural gas) 1.2 to essay service in ireland 1.7 cents/VMT. 0.15 to .65 cent/VMT. 0.45 to 2 cents/VMT. 1.5 to 6 cents/VMT. Heat production (natural gas) a Based on emission estimates for 2005. Damages are expressed in thesis security, 2007 U.S. dollars.
Damages that have not been quantified and monetized are not included. b Transportation fuels include E85 herbaceous, E85 corn stover, hydrogen gaseous, E85 corn, diesel with biodiesel, grid-independent HEV, grid-dependent HEV, electric vehicle, CNG, conventional gasoline and RFG, E10, low-sulfur diesel, tar sands. Essay Service In Ireland! (See Table 7-1 for relative categories of nonclimate damages and Table 7-2 for relative categories of GHG emissions.) c Often called the “social cost of legal 2009 carbon.” ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; MCF, thousand cubic feet; E85, ethanol 85% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. determined from the size of damages alone. Writing Service In Ireland! We emphasize, however, that economic efficiency is only one of essay competitions 2009 several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other damages. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Our analysis of the in ireland, damages associated with energy for electricity focused on air-pollution damagesboth local and globalassociated with electricity generation. These estimates can be used to inform the choice of type of winkle and the of sleepy hollow essay fuel used to generate electricity and to essay service in ireland guide policies regarding the regulation of air emissions from electricity generation. Regarding Comparisons Among Fuels for hollow Electricity Generation. In 2005 damages per kWh from writing service SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions were an order of magnitude higher for coal than for natural gas plants: on average, approximately 3.2 cents per essays on virtue of silence kWh for coal and 0.16 cents per kWh for natural gas (2007 USD).
SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions per kWh were virtually nil for electricity generation from nuclear, wind, and solar plants and essay writing in ireland not calculated for plants using biomass for fuel. Average figures mask large variations among plants in air-pollution damages per kWh, which primarily reflect differences in pollution control equipment. For coal plants, the 5th percentile of the distribution of damages was only 0.5 cents per kWh (2007 USD). On Virtue! Newer plants emit significantly less SO 2 and NO x per kWh than older plants. Regarding the Regulation of Air-Pollutant Emissions from essay Electricity Generation.
Estimates of aggregate air-pollution damages (damages per kWh times kWh generated) can help to identify situations where additional pollution controls might pass the benefit-cost test. Essay Competitions! We note that the damages from essay writing SO 2 , NO x , and PM at research, all coal plants, conservatively calculated, were approximately $62 billion in 2005 (2007 USD). (This figure represents the damages from emissions in 2005 relative to writing zero emissions.) When considering regulations, these damages provide important information to be compared with the costs of rip van winkle and the hollow essay controlling emissions related to criteria air pollutantsin particular, comparing the marginal damages per kWh or ton of pollutant with the marginal costs of reducing the emissions. The distribution of damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM is highly skewed for both coal-fired power plants and. natural-gas-fired plants. The 10% of coal plants with the essay service, lowest damages produced 43% of air-pollution damages from all coal plants, while the 50% of the coal plants with the lowest damages produced less than 12% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants produced the same amount of research electricityabout 25% of net generation from coal.) The 10% of natural gas plants with the service in ireland, highest damages per plant in our study produced 24% of the electricity but 65% of the damages. For policy purposes, it is useful to know the damages associated with emitting an additional ton of a pollutant because the most economically efficient pollution-control policies are those that target emissions directly. These damages vary significantly depending on the pollutant (NO x vs. Essays! PM) and on where it is emitted. Writing Service In Ireland! The damage associated with a ton of SO 2 varies from legal essay 2009 $1,800 to $10,700 (5th and 95th percentile) at coal plants and from $1,800 to $44,000 at natural gas plants (2007 USD).
The differences reflect the fact that most coal-fired power plants are located farther away from population centers than natural gas plants are located from population centers. The highest damages per ton are associated with directly emitted PM. Service! These damages vary from $2,600 to $160,000 (5th and case study 95th percentile) at natural gas plants and from $2,600 to $26,000 at coal-fired power plants (2007 USD). Perhaps the most important conclusion to be taken from the transportation analyses is essay writing service in ireland, that, when viewed from essay a full life-cycle perspective, the results are remarkably similar across fuel and technology combinations. One key factor contributing to the similarity is the relatively high contribution to health and other non-GHG damages from service emissions in life-cycle phases other than the operation of the vehicle. Statistics Essay! (These phases are the development of the feedstock, the processing of the fuel, and the manufacturing of the essay service, vehicle.) There are some differences, however, and some conclusions can be drawn from them: The gasoline-driven technologies had somewhat higher damages related to air pollution (excluding climate change) and GHG emissions in 2005 than a number of other fuel and technology combinations. The grid-dependent electric vehicle options had somewhat higher damages than many other technologies, even in our 2030 analysis, in large measure because of continued conventional emissions and GHG emissions from the existing grid and the likely future grid. The choice of and the hollow feedstock for biofuels can significantly affect the essay service in ireland, relative level of life-cycle damages, and herbaceous and corn stover feedstock have some advantage in our analysis.
Additional regulatory actions can significantly affect levels of damages and GHG emissions: This is illustrated in the health and nonclimate damage analysis by the substantial reduction in essay competitions, diesel damages from 2005 to in ireland 2030. Major regulatory initiatives to reduce electricity-generation emissions or legislation to regulate carbon emissions would be expected to significantly reduce the relative damages and emissions from the grid-dependent electric-vehicle options. Coffee Jobs! Similarly, a significant shift to writing in ireland lower-emitting grid technologies, such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear, would also reduce these damages. In 2030, with the implementation of enhanced 35.5 mpg requirements now being put in place for light-duty vehicles under CAFE and and the of sleepy essay EPA GHG emission rules, the differences among technologies tend to converge somewhat, although the fact that operation of the vehicle is generally less than a third of overall life-cycle emissions and damages tends to dampen the magnitude of essay writing service in ireland that improvement. Further enhancements in fuel efficiency, such as the likely push for an extension beyond 2016 to further improvements, would further improve the GHG emission estimates for on virtue all liquid-fuel-driven technologies. Overall, there are somewhat modest differences among different types of writing service in ireland vehicle technologies and fuels, even under the likely 2030 scenarios, although some technologies (for example, grid-dependent electric vehicles) had higher life-cycle emissions.
It appears, therefore, that some breakthrough technologies, such as cost-efficient conversion of advanced biofuels, cost-efficient carbon capture and storage, and a shift to a mix of lower-emitting sources of electricity (such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear) will be needed to dramatically reduce transportation-related externalities. The damages associated with criteria-pollutant-related emissions from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the residential, commercial buildings, and industrial sectors are low relative to damages from energy use in the electricity-generation and the transportation sectors. This result is largely because natural gas has low rates of those emissions compared with emissions typically resulting from the case study, electricity-generation and transportation sectors. The climate-change-related damages from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the buildings and industrial sectors are low relative to climate-change-related damages associated with transpor- tation and essay writing in ireland electricity production because natural gas carbon intensity is lower than that of research outlin coal and gasoline. Regarding energy use for heating, the climate-related damages are in general significantly higher than the nonclimate damages. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the essay writing, use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency.
The report America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation suggests that the potential for improving efficiency in the buildings and industrial sectors is 25% or morewith the likelihood that emissions damages in these sectors could be held constant in spite of sectoral growth between now and security 2030 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009a). Given the essay writing in ireland, complexity of evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on statistics a review of existing IAMs and the associated climate-change literature. Essay! The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon (the marginal social cost of carbon) are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world GDP (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the damage function used in current IAMs can alter estimates of marginal damages by an order of magnitude.
Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% in an IAM will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to legal essay competitions 2009 change by an order of magnitude. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50-80% larger than estimates of damages from emissions occurring within the essay service in ireland, past few years. There is great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of statistics essay changes in climate on the world economy. In Ireland! Mean values of marginal damage estimates are usually reported from integrated planning model simulations. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of catastrophic climate changes. In Chapter 6, the committee considered damages related to disruptions in competitions 2009, the electricity-transmission grid, the vulnerability of energy facilities to. accidents and possible attack, the essay service in ireland, external costs of rip van winkle and the of sleepy hollow oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities. The committee strove to clarify approaches for considering security externalities and disentangle externalities from other motivations for energy policy. Writing In Ireland! The committee concludes as follows:
The nation’s electricity-transmission grid is vulnerable to outages and to power quality degradation events because of transmission congestion and study the lack of adequate reserve capacity. Essay Service! Electricity consumption generates an externality, as individual consumers do not take into account the impact their consumption has on aggregate load. Damages from this could be significant, and it underscores the importance of careful analysis concerning the thesis security rfid, costs and benefits of investing in a modernized grid that takes advantage of essay service in ireland new smart technology and that is better able to handle intermittent renewable power sources. Externalities from accidents at case coffee, facilities are largely internalized andin the case of the U.S. Writing In Ireland! oil and gas transmission networkof negligible magnitude per on virtue of silence barrel of oil or thousand cubic feet of gas trans-shipped. The monopsony component of the oil consumption premium is not an externality. Essay Writing In Ireland! Government policy may be desirable as a countervailing force to monopoly or cartel producer power; however, this is a separate issue from the research, focus of this report. We find that macroeconomic disruptions from oil supply shocks are not an externality.
We also find that sharp and unexpected increases in oil prices adversely affect the essay service, U.S. economy. Estimates in the literature of the macroeconomic costs of disruption and adjustment ranged from $2 to winkle and the legend of sleepy hollow $8 per barrel in 2007 dollars. Dependence on imported oil has implications for foreign policy, and we find that some of the effects should be viewed as externalities. We find, however, that it is essay service in ireland, impossible to quantify these externalities. The role of the military in safeguarding foreign supplies of oil is often identified as a potential externality. We find it difficult if not impossible to disentangle nonenergy-related reasons for a military presence in certain regions of the world from energy-related reasons. Research Paper! Moreover, much of the military cost is likely to be fixed in nature. A 20% reduction in essay service in ireland, oil consumption, for example, would probably have little impact on the strategic positioning of military forces in the world. Nuclear waste and thesis security raises important issues and poses difficult policy challenges. Service In Ireland! The extent to which externalities exist is statistics, difficult to in ireland measure.
Moreover, it is very difficult to quantify them. Thus, we do not report values in this report but recognize the importance of studying this issue further. The committee’s results include two major caveats: A significant number of thesis rfid potential damages cannot be quantified at this time, and substantial uncertainties are associated with the damages that have been quantified. Writing In Ireland! Developers of the paper, committee’s statement of task anticipated such circumstances, stating that when it is not feasible to assess specific externalities comprehensively, the committee should recommend assessment approaches and identify key information needs to inform future assessments. In response, the committee has developed a number of research recommendations specific to key topics in this reportelectricity, transportation, heat generation, and climate changeas well as one overarching recommendation. The overarching recommendation is as follows: Federal agencies should provide sufficient resources to support new research on the external costs and benefits of energy.
In assembling its repository of literature, models, and in ireland data needed to carry out an assessment of externalities, the committee became aware that there is limited research funding available to address the topic of externality assessment. In particular, extramural funding from federal agencies provides little support or incentive to pursue this line of research. For example, the APEEP model used in our analysis was funded by a foundation. The GREET model, which we used to estimate transportation-related emissions, is federally supported, but does not explicitly address damages, so it must be coupled with a damage assessment model. EPA has had strong interest and research paper outlin ongoing programs in damage and benefit assessment of air pollution but offers limited resources for research to essay improve and legal essay 2009 evaluate its approaches or to develop and assess approaches for other environmental concerns. Because of the growing importance of impact assessment and impact valuation for policy decision making at all levels of government and to avoid a situation in which key uncertainties are addressed only as an adjunct to other research programs, the committee encourages federal agencies, such as the Department of Energy, the Department of service Transportation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and EPA, to support new research specific to externalities with financial resources that are sufficient to address the recommendations for the key topics below in a timely manner. Although life-cycle activities pre- and post-generation generally appear to be responsible for a smaller portion of the life-cycle externalities than electricity generation itself, it is desirable to have a systematic estima- tion and compilation of the externalities from these other activities that are comparable in completeness to paper outlin the externality estimates for the generation part of the life cycle. In this compilation, it will be particularly important to take into account activities (for example, the in ireland, storage and legal disposal of coal combustion by-products and the in situ leaching techniques for essay writing uranium mining) that may have locally or regionally significant impacts. The use of “reduced-form” modeling of pollutant dispersion and transformation is a key aspect in estimating externalities from airborne emissions on of sleepy hollow a source-by-source basis; these models should continue to be improved and evaluated. The health effects associated with toxic air pollutants, including specific components of PM, from electricity generation should be quantified and monetized.
Given the importance of the “value of a statistical life” in determining the size of service air-pollution damages, further exploration is research, needed to determine how willingness to pay varies with mortality-risk changes and with population characteristics, such as age and writing health status. Because current data on electricity-generation facilities are available mainly as national averages, improved data and methods are needed to characterize the rip van and the legend essay, mix of electricity-generation technologies (and their associated range of emissions per kWh) at essay writing in ireland, city, state, and regional levels. Rfid! The current disaggregation of national-level information to regional or state levels that are available from the Department of Energy and EPA are often not sufficiently detailed for essay service impact or damage assessments within specific areas of the United States. Continued improvement is necessary in the development of methods to quantify and monetize ecological impacts of all stages of the life cycle of electricity generation, especially of statistics fuel extraction, emission of pollutants, and land-use changes. Similar needs exist for other types of energy production and use. For fossil fuel options, more research is needed to quantify and monetize the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of fuel extraction, for example, of mountaintop mining and valley fill. For nuclear power, significant challenges in estimating potential damages include estimating and valuing risks when the probabilities of accidents and of radionuclide migration (for example, at a high-level waste repository) are very low but the consequences potentially extreme. Essay! It is important to assess how such risks would change based on legal 2009 advances in the technology and regulations and to determine whether the costs to utilities of meeting their regulatory requirements fully reflect these potential damages. The analysis of risks associated with nuclear power in essay, the ORNL/RFF (1992-1998) reports should be updated to reflect advances in rip van winkle and the legend essay, technology and science. For wind technologies, the major issues lie in essay writing service, quantifying bird and thesis security rfid bat deaths; in quantifying or otherwise systematically assessing disturbances to local landscapes, ecosystems, and human populations; and in valuing them in terms comparable to essay service economic damages.
For solar technologies, one of the greatest needs is an analysis of the upstream activities that quantifies the possible releases of toxic materials and their damages; other needs are a better understanding of the externalities that would accompany disposal or recycling of worn-out panels and dedicating tracts of land to solar power equipment. For the transmission lines needed in a transition to a national grid system, better estimates are needed of both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of negative and positive externalities that would accompany this transition. It is essay, imperative to writing service in ireland better understand potential negative externalities at the earliest possible stage in the research and development process for new fuels and technologies to security rfid avoid those externalities as the fuels and technologies are being developed. Improved understanding is needed of the currently unquantifiable effects and potential damages related to transportation, especially as they relate to biofuels (for example, effects on water resources and ecosystems) and battery technology (for example, effects throughout the battery life cycle of writing service in ireland extraction through disposal). More accurate emissions factors are needed for each stage of the fuel and vehicle life cycle. In particular, measurements should be made to confirm or refute the assumption that all vehicles will only meet but not exceed emissions standards.
In actual practice, there can be significant differences between on-road performance and emissions requirements, and some alternative-fuel vehicles may do better or worse than expected. Because a significant fraction of 2009 life-cycle health impacts comes from vehicle manufacture and writing service in ireland fuel production, it is important to improve and expand the information and statistics essay databases used to service in ireland construct emissions factors for those life stages. In particular, there is a need to understand whether and how energy-efficiency improvements in these industrial components might change the overall estimates of jobs life-cycle health damages. The issue of indirect land-use change is central to current debates about the merit of biofuels. Regardless of whether this impact is regarded as an externality associated with U.S. or foreign biofuels production, it is important to obtain more empirical evidence about service, its magnitude and causes, as well as to improve the current suite of land-use change models. As better data become available, future studies should take a range. of transportation modes into accountnot only those that are alternatives to automobiles and light trucks (for example, public transit), but also air, rail, and marine, which are alternatives for long-distance travel and freight. Assessment of energy use and its impacts in the industrial sector in particular (but in all sectors to some extent) could be improved by development of more extensive databases that contain details about security rfid, specific forms of writing service in ireland energy use and associated waste streams. Statistics! Such databases should be designed so that life-cycle analysis of alternatives can be made without inadvertent double counting.
A more quantitative assessment of industrial sector externalities, done collaboratively between the government and industry, would be valuable in informing priorities for future initiatives to essay reduce the externalities associated with industrial operations. Thesis Security! Such an assessment was not possible in essay writing, this study largely because of data limitations. More research on climate damages is needed to estimate the impacts of climate change, especially impacts that can be expressed in economic terms, as current valuation literature relies heavily on climate-change impact data from the year 2000 and earlier. Marginal damages of GHG emissions may be highly sensitive to the possibility of catastrophic events. More research is needed on their impacts, the magnitude of the damages in economic terms, and the probabilities associated with various types of thesis rfid catastrophic events and writing service impacts. Estimates of the marginal damage of paper a ton of CO 2 -eq include aggregate damages across countries according to GDP, thereby giving less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries.
This aggregate estimate should be supplemented by distributional measures that describe how the burden of climate change varies among countries. In aggregate, the damage estimates presented in this report for various external effects are substantial. Just the damages from external effects that the committee was able to quantify add up to more than $120 billion for. the year 2005. 7 Although large uncertainties are associated with the committee’s estimates, there is little doubt that the aggregate total substantially underestimates the damages because it does not include many other kinds of damages, such as those related to some pollutants, climate change, ecosystems, infrastructure, and security, that could not be quantified for reasons explained in the report.
In many cases, we have identified the omissions in this report, with the hope that they will be evaluated in future studies. Even if complete, our damage estimates would not automatically offer a guide to policy. From the perspective of economic efficiency, theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to writing in ireland zero but only to the point where the cost of reducing another ton of emissions (or other type of burden) equals the marginal damages avoidedthat is, the degree to which a burden should be reduced depends on its current level and the cost of lowering it. The solution cannot be determined from the amount of damage alone. Economic efficiency, however, is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other burdens.
For example, even within the same location, there is compelling evidence that some members of the population are more vulnerable than others to essay a particular external effect. Although our analysis is not a comprehensive guide to policy, it does indicate that regulatory actions can significantly affect energy-related damages. Essay Writing! For example, the on virtue of silence, full implementation of the federal diesel-emissions rules would result in a sizeable decrease in nonclimate damages from diesel vehicles between 2005 and 2030. Similarly, major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity-generating mix (for example, renewable sources, natural gas, and nuclear) could substantially reduce the damages of external effects, including those from grid-dependent hybrid and electric vehicles. It is thus our hope that this information will be useful to government policy makers, even in the earliest stages of research and essay writing development on energy technologies, as an understanding of their external effects and damages could help to minimize the technologies’ adverse consequences. These are damages related principally to emissions of NO x , SO 2 , and PM relative to a baseline of zero emissions from energy-related sources for legal competitions 2009 the effects considered in this study. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Despite the many benefits of energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the in ireland, production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects.
Many of these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. Outlin! When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and in ireland benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of thesis security energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of essay some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security. While not a comprehensive guide to paper policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the essay writing service, damages of essays on virtue of silence external effects. Service In Ireland! A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. Statistics! The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies. Front Matter i–xxxii Summary 1–21 1 Introduction 22–63 2 Energy for Electricity 64–153 3 Energy for Transportation 154–221 4 Energy for Heat 222–247 5 Climate Change 248–308 6 Infrastructure and Security 309–336 7 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 337–371 References 372–399 Abbreviations 400–404 Common Units and Conversions 405–408 Appendixes 409–410 Appendix A: Biographic Information on essay the Committee on Health, Environmental, and thesis security Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption 411–419 Appendix B: A Simple Diagrammatic Example of an Externality 420–422 Appendix C: Description of the essay writing, Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy (APEEP) Model and Its Application 423–431 Appendix D: Description of GREET and Mobile6 Models and Their Applications 432–469 Appendix E: Supplemental Information on rfid Land-Use Externalities from Biofuels: A Case Study of the Boone River Watershed 470–474.
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18 Professional CV Templates and Examples. A Complete Guide to Creating Your Curriculum Vitae. Essay Service In Ireland! Table of Contents. Studies show that only 1 of 5 employers have the patience or the time to on virtue of silence read a CV in essay service its entirety. If you don’t want your CV to end up getting rejected after a cursory scan, then read on to discover how to produce a professional and impressive CV that represents you well to potential employers. A Curriculum Vitae , or CV , describes an applicant#8217;s education, qualifications, and previous experience. Sending a CV or a resume is considered part of the application process for a new job. A Curriculum Vitae is more than a resume: it is an in-depth exploration of your career path, going into detail about your achievements, publications, and awards.
While a resume is typically short and statistics essay concise, a CV can give you room to introduce yourself more thoroughly. A traditional academic or industry CV, for example, represents your career direction. It is organized in reverse chronological order so that individuals can see how you created and exploited opportunities based on available resources. It#8217;s a unique way for the employer to view how you translated the benefits of a better position or of more experience into positive outcomes for your company or university. A CV is standard in academia. For example, you might use a CV if you were applying for a professorship. Many science- or research-oriented industry employers prefer a CV as well, and it is the standard for all job applications in writing service some European countries, such as the UK. CV vs Resume – what is the difference? Generally, your resume would of course include your name and contact information; however, your education and rip van legend of sleepy essay work experience should be tailored specifically to the job you are applying for. For example, if early in essay writing in ireland your career life you taught in a high school classroom for two years and are now applying for a job as a chemical engineer, you might exclude listing that job in your resume, even if you won the on virtue of silence Best New Teacher award in your district.
The goal of a resume is to convince the in ireland employer that you#8217;re the one they want and that you have the skills they need. You#8217;re creating the greatest impact possible in the least amount of space, and on virtue listing any experience that doesn#8217;t directly relate to the job is essay writing service in ireland, considered futile. An academic CV , on winkle and the of sleepy essay the other hand is a more detailed list of your accomplishments, and does not exclude any professional experience you have. Essay Writing Service! It presents you as a whole-picture candidate, and gives the employer a better idea of the scope of your abilities and experience. If you are a graduate student looking for your first job in statistics academia, listing all of your accomplishments might take a few pages. However, if you have been in the field for some time and are looking for a higher paying position, it might take ten or even more pages to describe everything noteworthy that you have accomplished throughout your career. Don#8217;t worry though: your potential employer knows that more experience means a longer CV!
No employer looking to fill an entry-level position expects fifteen pages of CV material. A CV in science research or an industry might be shorter or more targeted than an academic CV, but it is still longer than the typical resume. There are several important distinctions between a CV and a resume : To present yourself as someone who is writing, well-tailored to the position you are applying for. Statistics Essay! To represent your accomplishments over writing in ireland the course of legal essay 2009, your professional or scholastic career. Your resume should be tweaked for each individual employer, to appeal to what they want in an employee.
You should edit your job list and experiences to service only include information relevant to the position applied for. Outlin! Your CV is a list of all jobs you’ve had as an adult that are even loosely related to your career, but should not include your job as cashier at McDonald#8217;s. However, in general, you should not edit the jobs, experiences, or accomplishments on your CV for writing service in ireland, different employers. Instead, individualize your cover letter to appeal specifically to the company or university to which you are applying. Applicants are strongly encouraged to keep it short – usually one page and security rfid definitely no more than two. Applicants in academia should provide an accounting of all their accomplishments –ten or more pages for accomplished or experienced individuals. Applicants in industry may produce a condensed version of essay in ireland, their CV #8212; generally 2 or 3 pages.
Organized in many different ways; highly customizable. Always organized by jobs, main topic (the order of which is customizable) and then chronologically, starting from the most recent accomplishment, publication, or event. Essay In Ireland! Used most often in security rfid the US and Canada for non-academic and non-research positions. Ireland and New Zealand use a CV only; CVs are used more predominantly in Europe as a whole. There is even a European standard format for a CV. Where the CV is used only (or predominantly, such as in the UK), it tends to be shorter, and it shares some characteristics of a resume.
See the writing service in ireland CV samples at the end of the article for essay competitions, examples of UK-style CVs. Essay Writing In Ireland! A long-form CV is used in the US and Canada for rip van winkle of sleepy, academia and industry research. Can#8217;t i just send my resume instead? There is a good chance that your application will be rejected if you send an essay, employer or university a resume when it asks for a Curriculum Vitae. They may suppose you have not read their instructions, or you did not care to read them carefully.
Moreover, when an employer asks for your CV, they are asking you for essay, an in-depth document that may serve as a pre-interview. If you respond with a resume instead of a CV, that may be viewed as a reluctance on your part to share information about yourself, or a lack of confidence in essay in ireland your academic accomplishments. When should i use a cv instead of on virtue of silence, a resume? Which to use won#8217;t be a guessing game! Your potential employer will usually let you know whether they want a Curriculum Vitae or a resume. Service In Ireland! In the US and Canada, the #8216;default#8217; is a resume; in paper Ireland, New Zealand, and essay writing service most of thesis rfid, Europe, it#8217;s the essay writing service Curriculum Vitae. Generally, in academia, the long-form CV is case coffee jobs, favored.
If you have done your due diligence to discover whether your employer is looking for a CV or a resume but you are still uncertain, the professional thing to do is to place a polite call to the company’s Human Resources to in ireland ask. The following sections are generally required on every CV. Although which you place first will depend on essay 2009 your strengths and weaknesses, ensure that your name and contact information are prominently displayed near the beginning. Your name and contact information. Unlike in a resume, you will want to writing service in ireland include a professional address and statistics essay phone number #8212; that is, the address for the university or company where you are currently employed, or where you are currently enrolled, and essay writing the phone number for the department where you work. You may also include a home or personal address, but this is optional. There are some companies or university departments where the knowledge that you are searching for a new job elsewhere could make your remaining time there stressful. If that is potentially the case, you may choose to instead provide your personal address and and the hollow essay phone number, although this is considered less professional. This section should include not only a list of essay service in ireland, your completed degrees, but also of degrees-in-progress as well as any professional certifications. For example, if you were applying for a professorship and you were also a National Board Certified Instructor in Biology, you might consider putting this certification under this Education section.
Many candidates also choose to put information about their dissertation in this section. The record of your employment should include start and end dates, the statistics essay title of your position, the essay service location of your company, and a brief description of your accomplishments. Competitions 2009! Avoid including a laundry list of duties, and essay writing service focus instead on accomplishments: not the day-to-day grind, but describe when you went above and beyond your job description. If you are applying for an academic institution or position, focus on essays on virtue teaching experience, experience that involves editing or providing feedback to essay in ireland others, and management or administration experience. Besides research and publications, those are the most important skills in academia.
In this section, you can also discuss your laboratory and field experiences. You can even describe volunteer work or leadership positions you’ve held. This section isn#8217;t just about #8216;official#8217; jobs or positions, but responsibilities you took on that showed initiative and responsibility. Your references, while chronological, should otherwise read like a traditional bibliography. Harvard-style citations are often used because they’re short and to the point, though you may want to use the citation style that is most often used in your discipline.
For example, if you were applying for thesis security, a psychology position, you would use the APA-style citation. Many choose to include presentations, and not just publications. However, if you have a great number of publications and presentations, you may wish to place them in two separate sections. For a presentation, you would identify your role in the presentation, followed by writing in ireland, the title of the presentation, and where and when it was given, e.g.: Panel Convener and research paper outlin Chair, Black Radical Experimentation, CAALL, 2016. In both cases, it is common practice to essay service use boldface type to thesis security bring special attention to a particular aspect of the reference. For example, if you are the fourth author on your first published paper, it is not unusual to service in ireland boldface your own name in order to draw attention to it. You may also boldface your role when discussing presentations: Panel Convener and research paper Chair , Black Radical Experimentation, CAALL, 2016. Due to essay writing service the length of a CV, accomplishments and publications stand a good chance of fading into a universal sameness.
By making judicious use of boldface or italics, you can make important words and phrases stand out on study coffee jobs the page. Your Curriculum Vitae should have a References section, where you list, among other things, those who support your bid for essay writing in ireland, the position you are applying for. Most jobs require three references. If you are applying for an academic position or a PhD candidacy, it is standard to obtain two academic references to attest to paper outlin your professional and intellectual capacity, and one personal or professional reference to essay attest to your character. Case Coffee! Generally, the format for essay, the References section is: Name of individual, with title (Position held by individual) Institution where the individual works.
Address of institution. Paper Outlin! Email and/or telephone number of essay service in ireland, individual. Prof. F. Essay! Smith (Academic Supervisor) School of Environment, University of Carmathen, Oxford Road, Carmathen CA4 3DE. There are those who argue against including the writing service in ireland full contact information for rfid, references, and state that the old standby #8216;References upon Request#8217; is more useful. This may come into essay writing service in ireland play if your employer prefers a very short CV, and if your references are not particularly well-known in your field. Otherwise, you should supply the information needed rather than requiring your potential employer to ask for it. On a related note, you should cultivate a variety of references over time.
If you haven#8217;t spoken to one of research, your references in a few months and are going on a job hunt, be sure to contact them to writing in ireland ensure that their contact information is still the same, and to double check that they are still comfortable being a reference. If you detect a hint of doubt, remove them from your references list immediately. The following sections may be important in winkle and the of sleepy hollow one person#8217;s CV but not in another#8217;s. Essay Writing! If you find that what you would place within the essays optional section is writing, both important to an employer#8217;s understanding of your abilities and accomplishments and does not easily fit within one of the statistics essay essential sections discussed above, you should include it. For many, it may be difficult to service in ireland envision what might go in each optional section without actually going through the outlin process of attempting to complete it. Consider attempting to populate each of the additional sections, then deleting the ones for which you can#8217;t say much or for which you can easily insert the information into one of the standard sections. Writing Service! While doing so, why not also consider developing a #8216;skeleton#8217; CV that has every section #8212; even optional ones #8212; filled out completely. As you gain more experience you may find that some of the rip van and the of sleepy essay optional sections garner enough data to be placed into your growing CV.
Your CV is an important document, and working out the best format for you is service in ireland, worth your time and energy. An #8216;Areas of Interest#8217; section can show that you are well-rounded, and it can present you as a unique individual. However, you can#8217;t fill this space with just anything. What will be appealing to case coffee jobs each employer will depend strongly on the company or university atmosphere, and whether or not your areas of interest are of writing, relevance to your career path. Outlin! An employer who stresses that well-rounded candidates make the best employees may be genuinely pleased to see that you have placed highly in several footraces, speak fluent Japanese, or write science fiction on the weekends. Many academics use this space to briefly describe areas of interest for future research.
That is advisable, and a good use of space! In the writing case of academia, this is often one of the essay 2009 very first sections; in all other cases, it is often the very last. If your primary accomplishments can be placed in the education section, do so; a feeble section for grants, honors, and awards can be off-putting to potential employers if you are applying for a higher-level position or have been in the field long. Writing Service! However, if you have more than two or three entries for this section, it is research, absolutely vital to make it a part of your CV. If you#8217;ve never written a CV before, give yourself plenty of time to populate this section.
Chances are, over writing service the course of statistics, your academic and professional career, you have been recognized multiple times for essay writing, a variety of reasons; but honors and and the legend awards that did not appreciably alter your career direction may not jump to essay writing service mind at first. Look through your employment history or your scheduling documents, such as bullet journals or meeting notes, to gather more details. Once you have written your first-draft CV, it#8217;s a good idea to begin keeping track of these in a dedicated file on your computer or on the cloud; or just add honors to of silence your CV as you acquire them. According to The Balance, technical skills are #8220;abilities and essay in ireland knowledge needed to perform specific tasks. Winkle Legend Hollow! They are practical, and often relate to mechanical, IT, mathematical, or scientific tasks.#8221; If you have learned how to use a complex piece of laboratory equipment with ease, know the ins and outs of a useful piece of software, or mastered a new programming language, those should go in this section. Just as with the grants, honors, and essay awards section, if you don#8217;t have anything significant to place in this section, consider omitting it. However, this section is rip van and the legend, absolutely vital for an Industry CV. The #8216;Presentations#8217; section can be placed in the #8216;Research#8217; section if you have few presentations or publications. However, if you have a large number of both, consider making a separate section for your presentations. For projects, you may want to list your contribution, followed by the names of others you worked with, and a descriptive synopsis. See the CV examples at the end of the article for writing in ireland, more information.
Scholarly and essay professional memberships. This is another section where you may want to essay in ireland give yourself a while to ponder. Many of us join professional associations when we are in academia, and outlin use their resources, or participate in service their discussions for a brief time before moving on to another area of academic interest. For example, if you are a medical researcher studying a particular illness, you may join an essays, epidemiological society to garner information; but if your interest next turns to the immunological aspects of the disease, you may not participate as much in the forums and professional societies you joined previously. Going through your publication and essay in ireland presentation history may help you recall professional societies to which you#8217;ve belonged, or forums in which you have been active. If you held office or some other powerful position within a scholarly or professional organization but currently don#8217;t belong to essay many professional organizations, consider placing this information in writing your employment section. Just as in the other optional sections, if what is essays on virtue of silence, here does not add anything significant to your CV, consider excluding it. In Ireland! If you have employment experience outside of academia or industry that has taught you skills that you find useful in your career, you might want to include this section. However, be wary of including information that doesn#8217;t apply to legal your field of research or to what will be asked of you in industry. If this section is included, it is often the service very first main section after the candidate#8217;s name and contact information, and it includes a description of what you are hoping to be able to accomplish. However, its inclusion may be considered old-fashioned or associated more with resumes than with CVs.
Therefore, it is most often found in short-form European CVs that share some characteristics with resumes. You may feel like a photo of you on your CV will make you appear more personable and engaging. Consider the following Suppose you send your CV to a new employer and they don#8217;t hire you. Would you suspect that this was because they didn#8217;t like your skin color, or your facial hair? Or perhaps they preferred another gender, or a different age? Having a photograph can invoke a bias from the person reviewing your CV, so it is best to not include it. Essay! There are several countries, however, where a photograph is considered standard, including Japan, China, and some parts of Europe #8212; though not the UK, Ireland, Sweden, or the Netherlands. When in doubt, ask the Human Resources department if they prefer to have a photograph included in CVs.
Your email address should include some version of your first and last name, and service in ireland not be from an outdated email system such as AOL. The best possible email address is [email protected] email client dot-com, e.g. [email protected] If you don#8217;t have such an email address, get one. Scroll to the bottom of the article to essay 2009 see some sample CVs.
CVs for industry and for essay writing service, academia have some important differences, as do CVs in the arts and the sciences. Perhaps you have a PhD in biomedical engineering, and winkle and the legend of sleepy hollow you#8217;re hoping to consult for a biotech company. Your CV is going to look very different from the one you would create if you were applying to become a biology professor at Princeton. First, you have to essay keep in mind that a company isn#8217;t necessarily looking for every detail of your academic career the statistics essay way that someone considering you for a professorship might. Instead, they are looking for what will make you a good fit for their company in particular. How does your experience line up with their goals, the essay writing projects they#8217;re working on, and the level of expertise required for the position? In fact, a CV for industry is of silence, very similar to a resume #8212; except that it contains the essay writing service in ireland sections recommended for a CV and essay is still usually a bit longer than a resume.
An industry CV is more to the point than an academic CV, and it places more emphasis on readability and layout than on sheer impressive weight. Put another way, the service in ireland focus in an industry CV is on what you might accomplish, whereas an academic CV depicts what you have done so far. This is based on how these institutions determine value. Winkle Legend Hollow! A professor with numerous publications brings value by essay service, attracting prestige and pulling in legal essay 2009 new students excited about their work, and lower-level employees who wish to bask in the glow of their reflected authority and expertise. A company wants to know what you will be able to essay writing in ireland do to create a cohesive research team, work swiftly and essay professionally, and, in general, increase or maintain their revenue stream. Can you design experiments that will solve problems? Will you understand what the results mean? It follows that an industry CV should then place time, focus, and energy on the #8216;Technical Skills#8217; and #8216;Experience#8217; sections. An industry job may also place more emphasis on the #8216;Areas of essay, Interest#8217; section to show that the applicant has social skills as well as intellectual ability: that he or she is capable of managing a team of other skillful and intelligent people. Finally, you should be aware that larger companies may rely on technology, rather than people, to examine CVs to weed out the undesired. According to the Wall Street Journal, approximately 90% of thesis rfid, larger companies use software that skims through CVs looking for certain words and writing phrases, eliminating 50% of applicants this way.
For this reason, it#8217;s important to use the paper latest jargon for the industry, and to assiduously avoid terms that are considered outdated or unprofessional in your industry. Science is a collaborative enterprise. The arts? Not necessarily. Therefore, Science CVs will place more emphasis on collaborative research, presentations, and posters displayed at conferences. If, on the other hand, you are applying to teach in the arts at the graduate level, you may have a small handful of writing in ireland, papers authored by you, and your thesis, or another novel-sized description of your detailed research (a monograph). Scientists spend much of their time at university doing research, where PhD students in essays on virtue the arts may have a great deal more teaching experience. Teaching experience may also be of essay, more value (and therefore should be emphasized) in a CV in the arts. There is no standard CV format, so do the best you can.
Be on case coffee jobs the lookout for writing in ireland, requested formats from employers. Competitions! If there is no guidance given on the CV structure, there are no set rules beyond the essay writing service in ireland fact that your name and thesis security contact information ought to go first, and that you must include the #8216;core#8217; sections described above. The rest is all about what you want to service emphasize in your CV. This in turn is based on what you believe your potential employer most values. Which sections should be placed at the beginning? If you are applying to a research-based university, it is your research and thesis security publications. If you#8217;re a graduate student applying for a PhD, it would be your education, as it is writing, your most impressive recent accomplishment. A university where teaching is the focus indicates that your teaching experience should go first. If you are going into industry, then highlighting your technical skills, administration experience, and community service is important. If employers focus most of their attention on the first half of the first page, you should lead with the category that best presents your skills #8212; or is most suited to the position in question.
Find CV examples within your field, and learn from them. You should look at winkle legend hollow essay, many examples to see how others have leveraged their skills and experience to best advantage. Ask people in your discipline to show you their CV. It#8217;s even better if you#8217;re aware of writing service in ireland, who has struggled to find a position, and who was accepted for one right away. Statistics! If you know that these individuals have relatively similar skill sets, their CVs can serve as good and service poor examples. There are several other resources that can help you write your CV and may provide examples: The Academic Job Search Handbook, 5th Ed. by Julia Miller Vick, Jennifer S. Furlong, and Rosanne Lurie has lots of research outlin, great advice about the job hunt in general, along with many CV samples for different career paths The Purdue OWL Writing Lab contains some excellent advice about essay writing, writing in general, as well as several pages devoted to CVs in particular. A fabulous resource. The Chronicle of Higher Education is another great resource with a plethora of job-related advice as well as several sections on how best to compose a CV Rice University#8217;s How-to includes a concise description of legal essay competitions, how to write both a CV and a resume, with two CV examples. Check out our repository of sample CVs with descriptions at the end of the article! Employers value accomplishments. Qualities represent potential.
Accomplishments represent reality. Writing Service! Guess which an employer values more? Focus on security accomplishments or responsibilities in your CV rather than traits. Writing Service! For example, it#8217;s more effective to state that you led your team to finish a research study in essay 2009 record time and service under budget, than to blandly state your confidence in something as intangible as your #8220;leadership qualities#8221;. Use gapping, parallelism, and bullet points to write like a pro. Essay Competitions! Use incomplete sentences to increase impact and to ditch extraneous words. The following example is essay writing service, NOT very effective: I taught a full lecture hall#8217;s worth of students at University X twice weekly, over 300 students#8217; worth. I also graded papers, planned curriculum with a team, and engaged in tutorial sessions online. Instead, you could say: Primary Instructor Organic Chemistry (2001-2008).
Planned curriculum. Responsible for daily grading. Created engaging tutorials online. This has more #8216;punch#8217; and takes up much less space. Perhaps most importantly it#8217;s much easier to read and winkle and the legend of sleepy hollow absorb quickly #8212; vital when you#8217;re trying to catch the wandering attention of an individual who#8217;s looking at their fortieth CV. Use the same type of essay service in ireland, phrasing so that the reader can swiftly understand your meaning.
Here is part of and the hollow, a CV in essay writing service which the author did NOT use parallelism: Supervision support for two undergraduate projects in econometric models for conservation. Delivering seminars in ‘Conservation theory’ and ‘Environment modeling’ to groups of 10-20 undergraduate students planning teaching methods. Case Study Coffee Jobs! Mentor to in ireland 2 new PhD students in the Department. Group leader on 3 field trips requiring leadership, problem solving under pressure and enthusiasm. Note that each of the leading verbs has a different ending. Rip Van Winkle And The Essay! This lack of parallelism requires longer for the brain to process, and may mean that the reader skims over the words without taking them in. Check out how much better this CV reads when parallelism is used to make each line grammatically and stylistically similar: Supervised two undergraduate projects in econometric models for conservation. Planned and writing in ireland delivered seminars in ‘Conservation theory’ and thesis ‘Environment modeling’ to groups of writing service in ireland, 10-20 undergraduate students. Mentored two PhD students in the Department. Statistics! Led 3 field trips with enthusiasm. By cutting down on the verbiage and service in ireland creating commonalities between each of the study bullet points, this section is now far stronger.
Bullet points are used more often in resumes than in CVs because resumes tend to have more short and declarative statements that take up less than a line each, such as the examples from the #8216;Parallelism#8217; section. Shorter verb-noun pairs belong on the same line. For example, Primary Instructor Organic Chemistry (2001-2008). Planned curriculum. Writing In Ireland! Responsible for daily grading. Engaged in case study jobs additional tutorials online. Primary Instructor Organic Chemistry (2001-2008) Planned curriculum Responsible for daily grading Engaged in essay writing additional tutorials online Use captivating action words. Avoid cliches like the plague. Avoid verbs and research outlin descriptors that were once evocative but have since become cliches, such as #8220;team player#8221;, and #8220;detail-oriented#8221;. Instead, use fresh and powerful phrases that catch the reader#8217;s attention. According to The Telegraph, over-used words and phrases that irritate recruiters and potential new bosses are: #8220;I#8217;m a hard worker#8221; #8220;I work well under pressure#8221; #8220;I can work independently#8221; #8220;I#8217;m a team player#8221; #8220;I am a problem solver#8221; #8220;Good communicator#8221; #8220;I#8217;m proactive#8221; I am a good listener#8221; #8220;I#8217;m enthusiastic#8221; #8220;Excellent written communication skills#8221; According to LinkedIn, the ten most over-used words on writing service in ireland resumes today are: Motivated Creative Enthusiastic Track record Passionate Successful Driven Leadership Strategic Extensive experience.
Most of these aren#8217;t horrible terms in case study and of themselves; it#8217;s that they#8217;ve been used so often that their meanings have become hollow. Essay Writing In Ireland! Generally, these descriptive words don#8217;t belong on CVs in the first place, since a CV is a description of what you#8217;ve accomplished, and it should be factual rather than aspirational (save the ambitions for the cover letter!). Some even older and security rfid over-used terms include #8220;go-getter#8221;, synergy, and essay writing #8220;I think outside of the box#8221;. Remember to describe your actions and accomplishments rather than yourself, and you will be well on your way to rip van of sleepy crafting a compelling CV. The Daily Muse has an incredible compilation of 185 action words based on accomplishments.
Here are some of the best of the bunch: Authored, awarded, earned, ensured, documented, critiqued, corresponded, lobbied, reviewed, promoted, composed, measured, quantified, tested, tracked, discovered, investigated, examined, explored, mapped, advocated, consulted, educated, fielded, resolved, navigated, secured, mentored, trained, recruited, cultivated, directed, fostered, guided, revitalized, transformed, redesigned, generated, expanded, delivered, decreased, introduced, launched, spearheaded, engineered, formalized, operationalized, instituted, developed, built, designed, programmed, produced, planned, chaired, headed. Note that these action words are all directly associated with tasks and accomplishments and do not describe the individual#8217;s inherent qualities. CV Design and document formatting is important. White space and readability is of utmost importance. You can use the #8216;print preview#8217; selection in MS Word to get a good feel for your layout. It will show you where fonts or margins are too big or too small, or where information is cramped. In industry, white space is especially important: go for essay writing, clarity and statistics readability over impressiveness and length. Service In Ireland! Don#8217;t get fussy with your fonts.
For stylistic purposes, consider using boldfaced and research paper outlin normal font, or italics and normal font. Mixing too many font types together creates the impression of disharmony. The result you want to create is one of clarity and organization. Not only does this help make your document more readable, it makes you, the applicant, appear straightforward and essay writing in ireland organized. Note that these are not all good examples, as some are presented here in order to outline their flaws. Please mind the descriptions. Also, the PDF documents typically are to be used as examples to essay learn from, as they are real-life CVs, but not in editable format.
The Microsoft Word templates are to be used to help create your own CV. The candidate#039;s strengths are his publication and presentation sections. It was a good idea to separate these as he has plenty of both! The font choice here may be too fussy, which look very stylized. The layout is unique, and essay service it serves to emphasize important points and separate sections, which increases readability and makes good use of the available space. Size: 44 KB Downloads: 3660 Filename: Physics-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 14:27:00 / 35045.
Academic CV Research Associate - Medicinal Chemistry. Statistics! This is a good example of the layout typical to the UK, but in service in ireland many other ways it can serve as an research paper outlin, example of what not to essay writing in ireland do. Generally, this one needs an editor for winkle and the legend, detecting capitalization errors and unimportant or unrelated information (specifically, a good driving record, the ability level of his violin playing, and a part-time job as a customer service representative, are all unnecessary), and for suggesting stronger action words. Essay! Size: 45 KB Downloads: 1773 Filename: Academic-CV-Research-Associate-Medicinal-Chemistry.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 14:57:00 / 35515. Essay! The first page looks great until we get to the 'Personal Statement' section (similar to writing the 'Motivation' or 'Objective' section). That section could be a lot stronger, considering how prominently it is thesis security rfid, displayed. There are some minor grammatical errors throughout. There is an over-use of essay service, underlining and bullet points. It is better to be prudent with techniques used to draw greater attention to one part of essays, your CV. Size: 37 KB Downloads: 1119 Filename: Neuroscience-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 15:49:00 / 35890.
Associate Professorship in Physics and Genomics CV. It could use some boldface or italics for the gaze to be drawn to, but overall this is an excellent example that makes the candidate appear quite impressive. Essay Writing Service In Ireland! Size: 44 KB Downloads: 1116 Filename: Physics-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 17:37:00 / 36449. Apart from a bit of odd spacing on page 3 -- the author might have italics or boldface rather than indentation here -- this is an of silence, excellent CV. Despite the fact that it's a pharmacy CV, it's probably too long to appeal to industry, and it might be better suited for an applicant aiming for writing, a research position at a university, or for offering their services as part of a panel or advisory board. Size: 39 KB Downloads: 1649 Filename: file59340.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 17:43:00 / 37451. Go to page 20 for research paper, the Jane Alexander CV Example.
There are a few minor errors here, but they all add up. Jane's address could have been spread out essay writing service, across the top of the page rather than giving it four lines of its own: this is too much emphasis on something that is essays, essentially unimportant. Another line is used up on writing in ireland the second page to legal 2009 tell us that the previous section has thereby been continued. There are grammatical errors in the first few lines: magna cum laude should be italicized. Finally, the writing service formatting is not consistent throughout. Legal Essay Competitions 2009! This is an essay service in ireland, impressive candidate, but aspects of her CV make her look unorganized and statistics essay less qualified than she probably actually is. Essay Writing Service In Ireland! Size: 153 KB Downloads: 1123 Filename: cv_covlets.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 17:50:00 / 37526.
Environmental Studies and Politics Academic CV. Another solid classic UK-style CV. Layout is superlative. The only issue is a minor lack of parallelism in the verb-tenses used. Size: 69 KB Downloads: 1257 Filename: cv_academic.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 18:20:00 / 37783. Politics and Communication PhD Candidacy CV. An excellent example of an academic CV. The author includes her non-academic employment because that work still relates, at rip van legend essay, least peripherally, to her overall career direction. Boldfacing her name in essay in ireland the publications section might have broken up the sameness a bit, but overall the security layout is clear and clean.
Interests and essay writing service in ireland professional associations are merged in the 'activities' section. Size: 33 KB Downloads: 1298 Filename: Politics-Communication-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 18:46:00 / 37834. While this candidate includes all the information she needs, and focuses laudably on her teaching experience, the sections of her CV are out of order. Remember to lead with your strengths. Her academic employment should be presented straightaway, not down on statistics page 4. Size: 44 KB Downloads: 1013 Filename: Physics-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:09:00 / 38197. A really good example of a professional CV. It's worth noting that, if your CV is going to be this long (seven pages!), then it's acceptable to add more white space. The most important results are that it appears clean and organized, and that it reads well. Size: 365 KB Downloads: 1003 Filename: AAMishra_CV_July2016.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:16:00 / 38266.
Go to page 5 to see the CV example for writing, Benjamin F. Of Sleepy Hollow! Goldfarb. By the time we reach the essay writing in ireland end of the first page, this candidate has already told us about his PhD from Harvard, as well as all of his publications. Essay Competitions 2009! He has also begun to essay service in ireland discuss his scholarship and awards. A smart use of space! This candidate also knows where his strengths are: in instruction. As a result, you'll note that he put his research and teaching interests front-and-center. It's an unusual choice to legal 2009 put this so early on, but it works here.
To break up all the visual sameness, it might have been better to boldface the essay dates in his Fellowships and Awards section. Size: 2 MB Downloads: 955 Filename: gsas-cvs-and-cover-letters.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:23:00 / 38305. Another very effective CV (go to page 8 to see the CV example for Vidita Chatterjee). Vidita puts her current position first in order to place emphasis on her teaching experience, and her education section prominently displays her graduate degree in education. This emphasizes the theme throughout the CV, which is that she is best suited to become a music instructor at the graduate level.
The use of white space and the lining up of the dates are very effective, and give the CV a very professional look. Size: 2 MB Downloads: 911 Filename: gsas-cvs-and-cover-letters.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:30:00 / 38347. Another excellently done CV. This CV allows the reader to understand the qualifications of the applicant at first glance. The choice to case study place her research interests all on one line and separated by essay writing service in ireland, semicolons allows the essays on virtue of silence reader to writing service spot her research experience on the first page rather than second. The judicious use of boldface type allows the reader to spot important information with little effort. The addition of a Languages section was a wise choice, given that her language proficiency is both remarkable and statistics an asset in her field (history). Service! Size: Downloads: 1078 Filename: Sample%20CV.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:34:00 / 38402.
This CV is an excellent example from a psychology student, with marked commentary that may be useful. Using citations in the References section is not a requisite for all fields, but it is the APA style typically used in the field of essays on virtue of silence, psychology. The use of space is exceptional: the dates line up, and the descriptions are indented so that the reader's eyes are naturally drawn from section to section. The descriptions themselves could use a little work. Remember to describe your accomplishments in some detail, and not just outline your duties. Size: 422 KB Downloads: 1221 Filename: Psi_Chi_Sample_CV.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:36:00 / 38428. Undergraduate Math and Physics CV. This is a great CV for a young professional with not much research experience, and it would be ideal for industry. However, the applicant's personal information should be front-and-center (not hidden at service, the end of the CV), and more attention could be paid to the layout.
Especially when your CV is short, make sure that it is readable, and pay attention to white space. In particular, the section entitled 'Academic and Related Professional Experience' needs editing. Study Coffee! Size: 32 KB Downloads: 1752 Filename: Undergraduate-Math-Physics-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:49:00 / 38450. With only essay writing in ireland two pages, this CV manages to convey the research paper candidate#039;s credentials, potential, and personality, complete with a few hobbies towards the end. The emphasis on essay writing tennis throughout is a bit much, as it should be in the activities section or in the employment section, but overall this is an excellent CV. Essay! Size: 183 B Downloads: 1491 Filename: phd-science-physics-cv.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 20:45:00 / 38894.
The professional summary in this CV could use some work; it describes characteristics rather than accomplishments. The phrase #039;Utilizing strong communication skills#039; used as its own sentence is essay writing service, particularly improper! Putting his education into a chart was a good choice: it organizes the information and it is visually dissimilar from the rest of the CV, making it stand out. One assumes that #039;Personal History#039; was something the employer required on their resume, or something that is research paper outlin, standard in Pakistan. Still, the #039;Personality Traits#039; section would do far better being replaced by essay service, an #039;Accomplishments#039; section. Anyone can say they possess certain characteristics; however, claiming specific accomplishments shows what you can do for outlin, an employer, which is what HR staff are looking for in a new employee. Essay Service! Size: Downloads: 2142 Filename: chemical-engineer-cv-59516157 Uploaded: 2017-02-09 21:19:00 / 39007. There is some repetition in the 'Motivation' section (new/new/new).
There are also a few typos that could have been easily remedied by a careful proofread, and, on essays on virtue of silence the second page in particular, the bullet points should have been indented to create a better sense of order and clarity. That said, this candidate describes his accomplishments in service in ireland a way that is straightforward, clear, and impressive. He succeeds quite well. Size: 350 KB Downloads: 1056 Filename: Michael%20Gabay-1-2_0.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 21:29:00 / 39185. Enjoyed our templates? Don#8217;t forget to like and share! 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.
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Free Essays on Essay Of The Bet Anton Chekhov. Aliyah Singh Ms. Ribeiro ENG3U 10/04/11 Comparative Essay Are you’re actions based on what you believe or what your see and desire? In the text The Bet by Anton Chekhov and the text The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant both authors deal with the main idea that money and materialistic. Analysis of the bet by Anton Chekov?
A theme for The Bet by Anton Chekhov “The Bet ” emphasizes the idea that the life of a human is far more valuable than money. In the short story “The Bet ” by Anton Chekhov a wager is made that changes the essay in ireland, lives of two people. The story begins with a heated. A Fool and His Money Are Soon Parted The story “The Bet ” by statistics, Anton Chekhov is a unique tale. In this tale the essay writing, protagonists are a banker and legend hollow, a lawyer. Essay? The main cause of of silence this tale is all because of a bet that was made, the banker thinks that the death penalty is more humane that imprisonment for life. True Ambitions, The Bet ( Short Story by Anton Chekov) will strive to understand the meaning of life and service, when found, a person will inevitably work hard to achieve their purpose. In the on virtue of silence, short story The Bet , Anton Chekov displays the true intentions of our existence through displaying a poor lawyer who is willing to do anything for essay service in ireland, money. At the end of the. In the essays, story “The Bet ” by Anton Chekhov , the in ireland, lawyer and legend of sleepy, the banker make a bet , which is better solution capital punishment or life imprisonment.
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You have conduct extensive research and find information to answer your essay questions. Essay Writing In Ireland? However, you will always have so many ideas related to your essay title, and to select the best ones, you have to ‘brainstorm’ them. chapter it absolutely must go off. If it's not going to be fired, it shouldn't be hanging there. – Anton Chekhov [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chekhov %27s_gun](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chekhov %27s_gun) [http://inkslingerediting.com/blog/2010/01/18/kurt-vonnegut-the-art-of-fiction-the-pa. ? In Anton Chekhov's The Darling, the author celebrates the image of the winkle legend of sleepy essay, modern-day woman by condemning the epitome of the stereotypical woman, Olga, to an unfulfilling life of short-lived pleasures. Service In Ireland? By damning Olga, the short story's protagnist, Chekhov promotes the on virtue of silence, crumbling image of the writing service, traditional. experience with three different works of case jobs literature read throughout the course study. These works will be from an essay , drama and short story. The authors in this research are Anton Chekhov , Langston Hughes and Tennessee Williams.
All three authors are of different backgrounds but used similar approaches. Anton Chekhov: the Father of the Modern the Modern Character. A very controversial writer of his time, Anton Chekhov , was a man who overcame numerous difficulties throughout his lifetime. Anton Chekhov was a Russian dramatist and author; many consider him to be among the in ireland, greatest writers of short stories in history. Statistics? His plays and short stories are held in high.
This is a super rough copy of an essay I did. Essay Writing Service In Ireland? Don't want anyone to see the final work. I apologize in advance if it is very bad. The Sense of Self-Worth No matter how low our self-esteem is, we all need to have more self-worth. We should stand up for ourselves in essays on virtue of silence, whatever situation, such as bullying. The Bet is a short story that explores a moral theme regarding the value of human life. However, the story is constructed with an important ironic twist that brings the reader back to the original context of the bet (if the lawyer could endure solitary confinement for fifteen years), and presents. Egomorality Essay Anthem and Gattaca. intended.
This made him an invalid. His brother, Anton , was genetically engineered with the essay, perfect traits from his mother and father. This showed. Vincent had heart conditions that made him the loser during the statistics, swimming contests the brothers had. Anton was always taller, even though he was two years. Zhunio Ms. Tobin Honors English II April 22, 2013 “The Bet ” “The Bet ” a story written by Anton Chekhov , is a tale of a two contrasting characters that make a bet that takes an writing service unexpected twist at the end. Essay Competitions 2009? The lawyer and the banker both make a bet that consists of the lawyer to spend 15 years in imprisoned.
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? Anton Garrett ENG-101 October 29, 2015 Cause and Effect Essay How many times have you passed by people sitting on the street, with a plastic glass or a small cardboard box asking for essay service, spare change? Have you ever noticed the amounts of people who have neither a home, nor a job to legal essay 2009 take care of. Symbolism in Checkhov's the Cherry Orchard. Twentieth-Century theater. The plot structure in The Cherry Orchard is not as meaningful as the impact of in ireland events on the inner sensibilities of the characters. Chekhov divides his characters in The Cherry Orchard in a variety of ways so that the orchard and its sale take on different meaning for each of them. It is. How Is Reputation, Honour and statistics essay, Respect Portrayed and What Is Their Significance in the Plays, Antigone and Uncle Vanya? STUDY How is reputation, honour and respect portrayed and what is essay service, their significance in the plays, Antigone and thesis rfid, Uncle Vanya? Let me begin this essay by outlining the connection between reputation, honour and respect. The reputation of essay service in ireland a character is made clear through the amount of respect and honour.
liberties granted. Here is essays, a few of the world's greatest oppressors: Jim Jones, Adolph Hitler, Napoleon Bonaparte, Julius Caesar, David Koresh, and Anton Szandor LaVey. I know, as well as you, that these notorious six are among the world's most hated. However here are a few oppressors from another standpoint. Analysis of Act I in Chekhov's The Seagull: Theme of Suffering. prevalent throughout Act I of Anton Chekhov's play The Seagull. Through his use of dialogue, relationships between characters, and setting, Chekhov creates a theme of suffering and self-imprisonment within many of his characters as they long for essay writing service, the unattainable. The way Chekhov chooses his speech between. feels out of place, not comfortable with the essays on virtue of silence, ‘easy money’. He witnesses people behaving carelessly sexual immorality spurred on by the writing service, alcohol.
Anton Chekhov once said that “money, like vodka, turns a person into an eccentric.” While at Gatsby’s party, Nick learns the meaning of this – although the party-goers. ENG 125 ASH Course Tutorial / Uoptutorial. Corresponding Works” list, below, as a guide). Essays? The paper should be organized around your thesis (argument), which is the main point of the entire essay . When developing a thesis for a comparative paper, consider how a comparison of the works provides deeper insight into the topic of your paper (i.e. of life results from choices we make. How we meet every circumstance, and also how we allow those circumstances to affect us dictates our life. In Anton Chekhov’s “The Lady With the Little Dog, we are given a chance to take a look inside two characters not unlike ourselves. As we are given insight. Windfall and Evil In the writing in ireland, short story “The Lottery Ticket” by Anton Chekhov , a couple named Ivan and Masha who think they may have won the lottery fantasize about how to spend the winnings. This story shows the legal essay competitions 2009, couple’s ironic imaginations of a big windfall.
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Two well known writers who have introduced realism to their stories is Anton Chekhov , the writer of “The Bet ”, and Rod Sterling, the writer of the popular 50’s show “The Twilight Zone”. Many audiences who have read “The Bet ” and thesis rfid, the episode “The Silence” have speculated that Sterling had plagiarized. April 26, 2013 Role Model Essay Good or Bad? Role models, role models are people that have the ability to impact a life, whether negative or positive. Role models also help shape the in ireland, way an individual may present themselves in the future. The short story My Brother the Superhero, along with the movie. think that i will just keep typing this nonsence so thatmaybe i can get an essay so i dont have to read a huge book. that would save me time because i actually have a life and stuff to do. Security? i bet the peoople ewho wrote these essays dont though. Essay In Ireland? they probably just sit at home and read books and type for fun. “the Lottery” by Shirley Jackson and “the Lottery Ticket” by Anton Chekhov. Comparative Essay “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson and “The Lottery Ticket” by Anton Chekhov Most people today would define Lottery as the drawing of rip van and the of sleepy hollow lots in which prizes are distributed to the winners among persons buying a chance, however these two stories give us a different out look on the word. was born into essay service, a perfect society and because of this he was always looked down on, even his father thought he was unworthy of carrying his own name ( Anton ) so instead named him Vincent.
It was difficult for statistics, Vincent as a child. a close up shot is used when the kindergarten gate is slammed in essay writing, his face this. Analysis of The Bet The Bet is research, a short story that explores a moral theme regarding the value of human life as seen through two perspectives. However, the story is constructed with an essay writing service in ireland important, ironic twist that brings the coffee, reader back to essay service in ireland the original context of the on virtue, bet (if the lawyer could. In the short story, “The Bet” by Anton Chekhov, the. In the writing service in ireland, short story, ?The Bet ? by Anton Chekhov , the banker and legal competitions, the lawyer had different opinions to the merits of writing service in ireland capital punishment.
To prove his point, the banker bet the lawyer two million dollars that he could not stay in solitary confinement for fifteen years. The lawyer left his cell five minutes. 11th August 2011 Anton Chekhov Dunstan Playhouse Adam Cook The State Theatre Company The Three Sisters Title: Production Company: Director: Venue: Playwright: Date Viewed: Anton Chekov’s The Three Sisters is a naturalistic performance expressing the interactions between the social. second. To live anyhow is better than not at all” ( Chekhov 1). In Anton Chekhov’s short story “The Bet ” a lawyer and a banker make a bet about which penalty is more humane. The lawyer says that life imprisonment is legal essay competitions 2009, more humane.
In saying this, the lawyer bets he can stayed locked up in a cell for 15 years. Themes in “The Bet ” In Anton Chekhov’s short story “The Bet ”, there are many ideas that are presented throughout that form a much larger message. Essay? These same ideas that seem to keep resurfacing throughout the story are called a theme, or the main message of the paper outlin, story (Writing about Literature). The. to provide money and, as a result, have no time for essay, fun. Legal Essay 2009? In Anton Chekhov’s short stories, he portrays children as being innocent, vulnerable, and essay writing service, dependent on thesis others as well as how they struggle to remain youthful. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was born January 29, 1860, the third of six surviving children.
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Chekhov wrote Three Sisters at a time when Russians were forced to confront modernity. Lessons To Be Learned in The Bet by Anton Chekhov. The Bet by Anton Chekhov there are many lessons to be learned. For example, even when you are rich you have to spend your money wisely. Another lesson to statistics essay be learned through this story is that we have bigger need and values than we think we do. In Ireland? The banker was young and rich when he made the bet . Research Paper? Both. Consequences of Modern technology. sentences and by virtue of that grammar is suffering. Just before one month ago one of our instructors giving us note on the Cherry Orchard a drama by Anton Chekhov in essay, Section ‘B’ and thesis security rfid, she/he was telling very fast and we were told to write in abbreviated form that we can understand after going home.
It happened. Chekhov and Carver - Struggles of Real Life. they live. What do the writers Chekhov and Carver say about the struggles of real life in the society around them? Discuss, using quotes and references to characters and scenes within the chosen short stories. The short stories, ‘The Bet ’ and ‘Cathedral’ by Anton Chekhov and Raymond Carver respectively. Swot Analysis St. Anton Am Arlberg. SWOT ANALYSIS We will identify our points to work on, based on the following SWOT analysis: Strenghts: Why people know St.
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1996. 41-45. Print. Lisle Dunnihoo September 17, 2014 Honor’s English II Literary analysis The cynical tone of Anton Chekhov’s short story “The Bet ” reveals his negative attitude towards greed and essay writing service in ireland, earthly possessions and greed. Research Paper Outlin? He does this by, showing the lawyers thoughts to us. Anton Chekhov's The House with the Mezzanine
As the first story in writing in ireland, Anton Chekhov’s collection of short stories “The Lady with the statistics essay, Little Dog and Other Short Stories, 1898 - 1904”, “The House with the Mezzanine” introduces the reader to many concepts also highlighted in service in ireland, later short stories that are frequently articulated, suggesting the issues are. ENG 125 Ash Tutorial Courses/ Uoptutorial. Week Five Final Paper instructions, as a guide). The paper should be organized around your thesis (argument), which is the main point of the entire essay . When developing a thesis for a comparative paper, consider how a comparison of the works provides deeper insight into the topic of your paper (i.e. “The Bet ” Themes In the story “The Bet ,” a bet that will change two men’s lives was made. An argument with the topic of capital punishment leads to rip van and the of sleepy hollow essay the bet and the outcome of “The Bet ” portrays various themes. Essay Writing Service? “The Bet ” by research, Anton Chekhov emphasizes the idea that human life is far more valuable than. important event in the film, and writing service in ireland, it led to a more complicated situation which made some reference to the discrimination. Statistics Essay? The investigator of the essay service, case--- Anton , Vincent’s brother, after he discovered the eyelash of research Vincent(an Invalid) and analyzed it, he confirmed that the in ireland, murderer must be the Invalid even. Corresponding Works” list, below, as a guide).
The paper should be organized around your thesis (argument), which is the security, main point of the entire essay . When developing a thesis for a comparative paper, consider how a comparison of the works provides deeper insight into the topic of your paper (i.e. ENG 125 ASH Course Tutorial / eng125dotcom. Corresponding Works” list, below, as a guide). Essay Writing? The paper should be organized around your thesis (argument), which is the main point of the on virtue of silence, entire essay . Writing Service In Ireland? When developing a thesis for a comparative paper, consider how a comparison of the works provides deeper insight into the topic of your paper (i.e. like wisdom. “The Bet ” by Anton Chekhov , is a story based on a lawyer and a banker that both agree on a $2 million bet in which the banker was to remain concerned over the money, and the lawyer was to spend fifteen years in solitary confinement who eventually relinquished the bet . Later realizing the. unrealistic. –Susan Jeffers Leadership Oregon Program: April 2007 Page 2 of 5 Statewide Training Development 35. Man is what he believes. – Anton Chekhov 36. The thing always happens that you really believe in; and rfid, the belief in a thing makes it happen. –Frank Lloyd Wright 37.
It’s choice—not chance—that. The Theme of Misery by Anton Chekhov. ?PAGE ? ?PAGE ?4? In the short story Misery by Anton Chekhov , I identified the problem of loneliness, as the absence of service in ireland reciprocal understanding. I feel the love that A. Thesis? Chekhov expresses to the ordinary person like Iona Potapov. Writing In Ireland? The author writes about little things that mean a lot.
Deep thoughts. Summary/Book Report on the short story, The Bet by Anton Chekhov. The Bet . Hypothetically speaking, you have to research paper outlin choose between spending the rest of your life in solitary confinement or death. Which do you choose? Anton Chekhov presents the pros and cons of both options in his short story, The Bet . In this story, two men make a bet , both staking rather important things.