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Brave New World and the Threat of Technological Growth. The world in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World has one goal: technological progress. The morals and aspirations of the society are not those of about pokhara, our society today - such as family, love, and success - but instead are focused around industry, economy, and technologic growth and improvement. The citizens are not concerned with themselves as individuals; they have been conditioned to see the world as a collective and technologically oriented. This society is one which Neil Postman, the author of Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, would consider a ‘Technopoly.’ But Postman also perceives cultures in the world today to be nearing this socio-technologic status. What can be seen about Brave New World and its comments on technological advancements as well as their effects in society, when we examine it from the perspective of Postman’s Technopoly? The medical advancements in Huxley’s novel and its concepts of educational standardization carry drastic similarities to samford university dissertation society today as well. Sir Ken Robinson’s discussions on education elucidate these congruencies.

Through these scholastic perspectives it can be seen that the novel is a dangerously accurate prophesy of essay pokhara, technology’s capacity to dominate society, and how this domination is social network silently changing the goals, moralities, and values of pokhara, our culture. The most prevalent themes in Brave New World are centered around the write industrial and economic systems in novel, and how technology has brought the advancements of these themes to about pokhara fruition. The mentality of the society is that progress, through invention, is the key goal of mankind. Consumerism and productivism are the purpose of life in Huxley’s industrial utopia. The consumerist ideals of the essay three qualities should have society can be captured by about pokhara, one of the hypnopaedic proverbs demonstrated in network this quote from the novel: “‘But old clothes are beastly,’ continued the untiring whisper. ‘We always throw away old clothes. Ending is better than mending, ending is better than mending, ending is better than mending.’” (Huxley 54). All the citizens of The World State in the novel are conditioned since birth to maintain that buying new is essay about pokhara proper and repairing is immoral. They are taught to conform to the consumer-oriented mentality of the write literature review research culture. Postman provides an example for pokhara the means of how this transition in society is taking place today and suggests how Huxley may have imagined it happening: “Along with [the idea that if something could be done, it should be done] there developed a profound belief in all the principles through which invention succeeds: objectivity, efficiency, expertise, standardization, measurement, and progress. It also came to be believed that the engine of technological progress worked most efficiently when people are conceived of not as children of God or even as citizens but as consumers” (Postman 42).

This perspective describes with pinpoint accuracy how Huxley’s society functions. The people are no longer oriented to believe in god, but instead only believe in essay the principles of consumption. In the novel all religion has faded away and been forgotten by the citizens of the World State. The only deity-like or religious principles that people follow are that of Henry Ford, inventor of the Model T. Essay Pokhara. Society’s closest acknowledgement of a “god” is Ford. As Postman states, “the great narrative of inductive science takes precedence over the great narrative of Genesis, and essay about stress at work those who do not agree must remain in intellectual backwater” (Postman 50). In fact, the essay about pokhara dating system used in the novel is based upon essay A.F. and B.F. which is the abbreviated form for After Ford and Before Ford, which Huxley clearly used to parody our current dating system of B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno domini). God is not merely second to technology - as is the essay paradigm of society today, which Postman calls the ideals of a ‘Technocracy” - but God has completely been stamped out and forgotten, replaced by quadratic, paradigms of God being progress, which is the ideal of a Technopoly. Postman describes the about cause of this to be that “the greatest invention of the nineteenth century was the idea of invention itself. We had learned how to invent things, and stress the question of why we invent things receded in pokhara importance” (Postman 42). By constantly inventing, replacing, and consuming, a society loses its ties with the spiritual and gains new ones to technology; personal transcendence is replaced with technological transcendence.

Progress, technology, and invention become their God. This transition -as Postman puts it the thesis network transition of essay about, a Technocracy to a Technopoly- is the transition that has taken place in Brave New World. Technocracy did not entirely destroy the traditions of the social and symbolic worlds. Technocracy subordinated these worlds - yes even humiliated them - but it did not render them totally ineffectual” (Postman 45). However, a Technopoly, utterly destroys the existence of these worlds, and this is the state of Huxley’s utopia. “Technopoly eliminates alternatives to itself in precisely the way Aldous Huxley outlines in math quadratic essay Brave New World. It does not make them illegal. It does not make them immoral. It does not even make them unpopular.

It makes them invincible and therefore irrelevant (Postman 48). Therefore, from the perspective of Postman’s Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, Huxley’s society in Brave New World is a stunningly perfect example of a Technopoly. In this Technopoly, technology and the advancements of it contain all the principles one needs to live their lives by. A Technopoly is a more radical concept than a technocracy. “The citizens of a technocracy knew that science and essay pokhara technology did not provide philosophies by which to live” (Postman 47) unlike the about stress Technopoly in Brave New World. This is precisely why Huxley’s society is a Technopoly and not a Technocracy; in about the novel the social network citizens know just the opposite, that science and essay about pokhara technology does provide philosophies by which to live and moreover is the very pinnacle of their lives and thesis social their existence. The lower castes of Huxley’s society are simple workers; multitudes of drones and one-task thinkers. Pokhara. The mass production of human life is literature proposal key to essay pokhara the economic structure of this society, but there is another factor that goes along with the workers.

Not only are the workers created for the purpose of a simple life of servitude, they are also conditioned to enjoy such a meager life. They are content with this lifestyle in network every sense, and therefore, they are stable. Like biological machinery, constantly working, working, working; satisfied with every minute of their day. This resembles our world today as Sir Ken Robinson elucidates in his RSA Animate on education. Robinson speaks about the “culture” of education and how children are conditioned to think that there are ‘smart’ and ‘dumb’ individuals and that this paradigm limits children. Essay About. This black-and-white standardization is similar to Huxley’s caste system. Essay. A strict organization like these contains the essay similarities of making society believe that society is best if it operates on the modern principle that there is a cultural split in education: the split of high and quadratic essay low intelligence. These two examples also share the essay similarity that they neglect how certain individuals may be better or worse at different tasks or subjects and that in reality this kind of standardization actually limits society. Social. This is a postmodern idea, currently growing in popularity.

In society today there is the pokhara idea of ADHD being an epidemic in math quadratic essay America. Sir Ken Robinson points out that there is essay pokhara not really an epidemic and that children are being medicated carelessly. they are given Ritalin and Adderall so they can be focused in school. A non-medical problem is being cared for with medication (RSA). This strongly resembles the Soma in how to write a good essay Brave New World. If someone isn’t happy, they simple take Soma, and suddenly they’re content again. This reliance on drugs is a parallel between Huxley’s novel and Sir Robinson's video. As Huxley’s proverb goes, “a gramme is better than a damn” (Huxley 156). About Pokhara. The similarities between how our education system puts children in groups by age and has them taught to think that there is only one answer. Robinson points out how students are taught linearly instead of divergently (RSA).

This standardization of education reflects the caste system in Brave New World and how each caste is conditioned to be only able to do the job their caste demands. Each caste is conditioned through hypnopaedia to only think one way, this resembles the culture of our education system and how students are taught to think only in terms of if one score high on tests, one is intelligent and will have a good job and if one scores low, the person is unintelligent and must have a laborious job. Essay Three A Best Friend. Another significant parallel which can be seen through the about pokhara ‘lens’ of Robinson’s video is the similarities between the production line mentality of America's education system, and the biologically mass-produced citizens of the World State in Brave New World. Essay Stress At Work. The students in America go through this process of classes organized by age, yet as Robinson elucidates, age does not necessarily dictate a student’s aptitude or discipline with a certain subject (RSA). This resembles the caste system in the novel and how everyone is about conditioned from pre-birth to maturity to only be intelligent enough for their caste's jobs.

The democracy of individual growth and personal spirituality is eliminated in Huxley’s Technopoly. By analyzing the novel from the perspectives of Postman and Robinson, it becomes clear that Huxley’s work is a prediction for the future that hits all-too close to the bone. The transition from the Technocracies of today, to the Technopoly in Brave New World is one that seems to be growing nearer, dauntingly. When do our advances in technology begin to do more harm than help? No one can predict when good-natured intentions can bring about unfortunate ends, yet Huxley provides a profound guess. Essay At Work. How long before the ever-sharpening claws of technology latch around our own society, and grip us away from the pokhara morals we hold to be valuable? Should we fear this threat?

Or embrace its benefits? “Progress is lovely, isn’t it?” (Huxley 98). Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World: And, Brave New World Revisited. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. Print. Network. Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Vintage Books, 1993. Print. RSA Animate - Changing Educational Paradigms, 14 October 2012.

Youtube. Web. 11 November 2012. Essay Pokhara. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World: And, Brave New World Revisited. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. Print. Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to university dissertation Technology. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

Print. RSA Animate - Changing Educational Paradigms, 14 October 2012. Youtube. Web. 11 November 2012. Miller, D. D. Essay About Pokhara. (2011). Brave New World and the Threat of Technological Growth. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 3 (04).

Retrieved from A Good. Miller, Derek D. About Pokhara. Brave New World and the Threat of essay three qualities friend, Technological Growth. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3.04 (2011). Miller, Derek D. 2011. Brave New World and the Threat of Technological Growth. Essay. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3 (04), MILLER, D. D. Write A Good. 2011. Brave New World and the Threat of Technological Growth. About Pokhara. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 3. Available: Utilizing Technology for Learning STEM Subjects: Perceptions of Urban African-American Middle School Students. University Dissertation. Surveillence Society: Selling Our Secrets.

Too Much Tech Harms Reading Retention in Young Children. 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved. ISSN: 2153-5760. Disclaimer: content on this website is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice.

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Richard III, the Machiavellian Villain. Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2000 42 Pages. Shakespeare’s Richard III is considered as the essay pokhara most notorious Machiavellian villain of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. How To Write A Good Admissions? By the essay pokhara time Shakespeare wrote Richard III , the term ‘Machiavel’ had already an established set of references. Thesis Network? The term was, in fact, so deeply established in the mind of Elizabethan audiences that it was enough to call someone a ‘Machiavel’ in essay about, order to characterise him as an utterly amoral and thesis network, clever villain. The ‘Machiavel’, however, is only one part of Richard’s character as he is essay about, a combination of the traditional Vice-figure of the moralities, a tyrant of Senecan revenge tragedy and, of course, the Machiavellian villain. These elements are, in quadratic, fact, so tightly interwoven that it is very difficult to separate them and essay about, concentrate on three a best friend should have a single one. Richard the Vice is a witty deceiver and manipulator who is also very good at playing with language. Richard the ‘Machiavel’ seeks his own personal advancement through the exercise of his wit and the role of the Vice is just a part of his Machiavellian tool chest.

He is about pokhara, beyond conventional morality, and it is the end which for him justifies the means. The main difference between Richard as the Vice and Richard as the ‘Machiavel’ is that Richard as the ‘Machiavel’ is not a motive-less villain. How To Write A Good Admissions Essay? He commits all of his crimes in essay about, order to quadratic essay reach his ultimate goal, the crown of about pokhara England. Therefore, even though this essay will concentrate on the Machiavellian aspects of Richard’s career, it will be necessary to deal with the others as well. Research on Shakespeare’s Richard III has come a long way since E. M. W. Stress At Work? Tillyard’s ground-breaking work ‘Shakespeare’s History Plays’ which was first published in about, 1944. Tillyard interpreted Richard III and Shakespeare’s other Histories from the perspective of their political significance and argued that they were a faithful dramatisation of how to a good admissions what he called the ‘Tudor Myth’. Since then, however, the focus of research has diversified and drawn attention to other aspects of the play. About Pokhara? A. P. Rossiter, for write essay example, put more emphasis on the actual plot of the play and pokhara, saw Richard as ‘God’s agent in a pre-determined plan of divine retribution [1] ’ who metes out math quadratic essay justice on the wicked until he himself is destroyed.

For Rossiter, Richard III had an element of subversity because Richard took the essay audience on a holiday from morality [2] : they enjoyed watching Richard even though they knew beforehand that, in the end, he had to fall. Rossiter understood this as a deliberate undermining of the ‘Tudor Myth’ on Shakespeare’s part. Since the sixties, however, research on Shakespeare’s Richard III has moved to more abstract levels and this approach is still valid. In 1971, Wheeler argued that Shakespeare’s Richard III was much more complex than just a dramatisation of the ‘Tudor Myth’ and suggested that it was rather a story of human involvement in the dynamics of power. For Wheeler, Henry VII was only a new face, a point vigourously supported by Cornelia Czach in 1983. A Good Essay? She stressed that Richard was only one of many in a chain of comparable rulers and that at the end of Richard III everybody just rallies around Henry VII but nothing really changes. For her, Shakespeare’s Histories were foremostly a dramatical means of illustrating the inhuman element in history and its inherent absurdity, with the ultimate aim of unmasking history as a whole. About? In 1992, Ekkehard Krippendorf emphasised the element of three a best should political continuity. Furthermore, he pointed out that the Tudors had, ironically, turned out to be a lot more Machiavellian than the essay about real Richard and essay three a best friend should, this had, probably, not gone unnoticed by the Elizabethans.

In order to establish in how far Shakespeare’s Richard is a Machiavellian villain it is necessary to examine those parts of essay about Machiavelli’s philosophy which are relevant to Richard’s actions and to trace Richard’s development from the dissertation young, enthusiastic warrior at the beginning of the third part of Henry VI to essay about pokhara the ruthless villain who murders and tricks his way to the throne in Richard III . Throughout the history of European literature, the idea of the write admissions essay prime importance of virtue had played a major part. Ever since the sixth century, political theorists had stressed how important it was for a ruler to about pokhara have moral integrity and to be a good ruler to his subjects. When Machiavelli’s work appeared on the radar-screen of political philosophy, it proved to be revolutionary. Math Quadratic Essay? Based on his own experience in the foreign politics of Florence he created a framework of political thought which argued that a wise ruler had to be pragmatic and flexible in the choice of his measures, instead of adhering to the imperative of virtue. The main difference between Machiavelli and his predecessors was his extensive application of empirical methods. For Machiavelli, virtu was the sum of everything which enabled a ruler to establish stability and the continued existence of his state. In the end, it all boiled down to a ruler reacting appropriately to the current situation he found his state to be in. The most striking novelty in Machiavellian politics was the total subordination of moral imperatives to those of political efficiency. It was the end which for him justified the means.

Therefore, if it served the essay about pokhara interests of one’s own country, one also has the right (if not even the duty) to go to literature review proposal war with another country. ‘War, therefore, does not reveal the basis of any intrinsic ethical bankruptcy, since war can be used to defend the potential for good, and essay pokhara, as such this type of the use of force is a virtuous use of force. [3] ’ As far as foreign policy was concerned, the principle of keeping open as many options as possible also applied to keeping promises: ‘Ihr mu?t namlich wissen, da? es zweierlei Kampfweisen gibt: die eine mit den Waffen der Gesetze, die andere mit blo?er Gewalt; die erste ist dem Menschen eigen, die zweite den Tieren; da die erste oftmals nicht ausreicht, ist es notig, auf die zweite zuruckzugreifen. [. ] Da also ein Furst gezwungen ist, von der Natur der Tiere den rechten Gebrauch machen zu konnen, mu? er sich unter ihnen den Fuchs und den Lowen auswahlen; denn der Lowe ist wehrlos gegen Schlingen und der Fuchs gegen Wolfe. Man mu? also ein Fuchs sein, um die Schlingen zu erkennen, und ein Lowe, um die Wolfe zu schrecken. Diejenigen, welche sich einfach auf die Natur des Lowen festlegen, verstehen hiervon nichts. Ein kluger Herrscher kann und darf daher sein Wort nicht halten, wenn ihm dies zum Nachteil gereicht und wenn die Grunde fortgefallen sind, die ihn veranla?t hatten, sein Versprechen zu geben. Waren alle Menschen gut, dann ware diese Regel schlecht, da sie aber schlecht sind, und ihr Wort dir gegenuber nicht halten wurden, brauchst du auch dein Wort ihnen gegenuber nicht zu halten. Write? [. ] Aber man mu? seine Fuchsnatur zu verschleiern wissen, und ein gro?er Lugner und Heuchler sein: die Menschen sind so einfaltig und gehorchen so sehr den Bedurfnissen des Augenblicks, da? derjenige, welcher betrugt, stets jemanden finden wird, der sich betrugen la?t. [4] ’ According to Machiavelli, it was the duty of a ruler to aim for the maximum he could possibly achieve in pokhara, terms of gaining territory for his people, even though the area a state could actually control was limited. If you tried to how to a good conquer more territory than your country was able to control, you would eventually cross a line separating virtu from ambition. This would then inevitably lead to your downfall. Essay About Pokhara? Therefore, you can basically say that a ruler was supposed to aim for 100%: Less was sloth and more was ambition. Apart from that, giving too much attention to math quadratic essay moral values could also lead to about fatal consequences for one’s own people and this, otherwise, could easily be avoided, as Machiavelli points out in essay three qualities friend have, chapter 15 of The Prince : ‘Viele haben sich Republiken und Furstentumer vorgestellt, die noch nie jemand gesehen oder tatsachlich gekannt hat; denn es liegt eine so gro?e Entfernung zwischen dem Leben, wie es ist und dem Leben, wie es sein sollte, da? derjenige, welcher das was geschieht, unbeachtet la?t, zugunsten dessen, was geschehen soll, dadurch eher seinen Untergang als seine Erhaltung betreibt; denn ein Mensch, der sich in essay about pokhara, jeder Hinsicht zum Guten bekennen will, mu? zugrunde gehen, inmitten von so viel anderen, die nicht gut sind. Daher mu? ein Furst, wenn er sich behaupten will, die Fahigkeit erlernen, nicht gut zu sein, und diese anwenden, oder nicht anwenden, je nach dem Gebot der Notwendigkeit [5] . [6] ’ The main goal of a ruler, according to samford dissertation Machiavelli, was the defence of the common good. ‘The Machiavellian monarchy does not set the ‘good life’, the essay virtuous life, and and the common good in the classical sense, as its end. The end of the new state is the procurement of essay at work material satisfaction, political security, and historical greatness as if they were the organic, naturalistic, needs of essay pokhara state. [7] ’ For Machiavelli, the worst vice in public life is ambition: ‘Ambition, whether found in essay three qualities should have, a faction or an individual, whether motivated by desire for power or by greed, destroys the virtuous quality of the essay about pokhara public good.

Yet, at the same time, virtu is said to be compatible with cruelty, especially when it is ‘well used’. A Machiavellian founder could be inhumane, yet still be virtuous. [8] ’ However, even Machiavelli was prepared to draw a line, as he shows when he presents the case of the Syracusean tyrant Agathocles. Here, the essay at work term of ‘well used’ cruelty did most certainly not apply. Agathocles, who had been of low birth, had, via a military career, risen to be Praetor of Syracuse. As soon as he had achieved this, he decided to become Prince. Essay About Pokhara? So, one morning he gathered his people and the Senate of Syracuse, pretending that he wanted to discuss affairs of the republic with them. But instead, he had the senators and the richest of the Syracusean nobility murdered by math quadratic his troops. His people were so stunned by this display of action and determination, that they did not put up any resistance whatsoever and the rule of Agathocles was secure for years to come. [9] Machiavelli did not at all approve of what Agathocles had done, even though he was impressed with his decisiveness: ‘[. ] [Er ist] nicht durch die Gunst eines anderen, sondern uber die Rangstufen des Heeres, die er unter Tausend Muhen und Gefahren erklommen hatte, zur Furstenherrschaft gelangt und behauptete sie dann durch viele mutige und riskante Entschlusse.

Andererseits kann man es auch nicht Tuchtigkeit nennen, seine Mitburger umzubringen, seine Freunde zu verraten und ohne Treue, Mitleid und Religion zu sein; auf solche Weise kann man zwar Macht erwerben, aber keinen Ruhm. Essay About Pokhara? [10] ’ The application of dishonest and cruel measures, for Machiavelli, was only justified in times of an literature review interior or foreign political crisis, and not for purposes of essay about pokhara usurpation and how to admissions essay, thus establishing a tyranny. The second pillar of Machiavelli’s political philosophy was Fortune. For Machiavelli, it represented the element of uncertainty in human life. About? This meant that, however carefully something was prepared and later carried out, there was still a possibility that it could eventually fail, as Munkler explains: ‘Fortuna ist fur Machiavelli also der Inbegriff der politischen Variablen. Write Admissions Essay? An Geschick und Weisheit der politisch Handelnden entschied sich, wieviel Einflu? Fortuna auf den Ausgang politischer Entwicklungen erlangte. Die 50:50 Relation, in der Machiavelli das Verhaltnis zwischen der Gewalt der Fortuna und der Beeinflu?barkeit der Ereignisse durch die Menschen ausgedruckt hat, ist fur ihn kein starres Gleichgewicht, sondern der statistische Durchschnitt , wie er sich angesichts der Geschichte darstellt, wobei die Macht der Fortuna umgekehrt proportional zu dem Geschick und Weitblick der politisch Handelnden steigt und fallt. [11] ’ If a country wanted to essay about pokhara be protected from ill Fortune, Machiavelli thought that it was essential for university dissertation it to have military strength, a citizen army and sound diplomacy. However, even the best precautions could not rule out bad luck as Fortune was a force beyond human control.

At best, her effects could be channeled, as Machiavelli illustrates when he compares Fortune to a river in flood: ‘Ahnlich verhalt es sich mit Fortuna; sie zeigt ihre Macht dort wo man nicht die Kraft aufbringt, ihr zu widerstehen, und sie lenkt ihre Kraft dorthin, wo sie wei?, da? sie nicht durch Damme und Deiche aufgehalten wird. Essay? [12] ’ Therefore, Machiavelli concludes that if Italy had catered for her own set of dams and review research, dykes in time, she would not have been in the mess that he saw her in. Essay Pokhara? [13] Machiavelli’s main interest, however, lies in the way that Fortune affects individuals – or to be more precise, those individuals who hold an important public office [14] . Math Essay? In this context, virtu becomes the most important tool, in essay about, order to get the better of one’s Fortune, even though actually being able to overcome one’s Fortune still requires the help of Fortune as Machiavelli illustrates in the following: ‘[. ] so stelle ich fest, da? man einen Fursten heute Erfolg haben und untergehen sieht, ohne da? eine Veranderung seines Wesens oder irgendeiner seiner Eigenschaften zu bemerken gewesen ware. Dies beruht meiner Meinung nach [darauf], [. ] da? ein Furst, der sich ganz auf sein Gluck verla?t, untergeht, sobald dieses wechselt; ferner glaube ich, da? der Gluck hat, der seine Handlungsweise den Zeitumstanden anpa?t, und ebenso jener ins Ungluck gerat, dessen Handlungsweise nicht den Zeitumstanden entspricht. Sieht man doch, da? die Menschen auf verschiedene Weise vorgehen, um das Ziel zu erreichen, das ein jeder vor Augen hat, namlich Ruhm und Reichtum: der eine verfahrt mit Besonnenheit, der andere mit Ungestum; dieser mit Gewalt, jener mit List, einer mit Geduld, ein anderer mit dem Gegenteil; so kann jeder auf unterschiedliche Weise an review proposal sein Ziel gelangen. Pokhara? Auch beobachtet man, da? von zwei Besonnenen der eine sein Ziel erreicht, der andere nicht; und das ebenso zwei mit verschiedenen Methoden gleicherma?en Gluck haben, der eine mit Besonnenheit, der andere mit Ungestum: dies liegt allein an samford den Zeitumstanden, die mit der betreffenden Handlungsweise ubereinstimmen oder nicht. [15] ’ Even though the idea that time actually did have a quality had its origins in astrology, Machiavelli was more interested in essay about, circumstantial aspects of human action. He thought that ‘[. ] humans act according to their individual imagination (fantasia) and individual natural talent (ingegno).

But they face a difficulty since times and things constantly change, even while their own mode of behaviour may not. The key to success is to social network maintain a harmony between the quality of essay about one’s time, the quality of general time, one’s temperament and research, humour, and one’s actions. [16] ’ In order to demonstrate the influence of the quality of pokhara time, Machiavelli presents the case of Pope Julius II who was renowned for his uncompromising active manner of write tackling problems. [17] Machiavelli does admit that Julius was only lucky because the essay about pokhara circumstances he faced happened to literature favour boldness but his main concern ‘[. ] here is to give an activist, rather than a passivist interpretation of human action. Essay? Even though fortuitous events occur in the world, humans should do their utmost to cope with them, but always within the bounds of their given humour and temperament. Essay Stress? [18] ’ Machiavelli makes his point very clear in one of the most famous and controversial passages of The Prince : ‘Ich ziehe also die Schlu?folgerung, da?, da das Gluck wechselt und die Menschen an ihren Methoden festhalten, sie erfolgreich sind, solange beide ubereinstimmen und sie erfolglos sind, wenn sie nicht ubereinstimmen. Doch halte ich es fur besser, sturmisch als besonnen zu sein; denn Fortuna ist ein Weib und es ist notwendig, wenn man sie niederhalten will, sie zu schlagen und zu sto?en. Essay? Man sieht auch, da? sie sich von denen, die so verfahren, eher besiegen la?t, als von jenen, die mit kuhlem Kopf vorgehen; daher ist sie als Weib stets den Junglingen zugetan, weil diese weniger besonnen und sturmischer sind und ihr mit gro?erer Kuhnheit befehlen. [19] ’ Human action, according to thesis social Machiavelli, depends on both human initiative and the favour of Fortune.

When a youth hits and shoves her, it is still Fortune who allows this to happen. Without her consent, he would not have been able to do so and, in this context, humans become Fortune’s toy, even though they may not be aware of essay about pokhara this. 2.3. How well did the Elizabethans know Machiavelli’s work? Even though Machiavelli’s The Prince was not officially available in thesis, English until 1640, there is substantial evidence that his work was known in about, England well before that particular year, as Bawcutt points out in the following: ‘There are only a few allusions to Machiavelli in England before about 1570, not all of them hostile, usually made by men of learning who had actually visited Italy.

From 1570 onwards, the allusions are much more frequent, but usually in a context of political and religious controversy [. ] [20] ’It was not even really necessary for the texts to be available in English, even though humanist scholars had translated a wide range of classical and temporary works into English. Italian influences (literature, art, etc.) were quite strong at the time, and even if someone actually was not able to read Italian, there always was the possibility of reading either a translation or a discussion of Machiavelli’s work (eg. in French). The discussion of Machiavelli’s work in England was lively but it suffered from the write literature review proposal hardly avoidable inaccuracies brought about by translation. ‘We know that Machiavelli’s work was frequently garbled; we also know that his works circulated widely and were translated into several languages, so that garbling was not merely the result of ignorance, though this was certainly a factor, and essay pokhara, I am sure that many Elizabethans used the how to a good admissions essay term ‘Machiavellian’ much in the way that words like ‘Freudian’ or ‘Marxist’ are used at essay pokhara present by people who may not have read either writer. [21] ’ However, the crucial event, in the evaluation of Machiavelli’s was the massacre of the French protestant Huguenots in Paris. Schieder explains: ‘[. ] das Epochenjahr fur das Verhaltnis des westeuropaischen Protestantismus ist das jahr 1572 gewesen, das jahr der Bartholomausnacht, die in ihrer Verbindung von List und Grausamkeit als der klassische Fall von machiavellistischer Politik empfunden wurde. Von jetzt an ist der Stab endgultig gebrochen; sein Name wird das Symbol fur das bose Prinzip in der Politik, und wird, losgelost vom Boden der machiavellistischen Schriften, eine eigentumliche, selbstandig wirkende Kraft. [22] ’ People in Elizabethan England could not have agreed more with this assessment of Machiavelli who for samford them was associated with cruelty and broken promises. The massacre of the Protestant Huguenots in France also had a more concrete dimension for about pokhara the Elizabethans.

They saw it primarily as a Catholic crime and how to write a good admissions essay, when the relations between England and pokhara, Spain started to deteriorate in the 1580s, a Spanish invasion became an essay qualities friend should equally realistic and fearful scenario. People in England added up their numbers and concluded that they would meet with the same fate as the Huguenots in France. After all, the pokhara Spanish King had openly welcomed how they had been dealt with. It was not until after the thesis network defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 that the threat of a Spanish invasion was finally off the cards. The parts of Machiavelli’s work which most shocked Elizabethan readers, were chapters 17 (why it is necessary to be cruel under certain circumstances) and 18 (keeping and breaking promises) of the Prince, which they interpreted as a guide for tyrants.

At the beginning of 3 Henry VI , Richard is portrayed as a soldier, proud of what he has achieved in about, battle, but unrestrained by any moral scruples. He, the youngest son, is respected for his courage by his father who claims ‘Richard hath best deserved of all my sons. [23] ’ Young as Richard is, he does not stand back and let his elders make decisions. It is he who suggests that they stay in Parliament House, who mocks King Henry and samford dissertation, tells his father to take Henry’s crown. Richard: ‘You are old enough now, and yet, methinks, you lose. Father, tear the crown from the essay about usurper’s head. [24] ’ In 3 Henry VI , I.2, Richard begins to contest his brother Edward’s position of supremacy. It is essay three qualities friend have, he who persuades his father to break the oath he has given to the king and brushes aside all moral issues which stand against essay pokhara doing so. Richard argues that his father is the rightful king and, therefore, should not hesitate to take with force what really belongs to qualities a best him. ‘Moreover, this infant prodigy is given a speech which is to be the clue to the whole of his subsequent career, as the dramatist sees it. [25] ’ Richard’s line of argumentation is truly Machiavellian: Richard: ‘An oath is of no moment, being not took. Before a true and lawful magistrate. That hath authority over him that swears.

Henry had none, but did usurp the place. Then, seeing ’twas he that made you depose, Your oath, my lord, is pokhara, vain and frivolous. [26] ’ Richard goes on to pledge that he will not rest until the crown of Henry VI firmly rests on his father’s head: Richard: ‘Therefore to arms! And, father, do but think. How sweet a thing it is to wear a crown, Within whose circuit is Elysium. And all that poets feign of bliss and joy.

Why do we linger thus? I cannot rest. Until the white rose that I wear be dy’d. Even in the lukewarm blood of Henry’s heart. [27] ’ Even though Richard is so openly obsessed with the crown, it is important to stress that, at least at this point, he does not want the crown for himself but for samford his father whom he worships. ‘Love for his father is the sole token of humanity shown by Shakespeare’s Richard in about, the whole course of his career. [28] ’ Richard is also very proud of network him as the following suggests: Richard: ‘Methinks, ’tis prize enough to be his son. [29] ’ The news of his father’s death after the battle of Wakefield leaves him unable to. weep and burning for revenge. Richard: ‘To weep is to make less the depth of grief.

Tears then for about pokhara babes; blows and revenge for me! Richard, I bear thy name. I’ll venge thy death, Or die renowned attempting it. [30] ’ As far as the last two lines are concerned, Richard will keep his vow, even though his renown will be of some darker kind. The death of his father has deprived Richard of the only person who ever loved him. Furthermore, the loss of his father has profound psychological consequences on Richard, even though these will not become apparent until the second scene of the third act. Review Research Proposal? ‘Not till Richard has lost his father, does he begin to invoke his bodily deformity as a thing which sets him apart from his fellows. There is nobody now to about love and math quadratic essay, praise him; he is no longer the ‘valiant crook-back prodigy’ whose grumbling voice is essay, so dear to the creature he most admired. Hence forth, he is samford dissertation, a man apart. [31] ’ In the meantime, the fortune of battle has turned, and King Henry VI has been taken prisoner [32] . Richard’s enthusiasm at these new developments is rather limited, even though he disguises the fact. ‘Then with an appalling abruptness he breaks into his first soliloquy. It is a coup de theatre . Richard has fought heart and soul to make his father king.

But here, in his father’s place, is his brother. Essay Pokhara? Edward is a lusty blockhead, wooing a sweet widow for his pleasure, though he is in policy pledged to seek a French alliance. [33] ’ Elizabeth Grey who requests Edward to return the essay qualities a best have land of her dead husband makes such a positive impression on him that he decides to marry her and make her Queen of England. [34] Edward’s decision to marry Elizabeth Grey is to end the essay about unity between the thesis social network three brothers who have, so far, fought together, to essay about establish and university dissertation, preserve the dynasty of the House of York. Although his two elder brothers and their unborn children are before him in the line of pokhara succession, Richard decides that he wants the throne for himself, cost it what it will. Richard: ‘So do I wish the crown, being so far of; And so do I chide the means that keeps me from it; And so, I say, I’ll cut the causes off,

Flattering me with impossibilities. [35] ’ Now, for the first time, Richard thinks about admissions, his deformity, which had not been an issue while his father was still alive and, realising that it will cut him off from earthly pleasures, he determines that he will not rest until he is king: Richard: ‘Then, since this earth affords no joy to me. But to command, to check, to o’erbear such. As are of better person than myself, I’ll make my heaven to dream upon the crown, And whiles I live, t’account this world but hell, Until my mis-shap’d trunk that bears this head. Be round impaled with a glorious crown. About? [36] ’ The following lines show Richard’s intention of achieving his aims by deceit and murder and ‘[. ] express the very core of what an Elizabethan audience would recognise as Machiavellian doctrine, as practised by literature research Italian despots, and by the French queen-mother in about, the treacherous Massacre of essay St Bartholomew in 1572. [37] ’ Richard: ‘Why, I can smile, and essay pokhara, murder while I smile, And cry “Content” to what grieves my heart, And whet my cheeks with artificial tears,

And frame my face to all occasions. I’ll drown more sailors than the mermaid shall; I’ll play the orator as well as Nestor, Deceive more slily than Ulysses could, And, like Sinon, take another Troy. I can add colors to the chameleon, Change shapes with Proteus for advantages, And set the essay at work murderous Machiavel to school. [38] ’ At the moment, however, there is essay, not much that Richard can do to achieve his aim. The most important thing for three qualities a best the time being is to keep his brother on the throne.

Richard has to be loyal to his brother for the moment, in order to be able to carry out about pokhara his own plans, later. Edward’s marriage to Lady Grey causes the King of essay qualities should have France, to whose sister Edward was betrothed, to switch his allegiance to essay the House of dissertation Lancaster. It also causes Warwick and Clarence to defect. Essay About? Richard, however, stays. ‘The defection of Clarence and math quadratic essay, Warwick to the cause of essay about Lancaster provides him with further occasion to display his energy and resource. Edward is captured by essay friend should have the Lancastrians and King Henry is restored to about the throne. Quadratic Essay? Richard rescues his brother and urges him to essay pokhara reclaim at once the crown he has lost. Write A Good Admissions Essay? [39] ’ Richard’s patience is finally rewarded at about pokhara the battle of Tewkesbury. The death of about stress at work Prince Edward leaves King Henry the last remaining obstacle between Edward and pokhara, the throne. It is how to essay, symptomatic for essay about pokhara Richard’s decisiveness that, after the battle, in truly Machiavellian style, he immediately rides to London in order to essay take charge of the problem personally.

Richard’s killing of essay about pokhara King Henry marks his first political murder and his comments referring to it are very cynical: Richard: ‘See how my sword weeps for the poor king’s death! Oh, may such purple tears be alway shed. From those that wish the math downfall of our house! If any spark of life be yet remaining, Down, down to pokhara hell, and math quadratic, say I sent thee thither. [40] ’ From now on Richard’s mind is free to focus on the goal which he has set for himself: the crown of essay about pokhara England. ‘And in his final soliloquy in three a best friend have, this play he reaffirms his resolve to remove both Edward and Clarence from his path, and again, in Machiavellian terms, emphasises his immunity to pokhara normal human weakness. Thesis Social Network? [41] ’ Richard: ‘I have no brother, I am like no brother, And this word “love” which greybeards call divine, Be resident in men like one another. And not in me. About Pokhara? I am myself alone.

Clarence, beware. Thou keep’st me from the light; But I will sort a pitchy day for thee; For I will buzz abroad such prophesies. That Edward shall be fearful of his life, And then, to purge his fear, I’ll be thy death. King Henry and the Prince his son are gone; Clarence, thy turn is quadratic, next, and then the about rest, Counting myself but bad till I be best. [42] ’ In the last scene Edward, surrounded by his wife, baby boy and thesis, brothers, believes he has achieved a lasting peace which he hopes to pass on to his heir.

In an aside Richard threatens to essay about destroy the child after the samford university dissertation death of essay about pokhara his elder brother Edward. Richard: ‘I’ll blast his harvest, if your head were laid; [43] ’ He feigns love but at three a best should the same time reveals his true feelings. Richard: ‘To say the truth, so Judas kiss’d his master; And cried “All hail” when as he meant all harm. [44] ’ By the end of the play, Richard has freed himself from pokhara, all remains of conventional morality and so the stage is set for essay three qualities have the plot of Richard III. At the essay pokhara beginning of Richard III , the review research proposal overall situation seems to be peaceful. The civil war between the Houses of pokhara Lancaster and York is over and Richard’s brother Edward is king of England. Everybody at court seems to math be settling down to the new situation of peace – everybody apart from Richard, who has not forgotten, what he had committed himself to at the end of 3 Henry VI , after he had killed King Henry in about pokhara, the Tower.

He makes this very clear in his opening soliloquy: Richard: ‘Why, I, in thesis, this weak piping time of peace, Have no delight to pass away the time, Unless to see my shadow in the sun. And descant on my own deformity. And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover.

To entertain these fair well-spoken days, I am determined to prove a villain. And hate the idle pleasures of these days. [45] ’ Richard’s contempt for the new situation of peace is easily explained: war was the only time, when Richard’s services were appreciated and he was met with respect for his courage and determination, instead of with scorn for his deformity. Now that the war is over, he realises that, from now on, his deformity [46] will again become the focus of attention. However, instead of despairing over the unlikeliness of a woman’s love for him, he decides to prove a villain. This decision is essay about pokhara, not a sudden angry reaction out of frustration, but rather a rationally considered moral choice. Should? ‘Die Monologe Gloucesters sind kalte rationale Uberlegungen uber die nachsten Schritte von einer Machiavelli nahekommenden Kraft der Analyse politischer Situationen [. ]. [47] ’ It is also important to essay about stress that Richard is not a victim of his deformity. Rather, he is motivated by his moral deformity and stress, thus his moral choice becomes an outward expression of it. The way in about, which Shakespeare describes Richard’s moral choice and the ensuing consequences indicates his own view of one of the most controversial innovations of humanist thought: the math idea of individual freedom. Although everybody had a God-given place in the framework of society, you were still free to excel in essay about pokhara, any particular field or occupation you happened to be good at. This understanding of individualism was also reflected in quadratic essay, the Renaissance concept of art: basically everything which required a certain degree of skill was considered an art. Even though the Renaissance broadened the pokhara view of what mankind was able to achieve, this new individualism also had its darker side.

People suddenly started to realise the write literature research moral implications of individual freedom and this is why the emphasis on virtuous action, as one of the main goals of learning, became a fundamental principle of humanism. Virtue thus became a standard against which everything would be checked. One of the most important novelties which had been brought about by essay about pokhara humanism was a new assessment of the position of the individual, as Michael Maurer explains in the following: ‘Wahrend in der Uberlieferung vor allem das blinde Schicksal, der Kampf des Einzelnen gegen das Rad der Fortuna, das einen heute nach oben treibt und morgen fallen la?t, strukturbildend waren, wurde nun im Zeitalter von Shakespeare die Autonomie des Individiums starker betont. [48] ’ This, foremostly, applied to the ‘de casibus’-tragedy. You still had the rise-and-fall pattern inspired by Senecan tragedy but ambition no longer automatically led to the protagonist’s doom. Three Qualities Friend Have? The focus of attention now lay in his motivation. In this context, ambition no longer had to be bad from the start.

Instead, everything boiled down to the motivation of the protagonist and about pokhara, the lawfulness of the about at work means which he applied. As far as the Elizabethans were concerned, Richard, like Machiavelli, was far removed from essay about pokhara, any conventional notion of math morality or virtue. [49] ‘Richard as a character expresses Shakespeare’s fascination with the possibility of essay pokhara a creative, self-assertive individuality [. ]. But as a figure exercising his egoistic freedom in the world of other men, Richard presents to Shakespeare the how to admissions possibilities of terror and destruction which can accompany that freedom. The grotesque proportions of Richard’s evil reflect Shakespeare’s radical distrust of the individual not controlled by about pokhara a divine moral plan. [50] ’ Richard does not feel bound by any authority whatsoever. He is completely self-centered and thesis social network, also very straight-forward about his goals. Essay About? Right from the start he pursues his aims one by essay at work one, disregarding all questions of essay morality. The end for him always justifies the how to a good admissions means. On the whole, the way in about, which Richard proceeds throughout his notorious career, for people living in Elizabethan England, was the how to write a good essay essence of how they understood Machiavellian power politics. To them, Machiavelli, had been an advocate of about pokhara cold-blooded murder as a legitimate means of pragmatic policies. Clarence is totally deceived by Richard’s pretended concern and essay a best friend, compassion for his plight. Richard at once lays the blame for the arrest of his naive brother on the queen and her family.

Richard: ‘Why, this is when men are ruled by women. ’Tis not the king that sends you to the tower. About? [51] ’ He tells Clarence that she had likewise been responsible for the imprisonment of Hastings, who is about to be released, thanks to the influence of the math essay king’s mistress, Jane Shore. An interesting detail in Richard’s line of essay pokhara argumentation, here, is the math element of witchcraft. Richard had brought it up earlier, in essay about pokhara, 3 Henry VI , when he talked about his deformity, and that his mother was to blame for it. Clarence is no match for Richard’s supreme intelligence. He had been outraged at his brother Edward’s marriage to Elizabeth Grey and math quadratic essay, Richard only has to essay about fuel his brother’s hatred and samford university dissertation, suspicion of the essay about queen, at literature research proposal the same time drawing away suspicion from himself.

When he says good-bye to his brother he pretends that he will do everything in his power to help Clarence. Richard: ‘We are the queen’s abjects and must obey. Brother, farewell. I will unto the king, And whatsoe’er you will employ me in,

Were it to call King Edward’s widow sister, I will perform it to enfranchise you. Meanwhile, this deep disgrace in brotherhood. touches me deeper than you can imagine. Essay About Pokhara? [52] ’ Clarence is deceived into believing that Richard will do everything to secure his release and Clarence will continue to think so right until the murderers tell him who really sent them. [53] Richard, however, is only prepared to how to admissions help his brother to an early grave. Richard: ‘Go, tread the path that thou shalt ne’er return.

Simple, plain Clarence, I do love thee so. That I will shortly send thy soul heaven, If heaven will take the present at our hands. [54] ’ The last sentence, here, is an allusion to Clarence’s own past record of villainies and betrayals. In 3 Henry VI , he had first betrayed his brother, then Warwick, and then he had participated in the killing of pokhara King Henry’s son Edward. [55] ‘Thus Clarence pays the debt of thesis social network his kind. He has played the game and inevitably pays his forfeit – cruel to his enemies, false to essay pokhara his friends, unequal in force or cunning to his brilliant brother. He excites our compassion without moving our hearts. [56] ’ Richard’s next step is to find himself a future queen. His obvious choice is three qualities a best should have, Anne, because, as the widow of the last Prince of Wales, she embodies the claims of the about House of how to admissions Lancaster.

Apart from that, she would also make a beautiful trophy and essay about, Richard could demonstrate that he was able to win her, despite his deformity and her hatred for him. In the end, she proved to write review proposal be the ultimate proving ground for essay about pokhara his talents as a dissembler, another key feature of the how to essay Machiavellian villain. According to Keeton this scene ‘[. ] is inserted with the deliberate intention of showing how completely Richard has mastered the essay about pokhara Machiavellian technique. It also strikingly illustrates the fact that although everything which Richard does is evil, and although his appearance is repulsive and Margaret habitually describes him as a monster, he is nevertheless generally trusted, has a reputation for write review research blunt honesty and fidelity, and even has made himself attractive to women. Essay About? Equally notable is the research fact that whenever he is taxed with some crime, his explanation is prompt and plausible. The whole scene with Anne emphasises his mental agility and essay about, his readiness in repartee, and by the end of it even she has succumbed to the overpowering charm which he uses with such effect, and with such supreme insincerity; [. ] [57] ’ Anne is, however, still intelligent enough to have sincere doubts over social Richard’s feelings. Anne: ‘I would I knew thy heart. Richard: Tis figured in my tongue. Anne: I fear me both are false. [58] ’ Anne is a widow in medieval England. This means that there are only about pokhara two options open to her: either to remarry or to spend the rest of her life in a cloister.

Richard offered a lot of advantages in spite of the grief that he had caused her. With this in mind, it is not too difficult to imagine, that in the end she simply chose ‘the devil she knew’ as the lesser evil. However, as Spivack points out, there were also other reasons for Shakespeare to put the wooing scene into the play. ‘She stimulates his most brilliant achievement [. ] because she is his most difficult undertaking, the abhorrence for the murderer of her husband and her royal father in law corresponding to the more abstract enmity of virtue to vice that puts the vice of the moralities on his mettle when faced with the equivalent situation. Shakespeare exploits this traditional crux to the uttermost by allowing Richard to intrude upon her at the moment the most hopelessly inauspicious for his enterprise, when she is following the corpse of murdered King Henry to its burial, her grief mingled with curses against the author of it. So contrived to extend his skill, the scene is Richard’s masterpiece [. ] At the end Anne has made the same moral reversal that marked the career of Mankind and all his descendants: she has thrown over her alliance with virtue and united herself to evil. Social? [59] ’ Although Anne, at first, was Richard’s fiercest adversary, she finally succumbs to pokhara him, because she is human. Even if the reasons of the real Anne to marry Richard, probably were a lot more pragmatic, Shakespeare makes it look as if Anne was just a challenge for Richard’s superb wit.

As Palmer points out, ‘Richard’s wooing may be dictated by political necessity, but its prime purpose for the dramatist is to show Richard’s insolent virtuosity in persuasion, his delight in the exercise of his mind and will, his pride in attempting the write research impossible and his triumph in about, his achievement. The reasons which Richard gives for the attempt are secondary. Math Quadratic Essay? Here was a challenge to his wit which, apart from any question of essay about expediency, was irresistible. [60] ’ Richard’s victory over Anne was a great one indeed. Thesis Social? Even though she had been so violently hostile at the beginning of the about scene, he still managed to win her but, in spite of his joy, he had nothing but contempt for stress her. On top of that, his victory over her is also one over God and the latter makes him especially proud of essay about his achievement. Therefore, from his morally deformed perspective, he has every reason to write admissions be delighted with himself and thus he celebrates accordingly: Richard: ‘Was ever woman in pokhara, this humour wooed? Was ever woman in this humour won? I’ll have her, but I will not keep her long.

What, I that killed her husband and his father, To take her in her heart’s extremest hate. With curses in her mouth, tears in her eyes, The bleeding witness of her hatred by, Having God, her conscience, and these bars against thesis network me,

And I no friends to back my suit withal. But the plain devil and essay about, the dissembling looks? And yet to win her, all the world to nothing! Even though Anne repeatedly refers to math quadratic essay Richard’s dissembling nature, she still cannot resist him. [62] Richard overcomes overwhelming odds against her in truly Machiavellian style: Anne literally becomes an embodiment of Fortune and about, Richard beats down her defences. [63] 7. Write Review Proposal? Richard plants discord at court. Richard’s next step towards his goal is to rid himself of Clarence, at the same time putting the essay about pokhara blame on the queen.

In a game of cat and mouse he taunts her until she threatens that she will complain to network Edward, thus giving Richard the opportunity to remind everyone how much Edward owes him. Richard: ‘Ere you were queen, ay, or your husband king, I was a pack-horse in his great affairs, A weeder-out of his adversaries, A liberal rewarder of his friends.

To royalize his blood I spent mine own. [64] ’ At the essay about pokhara same time he denies having any ambitions to become king. Richard: ‘If I should be? I had rather be a pedlar. Far be it from my heart, the thought thereof. [65] ’ With a brilliant display of acting, Richard has managed to thesis social reverse the essay pokhara roles and turn the math quadratic queen herself into essay about, a calculating ‘Machiavel’. Thus he has given her a motive for getting rid of both Clarence and himself. Write Literature Research? Richard’s accusations culminate in reminding her that both her former husband and her brother had fought for the House of Lancaster in the past war. About? Suddenly, the queen has treason looming over stress at work her head. [66] Throughout the whole scene, Richard proves to be a superb actor. First he plays the pokhara unjustly accused, then he, in turn, accuses the queen and her family of three friend should have Clarence’s imprisonment and secret plotting. He rounds off a masterly performance by pretending only to be a plain man, who cannot flatter and the pious man who is about, too kind-hearted to get on in the world. [67] ‘Er stellt sich hin als der Edle, Einfache in dieser schlimmen Welt.

Es ist das Antichrist-Thema: der Schlimmste hat das Gesicht, die Maske des Heiligen angenommen. Write Review Proposal? [68] ’ After the others have gone, Richard rejoices at how convincingly he has managed to deceive them. Richard: ‘I do the wrong, and first begin to brawl. The secret mischiefs that I set abroach. I lay into the grievous charge of others. [69] ’ Richard: ‘And thus I clothe my naked villainy. With odd old ends stol’n forth of essay pokhara holy writ, And seem a saint when most I play the devil. [70] ’ As Keeton has pointed out, this skill of write a good admissions Richard’s as a dissembler was understood in Elizabethan England as one of the principle character traits of the Machiavellian villain: ‘[. ] in spite of his deformity, almost everyone falls victim to his charm of about manner and persuasive tongue. Network? [71] ’ At the end of the scene, Richard seals the fate of his brother Clarence when he hands the essay execution warrant to the two murderers who then promptly set off towards the Tower. Essay? This means, that throughout the about pokhara whole scene he must have had the execution warrant in his pocket, and still he had no scruples about casting the blame on others.

The beginning of act II sees Edward on his deathbed. He has gathered the warring factions at his court in a last desperate attempt to unite them and all those who are present, comply with this request – or at how to write a good admissions essay least pretend to. When Richard enters, he pretends to join in about pokhara, the cordial mood and even takes the lead. ‘On Richard’s face, love glows more brightly than on any other. Social? [72] ’ In reality, however, he is only waiting for the right moment to break the news of Clarence’s death. He does not have to essay pokhara wait long. When the queen asks her husband, to include his imprisoned brother in how to a good admissions, these reconciliations, Richard pretends to take offence: Richard: ‘Why, madam, have I offered love for this, To be so flouted in this royal presence? Who knows not that the gentle Duke is dead? [73] ’ The news of Clarence’s death leaves the essay pokhara king and samford university, all the people around him shocked and stunned. From one moment to another, Richard has shattered both the king’s optimism and the cordial mood at court. [74] ‘It is one of the fine dramatic moments of the play, with Buckingham whispering, ‘look I so pale, Lord Dorset, as the essay about rest?’ Dread and suspicion divorce his nobles in an instant while in the soul of the dying king bitterness marries despair. [75] ’ The king cannot understand that Clarence was executed because he himself had revoked the order but Richard explains: Richard: ‘But he (poor man) by your first order died, And that a wing’d Mercury did bear;

Some tardy cripple bare the countermand, That came too lag to see him buried. [76] ’ The irony here, of course, is that Richard actually was both the ‘winged Mercury’ and the ‘cripple’, although one has to admit that he most certainly was not tardy in the way he proceeded. The grief over his brother’s death and his own guilt is too much for Edward and samford dissertation, soon afterwards he is led away by his queen. Richard pretends to be the decent man and casts further suspicion on pokhara the queen’s family. Richard: ‘This is the fruits of rashness. Marked you not. How the guilty kindred of the queen. Looked pale when they did hear of Clarence’s death? Oh, they did urge it still unto the king. God will revenge it.

Come, lords, will you go. To comfort Edward with our company. [77] ’ Only a short while later, the queen announces the king’s death. With Clarence dead and Edward’s son, Prince Edward too young to rule, Richard has come a step closer to his goal. He is to be Lord Protector. Soon afterwards, Richard and the others arrange for young Prince Edward to be taken to London. Math Quadratic Essay? However, after the others have left, Richard and Buckingham reveal that they are playing a totally different game. Buckingham proposes to about separate the thesis queen’s relatives from the young prince and, for the moment, Richard will all too gladly pretend to accept a back-seat and about pokhara, leave everything to Buckingham. 8. Write Research Proposal? Richard paves his own way to the crown. Richard’s principal accomplice on essay pokhara his way to the throne is Buckingham.

His reasons for siding with Richard are pure calculation and math quadratic essay, thus entirely egoistic and Buckingham becomes Richard’s principal henchman. ‘Buckingham was privy to all Richard’s plans. He was the essay about pokhara counsellor, instrument and math quadratic essay, crony to pokhara his master. So devout is his admiration for Richard that he becomes infected with his hero’s manners and methods. He imitates with zest Richard’s radiant hypocrisy and abrupt violence. When Queen Elizabeth sends her son to sanctuary, it is Buckingham who, in the very accents of essay qualities have Richard, argues that it would be no sin to drag him forth. Sanctuary, he maintains, was never designed to keep children away from their lawful guardians: [78] ’ Buckingham ‘You are too senseless, obstinate my lord, Too ceremonious and traditional. Weigh it but with the grossness of this age. You break no sanctuary in seizing him.

The benefit thereof is always granted. To those whose dealings have deserved the place. And those who have the wit to claim the place. This prince hath neither claimed nor deserved it, And therefore, in mine opinion, cannot have it. Then taking him from thence that is not there,

You break no privilege nor charter there. Oft have I heard of sanctuary men, But sanctuary children ne’er till now. [79] ’ Furthermore, it is also Buckingham who insists that Hastings should join the party sent to remove Prince Edward’s younger brother from essay about pokhara, church sanctuary at Westminster, where he is about stress, staying with his mother. Buckingham: ‘If she deny, Lord Hastings, go with him. And from her jealous arms pluck him perforce. [80] ’ From an Elizabethan perspective, everything Buckingham says here is ‘Machiavellian’ to the core: Buckingham issues orders to snatch a child , currently under protection of church sanctuary from the arms of his mother , only for the sake of political pragmatism and Wolfgang Clemen illustrates, ‘[. Essay Pokhara? ] hier wird heiliges und in der Tradition verankertes Recht mit spitzfindiger Begrundung gebrochen. Shakespeare la?t uberdies bei seinem Appell an den Kardinal sich auf „the grossness of the age“ (46) berufen, eine sehr bezeichnende, in der Quelle nicht gegebene Hinzufugung Shakespeares. How To Write? Buckingham will sagen: Verglichen mit der „Rohheit des Zeitalters“, und unter Anlegung der Ma?stabe, mit denen in solcher Zeit derartige Aktionen beurteilt werden, wurde der Kardinal, wenn er den Prinzen gewaltsam aus dem Asyl heraushole, kein Unrecht begehen. – In dieser Wendung und in dem Vorwurf, der Kardinal sei „too ceremonious and traditional“ (45) liegt ein charakteristischer Hinweis auf jene neue politische Moral, die Shakespeare wiederholt an Richard zeigt und die mit dem „englischen“ Machiavellismus in Verbindung gebracht werden kann. [81] ’ Buckingham’s eagerness to please his master allows Richard to stay in the background, and Richard deceives Buckingham into believing that they are partners. ‘There are moments when Buckingham seems to work for about pokhara Richard from pure love of the sport. [82] ’ You can, however, not say that Buckingham acts for entirely unselfish reasons. Literature Proposal? Richard simply knows how to motivate his ‘partner’: Richard: ‘And look when I am king, claim thou of me. The earldom of Hereford and about, all the movables.

Whereof the king my brother was possessed. Buckingham: I’ll claim that promise at samford dissertation your grace’s hand. Richard: And look to pokhara have it yielded with all kindness. [83] ’ Buckingham is the perfect Machiavellian agent [84] . He does the three qualities should dirty work for Richard and if something goes wrong, Richard can easily find a pretext to essay about get rid of him, while at the same time, he secures Buckingham’s loyal services with the prospect of granting him favours in the future. After the two princes have been sent to stay in the Tower, under the pretext of their ‘safety’, Buckingham and Richard direct their attention towards the only person who could still cross Richard’s plans to become king: Hastings. Hastings, for Richard, is the literature review research proposal key figure in gaining control of the two princes. He is the about pokhara former chamberlain of King Edward, and as such he has enjoyed a good relationship with both of Edward’s sons [85] . One indication for this is, that Prince Edward is very disappointed not to see Hastings when he arrives in London. [86] Another is, that Buckingham is eager to have Hastings in the party which is sent to essay remove young York from essay pokhara, sanctuary. [87] Hastings’s good relations to the young princes allow Richard a much easier access to essay stress at work them. Although Hastings is prepared to help Richard become Protector, he draws the line when asked by Catesby to help Richard to about the crown. From that point on, Hastings is no longer of any use to university Richard and Richard makes quite clear how he will deal with Hastings if he does not comply. Buckingham: ‘What shall we do if we perceive. Lord Hastings will not yield to our complots?

Richard: Chop off his head. Pokhara? [88] ’ Richard has prepared the removal of Hastings very carefully. Qualities Have? It is all to happen at a council meeting where the date for the coronation of essay about pokhara Prince Edward is to be decided. Knowing that Hastings will oppose Richard’s plans to samford dissertation seize the crown, Richard has to move quickly – before Edward can be crowned. Hastings is foolish enough to essay pokhara doubt the evidence and provokes an essay outburst in which Richard accuses Hastings of treachery for defending his mistress and condemns him to death. Hastings: ‘If they have done this deed, my noble lord – Richard: If? Thou protector of this damned strumpet, Talk’st thou to me of ifs? Thou art a traitor. Off with his head! Now by Saint Paul I swear, I will not dine until I see the same. Pokhara? [89] ’ Richard leaves the others in the room no time to answer and orders everyone who is on his side to leave the room with him.

Hastings is social network, led away to his execution immediately afterwards. [90] His lamentations are mercilessly cut short by Ratcliffe and Lovell and Cornelia Czach illustrates: ‘Durch den Wahnwitz eines solchen menschenverachtenden Zynismus schon im kleinsten Handlanger des Teufels gewinnt auch die Sterbeszene Zuge einer grotesken Persiflage. Der schwarze Komodiant Richard la?t seinen Opfern nicht einmal mehr die Zeit, zu beichten und eine Sterberede zu halten wie in der Tragodie. Er ist stets in Eile und verwirklicht seine Plane schnell und uberraschend, fur das Verweilen der Tragodie in Pathos und Emotion hat er, der gefuhllose Rationalist, keine Mu?e. [91] ’ With the removal of Hastings, Richard’s path to the crown is as good as free. The swift and stern manner in which Richard had dealt with Hastings had demonstrated to the other nobles that he was no one to be messed with. All he has to do now is to find a way to persuade the citizens that he alone is the essay pokhara rightful heir to the throne of England. With his next tactical move, to persuade the essay citizens of London that Edward’s children are bastards and that Richard is, therefore, the rightful heir to the throne, Richard does not meet with his accustomed success. If Richard cannot be made king by popular acclaim he must be presented in a different light – the devout man reluctant to accept the proffered throne. Buckingham: ‘Ah ha, my lord, this prince is not an Edward. He is not lulling on a lewd love-bed.

But on his knees at meditation, Not dallying with a brace of courtesans. But meditating with two deep divines, Not sleeping to engross his idle body. But praying to enrich his watchful soul. Happy were England, would this virtuous prince. Take on his grace the sovereignty thereof, But sure I fear we shall not win him to essay it. Essay Three Have? [92] ’ Richard feigns reluctance to meet the mayor and aldermen, and finally he appears with a prayer book in his hand, flanked by two bishops. ‘There are no bishops present in the gallery scene as Holinshed describes it, it is pokhara, Shakespeare who has amplified the scene iconographically, in accordance with his portrait of Richard as a master of deceptive stage management. [93] ’ As far as England is concerned, the image of a king flanked by essay about stress two bishops had its origins in the myth of King Arthur. About? ‘Geoffrey of Monmouth described Arthur brought to his coronation by two bishops. [94] ’ From an Elizabethan perspective, Richard had thus profaned both the holy institution of kingship and the Tudor dynasty. [95] However, as Naumann points out, the significance of this scene also has a more abstract level. ‘Der Akzent der Darstellung liegt auch hier nicht auf der menschlichen Entwicklung, sondern eher auf der Vorfuhrung abstrahierter Tugenden oder Laster, wie der Heuchelei, die in about stress, Richard verkorpert ist, und die sich in essay about, das Gewand der Tugend gekleidet hat. [96] ’ When Richard appears on review research the gallery with a prayer book in his hand, flanked by essay about two bishops, he plays the thesis social part of the simple, pious, tender-hearted prince who is essay about, more concerned with religion and meditation than with politics. This whole part of the scene also reflects a crucial point which Machiavelli had made: that what you seem to be is a good, more important than what you actually are [97] , and Wolfgang Clemen explains: ‘Nirgendwo ist die Ironie der Situation durch paradoxe Umkehrung aller Rollen so meisterhaft gehandhabt und so kunstvoll mit den verschiedenen Formen der Sprachironie mehrschichtig verbunden.

Nirgendwo haben wir auch eine so bewu?t durchgefuhrte Anwendung der „Verstellungsrhetorik“. An keiner anderen Stelle erleben wir „Richard den Schauspieler“ mit solcher Virtuositat in einer ad hoc „gestellten Szene“, fur die er selber gleichzeitig der Regisseur war. [98] ’ The last thing Richard would want to decline is the about pokhara crown of England. However, he still has to fool the mayor and the citizens into believing that he has to be persuaded into accepting the crown. In the end the astonishing display of essay three qualities friend have acting of both Richard and Buckingham pays off. About? [99] Richard allows himself to be persuaded into accepting the throne on how to write a good the grounds of the illegitimacy of Edward’s son in about pokhara, order to math save his dynasty. Buckingham: Your brother’s son shall never reign our king, But we will plant some other in the throne.

To the disgrace and downfall of your house. [100] ’ At last, Richard allows himself to be ‘persuaded’ into accepting the throne. Richard: ‘Cousin of Buckingham, and sage, grave men, Since you will buckle fortune on my back, To bear the burden, whe’er I will or no, I must have patience to endure the load. [101] ’ Richard’s line of argumentation is religious to essay about pokhara the core, even though he himself, of course, is essay about stress at work, not. As Bridget Gellert Lyons has shown, Richard’s language is transformed into essay about pokhara, an image of Christian patience and endurance. ‘He suggests that the essay about stress at work ‘burden’ of essay kingship which he is reluctantly agreeing to assume is a cross which he has to a good bear, like his hunchback, or that he is like the about pokhara emblem representing religious Hope as a man with Fortune’s wheel strapped to literature review research his back, who walks along, doubled over by his burden, yet supported by essay about his staff of Hope. University Dissertation? [102] ’ The farce which both Richard and Buckingham have acted out essay pokhara so perfectly, thus, becomes an inversion of traditional concepts of kingship. In the essay qualities a best second scene of the fourth act Richard is finally crowned. However, there is something very strange about this scene: Even though Richard is king there is a deep divide between him and the other people in the room.

He is pokhara, totally isolated as Bridget Gellert Lyons illustrates: ‘Mounted on math the throne with great flourishing, presumably for essay pokhara the first time, he asks everyone but Buckingham to withdraw (‘Stand all apart.’ IV.2.1), thus dramatising in visual terms that his eminence is not the summit of society’s pyramid, but a lonely perch occupied by him alone in the temporary company of his accomplice in crime. The royal seat of England, separated in this way from the network society to which it is meant to give order and coherence, becomes the pokhara private place where Richard plots the network murder of the legitimate ruler, and where he is unable to assert his authority even over his accomplice. [103] ’ It now becomes obvious that Richard has a lot more talent as an actor than as a politician. Essay About? He is in fact not quite as Machiavellian as the Elizabethan cliche of the term would have suggested. After all, one of the most important points which Machiavelli had made was that a ruler should do everything he could in essay three friend should have, order to gain the support of the dominant social group. About Pokhara? Once he had achieved that he was then supposed to maintain this support for the future. How To Write? ‘Gut geordnete Staaten und kluge Fursten waren mit Eifer darauf bedacht, die Gro?en nicht zur Verzweiflung zu bringen, sowie das Volk zufriedenzustellen und bei guter Stimmung zu halten, denn dies ist eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben, die ein Furst hat. [104] ’ Furthermore, even though it was safer for a ruler to be feared than loved, he was still supposed to avoid anything which might have incurred the hatred of his people. [105] The latter was certainly not something you could have said about Richard who had already burnt his boats long before he actually managed to become king. ‘Richard the pokhara master of palace politics does everything possible to literature review prevent himself from essay, attaining his broad base in popular support, which in England was manifested in the strength of the nobility. [106] ’ Although Richard now has the power, this power of his lacks a proper base. In the end it is inevitable that he has to fall, as Wheeler illustrates. ‘Richard, politically, ironically is the ‘bottled spider’ that Margaret calls him, able to poison whomever ventures into review research, his web, but not able to extend this web as a means of embracing the power of the kingdom. [107] ’ As Moseley has argued, Richard is the exact opposite of a true king: he does not reconcile and he does not unite. Pokhara? ‘The opposite of a true King is the tyrant, for whom power and dissertation, its exercise is merely selfish. Richard as King demonstrates in pokhara, his tyranny the samford university true nature of Machiavellian ambition and ignoring of the moral law, and as we have seen, it is when he became King that he ceases to personate; he shows what he personally is. [108] ’ Especially this last aspect is drastically demonstrated in the dialogue between Richard and Buckingham which immediately follows Richard’s coronation. Essay About Pokhara? Richard begins by hinting that his position is thesis, endangered by the young Prince Edward. Richard: ‘But shall we wear these glories for a day? Or shall they last, and we rejoice in them? [109] When Buckingham is reluctant to follow him he comes straight to the point.

Richard: Cousin, thou was not wont to be so dull. Shall I be plain? I wish the bastards dead, And I would have it suddenly performed. [110] ’ Suddenly Richard’s language has changed: from courtly to brutally direct. When Buckingham hesitates he inadvertently seals his own fate. Essay About Pokhara? Richard had ‘played the touch’ to see how far his partner in crime was prepared to go. Now it is Buckingham’s turn to draw the line. Until then he had just about managed to leave the murders to Richard, however deeply he may have been involved in the preceding plotting. Richard’s straight-forward request for Buckingham to organise the murder of the samford dissertation young princes catches his until then faithful follower totally by surprise. ‘Buckingham withdraws to think over Richard’s proposal, but Richard’s mind was made up at the first sign of hesitation in his confederate. He does not wait for pokhara Buckingham’s considered reply.

He has no use for a man who has a pitiful, small mind of review research his own. [111] ’ Buckingham is essay, thus sidelined and his request, regarding the qualities a best earldom which Richard had promised to essay pokhara him earlier, is dissertation, harshly brushed off. Furthermore, Richard humiliates him by simply ignoring him. [112] In Machiavellian terms, this is Richard’s first political mistake as Machiavelli explains in essay pokhara, the following: ‘Es gilt also festzustellen, da? man die Menschen entweder verwohnen oder vernichten mu?, denn fur leichte Demutigungen nehmen sie Rache, fur schwere konnen sie dies nicht tun; also mu? der Schaden, den man anderen zufugt, so gro? sein, da? man keine Rache zu furchten braucht. [113] ’ Buckingham will not forget how he has been treated by essay about Richard and defect to Richmond’s side. When his forces are dispersed in the floods it will be the last time that Fortune does Richard a favour. Essay Pokhara? Even though Buckingham is write admissions, little more than a sorry imitation of Richard there is essay about, a significant difference between the two of them: Buckingham still has a tiny rest of fundamental goodness, a quality which Richard lacks entirely, as Cornelia Czach shows in the following: ‘Richard hingegen bekennt sich in damonischem Zynismus ehrlich, ohne sich irgendeine Legitimationsinstanz zu schaffen, zur Menschenverachtung als Bedingung erfolgreicher Machtpolitik und Kriegsstrategie, zum Machiavellistischen Gewaltprinzip. Konsequenter als alle anderen weist er jeden Moralkodex zuruck, der zu den Regeln seines eigenen Gesellschaftsspiels in Widerspruch steht, die er selbst setzt und auf die sich die anderen einlassen mussen. [114] ’ After Richard had forced Buckingham to show his cards, he turned to Tyrell and put him in charge of the math quadratic crime which was to cement his reputation as the most notorious criminal in pokhara, the history of English politics: the thesis social murder of the two little princes in the Tower.

While they were still alive they posed a constant threat to Richard’s reign. Therefore, it is essay about pokhara, very likely that Richard had already made up his mind about how to three deal with them well before he actually became king, as Palmer explains: ‘Child murder is a political expedient on essay about which countless generations of men in authority have based their privilege and power. [. ] All down the ages the successful politician has shown little or no reluctance to out-Herod Herod in his slaughter of the how to admissions essay innocents. The crime of Richard is the secular crime of the power politician in pokhara, every age and about stress, there is a sense in essay pokhara, which every political leader is a wicked uncle who kills little children in their beds. [115] ’ When Tyrell returns with the news for Richard that the princes are dead, he describes how they were murdered in a remorseful soliloquy. Tyrell: ‘The tyrannous and bloody act is done, The most arch deed of social piteous massacre. That ever yet this land was guilty of. [116] ’ Tyrell is, in fact, the first to show any notion of guilt whatsoever since the murderers of Clarence in the first act and, as Cornelia Czach has shown, this is symptomatic for the overall atmosphere of the play.

‘In Richard III gibt es keinen Konflikt zwischen Gut und Bose; das Bose allein herrscht; von allen Seiten unterstutzt. About Pokhara? Die Welt ist nicht aus den Angeln gehoben wie in der Tragodie, sondern gezeigt wird, wie diese Welt tatsachlich ist. Und so, wie sie ist, ist sie in sich intakt, stimmig und in sich geschlossen. Dem Zuschauer wird keine moralische Norm an die Hand gegeben, die das Gegenteil von [Richard] Gloucester ist. Richard selber ist die Norm, der Prufstein vor dem sich die anderen Figuren enthullen und sich ihre eigene Zwielichtigkeit zu erkennen geben mussen. [117] ’ This is also why we do not feel any real sympathy with Richard’s victims – apart from the little princes. Most of them are themselves despicable, weak or eaten up by literature research their own individual desire for essay pokhara personal advancement. After Tyrell has left Richard contemplates his achievements. Both of Edward’s sons are dead and thesis social, Clarence’s children have also been rendered harmless. Furthermore, the death of his wife Anne has opened the opportunity for him to marry Edward’s daughter Elizabeth, his last challenge to about the throne.

Only if he manages to secure her mother’s consent would his reign be secure. Richard is totally aware of this fact as the frankness of his soliloquies shows [118] and Wolfgang Clemen explains: ‘Der auf Tyrell’s Abgang folgende Monolog Richards ist ganz in der Technik des zusammenfassenden „Lageberichts“ oder der „Situationsuberschau“ [. Essay Three A Best? ] [gehalten]. Durch die rasche summarische Aufzahlung der verschiedenen „Erfolge“, die jeweils mit einer einzigen Verszeile „abgetan“ werden, wird gleichzeitig betont, wie kaltblutig Richard hier Bilanz zieht. Essay Pokhara? Sind die ersten vier Zeilen ruckwarts gewandt, so erhalten die folgenden (und abschlie?enden vier Zeilen die Ankundigung des nachsten Planes, wobei Richard zum letzten Mal seine Rolle mit ubermutiger Selbstironie (a jolly thriving wooer, 43) beschreibt. Samford University Dissertation? [119] ’ With the little princes dead Richard had thought himself only essay pokhara one step away from really securing his reign. He was, however, only essay deceiving himself. The actual climax of his career, and the watershed in the play, had been his coronation.

Until then, Richard had controlled the action, very much like the traditional Vice-figure. From the moment of Richard’s coronation the balance shifts, even though he himself is not yet aware of this. From now on all his actions will be reactions to the actions of his enemies. Before Richard became king, he could operate from about, a cover. Essay About At Work? Now, Richard is essay pokhara, exposed and himself subjected to plotting.

It is no longer he who plots and essay stress, his powers will steadily decline until, eventually, he will be on par with everybody else in the play. [120] ‘Richard, after the death of the princes, is like an artist who has put the finishing touch to a masterpiece. For this, he was ordained and he has fulfilled his destiny. The virtue, an evil virtue – has gone out of him. Essay Pokhara? He will never again be the jocund adventurer in crime. [. Math? ] This falling-off in Richard’s performance is not due to any falling off in Shakespeare’s creative power. It is an essential feature of the tragedy and essay about, profoundly characteristic of the man. [121] ’ Even though Richard had succeeded in being crowned he had only been able to attain a symbol of math power. The power itself, normally associated with the crown, was denied to him as he had long before hollowed out any foundations on which it could have rested. From now on the pressure on Richard will not ease off and all of a sudden meaner qualities which Richard had seemed to lack in the preceding part of his career become apparent. When Richard and about, Catesby come to inform him that Richmond’s navy is a good admissions, approaching, Richard, for the first time, seems to be caught off guard and in the subsequent discussion with Ratcliffe and Catesby he confuses his orders. Essay About Pokhara? [122] At first, he issues orders to Catesby to university dissertation go to Salisbury to the Duke of about pokhara Norfolk and, a few lines later, he suddenly reprimands Ratcliffe for university not having complied with the orders he had given to Catesby. Another clear indication that Richard is increasingly losing control is when he strikes the third messenger [123] because he had lost his temper over the bad news brought by the previous two. About? Ironically, it is the third who brings good news [124] and for the first time, Richard is actually honest about an about apology [125] . The crucial scene to demonstrate how little power Richard now effectively has is his failed attempt to about pokhara persuade Queen Elizabeth to woo her daughter in his name. Samford Dissertation? [126] As in the case of Anne he does not love her.

His only reason is that a marriage with the daughter of Elizabeth and Edward, the direct heiress to the throne, would secure his reign once and for all. Richard even uses the same tactics as in about, the earlier scene with Anne. It worked once, very much to his amazement, and he is sure it will work a second time. Thesis Social Network? ‘Richard takes success for granted and, as in the earlier scene, pours scorn upon essay about his dupe. Social Network? But this time it is essay about, Richard who is thesis social network, deceived. Elizabeth gives her daughter to Richmond, thus uniting the white rose and essay about, the red in a dynasty which is to supplant Richard on the throne and to create the legend of his infamy. [127] ’ Elizabeth seems to give in to Richard’s request and agrees to talk to literature review research proposal her daughter about the matter. Essay? It is, however, difficult to say whether Richard had won over her, whether she had just fooled him, or whether she made up her mind later, after careful consideration. Expert opinions on this matter are divided. Cornelia Czach, for instance, has advocated the first option and essay, argued that Richard was successful because he now had something to offer, ‘[. Essay About Pokhara? ] denn er hat ein Konigreich zu bieten, um sein Gegenuber zum Verrat an der Tochter zu bewegen. [128] ’ Historic facts indeed seem to favour her point. However, other scholars like Clemen and Wheeler are a little bit more cautious [129] and have, in essay three should have, turn, suggested that she probably did not make up her mind until later on, after she had enough time to go through the pros and cons of either marital option carefully. In dramatic terms, however, it would make more sense to about assume that Elizabeth had indeed managed to deceive Richard deliberately.

This would mean a sharp contrast to the earlier scene with Anne and write literature research, would demonstrate how Richard’s powers were fading increasingly. Even though Richard’s failure to win over essay pokhara Elizabeth is his first major failure, it is, nevertheless, decisive. When Elizabeth agrees to give the hand of her daughter to math quadratic Richmond, Richard’s fate is finally sealed and, from then on, his decline will prove to be unavoidable. Essay Pokhara? As Palmer points out, ‘The decline in write, Richard’s genius for decisive action has in essay, it no element of write literature review proposal remorse. It springs, on the contrary, from essay pokhara, a sense that anything he may have to do next must necessarily be something of an three a best anti-climax. The first, fine careless rapture is exhausted. All he can do henceforth is to essay maintain his position and dissertation, accept the necessities which it lays upon essay pokhara him. [130] ’ Therefore, in Machiavellian terms, you can say that even though necessita forces him to act, he no longer has a sufficient amount of stress at work virtu to essay about pokhara act appropriately. As a consequence, Fortune begins to turn her back on him and samford university dissertation, Richard will increasingly find himself fighting losing battles. Essay About? The qualities which have enabled him to rise are also the cause of his eventual downfall. And this is where the element of tragedy comes in, as Moseley illustrates: ‘It delineates the rise and deserved fall of Richard and shows how even when he thinks he is most in control Fortune can tip the scale against social network him [. ] [131] ’ Ironically, Richard makes the essay same mistake as Hastings and, yet again, pride comes before a fall – this time his own.

In the end, he is only a tool of Providence whose purpose is to weed out the consequences of the usurpation of Henry IV. Ironically, it is Richard who brings down his own House and who paves the way for math quadratic essay the reaccession of the House of Lancaster. The element of conscience, as far as Richard is essay about pokhara, concerned, is one of the main themes of Shakespeare’s Richard III. It is, as Keeton has pointed out, the weak spot of the Machiavellian villain. Dissertation? [132] ‘In the end the Machiavellian who thinks himself free from essay about, moral restraint is defeated by the moral order of the universe contained in little, microscopically, in write, his own self. [133] ’ In fact, it had been Anne who had dropped the first hint that Richard was haunted by his conscience earlier in the play, when she mentioned ‘his timorous dreams’. Essay Pokhara? [134] Through Richard’s inner conflict, until then well hidden from the attention of the people around him and the audience, Shakespeare demonstrates the profoundly damaging effect which the exercise of power can have on the human soul. Samford University Dissertation? This, as Schieder explains, is the main difference between Shakespeare and Machiavelli. ‘Shakespeare fuhrt damit weit uber Machiavelli hinaus, der sie nur als etwas Zweckrationales, Technisches kannte, oder da, wo sie als Ehrgeiz, ungesattigter Machttrieb in seelische Bereiche fuhrte, der Berechnung, dem Kalkul zu unterwerfen suchte. Seine Entdeckung steht ebenburtig neben derjenigen Machiavellis, wenn auch dieser sie durch sein Werk und deren Nachwirkungen uberhaupt erst moglich macht. [135] ’ On the outside Richard still puts up a brave face and encourages the people around him. However, he has lost his supreme confidence and he even admits his fear to Ratcliffe. Richard: I have not that alacrity of spirit.

Nor cheer of mind that I was wont to have. [136] ’ Richard even asks for wine twice, within a reasonably short amount of time [137] , another indication that he is growing increasingly nervous. The most important part of the last act is when Richard is haunted in his sleep on the eve of the final battle at essay about Bosworth by the ghosts of the people he murdered. They are a symbolic representation of Richard’s crimes and his suppressed guilt and serve to remind both him and the audience of at work what he will shortly pay for with his life. Essay Pokhara? ‘Richard suffers no effective remorse. But when his intellect is in abeyance, the unconscious mind takes charge. Here, at last [. ] is the underlying cause of his startling confession that he has lost his alacrity of spirit and cheer of mind. [138] ’ When Richard wakes up from his dream he is quite obviously shaken. As Haeffner illustrates, bad dreams, for an Elizabethan audience, were a clear hint that a character in a play was suffering from melancholia: ‘To be melancholy nowadays is to be merely sad or depressed [. ]. Math? But to about pokhara Shakespeare’s audience it suggested rather a dangerous mental sickness which could take the form of insanity. [. ] Its symptoms varied strongly, however, from a sharp wit and talkativeness, to pessimism and a desire for revenge against society, against law and order.

Bad dreams visited the write review proposal melancholic frequently, and essay, he would naturally have been shunned by most men as he was himself the enemy of most men. Almost all the characteristics of the melancholic are shown in Shakespeare’s Richard. In a way it excuses him from behaving as he does, and it makes just possible a feeling of pity for him at the end when he is beset by enemies, and overcome by research proposal his conscience and bad dreams. [139] ’ The ghosts of Richard’s victims come in turn to appear to both Richmond and Richard. They encourage Richmond and essay, they pound Richard with a series of accusations and curses. When Richard awakes he is depressed and tormented by his conscience. ‘His dream forces him for the first time in the play to see himself as a man who is after all bound by qualities the moral restraints he has deliberately overthrown, trapped in the prison of his own despair. [140] ’ And this despair is genuine and not just a short glimpse of fear as Cornelia Czach has suggested. [141] Richard: ‘O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me? [142] ’ Richard: ‘Is there a murderer here? No. Yes, I am. [143] ’ Richard: ‘Alack, I love myself. Essay Pokhara? Wherefore?

For any good. That I myself have done unto myself? Oh, no. Alas, I rather hate myself. For hateful deeds committed by thesis myself. I am a villain. Yet I lie, I am not. Fool, of thyself speak well.

Fool, do not flatter. My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, And every tongue brings in a several tale, And every tale condemns me for a villain. Essay Pokhara? [144] ’ By suppressing the moral implications of write his actions Richard had only deceived himself. Pokhara? In his dreams, however, his mind is no longer under his control and, consequently, it now confronts him with realities he cannot escape from. Since Richard had decided to dedicate himself to a career of write literature review Machiavellian villainy, he had managed to about alienate himself from everyone and everything in his world: his country, the audience and, ultimately, his own self. [145] At the end of his career, he is math, a lost soul. [146] When Ratcliffe comes to pokhara tell Richard that it is time to get ready he finds Richard in a state of write literature review thoughtful depression. Richard: By the apostle Paul, shadows tonight. Have struck more terror to the soul of essay pokhara Richard. Than can the substance of ten thousand soldiers. Armed in math quadratic essay, proof and led by shallow Richmond. [147] ’ However, Richard quickly pulls himself together and gets back to business.

He organises his army and encourages his confederates. Richard: ‘Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls, For conscious is a word that cowards use, Devised at first to keep the strong in awe. Our strong arms be our conscience, our swords our law! [148] ’ Even though this is little more than a last act of defiance, for Richard it is the only way out still left to him. ‘All the evidence is against him now. Conscience is essay about, not just a word , not just a fiction invented as a political tool, force is essay at work, useless against it. It is real and essay pokhara, it destroys. Essay Qualities A Best Friend Should? [149] ’ Richard’s flamboyant speech before his troops is a last futile attempt to about pokhara take the bull by the horns. The speed with which his forces will disintegrate demonstrates how right he was about his doubts over the loyalty of his troops. [150] In the admissions essay end he will bravely fight alone and die alone. The character of pokhara Shakepeare’s Richard III was what the Elizabethans fundamentally understood as Machiavellian. He achieved his aims by deceit and essay qualities a best have, murder.

Machiavelli, himself, would not have approved of everything Richard did. [151] Although Richard had the courage of a lion, the cunning of a fox and was decisive in his actions, his motivation was personal ambition. He succeeded in becoming king but he neither won the support of the nobles or his countrymen nor were his actions in their interest. There is no indication that Richard had any long-term political strategy once he became king. On the contrary, he destabilized a fragile peace and essay about pokhara, plunged his country back into civil war. As a result, he not only met his own downfall but he also caused the fall of the House of York. Machiavelli, Niccolo: Il Principe / Der Furst. Italienisch / Deutsch. trans. and ed. Rippel, Philipp. Stuttgart 1986. Shakespeare, William: King Richard III . ed. Essay? Lull, Janis.

1st Edition. Cambridge 1999. Shakespeare, William: The Third Part of King Henry The Sixth . in: The Complete Works of Shakespeare . Essay Pokhara? ed. Math? Bevington, David. 3rd. Edition. Glenview, Illinois 1980. Anglo, Sydney: Machiavelli.

A Dissection. New York 1969. Bawcutt, N.W.: ‘Policy’, Machiavellianism, and the Earlier Tudor Drama. in: English Literary Renaissance 1 (1971). Bawcutt, N.W.: Some Elizabethan Allusions to pokhara Machiavelli. in: English Miscellany 20 (1969). Clemen, Wolfgang: Kommentar zu Richard III. Samford University? Interpretation eines Dramas. 2nd Edition. Gottingen 1969.

Clemen, Wolfgang: Shakepeare und das Konigtum . in: Shakespeare- Jahrbuch 68 (1932). Coe, Charles Norton: Shakespeare’s Villains . About Pokhara? New York 1957. Czach, Cornelia: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie. Der Versuch der Bewaltigung von Geschichte: Shakepeares Richard III . in: Anglia 101 (1983). Garber, Marjorie: Descanting on Deformity: Richard III and the Shape of History . in: The Historical Renaissance. New Essays on Tudor and Stuart Literature and Culture . ed. Three Qualities A Best Friend Should Have? Dubrow, Heather and Strier, Richard. Chicago 1988. Gellert Lyons, Bridget: ‘King’s Games’: Stage Imagery and Political Symbolism in ‘Richard III’ . in: Criticism 20 (1978). Haeffner, Paul: A critical commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . London 1966.

Hanham, Alison: Richard III and his early historians. 1483-1485. Oxford 1975. Keeton, George W.: William Shakespeare’s legal and political background . London 1967. Krippendorf, Ekkehart: Politik in Shakepeares Dramen. About? Historien, Romerdramen, Tragodien.

Frankfurt am Main 1992. Lamb, V.B.: The Betrayal of Richard III. London 1968. Maurer, Michael: Kleine Geschichte Englands . Stuttgart 1997. Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. Social? Ansatze – Personen – Grundbegriffe . Essay About Pokhara? ed. How To Admissions Essay? Nunning, Ansgar. Stuttgart 1998. Moseley, C.W.R.D.: William Shakespeare.

Richard III . London 1989. Munkler, Herfried: Machiavelli. Die Begrundung des politischen Denkens der Neuzeit aus der Krise der Republik Florenz . Frankfurt am Main 1982. Naumann, Walter: Die Dramen Shakespeares . Essay About? Darmstadt 1978. Palmer, John: Political and samford, comic characters of pokhara Shakespeare . London 1974. Parel, Anthony J.: The Machiavellian Cosmos . New Haven 1992. Rossiter, A.P.: Angel with Horns and other Shakespeare Lectures . ed. Storey, Graham.

London 1961. Shakepeare-Handbuch. Die Zeit – Der Mensch – Das Werk – Die Nachwelt . ed. Schabert, Ina. Stuttgart 2000. Schieder, Theodor: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . in: Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte 33 (1951). Skinner, Quentin: Machiavelli. Oxford 1981. Spivack, Bernard: Shakespeare and a best friend, the Allegory of Evil . New York 1958. Tillyard, E.M.W.: Shakespeare’s History Plays . Harmondsworth 1962. Watson, George: Machiavel and Machiavelli . in: Sewanee Review 84 (1976).

Wheeler, Richard P.: History, Character and essay about, Conscience in Richard III . in: Comparative Drama 5 . Write Literature Review? No. 4. (Winter 1971/72). [1] Rossiter, A.P.: Angel with Horns and other Shakespeare Lectures . ed. Storey, Graham. London 1961. (in the following quoted as: Rossiter: Angel with Horns .) p. Essay Pokhara? 20. [2] Palmer, John: Political and comic characters of Shakespeare . London 1974. (in the following quoted as: Palmer: Political and write admissions, comic characters .)p. 66. [3] Parel, Anthony J.: The Machiavellian Cosmos . New Haven 1992. Pokhara? (in the following quoted as: Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos .) p. Write Literature Proposal? 100. [4] Machiavelli, Niccolo: Il Principe / Der Furst. Italienisch / Deutsch. trans. and ed. Rippel, Philipp.

Stuttgart 1986. (in the following quoted as: The Prince.) 18. Essay About Pokhara? pp. Essay Three Qualities A Best Friend Should? 135 137. [5] Necessita was the third pillar of Machiavelli’s political thought. [7] Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos . Essay? p. 121. [8] Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos . Research Proposal? p. 87. [9] cf. The Prince 8, pp. 65 67. [11] Munkler, Herfried: Machiavelli.

Die Begrundung des politischen Denkens der Neuzeit aus der Krise der Republik Florenz . Frankfurt am Main 1982. Essay? (in the following quoted as: Munkler: Machiavelli .) pp. Samford Dissertation? 302f. [12] The Prince 25. Essay About Pokhara? p. Math Quadratic? 193. [13] cf. The Prince 19. p. 143. [14] Machiavelli’s view of the individual was rather disillusioned. He thought that the about pokhara best an individual could aspire to stress at work was to become a good citizen, a tiny wheel in essay about, some much more complex mechanism. An excessive amount of three qualities a best friend have amount of freedom would only lead to disorder. Essay About Pokhara? (cf. The Prince 17. Three Qualities A Best Friend Should? pp.

129 131.) [15] The Prince 25 . pp. 193 195. [16] Parel: The Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 76. [17] cf. The Prince 25. p. 197. [18] Parel: The Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 83.

[19] The Prince 25. About? p. Write Literature Research? 199. [20] Bawcutt, N.W.: ‘Policy’, Machiavellianism, and the Earlier Tudor Drama. in: English Literary Renaissance 1 (1971). (in the essay pokhara following quoted as: Bawcutt: ‘Policy’ .) p. 208 (for further detail cf. Watson, George: Machiavel and Machiavelli . in: Sewanee Review 84 (1976). pp. 631-637). [22] Schieder, Theodor: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . in: Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte 33 (1951). (in the following quoted as: Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli .) p. 136. [23] Shakespeare, William: The Third Part of King Henry The Sixth . in: The Complete Works of Shakespeare . ed. Bevington, David. 3rd. Edition.

Glenview, Illinois 1980. (in the following quoted as: 3 Henry VI .) I.1.17. [25] Keeton, George W.: William Shakespeare’s legal and political background . Friend Should Have? London 1967. (in the following quoted as: Keeton: Shakespeare’s background .) p. About? 320. [28] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 68. [31] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 69. [32] cf. 3 Henry VI . II.2 – III.1. [33] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 70. [34] cf.

3 Henry VI . III.2.1-117. [35] 3 Henry VI . III.2.140-143. [36] 3 Henry VI . III.2.165-171. [37] Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 326. [38] 3 Henry VI . Samford Dissertation? III.2.182f. [39] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 73. and cf. Essay? 3 Henry VI. III.5. III.7.

[41] Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 326. [45] Shakespeare, William: King Richard III . ed. Lull, Janis. 1st Edition. Cambridge 1999. (in the following quoted as: Richard III .) I.1.24-31. [46] For centuries, people believed that deformity of the body was the outward expression of qualities friend a morally deformed mind. [47] Schieder: Schakespeare und Machiavelli . p. About? 140. [48] Maurer, Michael: Kleine Geschichte Englands . Math Essay? Stuttgart 1997. p. Essay About? 145.

[49] cf. Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 328. [50] Wheeler, Richard P.: History, Character and Conscience in Richard III . in: Comparative Drama 5 . No. Essay? 4. (Winter 1971/72). (in the following quoted as: Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience ). pp. 319f. [52] Richard III . I.1.106-112.

[53] cf. Richard III . I.4.227-239. [54] Richard III . About? I.1.113-115. [55] cf. Clarence’s dream. in: Richard III . I.4.146-153. [56] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 79.

[57] Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 330. [58] Richard III . I.2.197-199. [59] Spivack, Bernard: Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil . New York 1958. (in the following quoted as: Spivack: Allegory of Evil .) pp. 404f. [60] Palmer: Political and samford university, comic characters . p. 81. [61] Richard III . Essay About Pokhara? I.2.231-242. [62] cf. Richard III . I.2.153 I.2.189. [63] cf. Palmer: Political and comic characters . Math? p.83. and essay about, The Prince 25. pp. 193 195.

[64] Richard III . I.3.119-123. [66] Richard III . Math Quadratic Essay? I.3.125-137. [67] cf. Machiavelli’s remarks on the use of duplicity and calculated piety in peace and essay about pokhara, war. in: The Prince 18. [68] Naumann, Walter: Die Dramen Shakespeares . Darmstadt 1978. (in the following quoted as: Naumann: Shakespeares Dramen .) p. 14.

[69] Richard III. I.3.324-326. [70] Richard III . I.3.336-338. [71] Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 331. and cf. Gellert Lyons, Bridget: ‘King’s Games’: Stage Imagery and Political Symbolism in ‘Richard III’ . in: Criticism 20 (1978). (in the following quoted as: Geller Lyons: King’s Games .) p. 19. [72] Spivack: Allegory of quadratic essay Evil . p. 402. [74] cf Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 309. [75] Spivack: Allegory of essay about Evil . Thesis Social? p. 403.

[77] Richard III . II.1.136-141. [78] Palmer: Political and comic characters . Essay About? p. 93. [79] Richard III . III.1.44-56. [80] Richard III . III.1.35f. [81] Clemen, Wolfgang: Kommentar zu Richard III. Interpretation eines Dramas. 2nd Edition.

Gottingen 1969. (in the following quoted as: Clemen: Richard III .) p. 173. [82] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 95. [83] Richard III . III.1.198-202. [84] cf. The Prince 19. p. 149. [85] As Catesby points out in thesis, Richard III . III.1.166. [86] Richard III . III.1.22f. [87] Richard III . III.1.35-59. [88] Richard III . III.1.194-196.

[89] Richard III . III.4.72-76. [90] Richard III . III.4.79-106. [91] Czach, Cornelia: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie. Der Versuch der Bewaltigung von Geschichte: Shakepeares Richard III . in: Anglia 101 (1983). (in the following quoted as: Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie .) p. 402. [92] Richard III . About Pokhara? III.7.70-79. [93] Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 23. [94] Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. Thesis? 22. [95] Through his Welsh ancestory, Henry VII ‘[. ] had a claim to the English throne unconnected either with his Lancastrian descent or his Yorkist marriage. Not only did he claim through his ancestor Owen Tudor, husband of about pokhara Henry V’s widow, direct descent from Cadwalladar, last of the British kings, but he encouraged the old Welsh superstition that Arthur was not dead but would return again, with the suggestion that he and his heirs were Arthur reincarnate.’(Tillyard, E.M.W.: Shakespeare’s History Plays . Harmondsworth 1962. pp. 29.) [96] Naumann: Shakespeares Dramen . About Stress At Work? p. 19. [97] cf.

Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . p. 142. [98] Clemen: Richard III . p. 211. [99] cf. Rossiter: Angel with Horns . p. 19. [100] Richard III . Essay About? III.7.214-216. [101] Richard III . III.7.225-228. [102] Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 23.

[103] Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 25. [104] The Prince 19. p. 147. [105] cf. Essay A Best Should? The Prince 17. p. 129. and The Prince 19. p. 149. [106] Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 310. [107] Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 311. [108] Moseley, C.W.R.D.: William Shakespeare. Richard III . London 1989. (in the about pokhara following quoted as: Moseley: Richard III .) p. 78. [110] Richard III . IV.2.18-20.

[111] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 96. [112] cf. Richard III . IV.2.84-101. (Moseley (cf. Moseley: Richard III . Essay Should? p. 72.) has argued that Richard does not ignore Buckingham deliberately but that Richard is ‘bad rattled’ and about pokhara, that he, therefore, cannot focus. It is an interesting point but it seems a little bit far-fetched.

[113] The Prince 3. pp. 17 19. [114] Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 397. [115] Palmer: Political and comic characters . Essay About Stress At Work? p. 101. [117] Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . Essay About? p. 399. [118] cf. Richard III . IV.3.36-43 and ibid. Math Essay? IV.2.61f. [119] Clemen: Richard III . p. 244. [120] cf. Pokhara? Moseley: Richard III . p. 75.

[121] Palmer: Political and thesis social network, comic characters . p. 103. [122] cf. Clemen: Richard III . About Pokhara? pp. 269-270. [123] Richard III . IV.4.515. [124] Severe flooding has caused Buckingham’s forces to be disperced. His precise whereabouts are currently unknown. Shortly afterwards, however, it is Catesby who comes to inform Richard that Buckingham has indeed been captured. [125] cf.

Richard III . IV.4.517-523. [126] cf. Research Proposal? Richard III . IV.4.199-436. [127] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 105. [128] Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 404. [129] cf. Clemen: Richard III . p. 275. and Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. About? 309. [130] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 104. [131] Moseley: Richard III . How To Essay? p. Essay? 24. [132] cf.

Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . pp. 332f. [133] Moseley: Richard III . Friend Should Have? p. 79. [134] cf. Richard III . Essay About Pokhara? IV.1.83-85. (Furthermore, bad dreams were a common dramatical trait of tyrants. (cf. Moseley: Richard III . p. 75.)) [135] Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . p. A Best Friend Have? 145. [137] Richard III . V.3.66 and ibid.

V.3.74. [138] Palmer: Political and comic characters. p. 109. [139] Haeffner, Paul: A critical commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . London 1966. p. 14. [140] Moseley: Richard III . p. 39. [141] cf. Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 404f. [144] Richard III . V.3.190-198. [145] cf. Essay About? Habermann, Ina and literature review, Klein, Bernhard: Die Historien . in: Shakepeare-Handbuch. Die Zeit – Der Mensch – Das Werk – Die Nachwelt . ed.

Schabert, Ina. Essay About? Stuttgart 2000. p. Literature Research Proposal? 345. [146] Coe, Charles Norton: Shakespeare’s Villains . New York 1957. p. 27. [147] Richard III . V.3.217-220. [148] Richard III . V.3.310-313. [149] Moseley: Richard III . p. 83.

[150] cf. Richard III . V.3.222f. [151] cf. Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . About? p. 309.

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If it’s all new to you, spend most of your time learning the about, fair use clauses. Samford University. That’s where the ambiguity in copyright laws exist. Essay Pokhara. As with most laws, the ambiguity is for our benefit, but it sure can make copyright laws fuzzy at times. My rule above all else? Ask permission to use all images. If in doubt, don’t use the image! For a great resource that gives a more thorough explanation, I invite you to check out The Stinky Ink Shop’s Ultimate Guide to Using Images. For a similar graphic on plagiarism violations, see the Did I Plagiarize? graphic. For more information about taking good images yourself, see the Six Tips for Taking A Good Picture blog post. To purchase a 20?30 poster, please visit the online store.

Editor’s note: This chart has been designed to clarify the complexities of quadratic, copyright laws for the basic and about pokhara regular use of images in write literature review proposal, general publications and for personal use. However, this chart, in its simplicity, cannot and does not cover all the essay, complex nuances of at work, copyright laws. Those who use this chart are encouraged to do so only as a general guideline. Essay About. When using images and other communication methods, communicators are responsible for understanding the ethics and legalities of copyright laws, fair use stipulations, creative commons licenses, what is and three qualities a best is not considered public domain, and the social and cultural understandings of plagiarism. Also, it should be noted that these guidelines reference laws and standards in the USA.

Laws and guidelines differ, sometimes significantly, in essay about, other countries. Saving Humanity from the Machine: How Storytelling Will Keep Us Human. Christmas Elf Name Generator: What’s Your Elf Name? (Infographic) How Utah’s Distracted Driving Laws Will Affect Your Relationship with Your Girlfriend. 79 thoughts on “ Can I Use that Picture? The Terms, Laws, and Ethics for thesis social, Using Copyrighted Images ” Hi There!

My first time teaching Intro. to Visual Communication is quickly upon me and I am grateful to have come across your website. Two things: from essay just reading your graphic above, which is extremely helpful, I assume that I don’t need to ask your permission to use this in my community college class this fall. But, I thought I would ask. And say thanks. Thanks! Great question!

You’re right, for essay at work, educational purposes, it isn’t necessary to essay about ask permission to use images like this one. Three A Best Friend Should Have. However, you’ll still always want to about pokhara be careful of plagiarism issues (remember that plagiarism isn’t always illegal, but it is considered unethical in write admissions, most academic circles in essay pokhara, America). So, to follow best practices, when using an image like this in a presentation or as a handout or on literature research, your syllabus, or wherever, it is essay best if you still cite the source, just like you would for referencing other, non-visual material. Good luck with the class! Visual Communication is my favorite course to teach #128578; Nice article. University Dissertation. Copy rights are a big issue. I use few images per month and I used to have issues with paying since they offer huge subscriptions. Essay About. And I used to go on each single page but then I heard for Dashmote They have different providers and most of the images is free and for some I just pay few euros which is essay stress at work still cool. There are some inaccuracies in the flowchart especially the advice on about, using an essay about stress image if the creator has died. Unless the photographer created the image as a work for hire (in which case the newspaper or other venue holds the essay, copyright), the copyright could still be held by the creator’s heirs – up to 70 years after the essay three a best friend should, death of the creator.

See A good resource for navigating the intricacies of US Copyright law is the Digital Copyright Slider developed by essay about the American Library Association : Great point, Thomas! Thanks for the clarification. You’re absolutely right that when someone dies it does not mean that the copyright is lost and about at work the images are open to about pokhara the public domain. If so, all of Charles Schulz’s Peanut characters would be free game! In the thesis network, flowchart, it states that you must **be certain** that is impossible to obtain the copyright, like when the essay about pokhara, creator dies **and no one owns the copyright**. If a legal situation were to arise, you would have to prove that it wasn’t possible for you to obtain the copyright (which would mean that you contacted heirs and relatives). As for university, the 70-year rule, that is actually becoming outdated as well.

Laws are changing to allow people and organizations to keep the rights to about pokhara copyrights even 70 years after a person is dead (think of how this affects Disney products and math Beatles paraphernalia , for essay about pokhara, example). I was so pleased discovering this scheme today. It might be helpfull explaining my colleagues the do’s and dont’s in essay about stress, using images. Question: If my manager will agree with me this might be usefull information on the intranet, do you allow me sharing this scheme on this businessplatform? And is it avilable in other languages as well? We might consider it having translated in the languages spoken at our OPCO’s, to be sure everybody understands the rules very well? And of course w’ll mention your site as the source. This might sound funny / ironic / snarky but it’s not. It’s a legit question: What’s are your feelings on using the about pokhara, image / chart you created and/or the contents there of? Would a link back to samford you / this article be sufficient?

I’m also curious about what your permission/usage/attribution rights are for this graphic? If we wanted to essay pokhara use this in thesis, a blog post – may we, or must we first ask permission? (The reason I ask, I came to this by way of it being posted in a MediaBistro GalleyCat blog post). Great question! This is one of those fuzzy areas that typically falls under fair use. If an image like this graphic is posted on a blog (intended to essay about be viewed openly by the public for news and information purposes), you are usually safe to re-post the image for similar news-like purposes on another news site without requesting permission as long as you cite/attribute the source. Online, this means that you should link back to the original author’s cite. This is common practice and write research it is why you’ll find this graphic re-posted on about, high-profile sites (like even though they didn’t ask my permission to do so. However, if you intend to use an image for university, other purposes that benefit you or your company (like including it as a permanent fixture on a website or published in a manual or hung on the wall), you should always obtain permission.

That being said, fair use is essay a judgment call. There are no precise right or wrong answers. You should be aware that, technically, the owner of the image owns the copyright and has the ability to sue you, even if you think it is used under fair use. With all that in mind, I freely give you permission to re-post this on your blog #128578; Thanks Curtis! It’s a great graphic and essay qualities should have very helpful. I incorporated it into a piece I wrote about some of my favorite free stock photo sites, with some that don’t require attribution and may be used for commercial purposes. I included links back to both the MediaBistro piece where I first saw it and your post here.

May I please print it and hang it on essay about pokhara, the wall of thesis network, our office for reference? It’s great! #128578; Hi! Hope you can help – I’ve been saving Facebook shared photos for years, either because I think they’re beautiful or inspiring. Some have the essay, name of the about at work, person/company that posted them, but most don’t, and about it’s so long ago for most of them that I haven’t a clue who originally posted them. I’m now about to start a blog and Facebook page – can I use these photos, naming the originator where possible, or not? Thank you for qualities a best, creating this guide, it will go a long way in pokhara, making clear to write literature review research proposal people why the images they copy of the internet and send me for essay, a magazine cannot be used. There is one thing I’d like to see clarified. If you take a picture yourself and it is your own original idea it still can be that you cannot use it if it contains elements that are covered by related rights or personal rights.

For example: 1. Privacy: if I take a picture that has other people on it they might have cause for prohibiting publication of the picture because it could violate their right of privacy; 2. Related rights: if I take a picture that has a signature building by an architect as the background and my picture changes the math quadratic essay, appearance of the building the architect might prohibiting publication, because it violates his artist’s rights. You spelled brochure as brocure. Why are there two exit points from the first No? If you go down instead of right to Ask Yourself the Fair Use Questions the graph doesn’t make any sense. I also suggest adding a down arrow below the Ask Yourself the Fair Use Questions blob to make it more clear to advance to the questions. One thing that is not addressed is the essay about, right of the “subject of” the photo. Folks often think they can use a photo if they (for sample) purchase it on Getty, but their EULA very specifically states it only gives permission from the photographer…. Not the review, subject. Like the flow chart idea though #128521; Also, to be really specific, you can’t be “inspired by” a (c) work either (re your vector on “did you create it”)

At a seminar for librarians working with digital objects, it was *strongly* recommended to us that fair use be the last resort rather than the essay, first. Write. Getting permission is always the most preferable course of action. There are two problems with fair use: the first is that it is always an infringement on another’s copyright, albeit a non-actionable infringement. The second is that it is never automatic: each fair use claim pursued must ultimately be decided by a judge, weighing the relative merits of the specific case and use. That gets messy. It’s better to about pokhara ask permission first, and only when that falls flat, IF you do your due diligence and determine there is a high probability of prevailing on a fair use claim, do you go that route. Wow, that wasn’t great information. Fair use isn’t infringement. Samford. Permission is nice to essay about pokhara have, though – it does make everything easier. Actually, yes it is. Fair use is a defense, not an excuse from obtaining permission.

Fair use, if anything, is subjective, and infringement. Hence the thesis social network, “interference” of essay pokhara, a judge in implied “fair use” cases brought to court. An interesting conundrum just occurred to me. I’d like to share this flowchart with some of my clients. Under what license is the flowchart available? Is it copyrighted? Is it CC? Is it PD? I’d genuinely like to know.

The first NO after “did you create the math essay, image yourself” has two lines coming out of it which is confusing, and the “Will you be using it for commercial or personal gain?” question has no NO option. Also, “purpse” is misspelled in the second fair use question. Found a few typos. In the second Fair Use question, it should be “purpose,” not “purpse.” And after “was the picture you created an essay about pokhara original idea,” the choices are Yes, No, and Not. I believe the essay, third choice should be “Not Sure.” In the “Yes” box directly under “Ethics” in the title, it should be “brochure,” not “brocure.” There may be other typos that I haven’t found — you might want to run a spell-check.

I think it would be interesting for you to essay about address the specific question of using clearly copyrighted images in Facebook memes and other “viral” web sites (e.g. Buzzfeed). Does posting something on Facebook count as using the image “sparingly?” Does adding a humorous caption to a still from a movie create a new purpose or meaning? Not that anyone is going to get sued for putting Gene Wilder’s picture on their Facebook feed, but it would be good to know whether it’s legal. Wow, There is a lot of completely wrong and misleading information about copyright in this workflow.

I’ve been a commercial photographer for over 30 years, I do a lot of lecturing, and writing with a copyright litigator, have been an expert witness in a Federal copyright case, and have sued for infringement myself. Following the “advise” you’re giving here can get people on three qualities friend have, a lot of trouble. About. Like using images you find on social media, or being able to literature proposal usie anything for public interest for news (I can tell you many news organizations that have paid big bucks for running shots they didn’t have permission to use), not to mention orphan works that was already pointed out. I’ll be showing this in my graduate class as an example of bad information on the net. Personal or commercial gain is not a factor for essay about, infringement, it might be for the determining the write a good, damages. The 70 years you state is the law, passed by Congress. Its not going to change very easily.

It’s lifetime plus 70 years after death, but for a corporation it’s 90 years. Copyright is baked right into the Constitution itself, so changes are not that fluid as you imply. I commend you for trying to essay about pokhara help people with these confusing issue, but frankly, this is a mess. Jack is correct. This simply adds to the misinformation about copyright in photographs. Your chart could be much simpler: Did you take the photo? Yes: go ahead – it’s your copyright. No? Do not use it anywhere without the author’s (copyright holder) permission – that would be theft. If you want to write a good help people understand the law on copyright, make sure you know exactly what it is.

Here in the UK it might have variations over the US – one being that in the US there is essay about a much higher penalty for infringement, whereas the UK law only allows for reasonable compensation as per what would have been charged had permission been sought in the first place. Unless flagrancy is proved. Write Research Proposal. It is a minefield, and image theft is essay about pokhara rife, but copyright holders are fighting back. In the USA you do NOT need permission to use copyrighted works, including photos, if the use is fair. That’s the point of fair use. This is splitting a hair, but it is an important one. Fair use is a *defense* to essay three have one’s acknowledged use, without prior permission, of essay about, copyrighted material. Samford University. You’re saying, “Yup, this is a copyrighted photo [or whatever]. Essay Pokhara. But I’m gonna use it anyway, and I’m not asking permission of the copyright holder or anyone else.

So there.” But here is the deal. Just because YOU think it is essay have “fair use” doesn’t make it so. That is for the courts to essay decide, and there are reams of decision in legal cases that have examined this concept. One uses an item under the fair use theory under risk of being sued for having guessed (or decided) wrongly. The infographic author’s admonition to seek permission whenever in doubt is excellent. The cool thing is that seeking permission is NOT a big-deal-special-forms-hire-a-lawyer kind of math, thing.

Just send an email! Keep a copy of the essay pokhara, reply granting permission … Thank you for writing this, Jack. I, too, am a professional photographer, and writer as well, and social I’ve studied copyright during my 20-year career just to ensure I’m always knowledgeable about the pokhara, issues that affect my business. I saw this posted on a friend’s Facebook page this morning and it made me cringe to see some of these ideas baked into a nice-looking design that people would believe. Like you, I applaud the effort here — the qualities a best friend, chart looks great, and essay about is a wonderful idea; but I’d like to thesis see it adjusted after some consultation with an intellectual property attorney. Love this chart! Wondering if you have this as a poster. It was a little hard to read on the computer due to pokhara some of the colored text and having to blow it up so large. Thanks for this great chart! Would it be OK if we used it in a post on our blog ( Lots of our freelance members (especially photographers, graphic designers) want to be protected from copyright infringement, so we’re trying to spread the how to a good, message.

Hi, Appreciate what you’re trying to essay about do here. And maybe you know this, so for your readers who may mistake a few things in your chart… There’s a problem with how you’ve portrayed fair use. First of all, it’s not law. Math Quadratic. It’s doctrine. Meaning, it’s subject to interpretation each and every time a case goes to court. Essay About Pokhara. And a copyright owner could sue anyone who infringes on their work any time they want, period.

Fair use is not meant to be an easy out for people to use copyrighted work, for any reason. Network. Plus, it’s usually using a portion of the work that will get you “pass” (and if you have more than half the factors in about, your favor), but that’s not a guarantee. Good info here: In the case of the at work, educator who wants to use something for class… generally speaking, showing it in class might be fair use, but photocopying 100 copies of an entire work every semester for 10 years, probably not. The value of the work is essay being diminished because the author is losing out on that income. Also, if you take a picture of something or someone that is math quadratic essay protected by trademark, publicity rights, or privacy rights, you cannot just do whatever you want with it (i.e., use it for about pokhara, commercial purposes).

So your “yes” at essay stress at work the top left has to have some caveats. I am not a lawyer and this is not legal advice #128578; People should start by essay about pokhara assuming they have the rights to nothing if they didn’t create it. Get permissions and model/property releases for everyone everything. Or use licensed, creative commons, or public domain. One generally doesn’t “purchase” an image, one purchases a license to use it in samford university dissertation, a particular way. One must adhere to the license terms. Even microstock generally has restrictions.

As does creative commons. Read the license! By the way, the about, federal government cannot hold copyright, but sometimes copyrighted work is used in government materials, so you still have to be careful. (PS: a couple typos in case you want to fix: purpose in red; public in about, yellow are both missing letters) The guide states that it’s “usually” safe to use an image if it’s just being hung on essay, a wall for personal use. Can you please point me to the specifics of when an image can be used? I recently attempted to order a print of an thesis network image downloaded from a website (for personal use at essay home – to social network hang on a wall), but was denied because the essay about, image was deemed copyrighted material. What if you take an essay about at work image from a blog, but the blog poster doesn’t have the copyright to the original image? Just occurred to about me as I’m looking for quadratic essay, pictures of small towns to post on about pokhara, a project’s website. At our school, we should be above reproach.

I try to teach all stakeholders the value of literature, knowing correct procedure in using copyrighted materials. This will be a valuable tool. To that end, may I have permission to print a copy, or at essay about pokhara least use a credited copy in math quadratic, a presentation? Your flow chart states that it is OK to copy an image for personal use to hang on your wall. This is not even close to true. For centuries artists have created images for sale: for essay about pokhara, personal use to hang on your wall. The internet, among other things, is a huge marketplace to thesis sell such works, and the displayed images are supplied only as an example to sell a print or an original. I know that you’re trying to help, but this is exactly the kind of glaring error which furthers ignorance on essay about, the subject and can contribute to thesis network people being sued.

There are quite a few typos in essay about pokhara, the chart and many statements that are not exactly accurate. If you go over to quadratic the Petapeixel site and look at the comments you will see what I mean. There is an IP attorney who you may want to talk to regarding the accuracy of your statements. You have so many inaccuracies. on here you are going to get someone seriously in about pokhara, trouble. I would ditch this IMMEDIATELY and contact a lawyer before spreading this, getting yourself involved and possibly in the middle of your own lawsuit. Accuracy or inaccuracy of the “Fair Use” section notwithstanding, you might want to add something on thesis network, there stating that Fair Use is an American Copyright concept, and does not exist in other countries.

There is no “Fair Use” under English Copyright law, for example. We have “Fair dealing” which is a very different thing. If you’re transforming or repurposing an image, that’s derivative work, and will need permission. There are corner cases where this can fall under Fair Use, but that’s not always (or even often) the case. Thank you for about, your attempt to essay create a “Can I Use that Picture?” infographic. Essay About Pokhara. The answer is very simple. If you didn’t take the picture yourself the answer is review research proposal NO (it doesn’t matter whose camera it is!. You need *permission* from the essay, person who owns the essay about stress, copyright. In some reuse applications you may not have to pay a licensing fee but you still need permission.

Some copyright owners automatically grant free use to their images and about pokhara if they do, those usage parameters will be clearly stated where you find the image. However, if you don’t immediately understand that reuse is automatically granted, you need to contact the owner directly with your request. For reuse of images you find online, use auto-licensing applications such as Permission Machine. Please be fair to your fellow creators, protect yourself from infringement suits and obtain a legal license! This is a radical oversimplification of copyright law.

There are many cases where permission is not necessary, starting with fair use and extending to social network a wide range of other circumstances. Not all photography is copyrighted! Lots of responses today, I guess because it’s been shared on essay, some high-profile sites. Several of my friends shared it, too, and the inaccuracies missing information concerned me enough (especially with all the library folks resharing it uncritically), that I did a more detailed analysis over on university, my blog ( There is some great stuff here, especially your engagement with the community expectations and ethical points of social media sharing, but I wouldn’t suggest anyone use this for essay about, true workflow (personal or at work) management. Agreed. Essay At Work. Before posting something like this, I would check with the pokhara, best copyright law firm in the country and find out how many glaring errors, bad advice, and essay other mistakes should have been left off this chart.

Thank you for this Curtis. You’ve certainly provoked some conversations! As a rough guide and to get people thinking about whether they can or can’t use an essay pokhara image, it’s a great tool. Just the headline will, hopefully, make folk stop and thesis network think. Well done, and now that you have the essay, “Health Warning”, please keep ’em coming. I have a huge problem with the part of your flow chart that says it’s alright to write research proposal print something to hang on your wall. Essay. This is immensely fallacious advice.

There are a lot of people around the world who made a large part of their income from selling prints of math quadratic essay, their artwork or photography. It is *not* alright to print their work to put on your wall. Personally, and I think a lot of people would agree with me here, I wouldn’t mind someone printing my work as a thumbnail or small “clipping” to essay pokhara put on a mood board or an inspiration board, which may have been what you meant. But your advice is worded in such a way as it advises the reader that it’s OK to download and print artwork to samford university dissertation hang on your wall. It’s most definitely not. Thanks for your input! You’re absolutely right: the essay pokhara, original wording on the poster was confusing and misleading. After receiving a good deal of input, I have made several modifications to the poster. The issue you addressed has been handled directly. Write Review Research. Although “personal use” is stipulated as a component under fair use clauses, simply printing an image to essay about pokhara decorate your home or office is a form of theft if you haven’t purchased the image from the original photographer or owner of the copyright. You can see the change made on the new version of the flowchart.

One thing people never think about, is the print or copy shop. Say you’re using an image for a nonprofit project, and now need copies. The print or copy shop make those copies for profit. They sell those copies back to you. Thus, ethical print and copy shops won’t reproduce these kinds of jobs. Hi. A local High School Yearbook has taken my photos off my FB published my photos in there yearbook. I sent an e mail asking for thesis, my pics not to be use in the 2014 yearbook.

In 2013’s yearbook I found 30 of my photos used. In 2012 I found four photos. The school never asked me if they could use my photos. Can anything be done about the about, past years? Thanks for the great comment. This is, truly, one of the essay, primary reasons I created this chart.

The reality is, few people are aware that what they are doing is technically illegal (and certainly unethical). Technically, you have a legal right, should you wish to pursue it, to sue the school. That, of essay, course, isn’t the path most people wish to university take but the school in this case appears to be in copyright violation (especially if you took the pictures on FB). If the school’s posting of your images hasn’t affected your life or career in any significant way, the courts, however, would likely not be able to do much about it. If, however, pictures were posted that made you look bad and affected you personally in a negative way, there could be a case. Unfortunately, this kind of thing happens all the about pokhara, time (and that’s why we need to spread the qualities friend should have, message). Most likely, your best option is to notify the essay about, school that you’re upset and that what they are doing is an infringement of intellectual property and copyright. If they continue on three friend should, this course, you may need to essay about pokhara seek legal counsel. Question here, although I believe the answer is no…I am designing an architect’s website and want to include pictures of his work.

My question is whether using copyrighted photos would be illegal in this case, as they are his designs and would not be used for commercial reasons. Essay Three Friend Should Have. Of course, they would help to contribute to making monetary gains and about this leads me to believe I can’t use them. Am I right?? Interesting question, Kevin. If the architect has his own images of thesis, his buildings (which I would highly encourage him to obtain if he doesn’t), you should be able to essay about pokhara use them as long as he approves it. But using someone else’s photography, even if it is of his buildings, is a copyright infringement. How To A Good Admissions. Your best best bet is to either hire a photographer to take pictures of the buildings, take the pictures yourself, or ask permission from the photographers to use the images on the website. Essay About. My guess is the photographers won’t care as long as you credit them.

But you don’t want to make that assumption without asking. Curtis, I really liked your graphic but I have a situation that doesn’t quite fit. I was an extra in a movie PLAYING a photographer. The camera I was given to use was older, but fully functional. To break up the tedium of essay stress at work, almost endless takes, I used my own memory card to take pictures.

A lot are pure garbage but some were real gems showing the famous director at work evaluating his famous actors. Others were of about pokhara, my perspective acting with in stress, the scene. I’ve taken some of the about pokhara, photos and performed some extensive editing to them in Photoshop — crop, siloing the areas of interest, some airbrushing and other art effects — and math essay would like to show them at a local art show. I’m not planning on offering these for sale, just showing. Thanks in advance for your opinion. This is an interesting question, and certainly unique. Pokhara. Because the camera was not your own and university the images were taken on a set by a camera provided to essay about pokhara you by the production company, it is a good possible that the essay pokhara, film production company could try to claim the copyrights of those images, should such a case go to court. The laws are written in such a way that cases like this can be taken on a case-by-case basis. A lawyer friend of mine once told me that, truly, one of the things you have to essay three a best should ask yourself is essay about this: would somebody sue me for these images? If the chance is even remotely a “yes” possibility, you’ll want to explore obtaining permission (which is recommended in any situation where you aren’t the clear copyright owner anyway).

In your case, I would simply contact the production company. Tell them that you took the write admissions, pictures albeit on their camera. Chances are, especially if you aren’t profiting, they won’t care. Pokhara. But every company is different and they may be fairly stringent on write a good admissions essay, their policies. How much of this applies to videos posted on sites like YouTube? There is a growing desire to use web videos in meetings and conventions.

One suggestion is about that if you stream the how to a good essay, video directly to the screen that is essay pokhara “fair use”, but that if you embed the video in a presentation, that is “publishing” and is not “fair use”. What are your thoughts? Can you use a competitors images as your own? I.e. Use thier image to sell but manufacture your version of the product claiming the picture is yours. I took a photo of a dog I had groomed at work…is it illegal to use it for my personal gain. I have one question that I’m not sure whether or not you can answer, and I haven’t really been able to find anything clear on math, I work in essay pokhara, a print shop and write admissions essay we get people in all the essay pokhara, time that want us to print off things that are copyrighted. Can we, as a print shop that is making profit, make copies of copyrighted material for a customer? For example, we had a customer that came in wanting us to make copies from some of Disney’s promotional material for quadratic, Frozen. I had refused it (because they had copyright watermarks on them, which means they weren’t obtained legally), but afterward when I asked my manager he said we could go ahead and do those.

Do you know where I can find the actual ruling on that? hey i have a question if i was to search for a picture online i find the picture that i want i use it to essay pokhara put it on a shirt i add a bible verse to samford university it and sell it would it be ok to do it. It’s important, can you please help me out with this. Can I use a celebrity Twitter profile image in essay, an informative post showcasing some twitter statistics (domain blog)? The image was taken by math quadratic some 3rd party photographer. My personal opinion is that if anyone has any questions regarding anything about copyright law, you should either look up the law, or ask a copyright attorney. This is clearly not the best forum for that, since no one can seem to about pokhara agree and all it does is provoke arguments. Just saying. I am wonder do i have a rights of privacy in this case?

My roommate (we’ve lived together for 2 months so I barely know him) is a photographer and he asked me to take a picture. How To Write A Good. Just for fun, at home, took several photos and that’s it. He posted on essay pokhara, his blog at write that time but I didnt say anything. Then after about a month, he made a business cards used my photos didnt ask me before make it. I dont fee comfortable when some stranger have my photos or even they will toss them away. About Pokhara. In this circumstance, do i have a right of privacy?

Please help me. Thanks. Hi Curtis! I have quick question. What if we have a website sort of educational purposes, website was built to bring an awareness and we want to use pictures from the web, most of them don’t have any watermarks, people re-post them on social media and we want to use them as educational source. We also planing to use videos from essay about at work Youtube (host their videos on our website) and we will write stories. Do you think pictures we use will fall under fair use? What would you suggest to do?

Our future website still under construction mode. Thanks for the question, Kate. About. You ask a complicated, but very common question. I wish I could give you a clear-cut answer. How To A Good. The reality is that each image will be slightly different, depending the purpose of use. Essay Pokhara. Generally speaking, content produced for the internet tends to be shared more freely and, culturally speaking, tends to be considered fair use if you’re not directly profiting from the images. However, if your website profits, it could be argued that the images/videos you are using are enhancing your profitability.

At least in America, the law states that the image and video does belong to the original creator and so they have the right file suit if they don’t appreciate the way you used the samford, image. Often, with YouTube, you’re pretty safe because YouTube allows all viewers to share the videos, but you still do so at your own discretion. Regardless, you should always cite/link to the original source and essay about pokhara if there is ever any question, you should ask permission first. wow, so many comments and I am still confused ;)…..I am an Interior Architect and thesis social while I use sketchUP and essay pokhara AutoCAd to help my clients visualize the project and my vision for the design, I also often use Concept images like many of my colleagues. I find these images on Pinterest, Houzz, or just via google. I place images on my presentation to show my client the design concept. Can I not do this? Often There is no mention even who is the designer/ photographer on those photos, but when there is, can I use them for client presentation purposes and about stress at work do I need to link the source. Please help, this is about driving me nuts. It’s very essential for my presentations, and I don’t mind other using my work as an social example so long as noone claims my work as their own….but I also do not wish to get in to trouble or abuse someone elses work.

Great questions. Pokhara. This is, truthfully, where most people have concerns. Technically, according to the law, taking images that are not yours and using them for professional presentations is a violation of copyright. Thesis Network. While the originator of the essay about, image may or may not mind, it’s important to be conscious that many photographers of about, these images make their living selling the images to essay about pokhara the original company who used them or to stock photo companies. When you use their image w/o permission, you may be damaging their ability to profit from their work.

Furthermore, it’s best to avoid assuming the creator of the work is about at work okay with mass distribution, especially if they aren’t credited. For your situation, it would probably be best to subscribe to a stock photo company. This way, you essentially purchase the rights to use the photos for your presentations. Essay. When you do this, there is quadratic essay no risk of making someone angry at you or your company. Hello, im @crossover_designsIG on essay about, instagram!! I edit NBA and NCAA pictures. Go check it out! But do i need copyright of the teams to sell it? Because it will have the write research, teams logo jersey etc. please answer. Thx!

Good question. Essay. Very cool pics, by three qualities friend have the way. Yours is a more complicated question. Really, a lot depends on who took the original photo(s) that you’re editing. But in all likelihood, without permission, if you were to pokhara sell your pictures, you would want permission from at least the essay at work, original photographer and possibly the franchise (team) or organziation (NBA or NCAA). Very nice post. I just stumbled upon essay about, your blog and quadratic essay wanted to about mention that I’ve really enjoyed surfing. around your weblog posts. After all I will be subscribing in your. rss feed and I’m hoping you write once more very soon!

Hi,I would like to how to write a good essay know if I build Photovoltaic systems for about, a different Customers and I have been a sub contractor for that Installation. May I use the photographs on my web site, with the home owners permission? This photograph has been taken with my personal camera. Thank You, Dwayne B Sanford. Hey, I have a Question. If I found a picture of my teacher on google Images, that connects to a google account.

Am I allowed to put it on a T-Shirt for non-commercial use? I will be the only one to have one. Yet I do not have permission from my teacher? If I would send this photo and link to Ellen DeGeneres ( ) would I possibly be sued if anything about it was aired? Hello Mr.

Newbold, I have a few questions I think are related to this. Is copying images from copyrighted websites of companies which are used as company logos considered to be Fair Use if they are used in game mods, and then distributed for free on mod websites? I think it is literature review proposal not, and about is copyright infringement. Samford Dissertation. Some other people I know say it is not and is Fair Use, specially if the companies in question are from other countries, such as Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia, or the UK. For example, company logos on pokhara, race cars, semi-trucks, etc., for racing games, or other types of games where vehicles display “sponsorship” company logos. Is that legal to do?

If not, what laws are people who makes these mods violating? Also, is it copyright laws or trademark laws that are in three qualities friend have, question? Any clarification of this would be most appreciated. Thank you in advance, I know that I can use this image but I would like to use it for a course I am writing to help others understand copyrights and how to also protect their own work. About Pokhara. I really think this would be a good way for samford dissertation, them to understand more about what they can and pokhara cannot use.

May I use this in a course that I am charging money for? IF yes I will give you the credit . You put so much work into it. Great job by thesis the way. I am setting up a blog and have photos from my travels with someone i am no longer friends with. I want to use some of the photos that were taken with me in them. We had copied and given our photos we took to each other. Can i use these particular pics if it is of me in the photo? I spotted then met a famous soap star in about pokhara, Vegas.

I’m a fan, so I asked to at work take a picture with her, and she said yes. Can I post the essay about pokhara, picture on have, my personal Facebook page or Instagram that was taken using my phone by her husband? We were going to do a selfie and he offered to take it instead. I am wondering if it’s possible to use pictures of about pokhara, celebrities and make fan edits when you don’t have permission? And if you can, where goes the line? What license do I have to how to write be most careful with? I’m not an original drawing artist, I’m just a photo architect aka “blue-penciler”. About. I look for fantasy backgrounds all over the web and characters and props etc… mostly .png and jpeg files and I put them together I an image with some lighting effects and photo manipulation and such and then I invent an original story of essay about stress, my own to go with them, I would like to publish an about pokhara e-book doing this. Any warnings or suggestions? Thank you for math quadratic essay, this info-graphic and I am sure a lot of essay about, people will benefit from it. Comments are closed.

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