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Interesting Research Paper Topic #4: Local Government …

I Never Called it Rape: Addressing Abuse in BDSM Communities. Reposted with permission by government, Kitty_Stryker. I’ve been a part of the social essays, kinky community since I was 18. I read all the materials, I listened to the warnings, and I had some faith that being a part of a community, while not keeping me safe per se, would at least weed out people who had proven themselves dangerous. Papers. I did have a sexual assault that I have been out about, and on biology I had some support about it- but one of the things I was repeatedly told, over and over, was “ah, but he’s not part of government for research papers The Community”. I started to think about essay this, and it really honestly scares me. When I start to think of the number of times I have been cajoled, pressured, or forced into government, sex that I did not want when I came into “the BDSM community”, I can’t actually count them . And I never came out about it before, not publicly, for essays, a variety of reasons- I blamed myself for not negotiating enough, or clearly, or for not sticking to my guns, or I didn’t want to be seen as being a drama queen or kicking up a fuss.

Plus, the papers, fact is, these things didn’t traumatize me, and I didn’t call it sexual assault or rape, because I felt ok afterwards. There was no trauma, no processing that I needed. That makes me really angry, because I realized I didn’t feel traumatized because it happened so bloody often that it was just a fact of paper on biology being a submissive female . WTF, right? I used to see on Alt.com and Bondage.com female submissives talking about predatory behaviour in the BDSM community, and I still see it on government issues CollarMe and Fetlife. I remember being given the stage whisper not to health play with this person or that one because they had a history of going too far, something that was often dismissed as “gossip” and kept on the DL to avoid that accusatory label of being overly dramatic. Being in the scene meant learning how to government papers play politics- how to be polite, even good-natured, to people that you kept an eye on.

As I reflected on the number of times I’ve had fingers in my cunt that I hadn’t consented to, or been pressured into a situation where saying “no” was either not respected or not an option, or said that I did not want a certain kind of toy used on me which was then used, I’m kind of the pleasures essay horrified. When I identified as a submissive female, I was told that using a safeword indicated a lack of trust, or that if I was a “real” submissive I wouldn’t need to have limits. I had a guy drive me home from a munch who refused to leave my house, insisted on sleeping over, and issues for research then wouldn’t sleep until I gave him a hand job. Paper On Biology. I had a guy give me a way he wanted to be addressed, and after an intense scene, when I was crying, the play had stopped, and I was checking in, he then wanted to government for research papers punish me for not using his formal method of ay resume address. I did a bondage photo shoot where the photographer wouldn’t stop touching me, and eventually slept with me, when I didn’t have a vehicle and couldn’t leave of my own accord. I took up the offer for a massage and ended up realizing the government for research, price for that massage was allowing him to play with me.

I had multiple times when I took more pain that I could handle because I developed a fear of safewording, since it was so rarely treated with respect. And that’s just a sample. I never thought of any of it as sexual assault, even though it was all non-consensual, because I blamed myself for attracting the and problems essay, wrong sort of Dominant, for not being good enough at negotiating. Speaking to government issues other women, I discovered how many of them had similar stories that they laughed off, because if we stopped and really took it seriously the community we clung to would no longer feel safe, and we didn’t know where else to go. I got to know various men who were known behind closed doors for being unsafe to thesis help nashville play with or for for research papers, not respecting boundaries, but who still enjoyed open arms in the community at paper large because, while these things were things “everybody knew”, no one wanted to government issues be pegged as the drama queen that called them out. How on earth can we possibly say to ay resume society at government papers large that BDSM is not abuse when we so carefully hide our abusers and cat falling essay shame our abused into papers, silence?

When we smile for cat falling essay, the cameras while digging our nails into our own thighs? I can only speak for myself, but as a fat, insecure girl coming into the BDSM scene, whatever rhetoric I was told, actions taught me that my value was in my sexuality and government issues my willingness to give it up. A good submissive, you see, is quiet, passive, and health essays obedient. Or, at least, the submissives who got the attention were. That said, I’ve been noticing more and issues for research papers more an attitude akin to bragging about ay resume being manipulative, whether that be by submissives who style themselves as being “bratty” because “passive-aggressive” isn’t as sexy, is it, or Dominants who talk smugly about being excellent at pushing through boundaries and “doing things because it amuses” them. The things I read on people’s profiles would just not fly on, say, OkCupid- you would be tagged as a sociopath. Government Issues. So why, then, is it “cool” to homework robot pretend to be “hard” in this way in for research, BDSM? And more to the point- why do we, as a community, let them? I mean, if these people are being honest about their proclivities, then shouldn’t we be steering as far away as possible? We spend a lot of time talking about health social how What It Is That We Do isn’t abusive because we care about consent.

Well, it’s great that we talk that talk, but I’m calling us out, community. We are not that great at dealing, as a community, with issues of violated consent. We’re just like the for research, rest of on biology society- we often look at the victim and papers whisper behind our hands about how they should’ve known better or aren’t they making rather a lot of fuss, instead of being supportive. The Pleasures Of Being Essay. We shun the victim, considering them a volunteer for their situation, rather than ostracizing the perpetrator. And, amazingly, we then act surprised when we discover beyond any shadow of a doubt that sociopaths walk among us.

Of course they do- we treat that kind of sociopathic behaviour as dangerously sexycool. We look around at other members of the community, and for research say to ay resume that little voice inside “well, everyone else seems to be ok with Predator Dude, so I’d look pretty bad to call him out, maybe it was something I did wrong instead”. This creates a situation where predators are allowed to continue to be a part of the community, often an honored part, while past victims keep their mouths shut and hope that it doesn’t happen again to government issues for research papers someone else. Predator Dude isn’t often a big name, sure, but they do tend to help nashville tennessee be an government papers, aspiring nanocelebrity, so there’s something to lose if you make an accusation and the community doesn’t back you up. It says a lot to essay me that I had to do some digging to find posts on this subject, yet I have yet to meet a female submissive who hasn’t had some sort of sexual assault happen to government papers her. So many sites are focused on saying how BDSM isn’t a cover for abuse that we willingly blind ourselves to the times that it can be. Even now, if I was in a dungeon setting tomorrow, and someone grabbed my hair or ass without my permission, god forbid if someone stuck it in me without a condom, I wouldn’t honestly know how to deal with it. In theory I should talk to a dungeon monitor, but in practice? I’d probably talk to ay resume someone I knew.

I wouldn’t feel like I could smack them, or even shout at them, because I’d likely be banned too for causing a scene. Plus, no one wants to be a tattletale, right? We need to issues papers have a better way of paper on biology handling this stuff. Government Issues For Research Papers. Because whether we like to admit it or not, the the pleasures, BDSM scene is the issues for research, perfect place for abusers to find targets. There’s a desire for status, and a desire to please, that, when mixed with a sociopath, can fuck your brain right up. Homework. There’s a lot of government issues trust in the idea that “the right Dom for you will know what you need without talking to you about it”, suggesting an on biology, awful lot of romantic naivete that can be extremely dangerous. Papers. Imagine suggesting that you never need to consent to ay resume sex because your true love will only issues for research, fuck you when you want to paper on biology be fucked, without any verbal cues.

That wouldn’t fly, so why does it pass unchallenged with kink? Possibly perhaps Dom and government papers sub are so linked together that it feels like you’re missing something when you’re one without the help robot, other, so maybe we overlook the government issues for research, issues in order to paper feel like part of a pair. That, and the Cult of Masochism, the idea that it’s good to suffer, that your ability to suffer is what makes you valuable, that maybe if you suffer enough it will finally become pleasurable. Plus, let’s think about various kinky sexy films, and the dominants in those situations- 9 1/2 Weeks has a guy who repeatedly violates his lover’s boundaries. Issues Papers. Secretary has a boss who definitely oversteps appropriate work behaviour. The Night Porter … well, do I even have to go through it? I know that movie depictions of sociopaths are sexy to me- Hannibal Lecter, say, or Patrick Bateman.

Loads more women find Spike attractive than Xander. So of course we end up justifying and covering up behaviour as kink rather than abuse, because the help tennessee, only places we see kink depicted is in these unhealthy ways. So, then, community- what’re we going to do about it?Cause I don’t think hear no/see no/speak no evil is issues for research papers good enough. Links addressing this subject: All photos shown are of ay resume me, 18-22, struggling with these issues.

Kitty Stryker is a curvaceous courtesan splitting her time between tying people up in SF alleyways and helping clients (both able-bodied and not) realize their sexual possibilities in London. In her copious free time, she’s an issues for research papers, Erotic Award winner, a founding member of Kinky Salon London, a guest lecturer about sex work, and a queer femme Daddy to her boy. Cat Falling Essay. Kitty blogs about her professional and issues for research papers personal experiences at on biology Purrversatility. 10 Responses to for research papers I Never Called it Rape: Addressing Abuse in BDSM Communities. There is obviously a lot to know about wild cat falling essay this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Very good points made. I’m writing a novel on this at government issues for research the moment. I’m also into BDSM for thesis help, a number of years, as a dominant. When I was younger I tried to learn about myself and my preferences, but where I lived at that time both information and experiencing the for research papers, scene were difficult to put in paper on biology, practice.

I met a dominant and although it didn’t seem great from start, there was nothing better so I gave it a go. He could be charming so we ended up in a genuine relationship, not just BDSM related. Government Issues For Research. After a while he demanded some horrible things from essay, me, which sounded like pushing me into prostitution. I was in love with him, but aware he was abusing the government, fact. I couldn’t do what he was asking, besides the whole idea of playing submissive every now and wild then just didn’t fit with me. We ended up having rows and eventually split. It took me a while to find my way back into the “community.” This time, I was in government papers, the Netherlands and although I have lovely memories and excellent play time there, I’ve seen things and heard stories. I’ve been to parties which could have turned ugly for paper, the submissive creatures , but also for us dominants.

What is the point to government issues using drugs in a BDSM situation, btw? I thought the purpose of taking pain was to cat falling essay feel it. So how come so many submissive guys show up high or get high during the party? Also, any dominant woman should never go to government issues for research a party unaccompanied by a trustworthy, dedicated slave. Ay Resume. There are psychos out government issues papers there who can’t respect ANY boundaries, no matter if dealing with a female slave or a female dominant. I don’t do parties anymore, as for sessions, I keep it with the ay resume, people I thoroughly verify beforehand.

That’s a really great essay, I’m definitely going to refer others to this. I would have commented on Kitty’s site but it requires a wordpress account; the original version of this is at http://kittystryker.com/2011/07/safeward-i-never-called-it-rape/ Thank you so much for writing about this. It really is issues for research papers ridiculous how little info there is on actual abuse in the BDSM community, as if all our big talk and rules could cover up the help tennessee, fact that people are all fallible, and government for research papers some people are jerks. It’s like there is absolutely no overlap between abuse relief and the bdsm world. When I volunteered at a domestic violence/sexual assault center, I tried to health essays bring up the possibility of clients being in bdsm relationships, and how we might deal with that. Everyone looked at me like I was from another planet, and I immediately changed the subject. Then last night, I was at for research a bdsm discussion group, and objected to some of the abusive-sounding behaviors people were encouraging, and again people looked at me like I was from health social essays, another planet, and tried to excuse themselves with talk of how nothing is government issues for research papers completely safe, and thesis help as long as there’s consent between all parties, then you can do whatever. I never even got the chance to bring up the possibility that someone might feel coerced into giving consent, or maybe have issues they need to deal with, rather that wanting to for research papers have potentially dangerous stuff done to them. I thought we were better than that. Kitty_Stryker is pretty amazing.

The BDSM community is not immune to rape culture and it does boggle the mind how much animosity can be generated when the topic of abusive behaviors comes up. The number one purpose of ay resume this website is to educate and government for research papers promote healthy and cat falling essay ethical BDSM. Issues For Research. I recently gave a presentation to our local rape recovery center. Yes, I too got a vibe from some that I was a freak of paper nature, but from for research papers, others, I could see and feel a real desire for information. Help Tennessee. You might approach your sexual assault center about issues for research papers giving and in-service about healthy BDSM. It is my opinion that education is the key to changing minds and hearts. Social. You might look at it as informed consent. Government Issues. Let me know if I can be of service in your education endeavors! EC – WE are better than that…not everyone is. I have been thrown out of and problems of being a teenager essay parties for slapping a Dom who laid un-consented hands on me a second time. this is my own acid test – I do not expect the community to government issues papers police its own any more…but I do expect to be supported if I rise up and robot defend myself or another.

the only way to change the culture? hurts, costs us associates we mistook for friends, and government for research often leaves us frozen out paper – but then we are free to form our own community, which can be a brighter light. What do you guys feel about sadists? Do you think they are only sadists if they enjoy inflicting physical pain on issues papers consenting adults? Or is it possible that sadists enjoy emotional and psychological suffering? While I do not enjoy at all doing something that I sense the the pleasures of being, girl is not into, I’m not a sadist. There are some among us, who have a letter in the infamous BDSM acronym, that enjoy the abuse. So maybe it’s not about trying to build an artificial barrier between rapists and sadists in the community and maybe admit that this will continue to happen. Let’s treat everyone, whether within the papers, community or not, equally. This means realizing that just because some vanilla guy admits he’s a sadist to himself, it doesn’t mean you should feel okay being around him.

Great comment Kane, and importantly there is a significant difference between BDSM and abuse. Cat Falling Essay. The main difference being ‘consent’… we agree to what we indulge in, without coercion, duress or threat. We have a choice without consequence/repercussion. When there is clear understanding between consenting participants; when a situation is negotiated so everyone involved is getting a need or desire met within the relationship (however long that relationship lasts), then it’s not an abusive situation. Kink encompasses many different alternative life choices that aren’t considered ‘normal’ by society at large.

Sure many sadists/tops/dominants enjoy inflicting pain on papers their willing partners, but there are many diverse and a teenager overlapping interests that fall within Sadism, and yes sadists can also enjoy the for research papers, accompanying suffering. Health Social. I personally get highly aroused when a play partner is government issues brought to tears by help robot, what I do. Someone with no interest in issues for research, causing physical pain can still be a sadist if using humiliation, manipulating emotions or employing “mind fucks” (psychological/sensation manipulation) as you mention. But, as with all healthy relationships, getting pleasure from different aspects of kink, and by putting our partners in uncomfortable situations is something we do for ay resume, mutual enjoyment. It is issues for research something done to explore reactions, relationship dynamics, and the pleasures and problems test our limitations.

We do it because we enjoy it, not with the intent to harm/be harmed, devalue or be used or simply to please another. When I mentioned earlier that bringing a partner to tears arouses me, it’s the Dark part of me that I can safely explore with a willing partner. My partners have to feel safe when we play. Now granted they may have to work through difficult, painful, embarrassing, stressful or apparently scary situations or scenarios. But, and the important part is, they do so because they are looking to issues papers explore and/or achieve something too. They enjoy the experience that we share.

We will cause pain but the difference is we seek to hurt not harm. Injury has been known to happen but it’s something we try hard to homework robot avoid. As part of government issues for research a healthy relationship, there needs to be mutual respect. Essay. A situation or relationship is more likely to be/become abuse when there’s a lack of respect, or boundaries are ignored by anyone involved (yes the bottom/submissive/slave can cross boundaries too!). I’m not aware of any artificial barrier between sadists and rapists. They are separate traits. By way of papers example, I’m most certainly sadistic but in no way am I a rapist. I’d take great offence to being incorrectly labeled as such. However, at the same time there are going to be rapists who are sadists, just as there are non-sadists.

The difference being that rapists take their ‘pleasure’ (if you can call it that) from taking power from an unwilling person who is at that point a victim. For rapists, it’s mostly about the control over their victim. I do agree with your comment that we should treat everyone equally. Time will reveal how worthy of our trust, friendship and time they are. As a submissive for the last 10 years, I can say most abused submissives are literally the ones that makes themselves victims.

They either come from abusive households or they are absolutely ignorant to the world of BDSM and think that the shit their dominant / partner puts them through is normal expected. It’s a vicious cycle. There are perverts in homework robot, the BDSM world that will specifically target females [and men] with low self esteem that really should NEVER be in a BDSM relationship to begin with as they are just setting themselves up for abuse. People with low self esteem will do ‘anything’ to issues for research feel like they belong and are “loved” even if that means submitting to rape abuse. If you as a submissive wouldn’t trust your dominant / partner to cat falling essay walk the dog take out the garbage, then turn tail and run… because to that sort of a dominant you’re nothing but a piece of meat [a “cock-hole”]. If you’re ashamed of bringing your dominant to the normal or “vanilla” aspect of your life, then turn tail and run because that’s just steps away from the dominant isolating you completing from your friends and family [an outsider] who can tell you when your “relationship” is government for research nothing but abuse. If you’re starting off with BDSM, find someone that you absolutely trust. Someone that you may consider worthy of thesis help nashville marriage mothering / fathering your offspring [maybe not literally that person but of the same level of trust]. Even if that person has no knowledge of government papers BSDM learning together is ay resume 500 TIMES BETTER than becoming a victim. There is LITTLE support for BDSM victims in the BDSM community.

And less support in main stream society because a LOT of people in the normal “vanilla” world are of the mindset, “you signed up for this” [abuse, rape, etc.] by entering into a BDSM relationship. Here is my story. Please feel free to for research share. I am hoping to reach someone…

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Local Government and Finance Research Papers

The Spill, The Scandal and for research the President. The inside story of thesis nashville how Obama failed to crack down on the corruption of the Bush years – and let the world's most dangerous oil company get away with murder. O n May 27th, more than a month into the worst environmental disaster in U.S. Government For Research! history, Barack Obama strode to ay resume the podium in government for research papers the East Room of the White House. For weeks, the administration had been insisting that BP alone was to blame for the catastrophic oil spill in the Gulf #x2013; and the ongoing failure to stop the massive leak. They have the technical expertise to plug the hole, White House spokesman Robert Gibbs had said only health essays, six days earlier. It is their responsibility.

The president, Gibbs added, lacked the government papers authority to play anything more than a supervisory role #x2013; a curious line of argument from an administration that has reserved the right to assassinate American citizens abroad and has nationalized much of the auto industry. If BP is not accomplishing the task, can you just federalize it? a reporter asked. No, Gibbs replied. Now, however, the president was suddenly standing up to take command of the cleanup effort. In case you were wondering who's responsible, Obama told the nation, I take responsibility. On Biology! Sounding chastened, he acknowledged that his administration had failed to adequately reform the government papers Minerals Management Service, the scandal-ridden federal agency that for wild essay years had essentially allowed the papers oil industry to self-regulate.

There wasn't sufficient urgency, the president said. Absolutely I take responsibility for that. He also admitted that he had been too credulous of the oil giants: I was wrong in my belief that the oil companies had their act together when it came to worst-case scenarios. He unveiled a presidential commission to investigate the ay resume disaster, discussed the resignation of the head of MMS, and extended a moratorium on issues papers, new deepwater drilling. The buck, he reiterated the next day on the sullied Louisiana coastline, stops with me. This article appeared in the June 24, 2010 issue of Rolling Stone. The issue is available in wild cat falling the online archive. What didn't stop was the gusher. Hours before the issues for research president's press conference, an ominous plume of oil six miles wide and 22 miles long was discovered snaking its way toward Mobile Bay from BP's wellhead next to the wreckage of its Deepwater Horizon rig. Admiral Thad Allen, the U.S. commander overseeing the cleanup, framed the spill explicitly as an invasion: The enemy is coming ashore, he said.

Louisiana beaches were assaulted by blobs of oil that began to seep beneath the the pleasures and problems essay sand; acres of papers marshland at the Bird's Foot, where the Mississippi meets the Gulf, were befouled by shit-brown crude #x2013; a death sentence for wetlands that serve as the wild cradle for much of the region's vital marine life. By the time Obama spoke, it was increasingly evident that this was not merely an government for research papers ecological disaster. It was the most devastating assault on American soil since 9/11. Like the attacks by the pleasures and problems of being, Al Qaeda, the disaster in the Gulf was preceded by ample warnings #x2013; yet the administration had ignored them. Instead of cracking down on MMS, as he had vowed to do even before taking office, Obama left in place many of the top officials who oversaw the agency's culture of corruption. He permitted it to rubber-stamp dangerous drilling operations by BP #x2013; a firm with the worst safety record of any oil company #x2013; with virtually no environmental safeguards, using industry-friendly regulations drafted during the Bush years. For Research! He calibrated his response to the Gulf spill based on flawed and misleading estimates from BP #x2013; and then deployed his top aides to lowball the flow rate at health social a laughable 5,000 barrels a day, long after the best science made clear this catastrophe would eclipse the Exxon Valdez . Hours after BP’s rig sank on papers, April 22nd, a white board in NOAA's war room in Seattle displays the administration's initial, worst-case estimate of the homework robot spill — 64,000 to papers 110,000 barrels a day. Photo courtesy of al.com. Even after the president's press conference, Rolling Stone has learned, the administration knew the spill could be far worse than its best estimate acknowledged. That same day, the president's Flow Rate Technical Group #x2013; a team of health social scientists charged with establishing the gusher's output #x2013; announced a new estimate of 12,000 to 25,000 barrels, based on calculations from video of the plume. For Research! In fact, according to interviews with team members and scientists familiar with its work, that figure represents the plume group's minimum estimate.

The upper range was not included in their report because scientists analyzing the wild cat falling flow were unable to reach a consensus on how bad it could be. The upper bound from the plume group, if it had come out, is papers very high, says Timothy Crone, a marine geophysicist at Columbia University who has consulted with the government's team. That's why they had resistance internally. We're talking 100,000 barrels a day. The median figure for Crone's independent calculations is of being essay 55,000 barrels a day #x2013; the equivalent of an Exxon Valdez every five days. That's what the issues for research plume team's numbers show too, Crone says. A source privy to internal discussions at one of the world's top oil companies confirms that the robot industry privately agrees with such estimates. The industry definitely believes the higher-end values, the source says.

That's accurate #x2013; if not more than that. The reason, he adds, is that BP appears to have unleashed one of the 10 most productive wells in the Gulf. BP screwed up a really big, big find, the source says. And if they can't cap this, it's not going to papers blow itself out anytime soon. Even worse, the moratorium on drilling announced by the president does little to prevent future disasters. The ban halts exploratory drilling at only 33 deepwater operations, shutting down less than one percent of the total wells in the Gulf. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar, the Cabinet-level official appointed by a teenager essay, Obama to rein in the oil industry, boasts that the moratorium is not a moratorium that will affect production #x2013; which continues at 5,106 wells in government issues for research papers the Gulf, including 591 in and problems a teenager essay deep water. Most troubling of government all, the the pleasures of being government has allowed BP to continue deep-sea production at its Atlantis rig #x2013; one of the world's largest oil platforms. Capable of drawing 200,000 barrels a day from the seafloor, Atlantis is located only 150 miles off the coast of Louisiana, in waters nearly 2,000 feet deeper than BP drilled at Deepwater Horizon. According to congressional documents, the platform lacks required engineering certification for as much as 90 percent of its subsea components #x2013; a flaw that internal BP documents reveal could lead to catastrophic errors.

In a May 19th letter to Salazar, 26 congressmen called for government issues papers the rig to be shut down immediately. Ay Resume! We are very concerned, they wrote, that the tragedy at Deepwater Horizon could foreshadow an accident at BP Atlantis. The administration's response to government issues papers the looming threat? According to an e-mail to a congressional aide from a staff member at ay resume MMS, the agency has had zero contact with Atlantis about its safety risks since the Deepwater rig went down. During the Bush years, the Minerals Management Service, the agency in the Interior Department charged with safeguarding the environment from the ravages of drilling, descended into rank criminality. According to reports by Interior's inspector general, MMS staffers were both literally and figuratively in bed with the oil industry.

When agency staffers weren't joining industry employees for coke parties or trips to corporate ski chalets, they were having sex with oil-company officials. Government For Research! But it was American taxpayers and the environment that were getting screwed. MMS managers were awarded cash bonuses for pushing through risky offshore leases, auditors were ordered not to investigate shady deals, and safety staffers routinely accepted gifts from the industry, allegedly even allowing oil companies to fill in of being a teenager their own inspection reports in pencil before tracing over issues for research papers, them in pen. The oil companies were running MMS during those years, Bobby Maxwell, a former top auditor with the agency, told Rolling Stone last year. Whatever they wanted, they got. Nothing was being enforced across the board at MMS. Salazar himself has worked hard to foster the impression that the prior administration is to blame for the catastrophe.

In reality, though, the Obama administration was fully aware from the outset of the need to correct the lapses at MMS that led directly to the disaster in the Gulf. In fact, Obama specifically nominated Salazar #x2013; his great and dear friend #x2013; to force the homework robot department to clean up its act. For too long, Obama declared, Interior has been seen as an for research papers appendage of commercial interests rather than serving the people. That's going to change under Ken Salazar. Salazar took over Interior in and problems of being essay January 2009, vowing to restore the department's respect for scientific integrity. He immediately traveled to MMS headquarters outside Denver and delivered a beat-down to staffers for their blatant and for research criminal conflicts of interest and paper on biology self-dealing that had set one of the worst examples of corruption and abuse in government.

Promising to set the issues standard for reform, Salazar declared, The American people will know the Minerals Management Service as a defender of the taxpayer. You are the ones who will make special interests play by the rules. Dressed in his trademark Stetson and bolo tie, Salazar boldly proclaimed, There's a new sheriff in town. Salazar's early moves certainly created the impression that he meant what he said. Within days of health social essays taking office, he jettisoned the Bush administration's plan to open 300#xA0;million acres #x2013; in Alaska, the Gulf, and up and down both coasts #x2013; to offshore drilling. Government Papers! The proposal had been published in homework help the Federal Register literally at midnight on the day that Bush left the White House. Salazar denounced the plan as a headlong rush of the government for research worst kind, saying it would have put in place a process rigged to force hurried decisions based on bad information. Speaking to Rolling Stone in March 2009, the the pleasures and problems of being essay secretary underscored his commitment to government issues for research papers reform. We have embarked on an ambitious agenda to clean up the mess, he insisted.

We have the inspector general involved with us in a preventive mode so that the department doesn't commit the wild essay same mistakes of the past. The crackdown, he added, goes beyond just codes of ethics. Except that it didn't. Salazar did little to tamp down on the lawlessness at government issues papers MMS, beyond referring a few employees for criminal prosecution and ending a Bush-era program that allowed oil companies to make their royalty payments #x2013; the amount they owe taxpayers for extracting a scarce public resource #x2013; not in health essays cash but in crude. And instead of putting the brakes on new offshore drilling, Salazar immediately throttled it up to record levels. Even though he had scrapped the Bush plan, Salazar put 53#xA0;million offshore acres up for lease in the Gulf in his first year alone #x2013; an all-time high. The aggressive leasing came as no surprise, given Salazar's track record. Issues For Research! This guy has a long, long history of promoting offshore oil drilling #x2013; that's his thing, says Kier#xE1;n Suckling, executive director of the Center for Biological Diversity. He's got a highly specific soft spot for offshore oil drilling.

As a senator, Salazar not only steered passage of the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act, which opened 8#xA0;million acres in the Gulf to drilling, he even criticized President Bush for not forcing oil companies to develop existing leases faster. Salazar was far less aggressive, however, when it came to making good on his promise to fix MMS. Though he criticized the actions of a few rotten apples at the agency, he left long-serving lackeys of the oil industry in charge. The people that are ethically challenged are the career managers, the people who come up through the ranks, says a marine biologist who left the agency over the way science was tampered with by wild cat falling essay, top officials. Government For Research! In order to get promoted at MMS, you better get invested in this pro-development oil culture. One of the Bush-era managers whom Salazar left in place was John Goll, the agency's director for Alaska.

Shortly after, the Interior secretary announced a reorganization of MMS in ay resume the wake of the Gulf disaster, Goll called a staff meeting and served cake decorated with the words Drill, baby, drill. Salazar also failed to government for research papers remove Chris Oynes, a top MMS official who had been a central figure in a multibillion-dollar scandal that Interior's inspector general called a jaw-dropping example of bureaucratic bungling. In the 1990s, industry lobbyists secured a sweetheart subsidy from Congress: Drillers would pay no royalties on oil extracted in deep water until prices rose above $28 a barrel. But this tripwire was conveniently omitted in Gulf leases overseen by Oynes #x2013; a mistake that will let the oil giants pocket as much as $53#xA0;billion. Health Social! Instead of being fired for this fuckup, however, Oynes was promoted by Bush to become associate director for offshore drilling #x2013; a position he kept under Salazar until the government issues papers Gulf disaster hit. Employees describe being in Interior #x2013; not just MMS, but the other agencies #x2013; as the third Bush term, says Jeff Ruch, executive director of on biology Public Employees for government issues papers Environmental Responsibility, which represents federal whistle-blowers. Help! They're working for government papers the same managers who are implementing the same policies. Why would you expect a different result? T he tale of the Deepwater Horizon disaster is, at its core, the tale of two blowout preventers: one mechanical, one regulatory.

The regulatory blowout preventer failed long before BP ever started to drill #x2013; precisely because Salazar kept in place the crooked environmental guidelines the Bush administration implemented to favor the oil industry. MMS has fully understood the homework robot worst-case scenarios for deep-sea oil blowouts for more than a decade. In May 2000, an environmental assessment for deepwater drilling in the Gulf presciently warned that spill responses may be complicated by government issues, the potential for very large magnitude spills (because of the the pleasures a teenager high production rates associated with deepwater wells). The report noted that the oil industry has estimated worst-case spill volumes ranging from 5,000 to 116,000 barrels a day for 120 days, and it even anticipated the underwater plumes of government issues oil that are currently haunting the Gulf: Oil released subsea (e.g., subsea blowout or pipeline leak) in these deepwater environments could remain submerged for nashville some period of time and travel away from the issues papers spill site. The report ominously concluded, There are few practical spill-response options for dealing with submerged oil. That same month, an MMS research document developed with deepwater drillers #x2013; including the company then known as BP Amoco #x2013; warned that such a spill could spell the ay resume end for issues offshore operations. The industry could ill afford a deepwater blowout, the document cautions, adding that no single company has the solution to ay resume such a catastrophe. The real test will come if a deepwater blowout occurs. Enter the Bush administration. Rather than heeding such warnings, MMS simply assumed that a big spill couldn't happen. There was a complete failure to even contemplate the possibility of a disaster like the one in the Gulf, says Holly Doremus, an environmental-law expert at the University of issues papers California.

In their thinking, a big spill would be something like 5,000 barrels, and the oil wouldn't even reach the shoreline. In fact, Bush's five-year plan for tennessee offshore drilling described a large oil spill as no more than 1,500 barrels. In April 2007, an environmental assessment covering the area where BP would drill concluded that blowouts were low probability and low risk, even though a test funded by MMS had found that blowout preventers failed 28 percent of the time. And an environmental assessment for BP's lease block concluded that offshore spills are not expected to issues damage significantly any wetlands along the Gulf Coast. In reality, MMS had little way to assess the risk to of being a teenager wildlife, since a new policy instituted under Bush scrapped environmental analysis and fast-tracked permits. Declaring that oil companies themselves were in the best position to determine the environmental effects of drilling, the new rules pre-qualified deep-sea drillers to issues papers receive a categorical exclusion #x2013; an exemption from environmental review that was originally intended to prevent minor projects, like outhouses on hiking trails, from being tied up in cat falling red tape.

There's no analytical component to a cat-ex, says a former MMS scientist. You have technicians, not scientists, that are simply checking boxes to make sure all the T's are crossed. They just cut and paste from previous approvals. Nowhere was the absurdity of the policy more evident than in the application that BP submitted for its Deepwater Horizon well only two months after Obama took office. BP claims that a spill is unlikely and states that it anticipates no adverse impacts to endangered wildlife or fisheries. For Research! Should a spill occur, it says, no significant adverse impacts are expected for on biology the region's beaches, wetlands and coastal nesting birds. The company, noting that such elements are not required as part of the application, contains no scenario for a potential blowout, and no site-specific plan to respond to issues for research a spill. The Pleasures And Problems Of Being! Instead, it cites an Oil Spill Response Plan that it had prepared for the entire Gulf region.

Among the sensitive species BP anticipates protecting in the semitropical Gulf? Walruses and other cold-water mammals, including sea otters and for research papers sea lions. The mistake appears to be the on biology result of a sloppy cut-and-paste job from government for research papers, BP's drilling plans for the Arctic. Even worse: Among the primary equipment providers for rapid deployment of spill response resources, BP inexplicably provides the social essays Web address of a Japanese home-shopping network. Issues! Such glaring errors expose the 582-page response plan as nothing more than a paperwork exercise.

It was clear that nobody read it, says Ruch, who represents government scientists. This response plan is not worth the paper it is robot written on, said Rick Steiner, a retired professor of marine science at the University of Alaska who helped lead the government papers scientific response to the pleasures and problems essay the Valdez disaster. Government For Research Papers! Incredibly, this voluminous document never once discusses how to stop a deepwater blowout. Scientists like Steiner had urgently tried to alert Obama to paper the depth of the government issues rot at MMS. I talked to cat falling essay the transition team, Steiner says. I told them that MMS was a disaster and needed to be seriously reformed. A top-to-bottom restructuring of MMS didn't require anything more than Ken Salazar's will: The agency only exists by issues papers, order of the wild Interior secretary. He had full authority to change anything he wanted, says Rep.

Issa, a longtime critic of issues MMS. He didn't use it. Even though Salazar knew that the environmental risks of offshore drilling had been covered up under Bush, he failed to order new assessments. They could have said, 'We cannot conclude there won't be significant impacts from drilling until we redo those reviews,' says Brendan Cummings, senior counsel for the Center for Biological Diversity. Health Essays! But the oil industry would have cried foul. And what we've seen with Salazar is issues that when the oil industry squeaks, he retreats. Under Salazar, MMS continued to issue categorical exclusions to companies like BP, even when they lacked the the pleasures and problems a teenager essay necessary permits to protect endangered species.

A preliminary review of the BP disaster conducted by scientists with the government issues independent Deepwater Horizon Study Group concludes that MMS failed to enforce a host of health essays environmental laws, including the government for research papers Clean Water Act. MMS and Interior are equally responsible for the failures here, says the former agency scientist. Health Social! They weren't willing to government issues for research papers take the regulatory steps that could have prevented this incident. Had MMS been following the law, it would never have granted BP a categorical exclusion #x2013; which are applicable only to activities that have no significant effect on the human environment. Cat Falling Essay! At a recent hearing, Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse grilled Salazar about Interior's own handbook on for research papers, categorical exclusions, which bars their issuance for offshore projects in relatively untested deep water or utilizing new or unusual technology #x2013; standards that Whitehouse called plainly pertinent for paper on biology BP's rig. It's hard for me to see that that's a determination that could have been made in good faith, Whitehouse said, noting that the monstrously complex task of drilling for oil a mile beneath the surface of the ocean appeared to have been given less oversight than is government required of average Americans rewiring their homes. Who was watching? Not the Interior secretary. Salazar did not even ensure that MMS had a written manual #x2013; required under Interior's own rules #x2013; for complying with environmental laws.

According to an investigation in March by the Government Accountability Office, MMS managers relied instead on informal institutional knowledge #x2013; passed down from the Bush administration. The sole written guidance appeared on a website that only provided, according to the report, one paragraph about assessing environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, not detailed instructions that could lead an the pleasures a teenager analyst through the process of drafting an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement. People are being really circumspect, not pointing the finger at government for research papers Salazar and Obama, says Rep. The Pleasures And Problems A Teenager! Raul Grijalva, who oversees the for research Interior Department as chair of the House subcommittee on public lands. But the ay resume troublesome point is, the issues administration knew that it had this rot in the middle of the process on offshore drilling #x2013; yet it empowered an homework help robot already discredited, disgraced agency to essentially be in charge. On April 6th of last year, less than a month after BP submitted its application, MMS gave the oil giant the go-ahead to drill in papers the Gulf without a comprehensive environmental review. The one-page approval put no restrictions on BP, issuing only a mild suggestion that would prove prescient: Exercise caution while drilling due to indications of shallow gas. B P is the last oil company on Earth that Salazar and MMS should have allowed to regulate itself. The firm is a teenager implicated in each of the worst oil disasters in American history, dating back to the Exxon Valdez in 1989. At the time, BP directed the industry consortium that bungled the cleanup response to Valdez during the for research fateful early hours of the spill, when the cat falling essay worst of the damage occurred. Vital equipment was buried under snow, no cleanup ship was standing by and no containment barge was available to collect skimmed oil.

Exxon, quickly recognizing what still seems to elude the Obama administration, quickly shunted BP aside and took control of the spill. In March 2006, BP was responsible for an Alaska pipeline rupture that spilled more than 250,000 gallons of crude into Prudhoe Bay #x2013; at the time, a spill second in government issues size only to cat falling the Valdez disaster. Government Issues For Research Papers! Investigators found that BP had repeatedly ignored internal warnings about corrosion brought about by draconian cost cutting. Health Essays! The company got off cheap in the spill: While the EPA recommended slapping the firm with as much as $672#xA0;million in government issues papers fines, the Bush administration allowed it to settle for just $20#xA0;million. BP has also cut corners at help nashville tennessee the expense of its own workers. In 2005, 15 workers were killed and 170 injured after a tower filled with gasoline exploded at government issues papers a BP refinery in social Texas. Investigators found that the company had flouted its own safety procedures and illegally shut off a warning system before the government issues for research papers blast. Health Social Essays! An internal cost-benefit analysis conducted by BP #x2013; explicitly based on the children's tale The Three Little Pigs #x2013; revealed that the government issues oil giant had considered making buildings at the refinery blast-resistant to protect its workers (the pigs) from an ay resume explosion (the wolf). BP knew lives were on issues for research, the line: If the wolf blows down the house, the piggy is gobbled. But the paper on biology company determined it would be cheaper to simply pay off the families of dead pigs.

After the issues for research papers blast, BP pleaded guilty to a felony, paying $50#xA0;million to settle a criminal investigation and ay resume another $21#xA0;million for violating federal safety laws. But the fines failed to force BP to change its ways. In October, Labor Secretary Hilda Solis hit the company with a proposed $87#xA0;million in new fines #x2013; the highest in history #x2013; for continued safety violations at government for research papers the same facility. Since 2007, according to analysis by the Center for Public Integrity, BP has received 760 citations for egregious and willful safety violations #x2013; those committed with plain indifference to or intentional disregard for ay resume employee safety and for research papers health. The rest of the oil industry combined has received a total of one. The company applied the same deadly cost-cutting mentality to its oil rig in the Gulf. BP, it is important to note, is less an oil company than a bank that finances oil exploration; unlike ExxonMobil, which owns most of the equipment it uses to drill, BP contracts out almost everything. That includes the Deepwater Horizon rig that it leased from a firm called Transocean.

BP shaved $500,000 off its overhead by deploying a blowout preventer without a remote-control trigger #x2013; a fail-safe measure required in many countries but not mandated by MMS, thanks to the pleasures of being a teenager essay intense industry lobbying. Government Issues! It opted to use cheap, single-walled piping for health the well, and installed only six of the government for research papers 21 cement spacers recommended by homework help robot, its contractor, Halliburton #x2013; decisions that significantly increased the risk of for research a severe explosion. Health Social Essays! It also skimped on critical testing that could have shown whether explosive gas was getting into the system as it was being cemented, and government issues for research papers began removing mud that protected the help tennessee well before it was sealed with cement plugs. As BP was cutting corners aboard the rig, the Obama administration was plotting the greatest expansion of offshore drilling in half a century. In 2008, as prices at for research the pump neared $5 a gallon, President Bush had lifted an executive moratorium on offshore drilling outside the Gulf that had been implemented by his father following the Exxon Valdez . On the campaign trail, Obama had stressed that offshore drilling will not make a real dent in current gas prices or meet the wild cat falling essay long-term challenge of energy independence.

But once in government papers office, he bowed to the politics of drill, baby, drill. Hoping to wild use oil as a bargaining chip to win votes for climate legislation in Congress, Obama unveiled an aggressive push for new offshore drilling in the Arctic, the government issues papers Southeastern seaboard and new waters in the Gulf, closer to Florida than ever before. In doing so, he ignored his administration's top experts on paper, ocean science, who warned that the offshore plan dramatically understated the risks of an oil spill and petitioned Salazar to exempt the Arctic from drilling until more scientific studies could be conducted. Undeterred, Obama and Salazar appeared together at Andrews Air Force Base on March 31st to introduce the plan. The stagecraft was pure Rove in its technicolor militaristic patriotism. The president's podium was set up in front of the issues for research cockpit of an F-18, flanked by a massive American flag.

We are not here to do what is easy, Salazar declared. We are here to do what is right. He insisted that his reforms at MMS were working: We are making decisions based on sound information and sound science. Ay Resume! The president, for his part, praised Salazar as one of the finest secretaries of Interior we've ever had and stressed that his administration had studied the drilling plan for issues for research more than a year. This is not a decision that I've made lightly, he said. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee! Two days later, he issued an even more sweeping assurance. It turns out, by the way, that oil rigs today generally don't cause spills, the president said. They are technologically very advanced. Eighteen days later, on the eve of the 40th anniversary of issues Earth Day, the Deepwater Horizon rig went off like a bomb.

F rom the start of its operation in the Gulf, BP had found itself struggling against powerful kicks from essay, gas buildup, just as MMS had warned. Now, on April 20th, the pent-up methane exploded in a fireball that incinerated 11 workers. Like a scene out of a real-life Jerry Bruckheimer film, the half-billion-dollar rig #x2013; 32,000 tons and 30 stories tall #x2013; listed over and sank to the bottom two days later, taking a mile of pipe down with it. Within hours, the government assembled a response team at the war room of the National Oceanographic and issues for research papers Atmospheric Administration in Seattle. Cat Falling! The scene, captured by a NOAA cameraman and briefly posted on the agency's website, provides remarkable insight into the government's engagement during the earliest hours of the catastrophe, and, more troubling, the role of top administration figures in downplaying its horrific scope.

At a conference table, nearly a dozen scientists gather around a map of the Gulf. Joshua Slater, a commissioned NOAA officer dressed in his uniform, runs the show. So far we've created a trajectory [of the slick] that was passed up the chain of command to the Coast Guard and eventually to the president showing where the oil might go, he tells the assembled team. BP's remote operated sub, he adds, was unsuccessful in activating the blowout preventers, so we're gearing up right now. An NOAA expert on oil disasters jumps in: I think we need to be prepared for it to be the spill of the decade. Written on issues for research papers, a whiteboard at the front of the room is the government's initial, worst-case estimate of the size of the spill. While the ay resume figure is dramatically higher than any official estimate issued by BP or the government, it is in government issues for research line with the high-end calculations by scientists who have monitored the spill. Estm: 64k - 110k bbls/Day.

The equivalent of up to paper on biology three Exxon Valdez spills gushing into the Gulf of Mexico every week. Later in the video, a voice on speakerphone with a heavy Southern accent reveals that government scientists were concerned from the very beginning about government underwater plumes of oil #x2013; a reality that NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco and BP executives are still seeking to downplay. Homework Help Robot! They weren't sure how that oil was going to issues for research react once it was spilled, the the pleasures a teenager voice says. Whether it was going to rise, or form layers and start twisting around. Government Issues For Research Papers! The government, in short, knew from the start that surface measurements of the oil slick #x2013; on which it would premise its absurdly low estimate of 5,000 barrels a day #x2013; were likely to be unreliable.

By that evening, the White House was gearing up for an urgent response. The president convened an emergency meeting in the Oval Office with Adm. Ay Resume! Thad Allen, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar and top White House deputies Rahm Emanuel, Carol Browner and Larry Summers. Government For Research! Obama forcefully instructed his team that the the pleasures and problems of being a teenager response to issues papers the oil spill should be treated as a number-one priority. But then the fog of war set in. The following day, the Coast Guard #x2013; relying on assurances from BP #x2013; declared that the spill appeared to be limited to oil that was stored aboard the sunken rig. With a worst-case crisis seemingly averted, Obama checked out, heading off for a long weekend in Asheville, North Carolina, where he and the first lady would stop for ribs at a barbecue joint called 12 Bones Smokehouse before checking into the Grove Park Inn, a golf resort and spa. Asked whether the spill would hamper the president's offshore drilling agenda, spokesman Gibbs made light of the disaster. I don't honestly think it opens up a whole new series of questions, he said. I doubt this is the first accident that has happened, and I doubt it will be the last. The next day, April 24th, Landry told reporters that leaks had been discovered in the riser pipe and estimated the flow at 1,000 barrels a day.

This is a very serious spill, she said. Over the next five days, the administration took significant steps to deal with the spill, but the effort fell far short of what was needed to tackle a crisis that BP was already privately estimating could be as catastrophic as 14,000 barrels a day. The Pleasures Essay! A Joint Information Center #x2013; a strange partnership involving BP, the issues for research Coast Guard and MMS #x2013; was set up in Louisiana. Senior officials met with BP CEO Tony Hayward to receive briefings on the company efforts to stop the flow. Help! The Navy opened a base in Florida as a staging area for BP's cleanup work.

Salazar ordered inspections for government for research rigs throughout the Gulf and visited BP's command center in Houston. Napolitano began an investigation into and problems a teenager the disaster. The president himself was occupied elsewhere. After returning from his vacation, Obama spent Monday, April 26th palling around with Derek Jeter and the New York Yankees, congratulating them on their World Series victory. He later took time to chat with the president of issues for research papers Honduras. When he put in a call to Gov. Paper On Biology! Haley Barbour of Mississippi, it was to issues papers talk about the pleasures of being essay tornadoes that had caused damage in that state, with only a brief mention of the oil spill. Government For Research Papers! On Tuesday the 27th, Obama visited a wind-turbine plant in Iowa. Wednesday the ay resume 28th, he toured a biofuels refinery in for research Missouri and talked up financial reform in Quincy, Illinois.

He didn't mention the ay resume oil spill or the Gulf. That evening, administration officials received news that #x2013; to issues for research papers judge from health social essays, their subsequent response #x2013; scared the shit out of them. The following is for research not public, a confidential NOAA advisory stressed. Two additional release points were found today in the tangled riser. Cat Falling! If the issues papers riser pipe deteriorates further, the flow could become unchecked, resulting in a release volume an ay resume order of magnitude higher than previously thought. There is government no official change in the volume released but the [Coast Guard] is no longer stating that the release rate is 1,000 barrels a day.

Instead they are saying that they are preparing for a worst-case release and bringing all assets to bear. Standing before the cameras, a visibly shaken Landry bumbled through the reading of a press release. Although BP continued to believe its estimate of 1,000 barrels a day, she said, NOAA experts believe the output could be as much as 5,000 barrels. Health Social! The remarks established, for the first time, a figure that both BP and the government would stick to government papers long past its sell-by date. After he was briefed that evening, Obama told his deputies to contact the Pentagon. Thesis! The following day, Napolitano declared the BP disaster, which was now approaching the government size of ay resume Puerto Rico, an Oil Spill of National Significance #x2013; the designation required to draw on regional resources and to appoint an incident commander to coordinate a federal response. It had taken a full week after Deepwater Horizon exploded for the government to government for research become fully engaged #x2013; a critical lapse that allowed the crisis to health social essays spiral out of control. T he White House press office organized a show of overwhelming force, with Gibbs convening Browner, Napolitano, Deputy Interior Secretary David Hayes, EPA chief Lisa Jackson and Coast Guard Rear Adm. Sally Brice-O'Hara for a single press conference on April 29th. Though clearly meant to signal engagement, the all-star crew didn't have their message straight.

When Brice-O'Hara praised the professionalism of our partner, BP, Napolitano quickly barked, They are not our partner! They are not our partner! For her part, Napolitano revealed that she didn't know whether the Defense Department possessed any assets that could help contain the spill, and government issues for research referred vaguely to whatever methodologies BP was using to seal the ay resume well. Instead of seizing the reins, the Obama administration cast itself in a supporting role, insisting that BP was responsible for cleaning up the mess. Government For Research Papers! When you say the company is responsible and the government has oversight, a reporter asked Gibbs on May 3rd, does that mean that the government is ultimately in charge of the cleanup? Gibbs was blunt: No, he insisted, the responsible party is BP. In fact, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan #x2013; the on biology federal regulations that lay out the command-and-control responsibilities for issues papers cleaning up an oil spill #x2013; makes clear that an oil company like BP cannot be left in charge of such a serious disaster. The plan plainly states that the ay resume government must direct all federal, state or private actions to government issues for research papers clean up a spill where a discharge or threat of discharge poses a substantial threat to the public health or welfare of the United States. The government is in a situation where it's required to be in charge, says William Funk, a professor of social essays environmental and issues for research papers administrative law at Lewis and essay Clark College who previously worked as a staff attorney in the Justice Department.

What's more, the administration failed to ensure that BP was prepared to respond to the mess on the surface, where a lack of ships and equipment has left more than 100 miles of the coast #x2013; including vast stretches of fragile marshlands #x2013; covered in government papers crude. According to MMS regulations, the agency is supposed to inspect the ay resume stockpiles of industry's equipment for the containment and cleanup of issues for research oil spills. In BP's case, the agency should have made sure the company was prepared to clean up a spill of 250,000 barrels a day. But when Rolling Stone asked MMS whether BP had the required containment equipment on hand, the agency's head of public affairs in the Gulf replied, I am not clear if MMS has the info that you are requesting. The effect of leaving BP in charge of capping the well, says a scientist involved in the government side of the effort, has been like a drunk driver getting into a car wreck and then helping the essay police with the accident investigation. Indeed, the administration has seemed oddly untroubled about leaving the Gulf's fate in issues for research papers the hands of a repeat criminal offender, and uncurious about the crimes that may have been committed leading up to the initial sinking of the rig. The Obama Justice Department took more than 40 days after the paper initial blast killed 11 workers to announce it was opening a criminal probe. From the start, the administration has seemed intent on issues for research, allowing BP to operate in near-total secrecy. Much of what the ay resume public knows about the government issues for research crisis it owes to Rep. Ed Markey, who chairs the thesis tennessee House Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment. Under pressure from Markey, BP was forced to release footage of the gusher, admit that its early estimates put the leak as high as 14,000 barrels a day and government papers post a live feed of its undersea operations on the Internet #x2013; video that administration officials had possessed from the earliest days of the disaster.

We cannot trust BP, Markey said. It's clear they have been hiding the health actual consequences of this spill. But rather than applying such skepticism to for research papers BP's math, the Obama administration has instead attacked scientists who released independent estimates of the spill. When one scientist funded by NOAA released a figure much higher than the government's estimate, he found himself being pressured to retract it by on biology, officials at the agency. Are you sure you want to keep saying this? they badgered him.

Lubchenco, the head of NOAA, even denounced as misleading and premature reports that scientists aboard the research vessel Pelican had discovered a massive subsea oil plume. Speaking to PBS, she offered a bizarre denial of the government papers obvious. It's clear that there is something at depth, she said, but we don't even know that it's oil yet. Scientists were stunned that NOAA, an agency widely respected for its scientific integrity, appeared to have been co-opted by the White House spin machine. NOAA has actively pushed back on every fact that has ever come out, says one ocean scientist who works with the agency. They're denying until the facts are so overwhelming, they finally come out and issue an admittance. Others are furious at the agency for cat falling essay criticizing the work of scientists studying the oil plumes rather than leading them. Why they didn't have vessels there right then and government issues for research papers start to gather the thesis nashville tennessee scientific data on oil and government issues for research what the impacts are to different organisms is inexcusable, says a former government marine biologist. They should have been right on top of help that. Only six weeks into the disaster did the government issues papers agency finally deploy its own research vessel to investigate the plumes. T he failure of the Obama administration to crack down on BP #x2013; and to tackle the crisis with the full force of the federal government #x2013; is likely to haunt the Gulf Coast for decades to come.

Oil continues to help lap up onshore in Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida. Pelican rookeries are fouled, their eggs and nests soaked in oil. The region's fisheries #x2013; some of the richest in the world #x2013; are imperiled; anglers and shrimpers have been barred from issues papers, more than a third of the Gulf's waters, which may never fully recover from the toxic stew of ay resume crude and for research chemical dispersant now twisting in its depths. The region's beaches are empty, and tourist towns are dying. Administration officials now admit that the paper on biology oil may continue to gush into the Gulf until August, when relief wells are finally in place. Both the government and BP have reasons to downplay the extent of the government issues spill. For BP, the motive is paper financial: Under the Clean Water Act, the papers company could owe fines of as much as $4,300 for every barrel spilled, in addition to royalties for the oil it is squandering.

For the Obama administration, the disaster threatens to derail the president's plan to expand offshore drilling. Health Social Essays! It's crystal clear what the federal response to the tragedy ought to issues be, said Sen. Frank Lautenberg, who chairs the Senate subcommittee on environmental health. Bring a dangerous offshore drilling pursuit to an end. The administration, however, has made clear that it has no intention of reversing its plan to expand offshore drilling.

Four weeks into the BP disaster, when Salazar was questioned in health essays a Senate hearing about the future of the president's plan, he was happy to stand up for the industry's desire to drill at any cost. Isn't it true, asked Sen. Issues! Lamar Alexander, a Republican from Tennessee, that as terrible as the tragedy is, that unless we want $14, $16, $18, $20-a-gallon gasoline, that it's not realistic to think that we would actually stop drilling for help oil in the Gulf? Unbowed by the catastrophe that was still unfolding on his watch, Salazar heartily agreed, testifying that the president had directed him to move forward on government for research papers, offshore drilling. That may help explain why the administration has gone to unusual lengths to contain the spill's political fallout. On May 14th, two days after the first video of the gusher was released, the government allowed BP to apply a toxic dispersant that is essays banned in England at the source of the leak #x2013; an unprecedented practice in for research papers the deep ocean. The effort should be in paper on biology recovering the oil, not making it more difficult to recover by dispersing it, says Sylvia Earle, a famed oceanographer and former NOAA chief scientist who helped the agency confront the world's worst-ever oil spill in the Persian Gulf after the first Iraq War. The chemical assault appeared geared, she says, to improving the issues for research papers appearance of the problem rather than solving the social essays problem. Critics of the administration's drilling plans fear that the president's decision to postpone drilling in the Arctic and appoint a commission to government issues for research papers investigate the BP spill are merely stalling tactics, designed to blunt public anger about the tennessee disaster.

The way the PR is spinning is once that spill is plugged, then people declare victory, says Rep. Grijalva. Issues For Research Papers! The commission stalls it long enough where the memory of the American people starts to fade a little bit on the issue. After that, we're back to where we were. #xA0; President Obama pushed to expand offshore drilling, in part, to win votes for climate legislation, which remains blocked in the Senate. The political calculus is understandable #x2013; the risk of an oil spill weighed against wild, the far greater threat posed by government papers, global warming #x2013; but in the end, he may have succeeded only in compounding one environmental catastrophe with another. The Pleasures And Problems Of Being! Even if the climate bill is eventually approved, the disaster in the Gulf will serve as a lasting and ugly reminder of the price we paid for our addiction to oil. It was a bargain with the devil, says Steiner, the marine scientist who helped lead the response to the Valdez disaster. And now the devil is gloating.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for government for research over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. Paper On Biology? This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy.

Note: Some teachers use the government papers term argument essay and others call it a position essay. Ay Resume? These terms mean the same thing and issues for research, are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the robot community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for government issues for research papers young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to of being essay compete at government issues for research papers athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to ay resume be more active? (policy) Should people on government for research papers, welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of homework help robot, more females to for research political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for paper your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in developing countries.

Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of government issues papers, hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an paper educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to for research papers graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from homework help other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of issues, a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to paper on biology take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. Issues? (definition) Computers are changing the robot way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the government for research papers reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to paper on biology each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by papers, i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is homework robot social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of for research papers, social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to wild cat falling essay experiment on government, human embryos? (value) What is and problems a teenager nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games?

Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to for research act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is paper cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on government for research papers, other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in social essays the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is for research race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on nashville, ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for issues papers people to thesis tennessee adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to government for research teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about social it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for government for research papers everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the thesis nashville tennessee current trend of government issues for research papers, species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to help look through your textbook to find essays to issues for research spark ideas. Social? In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for issues looking for a topic. Ay Resume? You can take an government issues for research papers idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about help tennessee that issue.

Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the government for research news to social essays give you an idea of what to write about. Government? Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by wild cat falling, Virginia Kearney 22.

Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for government for research College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. And Problems Of Being A Teenager? I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and government for research, ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not.

Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. Paper On Biology? In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is government for research papers not being done.

Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to on biology go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to government issues start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Help Robot? Next, you might want to interview some people to find out papers, their positions and to get some quotes on this topic.

Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to homework help learn better. In the government for research papers United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in thesis help nashville English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by government issues, age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. Social Essays? However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in issues for research papers the U.S. but not true in homework a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and government issues for research, one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in paper schools.

Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in government papers one of help robot, my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the for research leader of North Korea isn't really crazy.

I have this assignment of playing the health social role of devil's advocate and government for research papers, I can't think of tennessee, a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Government For Research Papers? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from paper on biology United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to government issues papers be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for health social essays a topic.

Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and issues, I do hope you will consider it. Ay Resume? I have chosen a topic to government issues for research papers use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Help Robot? Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.

Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and for research papers, acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. On Biology? I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them.

Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Government For Research Papers? Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for a teenager my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on issues papers, how to introduce essays and ay resume, find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of government issues papers, excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print).

One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by health essays, others) when they are able to share about government issues papers their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an paper Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from issues United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at health social essays the links that usually appear when you pull up one of government issues, my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. Wild Cat Falling? To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Government Issues For Research? Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to on biology start . My topic is for research cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you.

I think that is video gaming good or bad is homework help robot a great topic to government issues for research papers choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is paper on biology beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago.

Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing!

Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from papers Northeast Ohio. Wild? Great topics for a variety of essays for government issues for research everyone who needs to the pleasures of being a teenager be inspired. Voted up for government issues for research useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. Cat Falling? These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously.

Thank you so much. Thank you for issues these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for thesis school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the government for research papers main steps: 1. Paper On Biology? Choose a question you are going to write about.

Then think about what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to issues for research papers think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is wild cat falling your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Government Issues For Research? Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and help robot, believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the government for research papers main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons.

That is what you will use to ay resume support those three reasons. Issues For Research Papers? 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of ay resume, what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by issues for research papers, my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on health essays, the page so you can find them more easily.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. For Research Papers? You can also narrow that to particular types of paper on biology, vaccinations that are new like the government issues for research papers chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on paper, this topic is whether or not it is government for research papers true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in the past. Is the essay right to vaccinate children a good topic?

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to government for research obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for ay resume your health. Issues? Or you can talk about wild cat falling essay GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is government great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the help devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and well done as usual.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and issues for research, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on ay resume, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Essays of Schopenhauer, by Arthur Schopenhauer. Ignorance is government issues for research papers, degrading only when it is found in company with riches. Want and penury restrain the poor man; his employment takes the place of cat falling essay knowledge and occupies his thoughts: while rich men who are ignorant live for their pleasure only, and resemble a beast; as may be seen daily. They are to be reproached also for not having used wealth and leisure for government for research papers, that which lends them their greatest value. When we read, another person thinks for us: we merely repeat his mental process. It is the paper on biology, same as the pupil, in learning to write, following with his pen the lines that have been pencilled by the teacher. Issues For Research? Accordingly, in reading, the work of thinking is, for the greater part, done for us. This is why we are consciously relieved when we turn to reading after being occupied with our own thoughts. But, in reading, our head is, however, really only the arena of paper on biology some one else’s thoughts. And so it happens that the person who reads a great deal — that is to say, almost the whole day, and government issues for research, recreates himself by spending the intervals in thoughtless diversion, gradually loses the ability to think for himself; just as a man who is always riding at paper, last forgets how to issues, walk.

Such, however, is the the pleasures a teenager essay, case with many men of learning: they have read themselves stupid. For to read in issues papers every spare moment, and to read constantly, is more paralysing to the mind than constant manual work, which, at the pleasures and problems a teenager, any rate, allows one to follow one’s own thoughts. Government Issues For Research? Just as a spring, through the wild cat falling essay, continual pressure of a foreign body, at last loses its elasticity, so does the mind if it has another person’s thoughts continually forced upon it. And just as one spoils the stomach by overfeeding and thereby impairs the issues papers, whole body, so can one overload and choke the mind by giving it too much nourishment. For the the pleasures of being a teenager, more one reads the fewer are the traces left of issues for research papers what one has read; the mind is like a tablet that has been written over and over. Hence it is impossible to reflect; and robot, it is only by reflection that one can assimilate what one has read if one reads straight ahead without pondering over government issues for research papers, it later, what has been read does not take root, but is for the most part lost. Indeed, it is the same with mental as with bodily food: scarcely the fifth part of what a man takes is assimilated; the remainder passes off in evaporation, respiration, and the like. From all this it may be concluded that thoughts put down on paper are nothing more than footprints in the sand: one sees the road the man has taken, but in thesis help nashville tennessee order to know what he saw on the way, one requires his eyes. No literary quality can be attained by reading writers who possess it: be it, for papers, example, persuasiveness, imagination, the gift of drawing comparisons, boldness or bitterness, brevity or grace, facility of expression or wit, unexpected contrasts, a laconic manner, naivete, and the like. Thesis Help Nashville? But if we are already gifted with these qualities — that is to say, if we possess them potentia — we can call them forth and bring them to consciousness; we can discern to what uses they are to be put; we can be strengthened in our inclination, nay, may have courage, to use them; we can judge by papers examples the effect of their application and so learn the thesis help tennessee, correct use of them; and it is only after we have accomplished all this that we actu possess these qualities.

This is the only way in which reading can form writing, since it teaches us the use to which we can put our own natural gifts; and in order to government issues for research papers, do this it must be taken for granted that these qualities are in us. Without them we learn nothing from reading but cold, dead mannerisms, and we become mere imitators. The health officer should, in the interest of one’s eyes, see that the smallness of print has a fixed minimum, which must not be exceeded. When I was in Venice in 1818, at on biology, which time the genuine Venetian chain was still being made, a goldsmith told me that those who made the catena fina turned blind at thirty. As the strata of the earth preserve in rows the beings which lived in former times, so do the issues for research, shelves of a library preserve in a like manner the errors of the homework, past and expositions concerning them.

Like those creatures, they too were full of issues for research life in their time and made a great deal of noise; but now they are stiff and fossilised, and only of interest to the literary palaeontologist. According to Herodotus, Xerxes wept at the sight of his army, which was too extensive for him to scan, at the thought that a hundred years hence not one of all these would be alive. Who would not weep at the thought in looking over a big catalogue that of all these books not one will be in existence in ten years’ time? It is the same in literature as in life. Wherever one goes one immediately comes upon the incorrigible mob of wild essay humanity. It exists everywhere in legions; crowding, soiling everything, like flies in government issues for research papers summer.

Hence the numberless bad books, those rank weeds of literature which extract nourishment from the corn and choke it. They monopolise the time, money, and attention which really belong to good books and their noble aims; they are written merely with a view to making money or procuring places. They are not only useless, but they do positive harm. Nine-tenths of the whole of and problems of being a teenager our present literature aims solely at issues for research papers, taking a few shillings out of the public’s pocket, and to accomplish this, author, publisher, and reviewer have joined forces. There is and problems a teenager, a more cunning and worse trick, albeit a profitable one. Litterateurs , hack-writers, and productive authors have succeeded, contrary to good taste and the true culture of the age, in bringing the world elegante into leading-strings, so that they have been taught to read a tempo and government issues papers, all the same thing — namely, the help nashville, newest books order that they may have material for conversation in their social circles. Government Issues? Bad novels and similar productions from the social essays, pen of writers who were once famous, such as Spindler, Bulwer, Eugene Sue, and so on, serve this purpose.

But what can be more miserable than the fate of a reading public of this kind, that feels always impelled to read the latest writings of extremely commonplace authors who write for money only, and therefore exist in numbers? And for the sake of this they merely know by name the government for research papers, works of the rare and essay, superior writers, of all ages and countries. Literary newspapers, since they print the daily smatterings of commonplace people, are especially a cunning means for robbing from the aesthetic public the time which should be devoted to the genuine productions of art for the furtherance of government for research papers culture. Hence, in help robot regard to our subject, the art of not reading is highly important. This consists in not taking a book into one’s hand merely because it is interesting the great public at the time — such as political or religious pamphlets, novels, poetry, and the like, which make a noise and for research, reach perhaps several editions in their first and last years of existence. Remember rather that the and problems of being a teenager, man who writes for fools always finds a large public: and only read for a limited and definite time exclusively the works of government great minds, those who surpass other men of all times and a teenager essay, countries, and whom the voice of fame points to as such. These alone really educate and government issues for research, instruct. One can never read too little of bad, or too much of paper good books: bad books are intellectual poison; they destroy the mind. In order to read what is good one must make it a condition never to read what is bad; for government for research, life is help, short, and both time and issues for research, strength limited. Books are written sometimes about this, sometimes about that great thinker of former times, and the public reads these books, but not the works of the man himself. This is because it wants to read only what has just been printed, and health social essays, because similis simili gaudet , and it finds the shallow, insipid gossip of some stupid head of to-day more homogeneous and agreeable than the thoughts of great minds.

I have to thank fate, however, that a fine epigram of A.B. Schlegel, which has since been my guiding star, came before my notice as a youth: “Leset fleizig die Alten, die wahren eigentlich Alten. Was die Neuen davon sagen bedeutet nicht viel.” Oh, how like one commonplace mind is to another! How they are all fashioned in one form! How they all think alike under similar circumstances, and never differ! This is why their views are so personal and petty. And a stupid public reads the worthless trash written by government issues these fellows for no other reason than that it has been printed to-day, while it leaves the health social, works of great thinkers undisturbed on the bookshelves.

Incredible are the government papers, folly and perversity of a public that will leave unread writings of the noblest and rarest of minds, of all times and all countries, for the pleasures essay, the sake of reading the writings of commonplace persons which appear daily, and breed every year in countless numbers like flies; merely because these writings have been printed to-day and are still wet from the press. It would be better if they were thrown on one side and rejected the day they appeared, as they must be after the lapse of a few years. They will then afford material for issues, laughter as illustrating the follies of a former time. It is because people will only read what is the nashville tennessee, newest instead of what is the government, best of all ages, that writers remain in the narrow circle of prevailing ideas, and that the age sinks deeper and deeper in its own mire. There are at all times two literatures which, although scarcely known to each other, progress side by side — the one real, the other merely apparent.

The former grows into literature that lasts . Pursued by the pleasures a teenager essay people who live for science or poetry, it goes its way earnestly and quietly, but extremely slowly; and government for research papers, it produces in Europe scarcely a dozen works in a century, which, however, are permanent . The other literature is pursued by people who live on science or poetry; it goes at a gallop amid a great noise and shouting of those taking part, and brings yearly many thousand works into the market. But after a few years one asks, Where are they? where is their fame, which was so great formerly? This class of literature may be distinguished as fleeting, the other as permanent. It would be a good thing to buy books if one could also buy the time to read them; but one usually confuses the purchase of books with the acquisition of their contents. To desire that a man should retain everything he has ever read, is the same as wishing him to retain in his stomach all that he has ever eaten. He has been bodily nourished on what he has eaten, and mentally on what he has read, and through them become what he is. As the body assimilates what is wild, homogeneous to issues papers, it, so will a man retain what interests him; in other words, what coincides with his system of paper on biology thought or suits his ends. Every one has aims, but very few have anything approaching a system of government thought. This is why such people do not take an objective interest in anything, and why they learn nothing from what they read: they remember nothing about it. Repetitio est mater studiorum . The Pleasures Of Being Essay? Any kind of government issues for research important book should immediately be read twice, partly because one grasps the matter in its entirety the second time, and only really understands the beginning when the end is known; and partly because in reading it the second time one’s temper and mood are different, so that one gets another impression; it may be that one sees the matter in another light.

Works are the quintessence of a mind, and are therefore always of by far greater value than conversation, even if it be the conversation of the ay resume, greatest mind. In every essential a man’s works surpass his conversation and leave it far behind. Even the writings of an ordinary man may be instructive, worth reading, and entertaining, for the simple reason that they are the quintessence of that man’s mind — that is to say, the writings are the result and fruit of his whole thought and for research papers, study; while we should be dissatisfied with his conversation. Accordingly, it is possible to read books written by people whose conversation would give us no satisfaction; so that the mind will only by degrees attain high culture by finding entertainment almost entirely in books, and not in men. There is ay resume, nothing that so greatly recreates the mind as the works of the old classic writers. Directly one has been taken up, even if it is only for for research papers, half-an-hour, one feels as quickly refreshed, relieved, purified, elevated, and strengthened as if one had refreshed oneself at a mountain stream. Is this due to the perfections of the old languages, or to thesis tennessee, the greatness of the minds whose works have remained unharmed and untouched for centuries? Perhaps to both combined. This I know, directly we stop learning the old languages (as is at present threatening) a new class of literature will spring up, consisting of writing that is more barbaric, stupid, and worthless than has ever yet existed; that, in particular, the government for research, German language, which possesses some of the beauties of the old languages, will be systematically spoilt and stripped by nashville these worthless contemporary scribblers, until, little by little, it becomes impoverished, crippled, and reduced to a miserable jargon. Half a century is government issues papers, always a considerable time in the history of the universe, for the matter which forms it is always shifting; something is cat falling essay, always taking place. But the same length of time in literature often goes for nothing, because nothing has happened; unskilful attempts don’t count; so that we are exactly where we were fifty years previously.

To illustrate this: imagine the progress of government issues for research knowledge among mankind in thesis help tennessee the form of a planet’s course. The false paths the human race soon follows after any important progress has been made represent the epicycles in the Ptolemaic system; after passing through any one of them the planet is just where it was before it entered it. The great minds, however, which really bring the race further on its course, do not accompany it on the epicycles which it makes every time. This explains why posthumous fame is got at the expense of contemporary fame, and government issues papers, vice versa . We have an instance of such an help tennessee, epicycle in the philosophy of Fichte and Schelling, crowned by Hegel’s caricature of it. This epicycle issued from the limit to which philosophy had been finally brought by Kant, where I myself took it up again later to carry it further. In the interim the false philosophers I have mentioned, and for research, some others, passed through their epicycle, which has just been terminated; hence the people who accompanied them are conscious of being exactly at thesis nashville tennessee, the point from which they started. This condition of things shows why the scientific, literary, and artistic spirit of the age is declared bankrupt about every thirty years.

During that period the errors have increased to government for research papers, such an extent that they fall under the on biology, weight of their absurdity; while at the same time the opposition to them has become stronger. At this point there is a crash, which is followed by an error in issues the opposite direction. To show the course that is taken in its periodical return would be the true practical subject of the history of literature; little notice is taken of it, however. Moreover, through the on biology, comparative shortness of such periods, the data of remote times are with difficulty collected; hence the issues papers, matter can be most conveniently observed in one’s own age. An example of this taken from physical science is found in Werter’s Neptunian geology. But let me keep to the example already quoted above, for it is essay, nearest to us.

In German philosophy Kant’s brilliant period was immediately followed by another period, which aimed at being imposing rather than convincing. Government Issues? Instead of being solid and clear, it aimed at cat falling essay, being brilliant and hyperbolical, and, in particular, unintelligible; instead of seeking truth, it intrigued. Under these circumstances philosophy could make no progress. Ultimately the whole school and its method became bankrupt. For the audacious, sophisticated nonsense on the one hand, and papers, the unconscionable praise on the other of Hegel and his fellows, as well as the apparent object of the whole affair, rose to such a pitch that in the end the charlatanry of the thing was obvious to everybody; and when, in consequence of certain revelations, the protection that had been given it by the upper classes was withdrawn, it was talked about by everybody. This most miserable of all the philosophies that have ever existed dragged down with it into thesis nashville tennessee the abyss of discredit the systems of Fichte and Schelling, which had preceded it. So that the absolute philosophical futility of the first half of the century following upon Kant in for research papers Germany is ay resume, obvious; and government, yet the Germans boast of their gift for philosophy compared with foreigners, especially since an English writer, with malicious irony, called them a nation of thesis thinkers . Those who want an example of the general scheme of issues epicycles taken from the history of art need only look at the School of Sculpture which flourished in of being the last century under Bernini, and especially at its further cultivation in France. This school represented commonplace nature instead of antique beauty, and the manners of a French minuet instead of antique simplicity and government issues for research papers, grace. It became bankrupt when, under Winckelmann’s direction, a return was made to the antique school.

Another example is supplied in the painting belonging to the first quarter of this century. Art was regarded merely as a means and instrument of mediaeval religious feeling, and consequently ecclesiastical subjects alone were chosen for its themes. These, however, were treated by help nashville painters who were wanting in earnestness of faith, and in their delusion they took for papers, examples Francesco Francia, Pietro Perugino, Angelico da Fiesole, and others like them, even holding them in ay resume greater esteem than the truly great masters who followed. In view of issues for research papers this error, and because in poetry an analogous effort had at the same time met with favour, Goethe wrote his parable Pfaffenspiel . This school, reputedly capricious, became bankrupt, and health, was followed by a return to government for research, nature, which made itself known in paper genre pictures and scenes of life of every description, even though it strayed sometimes into vulgarity. It is the same with the for research papers, progress of the human mind in the history of paper on biology literature , which is for the most part like the catalogue of a cabinet of deformities; the spirit in which they keep the longest is pigskin. We do not need to look there for the few who have been born shapely; they are still alive, and we come across them in every part of the world, like immortals whose youth is ever fresh. Government? They alone form what I have distinguished as real literature, the history of which, although poor in persons, we learn from our youth up out help tennessee, of the government for research papers, mouths of essay educated people, and not first of all from government papers, compilations. As a specific against the present prevailing monomania for reading literary histories, so that one may be able to chatter about everything without really knowing anything, let me refer you to a passage from Lichtenberg which is well worth reading (vol. ii. Help Nashville Tennessee? p. 302 of the old edition). But I wish some one would attempt a tragical history of literature , showing how the greatest writers and artists have been treated during their lives by government papers the various nations which have produced them and whose proudest possessions they are.

It would show us the of being essay, endless fight which the good and genuine works of all periods and countries have had to carry on against the perverse and bad. It would depict the martyrdom of almost all those who truly enlightened humanity, of almost all the government issues, great masters in every kind of art; it would show us how they, with few exceptions, were tormented without recognition, without any to share their misery, without followers; how they existed in poverty and misery whilst fame, honour, and riches fell to the lot of the worthless; it would reveal that what happened to them happened to Esau, who, while hunting the deer for wild, his father, was robbed of the blessing by Jacob disguised in his brother’s coat; and how through it all the love of their subject kept them up, until at last the trying fight of such a teacher of the human race is ended, the issues papers, immortal laurel offered to him, and the time come when it can be said of him.