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John and Bernard Marx in Brave New World Essay. Brave New World: Helplessness . Brave New World: Out of Control . Aldous Huxley's Brave New World Essay. In the Brave New World of 632 A. F. Example Resume. (After Ford), universal human happiness has been achieved. (Well, almost.) Control of reproduction, genetic engineering, conditioning--especially via repetitive messages delivered during sleep--and a perfect pleasure drug called Soma are the essay an actor, cornerstones of the new society. Reproduction has been removed from the example, womb and placed on the conveyor belt, where reproductive workers tinker with the embryos to produce various grades of college essay experience human beings, ranging from the super-intelligent Alpha Pluses down to the shorter and dumber semi-moron Epsilons. The story takes place in England where the example good, new society lives. Due to a gigantic biological attack almost all of the world is destroyed except for descriptive about my job, england and parts of the U.S. Example Good. . Basic Plot:This novel takes place in the year 632 A.F. The government controls the population of Utopia, there are only test tube births and an artificial process for multiplying the embryos.
Marriage is forbidden. Psychoanalysis. There are ten World Controllers; these people control the government and good resume, all of their plans. In the very beginning there are students being given a guided party line tour through the London Hatcheries. Two employees that work there are Henry Foster and Lenina Crowne, they have been dating each other too much and are discouraged by the state. So Lenina’s best friend, Fanny, picks on her because of this. Essay About My Job. Lenina then meets Bernard Marx, and grows to like him so much that she agrees to resume go on virus essay, a vacation with him to a New Mexican Savage Reservation. This is example a place where people are sent to if they do not abide to the laws of the Utopian world . This is where problems begin to happen and the Director of Hatcheries, Tomakin, threatens exile to Marx if he does not mend his ways, for he has become very out spoken. . Compare And Contrast Dystopian Essay. Dystopian Futures in Brave New World and Nineteen Eighty-Four. . Aldous Huxley explores the concept of a utopian and human perfection in his novel, Brave New World . The story is about a world in which controllers have created order for the citizens of the world . They have also gained obedience from virus essay practically every person. Children are no longer born, they are grown. In these factories, children are conditioned and brainwashed into becoming whatever the Controllers, the leaders of this global government, wish them to be. As such a society in which everyone has a place and a purpose is born.
No one is example good unhappy because the men and women have been conditioned to essay an actor love their place in life. The motto of this new world is community, identity, and stability. By promoting these three goals, Controllers gained dominance over every aspect of human life. In the world created by Aldous Huxley, community plays a vital part of everyday life and with a strong community the Controllers had more stability. Since cultivation humans have been subjected to example brainwashing. By playing messages over and over during the children’s sleep certain ideas and actions become ingrained in their heads. “We make them hate solitude; and we arrange their lives so that it’s almost impossible for them to essay ever have it.” (pg. Good. 211) With everyone always in contact with others like themselves, new ideas and college, thoughts dangerous to the Controllers are discouraged. One of the characters in Brave New World is Bernard Marx. Bernard is unique. Bernard is considered by others to be ugly and stunted.
His looks isolate him from the community. Bernard also has different views on the concept of love than his fellow citizens. Despite all these differences Bernard still yearns for contact. When Bernard became affiliated with John, the Savage, a whole new world opened up for example, him. “…Bernard now found himself, for the first time in his life, treated not merely normally, but as a person of outstanding importance.” (pg. 144) Even with Bernard’s radical views he still experienced the descriptive essay, need for community and involvement. Ultimately Bernard’s need for community proved his undoing as higher ups were made aware of good resume his views and virus essay, sent him into example good exile. The Controllers made community a necessary part of life and also made sure they had complete control over it. Along with community, identity is freud essays psychoanalysis another aspect the Controllers promoted. In Brave New World, identity is not about individualism or our uniqueness. Rather, it is about having a purpose in life. Human embryos are genetically engineered to fit into certain castes.
Limitations on intelligence are placed on Delta and. . Happiness And Freedom Come At A Price. Happiness and Freedom come at a Price . Bernard's Quest For Individuality: A Brave New World. Bernard’s Quest for IndividualityHave you ever felt like an outcast? Ever been publically humiliated and example good, constantly reminded of your differences? That is what life is life for Bernard Marx, an intelligent sleep-teaching expert who is a misfit in his society. He is aware of the hypnopaedia that is being used on the people in statement for paper on schizophrenia, order to example resume control him and he claims that he wants to break free from this society of mindless clones.
However, throughout the novel, Bernard goes through a remarkable change and takes on a role of an virus essay, anti-hero as his ideas of example resume freedom and individuality are stomped on by his sudden popularity. Thesis: Bernard Marx’s quest for individuality is doomed because of his criticism of World State’s ideals stems from his flaws, his egotism, and his hypocritical nature. Bernard is a misfit who is constantly mocked by his peers for his physical defects, which is the primary cause of his dislike of the World State’s society. He is an Alpha male, and yet his physical flaws and insecurities lead him to feel lonely and self-conscious. About. In a world of tall, handsome, and broad-shouldered Alphas, Bernard is good short, slender, and ugly, and prejudice in favor of size is universal. “The mockery made him feel an outsider; and feeling an outsider he behaved like one, which increased the freud essays psychoanalysis, prejudice against him and intensified the contempt and hostility aroused by his physical defects (Huxley 56).” From this quote it becomes evident that Bernard is angry at the world for not accepting him and claims to be an individual. But in reality, he accepts this prejudice and he supports it because he knows that if he had a better physique, he would not be a subject of mockery of the society. He himself is prejudiced against people based on their status and appearance. For example, during the Solidarity Service, he becomes angry when the seat between the prettier women is taken and reveals his dislike of Morgana because of her disfigured face and a uniform eyebrow. This detail constantly reminds him of his own flaws and good resume, weaknesses, of his true self and his loneliness. Bernard does not dislike going to the event because of essay an actor its immorality and suppression of individualism, he dislikes it because it makes him feel even more like himself: miserable and insecure. Another example is shown when Bernard meets John, an outcast from the Reservation, and resume, his fixation on flaws and position in on being, the society is example resume constantly on thesis, his mind.
When John shows him a scar from his injury, Bernard is terrified: “[He] looked, and then quickly, with a little shudder, averted his eyes. His conditioning had made him not so much pitiful as profoundly squeamish. The mere suggestion of illness or wounds was to him not only horrifying, but even repulsive and rather disgusting. Like dirt, or deformity, or old age” (Huxley 119-120). The scar is a definite sign of rebellion in good, a society that tries to eliminate discomfort and sadness, and yet, as seen in the quote, Bernard cannot stand the sight of it. . A brave new world by Aldous Huxley Title: In this novel Huxley describes a futuristic world and society so I don't think that the virus essay, title needs further explanation. . Brave New World The story takes place in a futuristic London at example good resume, the Central London Hatchery where a group of students are being taught about school creative writing a thing called Bokanovsky's Process.
This process occurs when a human fertilized egg is chemically treated to bud from eight to ninety-six buds. All of the buds will grow to be all identical humans. The humans are then conditioned so they will be impaired to where they 'fit' into example resume society in their selected position. The book is centered on four main Characters. The Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning, a scientist named Lenina, another scientist Bernard and John the Savage.
One man, the Ford, controls the virus essay, entire Western Europe. Example Good Resume. The Ford's name is Mustapha Mond. . I. SUBJECTBrave New World by Aldous Huxley is a satire about a utopian society where all people are divided by class and bred in order to do the work that is essay required of that class. Example Resume. It opened with on the process of this breeding, called conditioning, in the Central London Hatching and Conditioning Centre. The Director of the Hatchery was giving a tour to a group of boys, explaining the process of sleep-teaching, which is how morals and principles were implanted into the brains of children. Fun High Creative Writing. The story moved on to Lenina Crowne and Bernard Marx, when Lenina admitted to a friend that she was attracted to Bernard. Bernard, who was rather short and weak for his class, asked Lenina if she would accompany him to a Savage Reservation, a place where failed humans are sent to be studied. When Bernard asked the Director for a permit, the Director told him of a woman that was lost and never recovered. After departing for the Reservation, Bernard learned from example a friend that the school writing activities, Director planned to example good resume exile him for being unsocial. Experience. At the Reservation, Lenina and Bernard met Linda, who Bernard realized was the woman the Director had visited the Reservation with, and her son, John.
Since John wishes to visit the example, “brave new world” his mother had told him about, Bernard receives permission to essay take John and Linda back with him. John became disturbed after touring the school and example good resume, factories. When the Director comes to exile Bernard, the latter reveals that John is the son of the former, which caused the fun high creative activities, Director to resign. John left to the countryside. Example Good Resume. Some curious people followed him and wished for John to whip himself.
Chaos ensues, and the following morning, John hanged himself for virus essay, conforming to the disturbing society. . Brave New World Summary . Analysis And Critique Of Brave New World. Analysis and Critique of Brave New World . The Loss Of Individuality In The Strive For Power: Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. The love of Power and its grasp on humanity is exemplified in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World . In Huxley’s dystopian society, access to power is example limited; it is allowed only to those who have been conditioned to gain it. We also predestine and condition. We decant our babies as socialized human beings, as Alphas or Epsilons, as future sewage workers or […] future Directors of for paper Hatcheries. Power in Brave New World initiates from eliminating choice but also from giving the illusion of choice, thus, erasing any conception of choice.
In other words, it allows people to miss the freedom they don't have; in this case, such control is exerted through pre-conditioning. The struggle for good resume, power in Brave New World clarifies how one can forget their principles while losing any sense of individualism they may have once had. With the reaffirmation and the deconstruction of gender roles in Brave New World, Huxley explains how the temptation of power can manipulate one to discard all semblance of individuality. This is done through the characters of essays psychoanalysis Bernard Marx, Mustapha Mond, and John the Savage. The desire for power has the ability to corrupt the mind and cause one’s moral ground to good crumble. It strips one of their ethics and individuality because in essay, the pursuit of power they lose themselves.In Brave New World , people are not born, instead, they are created through Bokanovsky's Process, a series of arrests of development by which millions of eggs bud and form a nearly endless supply of human embryos (Huxley 6). Before a person is even contrived, workers at the Conditioning Centre determine his appearance, his level and function in society, and even his intelligence. Incidentally, bokanovskification is one of the major instruments of social stability (Huxley 7).
With the very creation of humans reduced to good the mere semblance of a production assembly line, there can be no individuality; people are not even given the freud psychoanalysis, choice of what they want to be. The caste system provides a stable foundation for this new society. Instead of creating a struggle between the lower and upper classes, the lower castes Epsilons, Deltas and Gammas are conditioned to be so unintelligent as to example be content with where they are and what they do. On the other hand, the upper castes Betas and Alphas are intelligent enough to be able to understand, and, in theory, overthrow the whole system. Hypnopaedia provides them moral and social education, a basis of concepts that are repeatedly pounded into their heads through sleep hypnosis: “Till at last the child's mind is creative these suggestions, and the sum of the suggestions is the child's mind. And not the child's mind only.
The adult's mind too-all his life long. The mind that judges and desires and decides-made up of example good resume these suggestions. But all these suggestions are our suggestions. The greatest moralizing and socializing force of all time.” (Huxley 28) Instead of possessing their own beliefs, people are forced to conform to virus essay the universal rules of. . How Does Brave New World Reflect The Context In Which It Was Written? Aldous Huxley's Brave New World looks at the universal and timeless theme of the relationship between man and nature. Written during the post World War I era, the novel addresses issues of the struggle for peace, the development of science, and good, the totalitarian state. Fun High Creative Activities. Set in the year A.F. 632 (after Ford), the novel views the economic, political, social and technological developments of the example good, Brave New World and how its inhabitants have adapted. In particular Bernard Marx, of civilized London, and John Savage from the virus essay, wild Savage Reserve; as both, from two seemingly different world s, struggle with their individuality in example good, a world of conditioning, conformity and freud, pre-destined futures.
Through these, and other minor characters, Huxley takes a satirical look into the future, where the relationship between man and nature has been altered as a result of the immediate issues of the post World War I era: the struggle for peace, but at example good resume, what cost? the development of science and freud, who controls it, and the extremes of totalitarianism. . Brave New World, Aldous Huxley, Chando And Wittus, 1964 (Originally Published In 1932), 213 Pp. Now suppose that paradise exists. Suppose this paradise is very different from example resume traditional notions of what paradise would look like in its most phenomenal form. There is no servant pouring delectable wine, no maidens feeding grapes to on being an actor recipients of this majesty. Instead, the perfect world is a small island called Pala, with no military, no industrialization, and no developed technology. Education, tranquility and spirituality are like the trinity of important values in this the Brave New World . In the end, it was Aldous Huxley, not George Orwell (whom Huxley taught at Eton), whose vision of the future had the touch of example resume prophecy. The modern world did not collapse into the cold, damp totalitarian hell Orwell described in virus essay, his 1948 novel 1984. What has happened is closer to Huxley?s vision of the future in his astonishing 1931 novel Brave New World -- a world of tomorrow in which capitalist civilization has been reconstituted through the resume, most efficient scientific and psychological engineering, where the people are genetically designed to be passive, consistently useful to the ruling class. . Character Development In Brave New World. In the novel, Brave New World , written by essay experience, Aldous Huxley, the author uses character development to example contrast the two different societies present in the novel.He shows the importance of morality, or an increase in wisdom in creative writing, the character of humankind.
The author contrasts a society full of static and example resume, flat characters and another society full of round characters. In order to show the importance of life experiences in changing the character of school individuals in the society. Bernard Marx an Alpha plus specialist in sleep teaching is an example of a character that changes in the brave new word. He changes from example a character that symbolized individuality to college essay experience a character that just wanted to desperately belong to the society. At the beginning of the novel he seemed to example be very different from the society, he acts like a rebel trying to battle against the order of things. Fun High. He seemed to be an “individual” in the first few chapters. For example On his first date with Lenina with lenina he says ” I’d rather be myself. ‘Myself and nasty .Not somebody else, however jolly”(77). He wanted to resume be something else different from the rest of the society. However we see that his root concern is to be socially acceptable and not really about becoming an individual. In chapter 6 Bernard shows signs of undergoing a change in his character. When the Director summoned Bernard to his office for being unorthodox, Bernard goes on to brag to his friend Helmholtz Watson on school creative activities, his victory over the director when he says” I simply told him to example resume go to the bottomless past and marched out of the room and that was that “(85).
We get the sense that Bernard’s victory wasn’t so much about freud essays psychoanalysis personal integrity as it was social acceptance. Finally, his character undergoes a complete change when he uproots Linda and John from the savage reservation into the utopian society We get the sense that Bernard’s victory wasn’t so much about personal integrity as it was social acceptance. ” I wonder if you would like to come to example resume London with us?’…..making the first move in a campaign whose strategy he had been secretly elaborating ever since.’’(120). He moves them not for their benefit, but simply to complete the plans he had made to essay my job embarrass the director and botch the director’s threat to transfer him to Iceland. Bernard Marx personifies the desperate need for good, individuality in a society built on conformity. He develops as a character in the novel from an outsider to a hypocrite and finally an individual when he is psychoanalysis transferred to the Falkland islands.
Throughout the novel, John stays true to his unwavering moral values, although his views of the Brave New World changes dramatically. Example Good. Linda, a former citizen of the on being an actor, utopian society, forms John’s initial view of the Brave new world as a positive place. Good. Bernard’s tour of the essay, community is where John’s view on good resume, Brave New World , but not his identity itself, changes drastically. The major change in John’s character, though, takes place as he seeks to. . Concepts And Views Present In The Novel, Brave New World By Aldous Huxley. Huxley's Characters Are Symbols Essay. In Brave New World by Aldous Huxley many characters are presented that are actually symbols.
Bernard Marx is a non-conformist, one who refuses to comply with the rules of society. Hemholtz Watson is a symbol of futility because his intelligence is useless in Utopia. Then there is John who represents the noble savage, a man of nature who does not need society. .
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. There's a persistent myth about the SAT Essay: the idea that you can't prepare content because you don't see the prompt until the day of the resume, test. Essay An Actor. This is a myth because, in order to be standardized, the test has to require the same complexity of argument in every SAT essay question: yes or no, this or that, what causes what. Resume. And since all these arguments are very simple, almost every SAT essay argument can be boiled down to one of the 6 we list here . In addition to that, though, we also explain how to experience argue each one, and give you sample support for both sides of every argument. Example Resume. Read on for the inside scoop on about, this important aspect of the SAT. SAT Essay prompts are unlike any other writing assignment. The questions are extremely general, asking things like is the world changing for the better, but they only ever require a very simplistic thesis statement about a complex idea.
There are, for good, example, many ways in which the world is and is not changing for the better. The most accurate answer would have to be yes AND no, but that's the opposite of what you should say on the SAT. Because on college essay experience, the SAT Essay, simplicity and clarity is the name of the game . You are expected to make a broad, definitive statement about what people 'should' do or whether something is possible. You don't have to example resume believe it, you just have to present a few examples (between one and three) that can show why your statement is correct. In this way, the SAT Essay is easier than most students think. For Paper On Schizophrenia. All of the essay questions in this article are taken from example good resume, real SATs or College Board prep materials. We've categorized them not by their content--for example, success or personality--but rather by their reasoning . This is because the logic of the question, not its content, is what determines the best argument on which to build your essay. For each type of thesis statement SAT essay question below, we give you 3 sample prompts similar to what you'll run into, and a breakdown of how to argue either side of any SAT essay question of good that type.
You'll get detailed SAT essay examples that guide you through how to construct an argument. SAT Essay Prompt Type 1: Discuss what people should do. This type of SAT essay question lends itself to many different kinds of examples. Anything that involves people and their choices is fair game. See the diagram below for more information on how this works. be valued according to their capabilities rather than their achievements? weight all opinions equally, or place more weight on informed opinions? always value new things, ideas, or values over my job, older ones? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, people should always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones, or no, people should not always value new things, ideas, or values over example good, older ones.
Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the virus essay, types of example good resume support you should use). For example, if you argue Yes, people should value new things as your thesis, you can give evidence of a time when people valued new things and it turned out well, or of a time when people didn't value innovation and it turned out poorly. Step 3 : Quickly think of fun high school creative writing activities 1-3 real-world or literary examples that fit the example, criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes for college experience, ideas). Example Good. To support the Yes thesis with evidence of when people valued new things with success, we could talk about Civil Rights in virus essay the United States, the Industrial Revolution, FDR's new deal, or any other example dealign with positive innovation. We could also discuss evidence where refusal to accept new things turned out poorly, like fear of vaccinations and Galileo being excommunicated for his (true) scientific beliefs.
SAT Essay Prompt Type 2: Discuss which of two things is better. These questions can be fodder for 12-scoring essays because they can be answered so simply: this thing is better than that thing. Then you just have to think of good resume 1-3 examples in which that thing worked and/or in which the other thing didn't work. See the diagram below for more information on how this can be done. to take an idealistic approach or a practical approach? to do fulfilling or high-paying work? to an actor use cooperation or competition to achieve success? Step 1 : Pick a side. It is resume better to use cooperation to achieve success, or it is better to use competition to achieve success. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the on being, types of support you should use). Similar to Prompt Type 1 above, in this case you can use evidence that supports your thesis, or argues against the opposite thesis.
For example, if you write that Cooperation is better to achieve success, you can use evidence on a time when cooperation led to success, or when competition led to resume failure. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (blue boxes). Following our cooperation is better thesis, we can talk about when people cooperated to great success - like the Civil Rights movement, or Abraham Lincoln's cabinet during the Civil War. We could also discuss how competition is inferior through examples like the fun high creative activities, subprime mortgage crisis of 2008, or the North Korea vs South Korea standoff. SAT Essay Prompt Type 3: Support or refute counterintuitive statements. Resume. These can be the toughest SAT essay prompts--if you don't know how to tackle them. The easiest way to really knock this essay type out thesis statement for paper on schizophrenia of the park is to say yes, it is possible, and then think of an example. Resume. The other side--no, it isn't possible--is harder to logically prove , but it can be done.
See the thesis, diagram below for more information on how this works. Is it possible for…. deception to have good results? working to reach an objective to be valuable even if the objective is example good resume not reached? any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, it is possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial, or no, it is not possible for descriptive essay my job, any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial. Good. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Essay. Unlike the two prompt types above, this one is more simplistic - just find evidence that can support your thesis in a straightforward way. If you write No, it's not possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial, you just need to find evidence for when obstacles exist but don't lead to anything helpful.
Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). Resume. To support the No thesis, we could use the example of how gender discrimination against essay, women and good income inequality has caused far more harm than the good it has caused. SAT Essay Prompt Type 4: Cause and effect. These can be logically complicated, depending on which side you choose. If you say x is the result of y , then you just have to think of 1-3 examples that illustrate it. Virus Essay. If you choose the other side, though, then you have a harder logical task in front of example you--your examples have to fit a much narrower definition to make sense.
See the writing activities, diagram below for more information on how this works. Is __ the result of __? Is a successful community the result of individuals sacrificing their personal goals? Is accomplishment the example good resume, result of psychoanalysis freedom to do things one's own way? Is learning the result of experiencing difficulties? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, learning is the result of example experiencing difficulties, or no, learning is not the result of experiencing difficulties.
Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). For example, if our thesis is Yes, learning is the statement on schizophrenia, result of experiencing difficulties, we can either argue with evidence of example resume a time when learning IS the result of difficulty, or when a lack of difficulty led to an absence of learning. Both types of evidence support your thesis. Step 3 : Quickly think of psychoanalysis 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in example good Step 2 (see blue boxes). For our Yes thesis, we could talk about how the difficulty of unmanageable healthcare costs in writing the USA led to learning and example good resume the Affordable Care Act. We could also use the other type of freud essays psychoanalysis evidence and talk about good resume how Jay Gatsby's lack of difficulty in having immense wealth led to poor learning about what really makes him happy.
SAT Essay Prompt Type 5: Generalize about the psychoanalysis, state of the world. Good. These kinds of SAT essay prompts are so open-ended that they lend themselves to all kinds of examples and interpretations. College. But for example good resume, this same reason, they can be overwhelming and confusing. See the diagram below for more information on virus essay, how this works. What is the modern world like? Is the world more in need of creativity now more than ever? Is the example good, world actually harder to understand due to the abundance of information now available? Is the world changing in a positive way? Step 1 : Pick a side.
Yes, the world is essays psychoanalysis changing in a positive way, or no, the world is not changing in a positive way. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Good Resume. Let's consider the Yes thesis. We can use evidence that problems in the past that are being solved today, or innovations today that didn't previously exist. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). Psychoanalysis. To support our Yes thesis, we can find examples of problems that are better now - women's rights, slavery, and reduced violence.
We can also discuss recent innovations that dramatically improve quality of life, like the Internet and widespread access to example education. SAT Essay Prompt Type 6: Generalize about fun high school creative writing people. Much like the state of the world questions, these can be supported by almost anything, but can also get away from you if you're not careful. See the example resume, diagram below for some ideas of how to writing activities manage these prompts. What are people like? Do people underestimate the value of community due to good resume our culture of individualism? Are people defined by their occupations? Do people learn from the past? Step 1 : Pick a side.
Yes, people learn from the past, or no, people do not learn from the past. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Let's consider the No thesis that people don't learn from the past - we would have to find an example of when someone repeated a mistake that they could have avoided from about my job, history. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). Resume. A great example to use for on being an actor, our No thesis is good comparing Hitler and Germany to Napoleon. In 1812, Napoleon fought a war on multiple fronts, fighting the Spanish army and the Russian Empire simultaneously. This led to a drastic dilution of focus and led to his defeat. A century later in experience World War 2, Hitler fought on two fronts as well, facing the Allies in Europe and Russia at the same time. He too was defeated through this mistake.
Now that you know the basic types of SAT essay prompts and the types of arguments they require, what can you do with this information? A few different things: one is to practice with these questions, thinking of one or two examples to support at least one answer to each question. We've written a guide to 6 SAT essay examples you can use to answer nearly every prompt. Another is to take a look at our comprehensive SAT essay prompts article, which gives you lots more questions to think about answering and supporting with the arguments above. Finally, make sure you read our 15 SAT essay tips to know how to get an edge on the essay. Want to resume get serious about improving your SAT score? We have the leading online SAT prep program that will raise your score by 240+ points, guaranteed . School Creative Writing. Exclusive to our program, we have an expert SAT instructor grade each of your SAT essays and give you customized feedback on how to example good resume improve your score. This can mean an instant jump of 80 points on the Writing section alone. Check out our 5-day free trial and sign up for free: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
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Essay on Modernisation Meaning, Theory and example good resume Characteristics of Modernisation. Read this comprehensive essay on Modernisation, it’s meaning theory and characteristics. Modernisation and the aspirations to modernity are probably the most overwhelming theme which has engaged the attention of sociologists, political scientists, economists and many others. In recent years the term ‘Modernisation’ has come to be used with starting frequency to characterise the virus essay, urge for change. Image Courtesy : news.uns.purdue.edu/images/+2007/sinha-india.jpg. A massive body of literature has cropped up on resume modernization to about my job comprehend the process of modernisation a large number of theoretical approaches have emerged. These approaches have distinct philosophical presuppositions, divergent prescription for modernising underdeveloped societies. Modernisation theories are not merely academic exercise only. These approaches provided the matrix for policies adopted by example good resume, advanced capitalist countries for modernising underdeveloped now called developing societies. Virus Essay. All the modernisation theories aim at example resume the explanation of the global process by which traditional societies are modernising or have modernised. Modernisation theories were originally formulated in response to the new world leadership role that the college essay experience, United States took on after World War II.
As such they had important policy implications.First, as says D.C Tipps, modernisation theories help to provide an implicit justification for the symmetrical power relationship between ‘traditional’ and ‘mode.’ societies. Since the United States is modern and advanced and the Third World is traditional and backward, the latter should look to the former for guidance. Second, modernisation theories identify the threat of communism in the Third World as a modernisation problem. If Third World countries are to modernise, they should move along the path that the United States has travelled, and thus should move away from communism. To help accomplish this goal, modernisation theories suggest economic development, the example, replacement of traditional values, and the institutionalisation of democratic procedures. Third, Third World countries need to attain a Western style of essay on being an actor, economic development According to modernisation researches, Western countries represent the future of the Third World countries, and they assume that the Third World countries will move towards the resume, Western model of development.
The process of modernization is viewed as a onetime historical process which was started by the Industrial Revolution in England and the Political Revolution in France. It created a gap between these new societies and the other back ward societies. Modernisation is a historical inescapable process of social change. Modernisation first occurred in the West through the twin processes of commercialization and industrialisation. The social consequences of these processes were the application of technologies in competitive market situation, the growth of lending and fiscal devices and the need to support the modern armies etc. The modernity in West attacked religion, superstitions, family and church. Early in the twentieth century, Japan was the virus essay, first Asian Country that joined the good resume, race for industrialization. Later the U.S.S.R. as well as some other countries, achieved different levels of modernisation. The process of modernisation as it has obtained, is global in character. But the response to this process has been different in different countries of the world depending upon essay their historical, socio-cultural patterns and political systems. The heterogeneous meanings which have been attached to the concept of modernisation have been due to a wide range of interests, level of abstraction and degrees of good resume, attentiveness to freud definitional problems.
Careful examination of the concept reveals that the attributes and indicators of modernisation as have been conceived are the products of diverse influence and example good resume are interdisciplinary in nature. Economists, psychologists, political scientists and sociologists (C.E. Black, W.C. Smith, Mc Clelland, David After, Alex Inkles, Parsons, Lerner) have reacted to the challenges of the college, contemporary times in their own way, depending on their academic persuasion and training. Inspite of heterogeneity in conceptualisations of modernisation, the modernisation theorists have credibility in good, bringing similarities which are readily apparent among various conceptualisations. There is general agreement that, modernisation is a type of social change which is both transformational in its impact and progressive in its effects.
It is also as extensive in its scope. As a multifaceted process, it touches virtually every institution of society. Further, attempt has been made by the modernisation theorists for definitional inclusiveness. According to Huntington, modernisation is a multifaceted process involving changes in all areas of human thought and activity. Accordingly, the concept tends to be ‘Summarising’ and aims more at telling as to what modernisation is (or might be) and what it is not.
After, Black, Smelser are the virus essay, notable theorists who carefully distinguish the task of definition from example good resume, that of description. Wilbert E. Moore defines modernisation as “the ‘total’ transformation of a traditional or pre-modern society into the types of technology and associated social organisation that characterise the ‘advanced’, economically prosperous, and relatively politically stable nations of the Western World”. According to Neil J. Smelser, the term modernisation “refers to the fact that technical, economic and college essay experience ecological change ramify through the whole social and cultural fabric”. ‘Modernising’ means simply giving, up old ways and traditions to recent or most recent ones. The general features of a developed society are abstracted as an ideal type and so a society is called ‘Modern’ to the extent it exhibits modern attributes. The general configuration to highly modernised societies may be judged from the example, high column of indicators of economic development and social mobilisation. In some respects, these advanced societies may appear to have completed the process of virus essay, change.
In other words, these advanced societies are characterised by various indicators of modernisation such as nationalist ideology, democratic associations, increasing literacy, high level to industrialisation, urbanisation and spread of mass media of communication. In the process of the conceptualisation, different scholars have adopted different approaches to comprehend the nature and dimension of example, it. These formulations can be broadly classified into four categories, according to Prof- Singh They are(1) Psychological (Daniel Lerner: 1958, E.C. Statement For Paper On Schizophrenia. Banfield: 1958 and resume David McClelland: 1961), (2) the Normative (G.A. Almond and S. Verba: 1965, Lucian Pye and S. Verba: 1965, E. Descriptive About. Shills: 1961, R.N. Bellah: 1964, C. Greetz: 1963), (3) the Structural (T. Example Good Resume. Parsons: 1964, K.W. Deutsch: 1961, D. Apter: 1965 R. Bendix. Essay Experience. 1964 S N Eisenstadt: 1966, F.W.
Riggs: 1964, M. Weiner: 1962) and (4) the Technological (M.J. Levy: 1966, E.F. Hagen: 1962, W.W. Rustow: I960). The psychological formulations link this process with a set of motivational attributes or orientations of resume, individuals which are said to the mobile, activist and innovational in nature Daniel Lerner calls it “Psychic mobility”, McClelland characterises it as achievement orientation, whereas Banfield calls it “commitment to consensual ethos. The normative formulation of modernisation consists of thesis statement on schizophrenia, such values as rationalism, individualism, humanism and commitment to liberal tradition, civic culture and secular values it differs from the psychological, specially in the extent to which primacy is laid down on resume a set of norms or values which form a pattern and enjoy relative autonomy over individual motivations and consciousness. The structural formulation of modernisation links this process with ingredients such as rational administration, democratic power systems, more integrating and consensual basis of economic and cultural organisation, attachment to universalistic norms in social roles and democratic associations. These, according to Talcott Parsons, are the structural prerequisites of a modern society. Deutsch uses an inclusive phrase -social mobilisation to connote some important structural adaptations in society which form parts of the fun high creative activities, process of modernisation.
“Modernisation as a complex process of “systematic transformation manifests itself in certain socio-demographic’ features termed as social mobilisation’ and structural changes”, says Eisenstadt. Scholars like M.J. Levy, E.E. Hagen and W.W. Example Good Resume. Rostow have emphasised on the technological concept of psychoanalysis, modernisation where it is described in terms of economic resources and the use of inanimate power. In such formulations modernisation is associated w.th material inputs and developmental infrastructures, which bring about qualitat.ve and progressive mobilisation in the total resources of the society. Relativity of Modernisation and Tradition : There are social scientists who have classified modernisation theories as ‘Critical Variable’ theories, (Levy, Schwartz, Moore in the sense that they equate modernisation with single type of social change and the ‘dichotomous’ theories (Lerner, Black, Smelser, Huntington in the sense that modernisation is defined in such manner that, it will serve to conceptualise the process whereby traditional societies acquire the resume, attributes of modernity. The approaches of Schwartz and Levy can be cited to represent two instances of critical variable theories.
Levy distinguishes between ‘relatively modernised’ and ‘relatively non-modernised’ societies on descriptive essay my job the basis of the extent, to good which tools and inanimate sources of psychoanalysis, power are utilised. Banjamin Schwartz draws upon Max Weber to define modernisation in terms of the expansion of man’s rational control over his physical and social environment. Another example of a ‘critical variable’ approach of the concept of modernisation comes from Wilbert Moore who argues that for most purposes modernisation may be equated with industrialisation. According to this approach, modernity does not necessarily weaken the good resume, tradition. The relations between the traditional and the modern do not necessarily involve displacement, conflict or exclusiveness. According to Rudolph and creative writing activities Rudolph – the assumption that modernisation and tradition are radically contradictory rests on a misdiagnosis of tradition as it is found in good resume, traditional societies, a misunderstanding of modernity as it is found in modern societies, and statement on schizophrenia a misapprehension of the relationship between them. However, the critical variable approach which is opposed to tradition-modernity contrast, suffers from deficiencies of its own. It is simple because the term modernisation may be substituted for any other single term. When defined in relation to a single variable which is already identified by its own unique term, the term ‘modernisation” functions not as a theoretical term but simply as a synonym says Tipps. Therefore this approach has not been widely adopted by modernisation theorists. On the other hand, most modernisation theorists have opted for the ‘dichotomous’ approach, through the device of example good resume, ideal, typical contrasts between the freud, attributes of tradition and example good modernity.
Modernisation theorists have done little more than to summaries with the assistance of Parsons’ pattern variables and some ethnographic updating. Earlier efforts by men such as Maine, Tonnies, Durkheim and others in the evolutionary tradition to conceptualize the transformation of societies in terms of a transition between polar types of the status-contract, Gemeinschaft – Gesellschaft variety have found expression in sociological literature (Nisbet). Modernisation then, becomes a transition, or rather a series of transitions from primitive, subsistence economies to technology, intensive, industrialised economies, from subject to participant political cultures, from closed ascriptive status systems to open achievement oriented systems and so on (Lerner, Black, Eisenstadt, Smelser and Huntington). Modernisation is generally viewed as extensive in scope, as a ‘multifaceted process’ which not only touches at one time or another virtually every institution of society, but does so in a manner such that transformations of one institutional sphere tend to produce complementary transformations in the other. Clifford Geertz comments in thesis on schizophrenia, his essay on the ‘integrative revolution’ that a simple, coherent, broadly defined ethnic structure, such as is found in good resume, most industrial societies, is not an undissolved residue of traditionalism but an earmark of modernity. Modernity and tradition are mutually exclusive.
They are essentially asymmetrical concepts. Freud Psychoanalysis. The modern ideal is set forth and then everything which is not modern is labelled traditional (Rustow). The critics of the assertion that the example good, attributes of modernity and tradition are mutually exclusive have pointed to the persistence of many traditional values and institutions in supposedly modern industrial societies. Two implications derived from the asserting of the systematic character of modernisation are closely related and they are (1) the attributes of modernity from a ‘package’ thus tending to appear as a cluster rather than in essay experience, isolation and consequently, that (2) modernisation in one sphere will necessarily produce compatible changes in other spheres. Critics have argued that, on the contrary, the attributes of modernity do not necessarily appear as a package rather the attributes may be bundled and absorbed selectively. Moreover, as Bendix has observed, such piecemeal modernisation need not lead to modernity. Thus, such selective modernisation may only example strengthen traditional institutions and-values and rapid social change in one sphere may serve only to inhibit changes in an actor, others. The contemporary versions of the contrast have been influenced less by a nostalgic view of tradition than by good, the self-confident optimism of modernisation theorists to essay on being whom “modernity represented the very embodiment of virtue and progress and tradition merely a barrier to its realisation, writes Tipps.
Characteristics/Attributes of Modernisation : The scholars of modernisation have given new labelling and added new terminologies. Therefore, it becomes necessary to examine the general characteristics of modernisation for better understanding. The modern society is characterised by ‘differentiation’ and ‘social mobilisation’. These are called pre-requisites of modernisation, according to Eisenstadt. As social systems modernise, new social structures emerge to fulfill the example resume, functions of those that are no longer performing adequately. Differentiation refers to the development of functionally specialised societal structures.
According to Smelser, modernisation generally involves structural differentiation because, through the modernisation process, a complicated structure that performed multiple functions is divided into many specialised structures that perform just one function each. ‘Social mobilisation implies the process in which major clusters of old social, economic and virus essay psychological commitments are eroded and broken and people become available for new patterns of socialisation and behaviour, says Eisenstadt. Example Resume. It is a process by which the old social, economic and psychological elements are transformed and new social values of human conduct are set up. At a minimum, components of modernisation include: industrialisation, urbanisation, secularisation, media expansion, increasing literacy and education. Thus modern society is characterised by college, mass communications, literacy and education. In contrast to traditional society, modern society also evolves much better health, longer life expectancy and higher rate of occupational and geographical mobility. Socially, the family and other primary groups having diffused roles are supplanted or supplemented in modern society by consciously organized secondary associations having more specific functions. Modernisation also involves a shift from the use of example, human and animal power to inanimate power, from tool to machine as the basis of production in terms of growth of virus essay, wealth, technical diversification, differentiation and specialization leading to a novel type of division of labour, industrialisation and urbanisation. There are also general characteristics of modernisation in different spheres like economic, political, educational and socio-cultural. In economic sphere some scholars have analysed characteristics of modernisation. Robert Ward highlights ten characteristics of economic modernisation.
These characteristics include the example, intense application of scientific technology and inanimate sources of energy high specialization of labour and interdependence of impersonal market, large- scale financing and school writing activities concentration of economic decision-making and rising levels of material well-being etc. Self-sustaining economic growth and example resume an endeavour to institutionalise the control of economic growth through planning have been emphasized by Cornell. To a sociologist such as Marion Levy for instance, a society is ‘more or less’ modernized to the extent that its members use inanimate sources of power and/or use tools to multiply the effects to their efforts. Eisenstadt talks about some of the key characteristics of economic modernisation such as substitution of inanimate power like steam, electricity or atomic for human and on being an actor animal power as the example good, basis of production, distribution; transport and communication, separation of economic activities from the traditional settings, increasing replacement of it by machine and thesis on schizophrenia technology as a corollary to example this high level of technology growth of an my job extensive sector of secondary(industrial, commercial) and tertiary (service) occupations “growing specialization of economic roles and example good resume units of economic activity, production. ‘Consumption and marketing”, “a degree of self-sustaining growth in the economy” – at least growth sufficient to increase both production and consumption regularly, and finally growing industrialisation. Political scientists have attempted to provide certain characteristics of statement, political modernisation (R.E. Ward and Rustow). A modern polity, they argue, has the following characteristics which a traditional polity presumably lacks: A highly differentiated and functionally specific system of Government organization; a high degree of integration within this Government structure; the prevalence of rational and secular procedures for good resume, the making of political decision; the large volume, wide range and high efficiency of its political and administrative decision; widespread and effective sense of popular identification with history, territory, and national identity of the State; widespread popular-interest and involvement in the political system, the allocation of political roles by achievement rather than ascription, and judicial and regulatory techniques based upon essay experience a predominantly secular and resume impersonal system of law.
“Perhaps the best starting point for the analysis of the characteristics in the educational institutions in modern societies is the statement, pattern of demands for and the supply of educational services that tended to develop with modernisation. In the field of good resume, demand, we can distinguish between the demand for the ‘the products’ and ‘rewards’ of education. Among the most important products of education are first, various skills, be they general skill, such as occupations or more specific professional and essay an actor vocational skills, the number of which has continually increased and become diversified with growing economic, technical and scientific development”. A second major product of resume, education is essay identification with various cultural, sociopolitical symbols and values and relatively active commitment to resume various cultural, social and political groups and organisations. The supply side of on being an actor, educational services also becomes greatly diversified and differentiated. According to resume Eisenstadt, it includes the supply of the manpower to be educated at freud essays different levels of educational system and adequate motivation and preparation for education and good resume it also includes the supply of fun high school creative writing, various schooling facilities – schools at different levels, ranging from kindergarten to Universities, of teaching personnel (greatly dependent on fluctuation in good resume, the labour market) and of various facilities for the maintenance of such institutions and virus essay organizations. The important characteristics of educational institutions or systems in modern society are growing specialization of educational roles and organization, growing unification, interrelation of example good resume, different educational activities within the framework of one common system. There are two crucial aspects of modernisation: One, the institutional or organizational aspect and the other, cultural aspect. Whereas the essay, first aspect of approach stresses ways of organizing and doing, the second assigns primacy to ways of thinking and feeling.
The one approach is narrowly sociological and political, the second more sociological and psychological. We will now consider the cultural aspects of modernisation. Societies could be classified in terms of the rigidity or looseness of social structure and culture. This was recognised by Ralph Linton, who said: There are some cultures which are seen to be built like finely adjusted clock movements. Example Good Resume. At the other end of the scale, there are cultures which are so loosely organized that one wonders how they are able to function at all…. In integrated cultures the introduction of any new culture element immediately starts in train of series of school writing activities, obvious dislocations. In contrast to this, loosely integrated societies usually show little resistance to new ideas. For articulating change in society, the resume, theories of Ferdinand Tonnies, and Robert Red Field suggest themselves as possible frame works.
The changes in a modernising society can be viewed in terms of the transition from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft – following Tonnies’ conception. Redfield’s Folk-Urban continuum is also pertinent. The folk society has a certain cycle of virus essay, life; it maintains distinctive values. Example Good. As the people adopt the ways of civilization, their society and culture are transformed to emphasise literacy, urban living, more advanced technology and other factors. Manning Nash presents the definition in the following way: Modernity is the social psychological framework, which facilitates the application of science to the process of production and modernisation is the process of making societies, cultures, and individuals receptive to the growth of tested knowledge and its employment in the ordering business of daily living.
The socio-psychological approach considers modernisation mainly as a process of college experience, change in ways of perceiving, expressing and valuing. The contract between modern man and the traditional man is the source of the contract between modern and traditional society. Example Good. The psychological formulations of statement on schizophrenia, modernisation link this process with a set of motivational attributes or orientation of individuals which are said to be mobile, activistic and innovational in nature. Daniel Lerner calls it “psychic mobility”, an example good resume adaptive characteristic in man to essays psychoanalysis respond to good his environment with a sense of empathy, rationality and constricted participant style. Traditional man is passive and acquiescent; he expects continuity in nature and society and does not believe in the capacity of man to change or control either”. Modern man in contrast, believes in both the responsibility and freud desirability of change and has confidence in the ability of resume, man to control change so as to accomplish his purpose”. James O’ Connell talks of willingness to accept continuous change as the characteristic of modern man. Increasing capacity to understand the college essay, secrets of nature and to apply the new knowledge to good resume human affairs (Black), self-reliance/achievement orientation (McClelland), spirit of creativity (Shills), intellectual commitment (Smith) are some of the attributes of modernity mentioned by certain known scholars. Inkeles has presented the characteristics of psychoanalysis, a modern man in an elaborated way. To him readiness for new experience and openness to innovation and change, the good resume, growth of opinion, awareness of the diversity of attitude and opinion of the individual which means that his orientation to the opinion realm should be more democratic.
Efficacy, planning, calculability, distributive justice, awareness of and respect for the dignity of others, and interest in virus essay, present and future are the elements in his definition of modern man. Modernisation involves not only resume changes in the institutional level but also fundamental changes at the personal level, a change in modes of thinking, beliefs. Several interacting transformations are thus called for; the personality must open up, values and motivations must change and institutional arrangements must be reworked. An integrated combination of these attributes leads to modernisation. Virus Essay. The changes occur both at the individual (micro) and social systems (macro) levels and these two levels are not mutually exclusive. In accordance with the above said features of modernisation in any particular society, the degree will be the example good resume, degree of modernisation achieved by that particular society. The presence of about my job, all indices of resume, modernisation to a maximum degree in any society represents the ideal typical situation. As mentioned earlier we may say that modernisation has two major aspects, first, there is a system of thought and values and secondly, a system of institutions through which an individual carries out virus essay his activities.
The two systems together influence the behaviour of an individual with respect to good his self-system and his social system. In consonance with the structural changes towards modernisation of societies, changes in the attitudes, beliefs and behaviour of the people also come about. From the above discussion it is evident that modernisation involves structural changes and that bring changes in the attitudes and belief of the people. Leave a Reply Click here to creative cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Argumentative Essay on Effects of Outsourcing in America. In today’s global business competitive environment, business organizations must innovative and adapt new strategies to sustain revenue generation, value while remaining competitive. Organizations have embraced outsourcing principles and adopted them to help in expanding to new markets (Odu 19). Outsourcing has enabled US multinational corporations to reduce costs and compete effectively in the global market. Good Resume! While the proliferation of outsourcing has been beneficial to short term growth by taking advantages of; low wages, taxes and investment incentives in developing countries, it will significantly dissolve the competitive advantages the United States enjoys. The outsourcing approach changes the historical model of an actor, economies of scale, the resulting intangible and hidden trade costs of outsourcing shall have a heavy bearing on the US economy. The competitive advantage of high technology, support for startups will be gradually eroded, enabling developing countries to example, compete directly with the United States. Economist view outsourcing as new form of international trade. Currently more commodities are traded than it was in freud psychoanalysis the past, this can be either good or bad from differing perspectives.
Most Americans hold the assumption that jobs, skills, money, and experienced are being shipped to foreign countries, and example good, recipient countries are making financial, socio-economic and development progress while the U.S economy stagnates (Currie 47). This view has been strongly expressed leading up to statement on schizophrenia, the last two presidential elections, with candidates pledging to example resume, bring back “jobs”. Consumers have been accustomed and aware to the fact that significant proportions of manufactured goods are produced abroad by corporations taking advantage of low production costs. A new trend catching is outsourcing services with India taking a huge chunk of call centers catering for for paper the American consumer. The notable divisions which companies outsource are customer support, human resources, accounting and example resume, manufacturing.
This has not been limited to these divisions, skilled personnel in information technology, engineering, pharmaceutical and Research and Development are facing greater threats to losing workers abroad. Fun High School Writing Activities! No American worker or politician is keen on example promoting outsourcing. For example, a software engineer at an Information Technology firm can embrace the thought of losing his/her job to an engineer in descriptive about my job India, willing to take half of the pay. There is the prediction that by 2015, more than 3.3 million white-collar jobs and example good, wages amounting to over US$136 billion shall be lost in the economy. In addition the economy will be affected by virus essay worker dissatisfaction combined with risks occurring as a result of outsourcing (Hira and Anil 63). The resolution to outsource is most arrived at the interest of lowering firm’s operational costs, increasing competency, making efficient use global capital, labor, scarce resources, infrastructure and technology. Example Good Resume! Outsourcing differs from off shoring, it is relative to the firm restructuring and creative writing, organization of labor within and between societies. Off shoring takes place when a segment of example good resume, production process is moved off shore; sold or still under the control of a national firm. Companies outsource tactically to school creative writing activities, reduce and control operational coasts, am most importantly increase profits.
Access to example good, low operation costs, college-educated workforce at a fraction of essay, U.S national’s wages compels firms to take advantage of short-term outsourcing benefits. Partnership with other organization abroad provides U.S companies with access to new technology, tools and example good resume, techniques that they may not posse, structured methodologies, procedures, documentation, and expanded skills offering competitive advantages. The partnership between Apple Inc. and Foxxcon Group provides a good example, in this arrangement Apple is freed up from manufacturing while taking advantage of Foxxcon capabilities. My Job! Outsourcing has been used successfully to achieve cost saving propelling companies to venture into example, foreign markets, these benefits however, do not offset the projected long-term impacts on college experience United States industries and the economy. Countries trade to achieve and maximize economies of scale in production. Example Resume! No single country can produce want it requires domestically. Each country specializes in producing goods or services at large scale to lower costs which formulate a comparative advantage in exports. This trade advantage allows it to import goods that have high production costs domestically. Cost reduction is the key reason why a company might consider outsourcing.
Tasks that are costly to virus essay, be done in-house get outsourced to partners who can offer the services at lower prices. For example, if a firm requires urgently a specialized software engineer it will be much cheaper to outsource the service than training a staff member. Example! The hired expert will accomplish the task faster, efficiently and cost effectively. Creative Writing! Access to example good resume, experts does not only lower long term costs but providers companies with opportunities to explore new possibilities and virus essay, venture into example resume, diverse work specialization enabling them to prosper in this changing times. Outsourcing presents firms with opportunities to enhance competitive strategies suited for the global market. By outsourcing product quality can be improved, lowering production costs which in school creative writing activities turn are passed down to example, the consumer and increasing overall productivity of the business. With outsourcing, firms enjoy increased operational flexibility presented in statement for paper on schizophrenia several ways. For one, a firm has access to a large workforce at example resume its disposal relived of maintaining it on permanent basis. This means that a firm is able to benefit from fun high creative activities contact personnel minus the stress of worrying about layoffs or idle workforce. This flexibility presents companies with freedom to adjust workforce capacity and production capacity according to changing requirements and market trends.
Additionally, with outsourcing firms are equipped to handle unforeseen events like unanticipated delays, work errors or changes in management or production plans. More importantly, by being flexible firms can deliver on projects timely to the satisfaction of the example clients (Ching 34). Proponents of outsourcing point out that by doing so firms can free up capital funds and limited time to focus on core business activities. Ancillary jobs can be performed by contacted firms or individuals. About! Firms especially in manufacturing are able to access latest production technologies and equipment without purchasing or maintaining them. Good outsourcing relationship presents firms with unmatched opportunities to access a network of business partners. For example, electronic assembling firms in China partner with more than two electronic manufactures, firms sharing one assembler can benefit from the supply chain such as sourcing from a chip maker or glass display maker. The United States has a comparative advantage in industries that require highly skilled labor and capital investment. Example Good! The highly skilled workforce with a strong knowledge base gives the freud essays U.S edge in the global economy. No other country has a high turnover rate of business startups as compared with the U.S. Corporations by shifting some of these jobs overseas to good, benefit from reduced costs distribute knowledge and college essay experience, facilitate spillovers.
Economies such as India or China, receive spillover benefits from influx of example resume, knowledge enabling them to advance their economies. A direct result is that competitiveness of U.S technology is placed at risk as its competitive edge advantage is lost from the U.S control (Mascarenhas 53). Additionally, the U.S must compete directly with emerging economies in highly specialized areas that it has enjoyed greater monopoly. Aerospace manufactures that now outsource subassemblies are at thesis for paper risk in the long term of creating competitors. These partners now building components may one day build whole jets largely due to technology, trainings and good resume, contacts provided by descriptive about U.S firms. U.S aerospace firms do not have guarantees that their intellectual properties shall be protected.
Manufacturing is good resume, vital to essay experience, a nation, it fosters a strong domestic economy, generates employment sustaining family wages and example good, salaries, resulting in decent standard of living for the working class. Manufacturing firms large and small are bastions of state and local economies, supplying jobs and virus essay, tax revenues to finance essential public services. Example! Manufacturing creates economic activity spillovers in other sectors that supply intermediate goods and services. It also stimulates creation of numerous high-end job services such engineers and programmers in software technology within local economies. Additionally it drives economic productivity, innovation and engine of overall economic growth. Manufacturing of semiconductors, the basis of modern electronic devices, prominently add value to the U.S economy proving high-value-added production, high-wage jobs, efficiency and productivity gains, and wage growth. Notwithstanding this, the United States is losing capacity and leadership in production of semiconductors. William J. Spencer (Emeritus of International Sematech chair), summarizes the leadership concerns by suggesting that a blend of market forces and foreign policies is creating powerful incentives to reallocate new chip fabrication overseas. If the trend persists, U.S leadership in college chip design and manufacturing will erode with unpleasant consequences. Productivity growth will slump down severely impacting the economy spilling over to military security and might.
These warnings have been raised by the National Security Agency and independent institutes. The semiconductor business demonstrates the problems arising from outsourcing key industrial sectors critical for preservation of critical national security requirements. Natural disasters in South East Asia were chip production is being outsourced; possess a fundamental threat to electronics supply chain. For example the 1999 earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale that struck Taiwan shut down factories in Hsinchu industrial district disrupting the supply of wafers. Additionally, offshore sourcing and production of chip presents a potential threat to classified information embedded in example chip designs. It greatly increases the possibility of unfriendly governments or non-state actors embedding Trojan horses, worms or malware in foreign manufactured chips to college essay experience, be used in military or intelligence applications. As other nations execute strategic industrial policies to build up their technological capacities and strong, modern manufacturing base, U.S. policies continue to encourage U.S. manufacturers to shift their operations offshore. A comprehensive strategy aimed at reversing the decline in example resume the nation’s manufacturing base will be sufficient for safeguarding and revitalizing the industrial base in virus essay the coming decades in example good resume face of looming competitive global commerce. Another long term affect that poses much greater in addition to knowledge spillovers is the lack of fun high creative writing, local talent available to be utilized in good resume the economy. College enrollment for essay courses leading to high skilled jobs as suffered a setback due to uncertainties associated with outsourcing of these jobs. In addition, the U.S economy is at example resume risk of losing its attractiveness to skilled immigrants.
Outsourcing disrupts education evident with the college students shunning to college essay experience, pursue high-tech fields and opting for business oriented courses. Students are concerned that by pursuing these course coupled with instability in the labor market they face risks of losing out due to outsourcing. Studies show the proportion of graduates planning to example resume, major in computer science or engineering is now 70% below its peak in thesis statement the early 1980s (Santos 87). With companies shipping IT operations to example good resume, countries such as India and China, these countries are capitalizing by thesis statement for paper on schizophrenia investing heavily in education and example, training to continue to attract, retain best talents, and maintain competitive edge in the global IT industry. The increasing deficit in trade posse’s long term effects on the growth of the experience U.S economy.
The U.S economy consumes more than it produces. This deficit cannot be scaled down if economic activities continue to be exported overseas. Goods and services produced and provided by U.S firms are being imported back to the U.S worsening the deficit situation. Outsourcing also diminishes the example purchasing power of workers and shrinks their presence in the consumer market. Most outsourced jobs to developing countries are not replaceable and present difficulties returning them back. It also means that the few remaining positions, individuals willing to take them must accept wage cuts and reduced benefits that they would have received if these jobs were not outsourced (Bureau of Economic Analysis and Bureau of Labor Statistics). Outsourcing creates a population of underemployed and severely affects the middle class purchasing power.
Employment losses results in lower incomes, degraded life value, decreased motivation and diminished spending. Failure by essay consumers to spend puts a strain on the economy; if money is not ploughed back the economy struggles to grow (Schniederjans, Ashlyn and Dara 6). A struggling economy impacts negatively on home ownership, individuals cannot purchase new homes or take up mortgages and foreclosures increase. Outsourcing is harmful to revenue collection to local, state and federal governments. Firms pay fewer taxes, reduced payroll receipts and fewer contributions to example good resume, social security and Medicare (Khosrowpour 56). If foreign outsourcing on descriptive essay balance raises economic well-being, policies aimed at arresting that activity would have a net economic cost. There are, however, other avenues for policy response that most economists think could be generally beneficial. One avenue is to work to expand overseas markets through further removal of foreign trade barriers against example resume, American exports. A second avenue would be to use policy to boost the benefits of trade by correcting deficiencies in the economy’s ability to create new products and thesis statement for paper, processes that could become attractive exports. A third avenue is to use economic policy to remove any unwarranted bias against the economy’s tradable goods sector caused by an elevation of the incentives toward foreign outsourcing that arise from the economic forces generating the trade deficit (Taylor and Akila 26).
A fourth avenue would be to example, use policy to address the hardships and inequities arising from trade and foreign outsourcing by extending compensation and an actor, more effective tools for adjustment to those who are hurt by example the disruptive effects of foreign outsourcing and essay my job, other market forces. Signs of Changing Trends. The U.S. Congress of example resume, recent has taken action to limit outsourcing and off shoring by adjusting the nation’s inter-national commerce policies, however, further measures must be done. The President has backed creation of more employment opportunities rallying for descriptive about my job greater investments in infrastructure and moving rapidly towards clean energy driven economy. State like Ohio have implemented policies and passed laws limiting the flow of public funds to foreign firms. In addition, some corporations and example resume, entrepreneurs have begun to question the wisdom of outsourcing, deciding to set up new facilities in the United States, expand their operations within the country and establish firms taking advantage of American workforce skills, knowledge and capabilities. School Creative Writing! The federal government must immediate actions in partnership with the private-sector stimulate economic growth, job creation, enact policies, and establish long term strategic programs aimed at rebuilding the middle class and rebalancing the American economy.
There are two identified measure before Congress that can be used some of the worst trade offenses. Good! The first recognizes the manipulation of the Chinese currency, undervalued approximately 40 percent with respect to the U.S. dollar. Thus, costing the virus essay U.S. economy more than 3 million jobs. The Chinese government continues to violate its international obligations with respect to championing and safeguarding workers’ rights, human rights, illegal subsidies, currency manipulation, and respect for good intellectual property rights by its citizens. Congress has been urged to freud essays, enact a comprehensive trade bill enabling the federal government with tools to address these challenges combined with strengthening trade laws and their enforcement. The current tax regulations permits U.S multinational corporations to postpone tax payment on foreign earnings until those earnings are repatriated.
These provisions encourage continued investment in foreign economies with low tax rates at example good resume the expense of creating jobs in the U.S economy, and further tilting trade deficit in favor of emerging economies. Comprehensive tax reforms reflecting the changing situations need be recommended and enacted. These regulations must be punitive to experience, businesses or hinder foreign investments and expansion by example good U.S firms. Outsourcing has transformed the ways in which nations interact. Corporations have fragmented their operations internationally in essay experience order to concentrate exclusively on their core competencies.
Short-term benefits, such as cost savings were identified, however several intangible consequences and hidden costs were overlooked that will have an resume, effect on the U.S. An Actor! economy in the subsequent years ahead. There is still a lot we do not know about outsourcing, largely because the available data does not provide information needed to fully understand its magnitude, the reasons behind it, and the actual effects it has on the economy. However, there is still substantial information that can be examined to analyze the long-term consequences that will alter our economic status. The sudden increase in resume outsourcing highly skilled professional jobs may be suspending our position in the world as a lead economic power. Companies must realize that their strategic advantages will thrive based on maximizing their knowledge-base, which is achieved through employing highly educated U.S. workers.
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