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Assessment of Staffing Needs of Systems Specialists in Aviation (2013) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Non Academic Achievement. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The primary challenge for the committee was to find ways to create effective staffing models to determine Airway Transportation Systems Specialists (ATSS) staffing level requirements in Technical Operations work sites and appropriately accommodate the various stakeholder concerns discussed in homework how to write paper com, Chapter 2. To address this challenge, the committee reviewed the fundamentals of modeling in general as applied to developing staffing estimates, which is the subject of this chapter. A comprehensive study process is presented, as well as key model considerations. The chapter concludes with the quality factors against which a staffing model is evaluated. The review of achievement essay, these modeling fundamentals sets the my first phone essay stage for the evaluation of existing models and creation of recommendations for the use of modeling to successfully define and predict ATSS workforce requirements in future efforts. The Office of Personnel Management’s (OPM’s) End-to-End Hiring initiative defined workforce planning as. the systematic process for identifying and addressing the gaps between the workforce of today and the human capital needs of tomorrow. Achievement Essay. Workplace planning is based upon world war one essay a set of workforce analyses which provide insight into how agencies can align their workforce to meet human capital goals and objectives that link to the agency’s mission and strategic objectives. (Office of non academic achievement, Personnel Management, 2008:12) The workforce planning cycle as defined by OPM entails five basic steps as shown in Figure 3-1.
Step two of this workforce planning cycleanalyze workforce, identify skill gaps, and conduct workforce analysisincludes much of the committee’s task, which is to provide the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with guidance in determining the current ATSS workforce size and allocate ATSS personnel to match predicted workload. This portion of the cycle can be a difficult and poorly executed step of an phone essay, overall workforce planning process, as developing tools to ascertain the non academic kinds, numbers, and location of workers needed to accomplish an enterprise’s goals and objectives can prove a tremendous. SOURCE: Office of Personnel Management, undated. challenge. For a large enterprise, skipping the workload assessment/workload analysis dimensions and only performing a gap analysis on existing position structure and supply, then creating a plan to fill open positions, will likely be inadequate for defining the human law essay number of employees with particular skills sets and credentials needed in non academic, a variety of facilities and geographic locations. Because ATSS personnel maintain tens of essay services, thousands of pieces of equipment of different types and at various stages of the equipment lifespan across a broad geographic area, and at non academic achievement essay a high level of operational readiness, defining and measuring the workload is apa research review paper, formidable. Different philosophies about maintenancefor example, a philosophy of preventive inspections and maintenance versus one of “repair when the system breaks”create a wide spectrum of non academic achievement, potential staffing outcomes.
1 The expected levels of performance and tolerances for human rights law essay time between failures of systems may drive the need for extra shifts or ATSS personnel assigned to a particular problem, facility, or geographic location. ATSS technicians may be assigned to a particular task or may be in standby status on a shift and available via telephone for call-outs. All organizations base staffing decisions on a paradigm of the underlying production process [or the means by which work is essay, accomplished], whether they do so explicitly or not. This conceptualization is war one essay, often referred to as a staffing model. A staffing model is non academic achievement, a formal representation of the apa research paper mechanisms that drive the need for staffing resources. (National Research Council, 2006:4) 1 As the FAA adopted reliability centered maintenance practices, some tradeoffs have already been carefully weighed and incorporated into the agency’s guidance for technical operations. Changes in the services provided and, in the case of Technical Operations, changes in the amount or type of equipment maintained should drive the types and numbers of ATSS personnel required. An effective staffing model should represent work done with existing processes, unless the processes modeled are deliberately modified to reflect anticipated changes in non academic achievement essay, the work; significant change to existing processes require updating or refining the model to ensure its accuracy. If important factors that have an effect on staffing are identified and accurately measured, then the algorithms of a good model should provide useful standards or staffing projections. Types In Research. In many public and private enterprises, human resources account for at least 50 percent of the cost of the operation and can consume a great deal more of the organization’s financial resources. 2 The FAA’s Technical Operations branch currently employs approximately 6,000 full-time ATSS personnel, representing an estimated investment of more than $450 million a year in salary and benefits, or approximately $2.25 billion over a 5-year budget cycle. The true fully burdened workforce cost (which includes 6,100 workers) is likely higher.
3 Most large enterprises keep track of their human capital costs, and that effort typically includes using tools that depict the essay size and essay skills of their workforce accurately. The output of non academic essay, well-designed modeling tools can strengthen the argument for a correctly sized workforce in essay services, budget discussions by providing clearer and reasoned estimates of the risks if the workforce has fewer people than the organization’s missions demand. Although technology is non academic achievement, essential to the FAA mission of keeping the national airspace safe for movement of passengers and review freight, the right mix of talented human beings is also essential to achieve that mission. Essay. There are many ways to acknowledge the value of the ATSS workforce. Perhaps the most important is to create jobs in which employees are neither so underchallenged that large numbers sit idle nor so overtasked that performing the mission is overwhelming. A properly sized workforce helps ensure achievement of the essay FAA’s mission of maintaining the safety of the non academic National Airspace System (NAS) at reasonable costs and levels of efficiency. Moreover, appropriate levels of staffing are likely to reduce turnover that is due to morale issues stemming from placing a responsibility on workers that cannot reasonably be met. An ancillary benefit to careful workforce planning is personal life balance for ATSS personnel. 4 In addition, the value of an accurate staffing model also has to take into account the value of a high functioning NAS that is types of evidence in research, both safe and efficient. Achievement. Although these costs are generally recognized and can be estimated with varying degrees of precision, it would be impossible to of evidence in research, calculate the exact cost of non academic, understaffing in types papers, terms of its impact on business and commerce.
One outage may have far-reaching and costly impacts that are never fully identified. Despite the achievement essay difficulty of specifying the exact dollar amount, a robust staffing model must consider the far-reaching effects of understaffing. 2 For example, a 2011 report stated that 80 percent of U.S. Postal Service outlays were spent on labor costs (U.S. Postal Service, 2011).
National Income and Product Accounts data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis indicate that approximately half of state and local government total expenditures are wage and benefit related (http://www.bea.gov/itable/index.cfm) [June 2013]. 3 This is an approximate and conservative estimate, given the previous negotiated floor/threshold of 6,100 workers. If 6,000 full-time workers were employed at apa research paper a fully burdened cost of non academic essay, just $75,000 per year per worker (which is on the low side), the annual cost would be $450 million and the 5-year cost (assuming no inflation) would be $2.25 billion. The FAA employs more than 30,000 workers and for fiscal year (FY) 2013, the Technical Operations budget request was $1.7 billion, which included a request for authorization of 8,050 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees (Department of Transportation, 2012). 4 Comments submitted to on human, Staffing Needs of Systems Specialists in Aviation Stakeholder webpage, 2013.
The next section of this chapter presents the fundamental aspects of non academic essay, modeling that lead to success. Figure 3-2 highlights these components: (1) a comprehensive study process, (2) key model considerations, and (3) quality factors that can enhance the apa research review paper likelihood of (4) desired model performance. Because these components provided the basis for the committee’s assessment of the current assumptions and methods used by the FAA to essay, estimate ATSS staffing needs and for of evidence in research papers its recommendations regarding more appropriate approaches to staffing models, each component is described in more detail below. Experienced modelers rely more on logic than the achievement rigid application of any given method for developing a staffing model (Law and Kelton, 2000). 5 Thus, throughout any modeling effort, the developers must continually rely on logic and think critically about the task. Homework Write. To be accurate in non academic achievement, its estimates, a staffing model should be designed using a comprehensive development process that captures major drivers of ATSS workload at the appropriate level of detail and properly links the workload to the number of person-hours required to achieve the defined tasks of the homework how to write a research paper job incumbents.
Although it was not the intent of the committee to prescribe a detailed staffing model methodology, this report does discuss the steps in a generic logical model development process so that essential actions are considered and not overlooked in essay, creating a specific model for ATSS personnel. 6. 5 For a simulation approach, Law and Kelton (2000) provide examples of essential steps and considerations. 6 These steps are derived primarily from modeling staff requirements in Department of Defense entities. The Navy Total Force Manpower Requirements Handbook, April 2000, lists five steps: Planning, Data Gathering, Data Analysis, Documentation and Reporting, and Implementation (U.S. Navy, 2000). The Air Force has used similar 6- and 7-step approaches. The Army once used a 12-step modeling algorithm but allows for many more variations today.
The committee’s point here is to world, focus not on the amount of steps used but on the employment of a logical, comprehensive, phased approach that includes certain deliberate activities to non academic essay, create viable manpower staffing models. A caveat is that the conditions under which the military services analyze staffing requirements are both similar to and decidedly different from those confronted by the FAA. These organizations all have ATSS-like positions whose incumbents are responsible for maintaining the equipment necessary to phone essay, manage air traffic in the airspace. However, the non academic essay work environment and work rules that may have an effect on staffing vary considerably. For example, the military services, unlike the FAA, all have a greater degree of control of their personnel.
Furthermore, the FAA. Apa Research Review. The comprehensive modeling process described here consists of six phases: feasibility, familiarization, measurement design, measurement, analysis/model development and selection, and implementation. Most seasoned workforce modeling experts use a similar approach. For example, the essay Air Force uses its Management Engineering Program, which describes similar steps that have been refined over decades to produce generations of effective workforce staffing tools. 7 Figure 3-3 outlines the major phases of the comprehensive study process. Phase 1. Rights Law Essay. Feasibility. Non Academic Essay. The objective of the feasibility phase is to essay services, determine if a modeling study effort should proceed or should be canceled or delayed due to problems such as nonstandardization, operational or organization instability, higher or conflicting priorities, and so on.
The decision to continue development efforts is based on initial data- and fact-gathering concerning the achievement responsibilities of homework center how to a research factmonster com, job incumbents, the environment in which work is performed, and the resources available to the modeler such as time records, equipment lifespan data, etc. Non Academic Achievement. Two approaches to apa research paper, viewing work are commonly used: a work site approach and achievement a work process approach. The work site approach focuses on a location and describes all the work that is done at that location. The work process approach focuses on a particular line of world war one essay introduction, work and achievement essay describes how it is human rights law essay, performed in multiple locations. The environment to non academic achievement, be studied includes dimensions such as the fiscal/budget situation, technological complexity of the work and equipment and anticipated changes, and the rate of essay services, change associated with the work performed. Stability of the work can make modeling easier than rapid changes, which usually require more frequent updates to the model or to the inputs to the model, such as task times. must comply with work rules and contend with a labor union. Although these differences may not affect what steps need to be taken to achievement, develop a staffing model, they may affect how each step is implemented and what factors are taken into account. My First. 7 More information on the Air Force approaches can be found at AFI 38-201 and AFMAN38-208 Volumes I and Volume II; Army Guidance includes Army Regulation 570-4 and publications from the non academic essay U.S. Army Manpower Analysis Agency; also see the current Total Army Analysis (TAA) process and MANPRINT. A critical question to apa research paper, ask is “Do stakeholders agree it is the right time to conduct a study?” A major consideration in answering it should be the level of achievement essay, effort, time, and resources required to complete a study in light of the outputs desired.
If the decision is to services, proceed with the non academic study effort, a study scope and framework are established to guide collection of information needed to plan and rights law essay conduct model development. Stakeholders should take the time to non academic essay, carefully define and review study goals, scope, and milestones, as well as consider the potential limitations of the paper com results. A number of multi-level considerations are relevant to feasibility. Specifically, there appear to be a number of potential cross-level interactions among individual training and higher-order factors such as location and distance. The committee believes that the non academic model would probably benefit from exploring such nonlinear and cross-level interactions. A memorandum of agreement should be established between the modelers and the primary stakeholders that documents what the law essay modelers plan to do, what time frame they will do it in, what will be required of various stakeholders and the organization, and what output should be expected. A study announcement should be developed and shared with appropriate stakeholders, who may include management representatives from various functions and locations, job incumbents, union representatives, and others, to inform them of the effort and non academic achievement their responsibilities and to engage their support. Rights. Phase 2. Familiarization. In the familiarization phase, modelers learn about the work and the context in which it is non academic, performed. First, the development team should produce and verify either a detailed work site description, sometimes called a work breakdown structure (WBS), or a process-oriented description (POD), if the work process approach is being used.
A WBS is usually created by taking major work categories or components and breaking them down into smaller and smaller subcomponents. A POD is designed to document functions by inputs, process, and outputs, and then identify the subcomponents or details of these process elements. 8 The WBS or POD should contain a fairly complete description of the various tasks performed in the work sites because it forms the basis for the staffing model. Creating a useful and accurate WBS or POD at the right level of detail is one of the most important outputs of this phase, as an accurate accounting of the activities that drive most of the worker effort is directly related to the accuracy and value of the staffing model output. It is also helpful to create a statement of conditionsthat is, a description of the normal work environment and rights the operating challenges and unusual conditions faced by essay, workers performing particular types of work in various locations.
9 Modelers also find it useful, if not essential, to capture an human rights, initial set of key baseline data, such as the present structure of the organization, the number of non academic achievement, full-time equivalents (FTEs) funded and currently employed, the allocation of workers across the organization, and staffing information such as details about personnel accessions by location and specialty. Another component of this familiarization phase is the identification of potential workload factors (i.e., those factors that affect the hours of available labor for a work site) and the data sources in which information about each factor reside. Services. Historical data related to the number of employees, time to completion for various tasks, failures and outages, etc., can be useful for trend or regression analyses whose results can inform the model of staffing needs. Achievement. If the world war one essay organization does not maintain or does not usually collect data on some of these potential factors, it must consider how best to gather the information. 8 Unlike a classic WBS, the essay Air Force shift to a POD allows ready process mapping and modeling, and may tie more directly with specified outputs of the activities, which in review, turn may potentially be more directly linked with performance measures. 9 It should be noted that U.S.
Air Force manpower studies, and their classic end product, an non academic achievement essay, Air Force Manpower Standard (AFMS) include a statement of conditions. For more information, see AF/A1MR (2011). required for accurate modeling and continue to maintain the data bases related to these factors. Examination of documents related to apa research review paper, the job under study, such as official guidance, directives, standards, policies, performance measures, and transformation plans related to the organization, the achievement work, or the center a research paper factmonster com equipment can also increase the modeler’s understanding of the non academic job and of anticipated changes in the work. Phase 3. Measurement Design. Apa Research. In the measurement design 10 phase, the information gleaned from the feasibility and familiarization phases is used to determine a comprehensive study approach that includes the modeling tools, data inputs to the model, and the means to gather the data for the model. A critical question for the study team is how the data relevant to the modeling task will be gathered. For example, the team might use interviews of subject matter experts, a time study based on samples of work, or a by-location, by-work-element shift profile analysis. 11 Any combination of methods for collecting data may be used, but the achievement essay approaches to collecting data need to be clearly defined, preferably tested on review a sample of the overall workforce, and then refined based upon the lessons learned in the test, prior to conducting full-scale data collection. In addition, the team must be aware of the potential impact on the people who provide the data of any intervention necessary for data collection, especially direct observations. Otherwise, the non academic essay team may receive distorted information about the nature of ATSS work.
The measurement plan should define samples that are representative of the population and sufficient to make the types of statistical inferences necessary for modeling. When the essay job under study involves a large number of workers across many work locations, the modeler does not necessarily have to measure in detail the work of every person at every location; instead, a subset of workers and achievement essay locations that represent adequately the review overall population will be sufficient in most cases. The modeling effort needs to include enough data points to be representative of the various types of facilities, types of equipment and non academic tasks, and work centers to be statistically significant. If the organization is investing in a model covering thousands of FTEs, a 90 percent confidence level or higher may be desired. Types Papers. At one extreme, a belief that 100 percent of a large population should be measured can incur excess costs and time that consume study resources. At the other extreme, only measuring a few locations or relying on a small input sample, in an effort to expedite the effort or save resources, is even more likely to produce an unrealistic model outputwith disastrous results if applied to the whole workforce. The quality of the job information gathered must be considered, and when data are deficient, steps must be taken to improve the accuracy of the information to be used in the model. Achievement. Several approaches to data verification exist. For example, multiple data collection teams can gather data and measure work performance at types different sites.
If multiple teams are used to conduct measurement and data collection, the study team must provide guidance to standardize the methods for data harvesting. If instead a “same eyes” approach is used, one team travels to all locations to collect data. Non Academic Essay. Some modelers use a workshop or series of workshops facilitated by the study leads to collect data from my first phone subject matter experts. Often, the best approach is a combination of methods for non academic systematically studying the tasks required in the job, the frequency with which the tasks are performed, and the corresponding number of person-hours needed to accomplish the tasks properly. 10 For more information, see U.S. Air Force (1995a, 2003). 11 Time studies, work sampling, elemental time, and other methods are not discussed in depth here but may be researched more in Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics for Engineers , Lehto and Landry (2013), and other industrial engineering texts.
A measurement approach must be consistent with the later phases of analysis and model selection. Consequently, the homework center how to write paper factmonster com study team must anticipate the types of non academic, models to be explored, designed, and ultimately implemented. Of Evidence In Research. At times, the phases of the study process are iterative, so that the modelers must reconsider earlier decisions based on decisions made in later phases. Often, the limitations of available data and the feasibility of achievement essay, collecting more robust data constrain the type of modeling possible; when accurate models are required, such constraints must be remedied with extensive data collection plans. Types In Research. However, costs are a relevant factor in most modeling projects, and the team, in conjunction with the non academic achievement organization’s management, must decide what approaches to data collection are affordable. They must also consider the financial implications of understaffing and human rights overstaffing if the model’s validity is weakened by insufficient data collection. Phase 4. Measurement.
This phase involves the execution of the measurement plan created in phase 3 and refined through testing. Non Academic Achievement Essay. Data collected in war one essay introduction, this phase contribute to non academic, model selection and serve as the input to the selected model. The quality of the data collected significantly affects the value of the model; thoughtful measurement can make or break the study. Essay. All data obtained in essay, this phase must be consistent with the plans for the study and should be validated by examining the data for completeness, accuracy, and papers logical consistency. Phase 5. Analysis and Model Selection. The purpose of non academic achievement, model development is to depict accurately the worker to workload relationship in order to my first phone, derive the number of workers required by function or discipline and by facility type. Non Academic Achievement. Often, correlation and regression techniques are employed to examine the rights law essay data and determine the worker-workload relationship. Study experts frequently discover several subpopulations that should be grouped and then develop separate tools to portray the worker-workload relationships for each group.
In the case of the ATSS modeling challenge, the five different types of facilities may be suitable for non academic achievement essay individual groupings. Alternatively, the five disciplines might form the basis for grouping. For example, a model for depicting Core/Large Airport requirements and a separate model for GNAS, or a model for Environmental and paper factmonster com another for Communications, may produce more accurate results. Statistical tests of the relationship may be used to determine the sufficiency or best fit of the model equation. The end result should be an equation with a related set of statistical tools that the organization can use to determine the staffing requirements. These tools are often used at the location level and then aggregated to obtain total system requirements. Ideally, algorithms produce a set of tables that indicate the correct number and skill mix for achievement essay a work site to accomplish its mission sets. For example, the Air Force manpower management engineering process has built-in “Smart Sheets” that take workload factor data as input and produce electronic reports showing the number, skills, and grades of review, full-time workers required to match the workload. The more transparent and accessible for use the model is to different levels of the organization, the more likely the model is to achievement essay, be embraced by personnel at those levels. However, access to the model output may be limited, based on the user’s needs so as not to overwhelm the user with massive amounts of information that are not relevant to that user. Model design should also take into account the model’s adaptability to types in research papers, changing conditions.
An effective model must accurately depict the non academic current worker-workload relationships, but the better model also offers “scalability” so that the essay on human services model can be easily updated as the work or the work environment change. For example, NextGen and the eventual removal of older equipment are expected to have an. extensive effect on the work actually performed, as well as on the frequency with which many tasks are performed. Often a modular approach is used so that the relevant components of the model can be updated without overhauling the entire model. As with any other modeling effort, a sensitivity analysis would also be appropriate to assess how sensitive the achievement essay model outputs are to changes in various input variables. Another component of model design is adherence to good human-systems integration (HSI) practices, including safety and human factors concerns. The model and its output should ensure that the staffing levels reflect what is apa research, necessary to protect workers’ health (U.S. Non Academic Achievement Essay. Air Force, undated).
Often, the model design phase includes validation and review paper verification 12 elements, especially for highly complex models. A rigorous verification process in non academic essay, which predictions are compared to real-world situations of the past for which outcomes are known is begun at the same time the model is being developed. Data from the validation and verification effort can be used to refine the model or enhance the data inputs to world war one introduction, it. The verification, validation, and acceptance (VVA) processes used to non academic essay, improve the model and increase the organization’s confidence in it can take other forms. For example, qualified operations research or staffing model experts, teamed together with functional experts, can evaluate the review assumptions, data quality, and modeling algorithms and point out opportunities for non academic achievement improvement. Apa Research Paper. VVA activities should be practiced throughout the modeling effort, both before and after implementation. Other, more robust, formal VVA approaches may be useful and worthy of careful consideration; however, as Carson (2002) noted, “a model developer intermixes debugging, verification and validation tasks and exercises with model development in a complex and iterative process it should also be noted that no model is ever 100% verified or validated.” The final determinant of the achievement essay value of the apa research model will be the accuracy of the predictions regarding labor necessary to achievement, achieve the goals of the law essay job class. This determination can be done retrospectively with past situations and prospectively after implementation. Phase 6. Implementation.
Implementation of a new staffing model can be complex and requires close attention to how the model is introduced. How the model is implemented will have an effect on the level of achievement essay, acceptance achieved throughout the organization. At some point, the recommended model must be presented to decision makers for approval for use. Revealing the “test” impact of the model to management and workers within a public-sector function with many diverse stakeholders can be challenging, as there will typically be perceived “gainers and losers” by homework write a research factmonster, location as the workforce is adjusted by non academic achievement, the model results to match the work requirements. It will be useful to stakeholders to have an honest picture of the future staffing levels derived from the model, as well as an rights law essay, explanation of how they were derived. Achievement Essay. Budgets also need to services, be adjusted before implementation, particularly when there are increases to the staffing levels. Budget for new personnel salaries as well as hiring and training costs must be allocated when increasing staffing levels. When staffing levels decrease, the costs of reductions in force and redeployments must be factored into budgets. The committee had several discussions regarding how an effective model would look and how it could predict an effective number of ATSS personnel necessary for maintaining the NAS in a safe, efficient, and achievement effective manner. These discussions did not focus on a total number of ATSS personnel, but there was an understanding that, should the model generate a number greater than 6,100, the essay anticipated FAA budget would need to be quickly increased to non academic, avoid the.
12 Validation is the process of determining the degree to which a model or simulation and its associated data are an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model. Of Evidence In Research Papers. Verification is the process of determining that a model or simulation implementation and its associated data accurately represent the developer’s conceptual description and specifications in DODI 5000.61 (Department of Defense, 2009). Non Academic Achievement. negative implications for the safety and center write efficiency of the NAS. In that case, the FAA’s Air Traffic Organization would have to employ risk mitigation to compensate for the less than sufficient staffing while the budget was approved and additional personnel were hired, trained, and assigned to the appropriate sites. Conclusion 3-1: Dedicated budget requirements for the ATSS are likely to result from application of any comprehensive manpower staffing model and will need to be addressed. Public announcements related to increases or decreases in head count must be crafted to help outsiders understand the situation and win the public’s approval. Often, examples of locations where the essay work is my first phone, radically different are persuasive in essay, demonstrating how the local uniqueness was addressed. For example, higher levels of staffing in locations that experience special environmental conditions, such as corrosive salt water, extreme temperatures and weather, or extended travel to service remote equipment may serve to demonstrate the sensitivity of the model.
13. Value of war one, a Logical, Comprehensive Design Process. Following a comprehensive design process that contains the essence of the achievement six phases described above should greatly enhance the likelihood of creating an effective staffing model that enables the workforce to essay services, achieve the organization’s goals. Some of the phases overlap, and ideally, study leaders intentionally look backward and forward in the process so that the achievement end result is review, logical, valid, and compliant with the stated purpose. In particular, data examination during the measurement and analysis phases may necessitate revised data collection procedures or additional research. Moreover, those who develop the model need to plan for future improvements to it as modeling methodology and data collection procedures evolve and as the FAA obtains greater understanding of the achievement essay causes of variability in the tasks performed by ATSS. Insights gained at any phase can redirect the study in unexpected ways; thus, the study team needs to my first essay, be not only achievement, flexible but also seasoned in handling unexpected situations and understanding which approaches are most likely to be effective in a given situation.
Recommendation 3-1: The FAA should execute a modeling process that allows for future improvements in data modeling techniques and types applicability. There are many other key model considerations that contribute to the success of modeling efforts. Essay. In this section, the committee reviews important considerations that will enhance the staffing model. Consider the Difference Between Workforce Required, Workforce Funded, and Workforce Filled. War One Essay Introduction. Staffing standards produced by a given model are not identical to achievement essay, authorized or filled positions; required , funded , and filled are three different ways to describe the workforce and the numbers required. Essay Services. Staffing models may generate a fairly useful recommendation for defining a required workforce that is often refined by highly knowledgeable staff and managers, who then must compete for necessary funding in non academic achievement essay, a resource-constrained public sector environment. Review Paper. Thus, the required workforce is not the same as the. 13 These conditions are termed as a “variance,” which is an adjustment to the model for FTE time added or subtracted from the essay core requirements and is used and described in Air Force manpower requirements determination literature such as Air Force Manual 38-208, Volumes 1 and 2 (U.S. Apa Research Review. Air Force, 1995a, 2003). funded workforce.
FAA headquarters can create policy and routines to apply standards on an ongoing, cyclical basis for the creation of staffing plans and achievement essay projections, and can also provide authorization (i.e., formal funding) and justification through planning, programming, budgeting, and execution covering the ATSS workforce positions. Once positions are recognized and funded, they in turn must be filled. World Introduction. However, a filled workforce is not entirely dependent on hiring. Other tools of the human resource life cycle (recruiting, development, sustainment, retirement, and so on) affect the number of positions to be filled. Achievement Essay. 14 For example, a model could predict a requirement for 18 FTEs to perform communication systems maintenance in one location, while the budget process may only authorize funds for 16 in that area, and there may be only 14 persons actually “on board” as filled positions.
However, a good staffing model will provide decision makers with information regarding the expected consequences of under- and over-staffing. Center A Research Paper Factmonster. If fewer positions than are needed are authorized, for example, the model may indicate that a maintenance backlog is likely to emerge or that the risk of nonavailability of the NAS may increase. If more positions are authorized than are currently in the job, the hiring-training-development cycle needs to begin. Table 3-1 provides an example of staffing in one location across the five skill sets and management. An advanced modeling system for a large enterprise may have both short term (1-2 years) and longer term (out to approximately 5 years) staffing requirements.
The difference between the two estimates provides forewarning to the organization that changes in staffing levels are likely to achievement, occur. Proactive organizations build staffing-process ramps to increase or decrease the number of individuals with the skills to match the current staffing needs that are determined by changing equipment, services, and budget realities. Once the organization determines the extent of change that is likely to occur, it must adapt other systems (recruiting, hiring, training, etc.) and acquire the necessary funding. 15. 14 These tools fall under the personnel and training domains of HSI and in themselves may require improved systems and their own respective modeling algorithms outside this discussion. Examples are maintenance training throughput calculations and attrition/retirement/hiring estimating tools, among others.
15 Without straightforward and useful estimates of workload for the out-years, it is challenging to expect a model to predict staffing needswith the exception of creating forecasts based on insightful trend data. Air Force manpower data systems usually show positions for multiple quarters/years out in the budget cycle, and future adjustments are often calculated based on war one known changes in quantity and type of weapon systems that will be present or approved as missions change. Consider the Difference Between an Allocation and a Sufficiency Model. Non Academic. The National Research Council conducted a study for FAA aviation safety inspectors in 2006 that had a charge similar to that of the current study on ATSS staffing. Many of the former committee’s considerations at that time are applicable to paper, the current task.
Therefore, the present committee has quoted liberally from that prior report in non academic achievement essay, this section. The following passage, for example, is directly applicable to the current study, with a few word changes to apply it to ATSS staffing: 16 For example, the relationship to demand for meals served and the staffing of a food service operation may be modeled simply as a straight line approximation of law essay, a factor of additional workers per incremental change in how many meals are required per day. [M]odels, such as one for [ATSS] staffing, may be either allocation models or sufficiency models, or both. An allocation model is one aimed at distributing available resources equitably and effectively irrespective of non academic, their collective adequacy, whereas a sufficiency model is essay, designed to predict the resources needed to sustain system performance at what is deemed an acceptable level. A sufficiency model is more difficult to develop. It requires the organization to make decisions about, and set standards for, acceptable performance and to develop performance measures so that outcomes can be evaluated against those standards (i.e., it can be empirically validated). [B]y providing an estimate of the resources necessary to meet policy and safety goals, a sufficiency model can be the most rigorous way to determine staffing needs and to support budget requests for [ATSS] positions. [D]espite the distinction between sufficiency and allocation roles, we think that an [ATSS] staffing model should serve both functions. That is, it should be able to achievement, estimate aggregate staffing demand, provide predictions regarding the consequences of in research papers, alternative levels of staffing, and help guide the allocation of resources across functions, regions, and offices. (National Research Council, 2006:32, 39, 40) Consider the Essential Features of the Situation to Be Modeled. “[T]he more faithfully a model captures the essay essential features of its real-world counterpart, the better able it may be to fulfill its intended function” (National Research Council, 2006:30). A powerful example used elsewhere in essay on human services, government, by the U.S. Achievement Essay. Air Force, is the model employed to war one essay introduction, understand, predict, budget, and allocate aircraft maintenance manpower.
Mathematical representations of aircraft maintenance processes, repair networks, and component failure rates allow analysts to study enormous amounts of data and apply that data to achievement, predict with reasonable accuracy, for example, the number of Air Force maintenance personnel required to service and support a wing of fighter aircraft in order to provide a specified desired sortie generation rate. This predictive power is bounded, of course, by access to homework how to a research paper com, the necessary data and by changes within the system that require updating within the model. Models typically represent the relationship of variables through algorithms and equations that may vary in complexity and non academic achievement formalization. 16 Estimating the ATSS staffing needs will require computational power and methods that can capture the complexity of the job demands and generate system-wide estimates. Consider Whether the Model Should Be Descriptive or Predictive.
The 2006 report on Aviation Safety Inspector staffing contains a good explanation of whether a model should be descriptive or predictive. That account is quoted here with additional wording for types of evidence in research papers clarification and application to ATSS staffing: [M]odels are generally characterized as either descriptive or predictive. Essay. Descriptive models typically document the structure and center paper factmonster com processes of a system, but they do not add a computational component to non academic, enable predictions about system behavior as a function of system design. An information flow diagram for a business process is an my first phone essay, example of a simple descriptive model. [It shows] the steps, decisions, and outputs of achievement, a process, but alone does not offer insight in terms of the capacity or throughput of the system. Types Of Evidence In Research. Predictive models (like the [maintenance manpower] model) include such a component; hence they do enable prediction. In this project we have focused on predictive models because our charge is to non academic achievement, articulate methods for determining the appropriate numbers and types of [Airway Transportation Systems Specialists] as a function of the factors that drive the center how to write a research factmonster demand for their services. Unless a staffing model can predict with some level of precision how well the essay [maintenance and service providing] system will perform given the need structure, it would be impossible to estimate appropriate staffing levels [objectively]. (National Research Council, 2006:30) Consider Whether the Model Should Contain Stochastic or Deterministic Elements. Models can also be stochastic or deterministic.
17 The 2006 report includes an law essay, in-depth treatment of this subject. Stochastic models, a prominent form of which is the non academic essay Monte Carlo simulation model, attempt to take into account the unpredictable elements of system behavior, whereas deterministic ones do not. For example, [the repair frequencies and time required for each repair of various national airspace subsystems] cannot be predicted with 100 percent accuracy even under optimal circumstances because of unknown factors. Homework Center Write A Research Com. (National Research Council, 2006:30-31) Almost every system has some elements of uncertainty in it, so the question is not whether variability exists but rather how important it is to the system behavior that the model is designed to predict. Achievement. If ignoring the variable nature of the system is likely to lead to introduction, inaccurate predictions or, equally important, a failure to recognize potential staffing risks, then stochastic modeling techniques should be [considered]. However, if the variability is non academic achievement, not likely to [significantly] affect model predictions, or the variability is small and unimportant, a deterministic modelone that [minimizes treatment of] the stochastic properties of the systemshould suffice. (National Research Council, 2006:31) These unpredictable elements include an array of factors such as the introduction reliability of individual components within each device, employee illness, weather, corrosion, and ease of access affecting the time required to complete tasks. Equipment failures are inherently stochastic. The staffing required “on average” may differ significantly from that necessary when multiple failures occur. A stochastic model provides insights on the risks associated with low probability events that may have significant consequences and achievement potentially high costs. A deterministic approach to modeling will typically produce the same results for FTEs needed when the same coefficients or work counts are used, because probability or variation is of evidence in research, either not addressed or removed intentionally through the essay use of averaged process times.
A deterministic approach may involve many input variables, but in simple terms can be represented as an equation where the FTE requirement y is a function of multiple inputs x 1 , x 2 , , x n . A potential risk of homework how to write a research paper com, deterministic models is that they predict staffing demand based upon mean values (i.e., average conditions), rather than recognizing that staffing demand per shift may be significantly greater (or less) than average values due to stochastic factors such as multiple failures. 17 A deterministic model is a function of multiple inputs such as the type of equipment and the nature of the task to be performed. Law and Kelton (2000) provides fundamentals on how to go about addressing many stochastic situations and incorporating them into practical model designs. The committee that wrote the 2006 staffing report noted that a deterministic model can provide sufficient predictive power to yield “fairly straightforward answers to a number of key staffing questions.” While the complexity and cost of a stochastic model can be high, it is important to incorporate some stochastic elements that more accurately reflect reality. “It is important to recognize that both the non academic stochastic model and essay the deterministic model can produce useful expected values for an outcome” (National Research Council, 2006:31, footnote). Thus, to non academic achievement, address the immediate concerns of war one, ATSS staffing, the creation of an achievement, initial series of deterministic algorithms should be followed by development of robust simulations and queuing models to types of evidence papers, fully assess stochastic elements of the ATSS job. Stochastic models provide a better notion of the potential staffing risk associated with unusual events, such as multiple failures.
In the ATSS staffing situation, stochastic modeling may incorporate, for example, the probability that the appropriate number of ATSS specialists will be available to meet the demands of required maintenance, because it will take into account queuing issues (e.g., surges and unscheduled multiple maintenance demands) and achievement the stochastic nature of factors driving the need for services or repairs. 18 Hecht and types of evidence in research Handal previously developed and demonstrated a prototype model they called SMART 4, which explored relationships between maintenance staffing, mean time between outages, mean time to restore, facilities, and other key ratios (Hecht and Handal, 2001; Hecht et al., 1998, 2000). Hecht and Handal’s pioneering work may be a good starting point for bridging from standard deterministic models (such as ratio unit time equations per equipment or service and evolving support) and stand-alone powerful modeling and simulation tools for NAS resource allocation analysis. They also noted that these powerful simulation tools have been possible to create for some time, but their practical application has been bounded by the cost and complexity of implementation (Hecht et al., 2000). The ideal model for computing ATSS would likely contain both deterministic and stochastic features. Consider the essay Critical Data Required for Analysis or That Drive Workforce Demand. The 2006 report on aviation safety inspector staffing explained the data required for analysis or for driving workforce demand; that explanation is homework center a research com, reproduced here with added wording where applicable: [T]he distinction between the underlying predictive model and non academic essay the data needed to make predictions using the model is critical. A model is created on the basis of the inherent properties of the system that drive its behavior.
In the case of the essay aviation safety inspection system [maintaining the integrity of the NAS systems and services,] this includes factors that drive demand for [ATSS] resources and how these [ATSS] resources are deployed in response to that demand. However, even if these relationships are understood and well represented in a quantitative model, the model is worthless without the data that enable meaningful and non academic essay realistic predictions. (National Research Council, 2006:32) Modeling the relationship between staffing levels and the number and type of equipment maintenance needs in the NAS by region requires collecting data by region. Without a reliable baseline count and ongoing accounting or data systems that contain this information, there is world war one, no practical way to create such a model. Because modeling and data collection are interdependent, the cost of non academic achievement, developing and sustaining data collection systems to feed into how to write factmonster com modeling must be considered. This is not to say that only “easy to non academic achievement, collect” data should be used in war one, the model. Essay. Key data that have not been readily available in the past should not be ignored, and methods to gather these data in a straightforward, economical manner should be developed. Too often, analysts have created an interesting but impractical manpower determination tool because of of evidence in research papers, difficulty in non academic achievement essay, routinely gathering the data required for the model’s input. 18 For a primer on stochastic modeling and simulation concepts relevant to the ATSS maintenance environment, see Beichelt and Tittman (2012:Section III). Homework Center How To Write A Research. variables.
As noted above, a critical step in the model development process is determining the source of input data and verifying its reliability. Non Academic Achievement. Consider Task Duration and Data Validity Issues 19. The utility of human law essay, a model depends on the data used to populate the non academic model as well as the structure of the model itself. Essay Introduction. Validity is defined as the extent to which a measure represents the construct being measured. If the data are not valid, then the predictions of the model will be invalid. For example, a valid measure of the time that Task X will take for achievement essay completion, will be one that is accurate. If task duration estimates are based on workers who have not fully learned the task or conditions that do not represent the normal environment in which the task is performed, then the time estimates will not be valid measures of the essay on human time for completion under usual conditions.
However, such measures may be valid measures of the time to complete a task under those unusual conditions. Another confounding factor in making accurate estimates in task time completion is the achievement bias in human judgments. Unless time estimations are made by a third party, the judgments may be consciously or unconsciously skewed. On Human. For example, a tedious task may be perceived by non academic essay, a subject matter expert to have taken longer than it actually did. My First Phone. Alternatively, a subject matter expert who likes to achievement, take his/her time in center how to a research com, completing certain types of achievement, tasks may indicate a longer time than necessary to ensure the work can be completed at the preferred pace. The validity of a measure is limited by its reliability, that is, the extent to rights law essay, which a measure is free from error and repeated measurements of the same entity (e.g., the same task, event, or object) yield similar values. If the reliability is low, then so is the validity. If the duration of task i is highly variable, a measure of duration based on the mean will have a large standard deviation. While the measure may be reliable, it may not be an accurate estimate of task duration in all situations. The actual time for non academic essay task i could be almost constant, but the measurement process (such as relying on homework subject matter experts’ estimates) may be error-prone and thus unreliable.
Measurement reliability can be improved by achievement, using better methods of data collection; the inherent variability of the task itself is best dealt with by using stochastic models rather than deterministic models. The other issue in collecting and using duration data is that of granularity. For example, the duration of an off-site maintenance task will be composed of at least two components: travel time and core task completion time. These two components will be affected by different variables, that is, travel distance, terrain, weather, and traffic for travel time; task complexity and ATSS personnel competence level for core task time. If the two subtasks are separated, simpler models can be built for each.
Times for completion of the component tasks can be added to obtain the total time for how to write paper com the off-site task. This task decomposition can be taken to non academic achievement essay, lower and law essay lower levels, eventually ending at the element level of predetermined motion-time systems. Synthetic time estimates for new tasks can be computed by aggregating the known times for each element in the task. There are three means of collecting data on task duration, each with different levels of reliability, validity, usefulness, and simplicity of use. 1. Subject Matter Expert Estimates.
Asking supervisors or incumbents to estimate durations of tasks that they have performed in the past is simple and low-cost but generally quite unreliable. Human memory and non academic essay judgment suffer from world war one essay well-known biases (Kahneman et al., 1982) that potentially affect. 19 For more information, see Kahneman et al. Non Academic Essay. (1982) and Bisantz and Drury (2004). both reliability and validity of such estimates. Emerging technologies such as mobile devices and other electronic tracking devices may provide ways of obtaining more accurate time estimates in the future. 2. Historical Data. Apa Research. There are existing data bases such as the Remote Monitoring and Logging System and the Labor Distribution Reporting system that capture actual times for task completion contemporaneously and appear to have some relevance for estimating task durations. The data in these data bases were collected for different purposes (Bisantz and essay Drury, 2004), and so applying them to duration estimation for essay introduction staffing models may not be reliable. Time information may not be recorded immediately, but at a later time when memory errors become significant.
Typically such data bases only record total task duration rather than more meaningful and useful components as noted above. To improve the confidence in historical data or in subject matter experts’ judgments, their accuracy may be verified by performing checks such as stopwatch measurement of non academic achievement essay, task duration on a sample of the of evidence in research papers data. 3. Direct Time Study. Non Academic Achievement. A third approach is to observe directly the essay on human services performance of the non academic achievement task and its components and record their durations. Time studies are an expensive proposition if a large amount of data is of evidence in research papers, required, but the results generally have high reliability and validity. Non Academic Essay. Best practices for homework center how to write factmonster conducting such time studies cover factors such as how many tasks to time, what degree of component decomposition to use, and how to achievement, select tasks and operators for observation and timing. If tasks change appreciably from time to time and situation to situation, then overall task durations will also change, requiring additional data collection and human rights law essay associated expense. If task components are measured and non academic only a few components of the task change, costs can be reduced by only remeasuring that portion of the of evidence task that has changed.
Variances: Consider the non academic achievement Model’s Ability to Customize FTE Needs for Special Situations. The term “variance” is used here in the sense of deviation, not in the statistical sense of a measure of variability of a distribution. Variances adjust core requirements either by types in research papers, increasing (positive variance) or decreasing (negative variance) earned FTE increments at specified location(s) or situations due to achievement essay, unique mission or environmental differences. My First Phone Essay. Many models are often created to predict the average FTE requirement per various levels of achievement, workload demanded. Such models thus seek to capture the manpower required to do work that is apa research, common to all applicable locations. However, in actual work settings, certain processes or work activities are frequently not performed at all locations. Moreover, operational conditions at a location are not always the non academic essay “average” conditions depicted within the model. If relevant and significant, these conditions can be addressed through calculation of positive or negative variances for the given location and situation. For instance, a mission variance can add or subtract hours for location-specific required work that is not addressed in introduction, the work site description (a positive variance) or work identified in the work site descriptions but not performed (a negative variance). Achievement Essay. These differences in work should be documented, evaluated, and approved at my first appropriate level(s) as a matter of policy, not just through a local team leader’s preference. An environmental variance adjusts hours for required tasks that are addressed in a work site description but are affected by environmental differences among locations (i.e., mountainous territory or snow).
The need for achievement essay environmental variances in NAS maintenance may be based on challenges related to my first phone, snow removal, need for de-icing of equipment, effects of a marine/salty environment on required corrosion control activities, effects of geographical separation on travel times, presence of essay, remote versus on-site equipment or service monitoring capability, etc. For example, Technical Operations locations that maintain “inside the fence” systems may earn a normalized FTE requirement for the equipment maintenance. tasks, while locations that maintain similar equipment at remote sites may receive a positive environment variance. In such circumstances, a “calculator” may be built into the model to types papers, compute the variance for non academic essay travel time based upon number of times the team must go to the remote site. It is usually not cost-effective to pursue and document variances that drive small adjustments. Human Law Essay. When building staffing models for non academic small organizations, a half-FTE change may be worth documenting; however, for large organizations, the study team may establish a larger FTE value threshold for world war one essay introduction including variances in the model. Consider Various Components of Total Staff Time. Ideally, any advanced modeling effort needs to address various components of total staff time, including direct productive time, indirect productive time, nonallowed time, nonavailable time, and on-call time and other work situations (U.S. Air Force, 1995a:53-58).
Productive time is non academic essay, time workers spend doing work that is essential to achieve their mission. There are two categories of productive work activities: direct work and indirect work. Direct work activities are required by guidance, technical orders, or directives; are essential to and directly support the essay work site’s mission; and can be identified with a particular service or end product. Direct work activities are considered productive work that must be accomplished as part of the organization’s primary mission. Non Academic Achievement. The time required for direct work tasks should be documented by task, whereas indirect work may be quantified either through similar means or by applying a previously computed and agreed upon indirect allowance factor to the total direct hours. World Introduction. 20. In contrast, indirect work consists of necessary but supporting activities.
Indirect work is performed in support of the function, does not add value to a particular end product, and essay may not be readily identifiable with a specific output or service. Common examples of indirect work include participating in human resource activities, giving management direction, preparing reports for higher level review, attending meetings, and my first housekeeping activities. If indirect work is achievement, not measured independently, then the analysts need to create an my first essay, allowance factor and apply that factor as part of the non academic achievement model algorithm by crediting the measured hours of direct work with a percentage increase based on human the indirect allowance factor. The design of measures of critical data such as time to complete tasks and the careful collection of that must neither omit measurement of achievement essay, some kinds of data nor double count them. In particular, work dimensions such as travel, training, and human supervisory tasks need to non academic achievement essay, be carefully and consistently accounted for to ensure inclusion without double or triple counting.
For example, if the enterprise-wide mean travel time associated with preventive maintenance of a specific type of navigational aid were credited to the task “maintains navigational aid type X” and included in the total average direct process time, then travel for such activities should not be re-counted as a separate indirect activity. Homework Center Write A Research. As discussed above, substantial location-specific deviations from the essay mean travel time could potentially be computed as a positive or negative environmental variance. Similarly, the model should not credit travel at each subcomponent of the task “maintains navigational aid type X” because the travel occurred only one time. Nor should travel be counted for all tasks performed when a worker made only one trip but performed preventive maintenance checks on all of the equipment at the remote location. 20 U.S. Air Force requirements determination analysts sometimes choose not to perform indirect task measurement for how to write a research factmonster com every function, as the achievement Air Force has created separate standard indirect allowance task descriptions and factors (U.S. Air Force, 2011). Nonavailable time is time that is directed and approved by apa research review paper, management. Non Academic Achievement. During this time, the worker is my first phone, not available to non academic achievement, perform direct or indirect productive tasks. Examples of nonavailable time include approved leave, medical appointments, additional, directed duties such as serving as a voting liaison or office security officer, and rights time spent in approved education and training.
To determine a realistic FTE staffing requirement, nonavailable time must be factored into the algorithms for the staffing model. When accounting for nonmandatory leaves such as annual leave or medical leave in a staffing model, the actual documented use of leave and not the maximum days allowed should be used; otherwise, the achievement essay model results may be artificially inflated. Allowances for days off, holidays, leave, and medical absences need to be decided on and approved (U.S. Air Force, 1995a). The original FAA modeling efforts dating from the 1980s and 1990s took many of these into account, and Order 1380.40C documents the treatment of the different dimensions (FAA, 1992). Categories of allowable time, such as Labor Distribution Reporting (006), Watch Schedules (031), Working Hours (032-036), Holidays (038), Annual Leave (040), Sick Leave (041), Family and Medical Leave (043), Leave for world war one introduction Special Circumstances (044-045), and other such factors are specifically defined in the current labor agreement between the essay Professional Aviation Safety Specialists (PASS) and the FAA, signed on December 16, 2012 (Professional Aviation Safety Specialists, 2012). Other considerations such as allowed time for meals, breaks, and rest should be considered and carefully defined. It should be noted that some of the variances in allowances will be stochastic.
Personal, fatigue, and delay (PFD) factors may be incorporated into a staffing model to account for necessary breaks, trips to the restroom, or other realistic and valid activities. Center How To A Research. 21 PFD factors may be considered in individual task measurement times or accommodated elsewhere. Essay. On-call Time and Other Work Situations. On-call time is a period of time when an off-duty worker is available for work at a specified off-duty location and can be reached by world war one essay introduction, telephone or other means. When authorized work is required and cannot be deferred to the next shift or work day, a work measurement effort should credit the work site with productive time expended and the travel time needed to get to the job site and return to the off-duty location. Off-duty time spent waiting for a call is not usually measured or accommodated in a model (U.S. Air Force, 1995a). However, because the non academic achievement FAA agreement with PASS regarding ATSS personnel contains a provision for Compensated Telephone Availability, such time should be considered in the model design process to essay services, optimize shift schedule requirements for meeting peak outages or demands (Professional Aviation Safety Specialists, 2012).
Often, the term “standby time” is used to explain the time a worker is awaiting work. For example, people who monitor equipment systems may have substantial standby time waiting to repair equipment when it breaks. Achievement. A study team can measure and include standby time in a model when such duty is required and no other productive work (direct or indirect) can be accomplished. Workers who are loaned to essay on human, perform another function’s tasks should generally not be accounted for or included in non academic achievement essay, a model for their own function. Services. 21 For more information, see Lehto and Landry (2013).
Consider Incorporating Shift Profile Analysis into the Model Development Approach and essay Model Application Tools. Maintaining equipment and providing services for a robust and safe NAS can require ATSS workers to be at work, available, or on call for long periods of a day. Coverage of the NAS components 24 hours a day, 7 days a week is not uncommon in many locations. Normal work hours in a traditional week schedule are 8.5 hours per day, including a meal break, for 5 days each week, with exceptions for alternate work schedules such as 10 hours per human rights, day for 4 days a week, or for overtime and Compensated Telephone Availability. In addition, workers are not always available for their entire scheduled shift. Essay. Activities such as annual leave, sick leave, military leave, training, and travel to remote sites all result in compensated workers who are not available to perform the tasks assigned to them during their shift. A careful analysis of the shift scheduling and the work performed during shift can help optimize the total system workforce requirements for an organization. For example, the on human Air Force uses shift profile analysis to determine the amount of time its maintenance workers are available for direct work.
Consider Potential Indicators of Staffing Sufficiency Issues Before and After Model Implementation. Seasoned work analysts often check three indicators of staffing sufficiency: (1) use of overtime, (2) level of achievement essay, work site backlog, and my first (3) use of shortcuts to accomplish work. Examination of data in each of these areas can help to reveal the extent of understaffing or overstaffing. Use of Overtime. Overtime can be useful for non academic achievement essay addressing greater needs for personnel due to homework center write, peak work demands or temporary loss of personnel. However, excess use of overtime (or of borrowed workers from other organizations and contract workers) may indicate that the threshold staffing levels or shift schedule designs are not optimal within a work site. Steady use of large amounts of achievement essay, overtime can signal shortfalls in available “regular shift” FTEs, either from inaccurate staff targets, poor allocation, or inadequate fill action. Essay On Human. In addition, high overtime utilization may indicate less than ideal management practices, which may lead to fatigue or vigilance problems not conducive to high levels of job performance nor ultimately to achievement essay, effective maintenance of the apa research review paper safety of the NAS. 22.
Work Backlogs. For many organizations, work backlog, work “in the queue,” or work in progress is entirely acceptable, desirable, and logical. Achievement. For the ATSS enterprise, it appears logical that periodic maintenance inspections and preventive maintenance activities would be pending for some period of time, but not necessarily postponed for an extended time. Presumably, the longer the period of time these activities are deferred beyond some limit, the higher the inherent risk to the NAS. Some work associated with almost any activity can be deferred, but work deferred indefinitely can be a sign of homework center write a research com, insufficient resources to meet the work demands. An important question for modelers to explore is whether or not the non academic achievement backlogs are reasonable and growing or decreasing over time, and why (Ouvreloeil, 2001). Backlogs of work are not always attributable to staffing deficits. Many modern inventory control practices have, to a significant extent, reduced or removed the presence of large inventories of spare components. Some maintenance delays may be attributed to the unavailability of parts, not the unavailability of skilled ATSS workers to human rights law essay, perform the non academic work. The Air Force, for example, tracks metrics associated with the nonavailability of parts in my first essay, order to analyze and improve logistics for aircraft maintenance processes (U.S.
Air Force, 2009). 22 For more information on overtime considerations, see Capshaw (2011). Use of non academic essay, Shortcuts. The FAA operates within a formal Safety Management System that has available an types papers, array of tools and resources to non academic, prevent, identify, and analyze risk, including risk management through maintenance policy and procedure changes (FAA, 2007a). Nevertheless, on-scene work measurement or expert workshop review of tasks and times for world war one introduction many other maintenance-related fields have shown that a work site may occasionally employ shortcuts or deviations from standard practices that are not permitted or described in technical guidance in non academic essay, order to provide a service or maintain the required systems. Employing these shortcuts could be a valid innovation if properly studied and approved, but may unfortunately create a hidden level of risk within the system and long-term negative effects overall. Essay. In the modeling arena, if the time required for procedures officially documented in the Technical Operations guidance is accurately measured, but in practice the work site operates differently from the guidance for whatever reasons, the achievement essay time estimates are likely to be inaccurate. If these deviations are useful and should be approved, then the guidance should be revised after safety and effectiveness have been reviewed. The underlying rationale for essay the use of non academic achievement, shortcuts may, however, relate to perceptions of time pressure, poor training, or a lack of updated guidance. Regardless of the reason, deviations from standard practices should be examined and appropriate steps taken. The 2006 study of Aviation Safety Inspector staffing identified five important quality factors related to apa research review, predictive models: relevance, scalability, transparency, usability, and validity (National Research Council, 2006).
Box 3-1 defines these five factors, which were used by the current committee as criteria when reviewing the FAA’s current and planned modeling efforts for ATSS personnel. The 2006 report emphasized the importance of achievement, validity in assessing the value of a model: Validity is the final and, in many respects, the most critical feature. The extent to war one essay, which the predictions of the model correspond to non academic essay, the actual, real-world outcomes constitutes its validity. Indeed, the most powerful means of evaluating a model’s worththe ultimate proof of the puddingis the direct comparison of predicted with observed outcome (criterion) measures when such measures are obtainable. It is war one introduction, often the non academic essay case that the ultimate criterion (i.e., [NAS] safety) is not directly measurable in any practical sense, so the model’s predictive validity must be estimated against surrogate criterion measures. (National Research Council, 2006:33) The prediction of outcomes associated with alternative levels of staffing is a necessary condition for the model to be testable and its validity assessed. A model that makes no actual or implicit predictions cannot be properly validated in the scientific sense. All of the five qualities described above should be considered in the evaluation or development of an ATSS staffing model. They apply equally to models that the FAA has used or is using as well as to rights law essay, any future modeling effort it may undertake. Achievement. (National Research Council, 2006:34) A starting point for developing or assessing a staffing model is to review the nature of the work, the environment under which the work is conducted, and the manner in which the work is accomplished. The committee’s assessment of the work and the environment suggested that a viable staffing model for ATSS should.
Relevance capture right level of detail. Relevance concerns the extent to which the model addresses the important portions of the issues for essay which it is achievement essay, designed and, equally important, the extent to which it excludes extraneous or marginally relevant issues or data. Does the model capture all of the important ATSS workload drivers? Does it operate at the right level of war one, detail? Scalability usefulness for aggregation at higher levels, or predicting ATSS staffing needs by type of organization/facility, division or geographical region, or by required skill or discipline? Transparency ease of understanding, or the extent to which the model can be explained and understood by non academic essay, users of the model and those affected by homework write factmonster, decisions based on model implementation. Usability ease with which the model can be implemented and enhanced to achievement, make the predictions for which it was designed.
Does it have an how to a research, interface that is sufficiently intuitive to enable the model users to enter data efficiently and accurately? Is it appropriate to the skills and preferences of the intended users? Are the non academic achievement results presented in ways that support decision making? Can the model easily be updated to reflect changes in how to write paper com, the ATSS work requirements and environment or changes in FAA policy? Validity predictions match actual real-world needs (should be tested in various stages, first, with initial model selection, then through VVA process). SOURCE: Committee’s definitions, adapted from National Research Council (2006:33). • capture the achievement full extent of the NAS, the geographic diversity across facilities, and the staffing implications of travel time for equipment in remote areas; • clearly distinguish and paper quantify domain disciplines required in achieving workload demand; and. Non Academic Achievement Essay. • include performance measures or outcomes, both final (ultimate) and intermediate, in order to provide predictions regarding the on human services outcomes of a given staffing plan. Essay. A staffing model for ATSS should be “sufficient” in that it estimates staffing necessary to accomplish a given workload and is not simply a model that allocates a predetermined level of staffing across work sites.
Moreover, because the nature of the workload itselfrepairing equipment that failshas an inherent stochastic component, serious consideration should be given to developing a stochastic staffing model. Furthermore, the services model should be able to predict consequences associated with staffing at various levels, and these predicted outcomes should closely relate to what is actually observed at essay actual staffing levels. Chapter 3 has discussed the potential criteria for apa research model evaluation. Chapter 4 will review the past and achievement essay present FAA models used for center a research paper com the ATSS workers and examine how these models compare to some of the modeling philosophies that this chapter has explained. Non Academic Achievement Essay. It also provides further recommendations that incorporate considerations introduced in this chapter. Drawing on the previous discussion of the ingredients for successful modeling (i.e., a logical design process, key model considerations, and vigilance in essay services, seeking to attain the five quality factors), the committee created a checklist or set of criteria, shown in Box 3-2, with which to evaluate past models, models in progress, and essay other potential modeling approaches for the ATSS workforce. This checklist is intended as an aid to a modeler considering the apa research review paper criteria to use when designing a model for ATSS employees of the FAA. Achievement Essay. Potential Criteria for Model Evaluation. World Introduction. Area 1. Logical Design Process. Non Academic Achievement. o Measurement Designcomprehensive plan with steps documenting study approaches, objectives, means to gather and interpret the data, well-considered sample sizes and sites, amount of information to be harvested, with testing and refinement elements included.
o Data Type/Sourceslogging and tracking of my first essay, data such as equipment serviced, task, frequency, duration, outages, availability, reliability (per ATSS reporting); requirements for task performance (per specifications in rules and manuals); hours, overtime, shift; travel; allowances (per human resources data systems) o Data Collection Issuesmethods (e.g., use of existing or subject matter experts’ estimates, historic data, or data from conducting direct time study), availability of necessary data, cost and ease of data collection, level of rigor in the data (e.g., viability, utility, standardization of organizational data), amount of data to collect. o Analysis/Model Development and Selectionbuilding person-hour to workload relationships that are statistically valid and essay useful, creating electronic workbooks and Web systems to use and feed various reports. Homework A Research Paper Factmonster. o Implementation/Maintenanceinclude model utilization in non academic, policy documents, incorporate into budget cycle, refine Web platform, continuous cycle for world war one introduction update, addition of new products/services and retirement of legacy elements, etc. Essay. o Model verification, validation, and world essay introduction acceptance procedures defined and carried out. • Stakeholder input (adequate consideration of non academic, factors from Chapter 2 should be evident) Area 2. Structural Detail of Model. o Deterministic and/or stochastic components. World Essay Introduction. o Based upon documenting an accurate foundational work site description, or a process-oriented description, of work tasks. o Documents standard and unique work conditions and environment components to allow for variances to normal situation in terms of non academic achievement, additives, exclusions, deviations based upon mission, environment, or technological differences. o Modular features for ease of on human, update/inclusion of NextGen and legacy system changes. o Direct and indirect tasks captured and considered. o Allowances and Nonavailable TimePersonal, Fatigue, Delay, Sick, Leave, Holidays, etc. o Treatment of travelwithout double counting. o Standby Timethoughtful capture and analysis. o Fixed requirements such as specifications and/or dictated crew size (e.g., usually safety-driven, as in the “two person” rule) o Detail of shift analysis and post staffing, to include treatment of peaks to handle contingency-based work, risk, identification of standby time, along with review of flexibility to do training and deferrable tasks within the standby. Achievement. o Estimates needed for entire workforce or subcategories; types of organization, skills, and apa research totals by location, facility, or other category. o Not only gross FTE estimates but also ability to predict workforce needs by skill area. Area 3. Quality Factors. Area 4. Performance. • Estimate expected availability rate as function of achievement essay, staffing. • Estimate the cost of various levels of service or risk. • Estimate changes in levels of service and consequence. • Review and address these three issues: • Examine NAS redundancies. • Link to the agency’s performance metrics. Phone Essay. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Airway Transportation System Specialists ATSS) maintain and certify the equipment in the National Airspace System (NAS).In fiscal year 2012, Technical Operations had a budget of $1.7B.
Thus, Technical Operations includes approximately 19 percent of the total FAA employees and less than 12 percent of the $15.9 billion total FAA budget. Technical Operations comprises ATSS workers at five different types of Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities: (1) Air Route Traffic Control Centers, also known as En Route Centers, track aircraft once they travel beyond the non academic terminal airspace and reach cruising altitude; they include Service Operations Centers that coordinate work and monitor equipment. Types Of Evidence. (2) Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities control air traffic as aircraft ascend from and descend to airports, generally covering a radius of non academic achievement essay, about 40 miles around the primary airport; a TRACON facility also includes a Service Operations Center. (3) Core Airports, also called Operational Evolution Partnership airports, are the nation's busiest airports. (4) The General National Airspace System (GNAS) includes the facilities located outside the larger airport locations, including rural airports and equipment not based at any airport. (5) Operations Control Centers are the facilities that coordinate maintenance work and my first phone essay monitor equipment for a Service Area in achievement, the United States. At each facility, the ATSS execute both tasks that are scheduled and predictable and center how to a research tasks that are stochastic and non academic achievement unpredictable in. Homework A Research Com. These tasks are common across the five ATSS disciplines: (1) Communications, maintaining the systems that allow air traffic controllers and pilots to be in contact throughout the flight; (2) Surveillance and essay Radar, maintaining the systems that allow air traffic controllers to see the specific locations of all the aircraft in the airspace they are monitoring; (3) Automation, maintaining the systems that allow air traffic controllers to track each aircraft's current and future position, speed, and altitude; (4) Navigation, maintaining the systems that allow pilots to take off, maintain their course, approach, and land their aircraft; and (5) Environmental, maintaining the power, lighting, and heating/air conditioning systems at the ATC facilities. Because the NAS needs to be available and reliable all the time, each of the different equipment systems includes redundancy so an outage can be fixed without disrupting the NAS.
Assessment of Staffing Needs of world essay, Systems Specialists in Aviation reviews the available information on: (A) the duties of essay, employees in job series 2101 (Airways Transportation Systems Specialist) in the Technical Operations service unit; (B) the Professional Aviation Safety Specialists (PASS) union of the AFL-CIO; (C) the present-day staffing models employed by the FAA; (D) any materials already produced by my first phone, the FAA including a recent gap analysis on staffing requirements; (E) current research on best staffing models for essay safety; and my first phone (F) non-US staffing standards for employees in similar roles. Non Academic Essay. Front Matter i–xvi Summary 1–10 1 Background and Overview 11–18 2 Work Environment Considerations for Airway Transportation Systems Specialists 19–40 3 Considerations in apa research, Creating a Staffing Model 41–63 4 FAA Approaches to Estimating Staffing of Airway Transportation Systems Specialists 64–78 5 Implementation and Sustainability of the Staffing Model 79–86 References 87–90 Appendixes 91–92 Appendix A: Committee Biographies 93–95 Appendix B: Open Session Speakers 96–98. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Non Academic Achievement. Do you want to take a quick tour of the homework factmonster OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name. . or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to non academic essay, that page in rights, the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and non academic achievement press Enter . Write Paper Factmonster. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter.
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Philosophy, Ethics, and Social Responsibility; Philosophy, Ethics, and essay, Social Responsibility; Throughout the course, there will be reference to Hayden’s contentions. I have used the of evidence in research papers term contentions to indicate that they are not necessarily facts or truth in a scientific or philosophical sense but are important and useful things for achievement essay, you to know. Because I am the professor, I can and homework how to paper factmonster, should profess! I could site sources and offer complex logical proofs for my contentions (my professings) but I mostly have not (for the sake of your time and mine). Non Academic Achievement. For the purposes of this class, you need to presume that my contentions are as valid as the text book, the law, and other cited facts.
I can’t provide a definitive list of the contentions (they are woven throughout all my documents and communications). I think that it is accurate to say that the human rights contentions are not separate entities (like a list) but an integration of my knowledge, experiences, and philosophy (ethics and other philosophical elements). Each contention is but one facet or view of that integration. It may seem unfair but students don’t get the same freedom to non academic achievement, profess as I do (because I am the professor and how to a research factmonster com, you are the student). This will be strange for many of you because you have experienced years of being asked to non academic achievement essay, state your opinion and have been taught that every opinion is as good as any other.
Recall the following diagram. World War One Essay Introduction. Doing so should help put the course (including anything I communicate) in context. Though I said I couldn’t list all my contentions and that they are dispersed throughout the achievement course, I should introduce some here because they particularly relate to this and all future assignments, i.e., they are prerequisite to the remaining course content. Some of the following may not make a lot of my first phone, sense right now, but their relevance should become more and more evident as this assignment (and the course) progresses. Some Hayden Contentions. 1. Achievement. Employers usually get what they “really” expect. What is “really” expected is what is rewarded. Admonitions, goals, slogans, visions, missions, etc. don’t mean much by themselves.
Employees tend to do what they are actually rewarded to on human, do much more so than merely what they are told to do or a rule tells them to do. Is ingratiating oneself with the boss what is rewarded? Is self-aggrandizement what is rewarded? Is taking credit for other’s accomplishments what is rewarded? Or is meeting the spirit of the non academic law rewarded; is improvement rewarded, is center how to write a research productive behavior rewarded. Whatever is rewarded is what is really expected.
Remember that rewards are not only monetary. It should be evident that what is really encouraged and rewarded is what you will get (this is true for society, kids, spouses, employees, etc.). It should also be evident that this and other contentions have legal, ethical, and managerial implications. 2. Non Academic Achievement Essay. Related to on human services, the above, employers usually get what they model. Essay. When employees are malcontent, untrustworthy, unproductive, quarrelsome, etc. they are usually modeling the behavior of management. Even if the employees are trying to fight poor management, the employees will end up fighting fire with fire. When a system is screwed up, look at the levels above the screw up. How To Write A Research Com. As a minimum, even if the screw up is completely the worker bee’s doing, the achievement supervisor wasn’t doing their job. This contention is also applicable to homework center how to write a research com, most of the real world (work, government, schools and other institutions, church, etc.).
3. Usually, everyone (e.g., clients, upper management, society, employees, and supervisors) is best served by non academic meeting the review spirit of the non academic law and never being “legal” but circumventing the intent of the law. In other words, don’t look for paper, loopholes; meet the spirit of the law. It is immoral and unprofessional to act/think/say “it must be OK because it is technically not illegal,” “it must be OK because I got away with it (nobody stopped me or punished me for doing it),” or “everybody does it this way.” Granted, this contention is based largely on non academic, my ethical standards but there is evidence that doing the right thing for the right reason helps a lot in of evidence a legal situation. You might win or get your way (as employee or employer) due to non academic essay, a technicality but you will lose reputation-wise, trust-wise, etc. 4. As decision makers (this includes supervisors, employees, judges, lawmakers, customers, parents, children, etc.) we are all flawed. My First Phone. The problem is that we think we can make good decisions based on our feelings; we are sure of this; we all know we are in the upper half! But we are wrong. Essay. Individuals have a very strong tendency to believe that they are good decision makers and have some special insight or intuition, but we don’t. We are also full of incorrect knowledge and law essay, lack of necessary knowledge that biases our decisions.
Bias in the general sense means that something not pertinent has affected the decision. I suppose you could say that we tend to think things are pertinent when they are not and to achievement, also not consider pertinent things. I may not like Martians; you may not like opera singers. Consciously and essay introduction, subconsciously we are full of non academic essay, baggage and garbage related to “knowing” what makes a good employee. On the my first phone average we are wrong (this is proven by historic fact, statistics, and research). We are smart to essay, keep feelings and opinions out of decisions. We are smart to on human, make decisions based on non academic essay, the intent of the law, professional codes of war one essay, ethics, and sound moral and ethical standards. We are smart to non academic achievement essay, make decisions using rigorous, tried and my first essay, proven professional qualitative and quantitative techniques (in lieu of hunches and rules of thumb). 5. Non Academic Achievement. Employment decisions (e.g., hiring, placement, professional development, evaluation, etc.) should be based solely on homework how to write com, the employee’s ability to perform essential job functions (or the achievement performance thereof). There is a lot of rights law essay, research to back this up. Think about it, what is the advantage in using non job related factors in making job decisions?
Of course, this contention assumes that the essential job functions and matching abilities are known (and this is often not the case). 6. The law can be used proactively to get the achievement best employees, have the rights most satisfied customers, have the best products and services, make the most money, and several other good things, not to mention keeping the achievement employers and employees out of legal trouble. Sincerely meeting the spirit of the law is the best way to accomplish your business goals and keep from being sued. 7. Diversity (of thought, background, style, etc.) is usually genuinely good for world essay introduction, business. Non Academic. The reason is that diverse ideas are good to solve problems; they aid creativity. Note that in this context, diversity is much broader than legally protected categories such as race or religion. 8. Human Rights Law Essay. Not only are some forms of discrimination and harassment illegal, they are counterproductive to accomplishment of business goals. There are very good moral, ethical, religious, philosophical, etc. reasons to not base workplace decisions on protected factors, to achievement essay, be affirmative in getting the best employees and not discriminate or otherwise mistreat employees, and to afford employees accommodations that take into account individual attributes.
More so, there are very good moral, ethical, religious, and philosophical reasons to not base workplace decisions on homework a research factmonster com, any personal characteristics, even it is legal to do so. There are good reasons not to make decisions based on looks, personal habits, and a plethora of other factors not related to achievement essay, essential job functions. However, an employer whose morals and ethics only encompass wealth, power, and review, recognition will still best accomplish those things by following the law and non academic achievement, otherwise adhering to all the above items. There is homework center write factmonster no real advantage to skirting the law. Philosophy is the investigation of the nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, and values—all based on logical reasoning. Logical reasoning is one commonality of the law, management, and non academic, ethics (or at least theoretically should be!). A person’s philosophy affects how they view a legal, managerial, or ethical situation.
Realize that you have a philosophy whether you know you have one or not. Likely, this philosophy is somewhat confused and human, not pure or extreme but uses bits and pieces (maybe contradictory) of theoretically ideal philosophies in a manner that, more or less, works for you. To the non academic achievement essay extent that you have more of one than another, each of the following philosophies or philosophical labels would variously affect your legal decision making. I am not going to my first phone, tell you which is the best. Non Academic Achievement. The point is for you to realize that you are affected by your philosophy (even if you can’t state what that philosophy is). Rationalism. Do you believe that certain kinds of knowledge are innate; that you can use thought to know certain things without first having had the experience? Then you are a rationalist. Most of us think that some amount of rational thought is a good thing. However, extreme rationalism is very distrusting or even rejects all that we see, hear, touch, etc. In its pure form, rationalism claims clear thought to be more real and more important than apparent sense data, e.g., you can’t believe your eyes.
Empiricism. How much stock do you put in essay on human services what you can see, hear, measure, and touch? Do you think that all knowledge, belief, and what we label as truth must come from experience? Then you are an empiricist. Many of essay, us both use and deride this philosophy. As an intended good thing we say, that is an empirical fact; as a bad thing we say, that’s only empirical. Empiricism and phone essay, the scientific method go hand in hand. Without them we would have no science, medicine, physics, biology, psychology, etc. We would have no laws of gravity, motion, or all the other physical and scientific laws and theories that underlie our standard of living and way of life.
However, empiricism in its extreme leads to a skepticism that says anything that cannot be touched and non academic achievement, measured is not real, that everything is relative and illusory, there is no real good or bad, definitely no God. There is no real substance, time or space. Law Essay. Nothing actually exists from one second to the next. All we have are our sense perceptions and they are nothing but collections of properties that we sense. Sometimes we are able to communicate because of shared habits and customary ways of talking, but we don’t have a clear understanding of anything except our personal sensations, e.g., you can only believe your eyes. Realism. How much of a realist are you (compared to an idealist)? Do you believe that what is truly real is categorically (ontologically) independent from what we perceive and conceive, i.e., something is real or not regardless of what we think about non academic achievement essay it?
Do you believe that truth is belief matching reality? Aligned with empiricism (but not exactly the same), do you believe that, though we may never know what is truly real, new observations can bring us closer to understanding reality? Don’t most of us behave a lot like a realist; don’t we all recognize that reality and theory are two different things; that what is ideal may not be practical? As attributed to Yogi Berra, “in theory there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice there is!” Extreme realism leads to skepticism and naturalism. Naturalism.
Naturalism in world war one essay introduction its extreme says that nature is all there is and non academic, all truth is a truth about homework center how to a research factmonster com nature. Don’t we think there is some kind of beauty and goodness to nature and the earth? Can’t we learn a lot about ourselves and what is good by studying nature? However, if naturalism is purely true then we are nothing but apes in pants; there is nothing inherently good or bad; we (humans collectively or individually) have no intrinsic value or worth; we are only more, or less, useful to someone else. There can be no God; there can be no natural human rights (though we can have rules to govern ourselves) because right is determined by the victor. Nature, red in achievement essay tooth and claw, determines who is fittest to survive. Idealism. Phone Essay. How much of an achievement, idealist are you? Do you believe that there is an ultimate reality that transcends merely apparent physical matter? Is beauty (or goodness or a perfect circle) a real thing to which we can compare earthly appearances; is on human there a pure beauty that has an ideal form (that even if there were no humans would still exist)?
If you believe that anything (truth, value, goodness, beauty, or reality) is inherent and not completely a human invention then you are at least a bit of an idealist. Some people have no ideals but most do. Taken to its extreme, idealism cannot be logically deduced. Achievement. Because there are different ideals seems like proof that there is not one true ideal. Are there (a) ideally right and wrong things or (b) is good and review paper, bad only an opinion? Religion. What are your religious views? Is there a non-material realm or is essay nature all there is? Is there a supernatural? If so, are there supernatural beings, minds, powers, etc.? If you believe that there is something other than the world war one existence of physical matter; if you believe there are some causes and effects, especially a first cause, other than those explained by science; if you believe there is non academic reason for things, if there is an essay services, intelligent first cause behind things (and maybe an non academic achievement essay, intelligence that is still active) then you have some type of types of evidence in research, religious belief other than a social habit.
Religion is important to the law and your religious beliefs will influence your legal decisions. Religious beliefs directly affect (a) your views on authority, e.g., where does authority come from and essay, who has it, (b) your view on what is fair or just, e.g., should we be truthful, is retaliation OK, (c) how much should you be concerned about yourself compared to others, (d) does anyone have unalienable rights (and what might those be); and many other things pertinent to types in research papers, all sorts of decisions and behaviors. Politics. What are your political and social views? How much do you believe that the majority should rule? If completely, then no minority has any right! Should a benevolent king rule; should only those with the money to run for essay, office govern?
How much individual freedom should we have; if complete individual freedom, then it is a complete dog-eat-dog world! How valuable is the individual compared to the group (do you let one person drag everyone else down; do you sacrifice one person to save the rest)? How much should we let the buyer beware? How much should we protect people from themselves? How controlling should we be: don’t kill; don’t use prostitutes; don’t eat trans fats? How important are rules: should we really follow them or not? Should the market control things or the bureaucrats?
Is individual ownership allowed; if so, what can be owned and can it be taken away, by world war one whom? Logic. To you, how important is logic. It is a good bet that you don’t know what logic is (most of non academic, us don’t). My First. If you think that you can have your logic and I can have mine, then you don’t know what logic is. Logic is like algebra in achievement that logic has rules and process and if you do logic correctly, everyone will get the same answer (just like everyone would get the same answer to the same algebra problem). Logic is types of evidence in research papers a way of non academic achievement essay, reasoning that (if the premises can be known to types of evidence papers, be true or false and essay, are stated correctly) can deductively lead to necessary and universal truth. My First Phone. Do you care to be logical? Do you know how to be? In everyday language, logic usually means that makes sense to non academic, me.
Formal deductive logic has little to do with what an individual thinks and a lot to do with the truth or falsity of statements. There is only one formal method of logic; there are a lot of personal preferences that we refer to as our logic. Most philosophy, religion, law, scientific investigation, good management, and decision-making makes use of essay, logic. Non Academic Achievement. Most of us would like to law essay, be more logical. Achievement. However, do we discount all intuition? Are no feelings of any importance? A computer can do our logic for us. If all we need is essay logic, we don’t need any human control or decision making. Most of the non academic preceding philosophies are not either-or; we pick and choose.
This doesn’t mean that the middle ground is always the best. Apa Research Review Paper. If I want to rob ten banks a day and you want zero; robbing five may not be the best choice. All the non academic issues mentioned in this essay directly affect our knowledge, abilities, and views concerning our job tasks and our managerial decisions, e.g., our perceptions of the rights of employers vs employees vs customers, etc. An important point is that I think we should be cognizant that we do have differing views that affect our performance and decision making. I contend that we should consciously strive to use rules (e.g., math and logic) to guide our decisions more so than using our passions, but we shouldn’t be automatons. Ethics: from the Greek ethos meaning personal disposition; from the essay services prehistoric swedh meaning how oneself is put, what a person does. Ethics is also called moral philosophy; ethics is the science of morals. Achievement. The field of ethics involves systematizing, defending, and paper, recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. If you delve into essay, ethics very much you have to human rights, also know a good deal about philosophy and religion (because, like it or not, most morals come from religious beliefs). A common definition of achievement, moral is my first phone essay conforming to standards of what is right or just in non academic behavior.
What do you think is right or just? What are you basing that decision on? It should be evident that laws (and other codes, rules, etc.) are highly related to ethical, moral, philosophical, religious, economic, and political ideals. Is there any natural foundation for these ideals? Are any of these ideals self-evident? Is right random? Is right simply what the majority or whomever is in power wants? It requires logic and philosophy to investigate these types of questions. Management and review paper, ethics. The classical management duties are things such as planning, organizing, controlling, and directing.
Other things such as budgeting, leading, facilitating, negotiating, and problem solving are also common elements of managing. Supervisors focus more on non academic essay, some of those managerial duties than others. Following is a brief listing of some ethical models. Common Name Description. Blanchard’s Ethical Decision Making Criteria Is it legal? Is it balanced (fair to all involved)? How will it make me feel about myself? Black and white Everything is homework center com either right or wrong.
Do right. Full-disclosure If the achievement organization or individual can explain itself to constituents or stakeholders the action is OK. Doctrine of the mean Belief that the middle ground between extremes is always right. Golden rule Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Market ethic Anything that is human rights law essay legal and profitable is correct.
Equal freedom You can do whatever you want as long as it doesn’t infringe on non academic essay, others. Proportionality Seldom is anything clearly right or wrong. Try to make the goods outweigh the bads. Professional What would peers do? Do peers think that what you are doing is OK?
Ideologue (depending on the side you are on this is called idealism, fascism, and many other things) I am right and the ends justify the means. Seldom are any of the on human services above adhered to achievement essay, completely in every situation. They are mixed and homework how to write, matched. Achievement. Notice concepts such as right and types of evidence, wrong are connected with ethics. Non Academic Essay. What is your ethical model or code? What is your profession’s and/or employer’s? Does your personal code fit your profession’s or employer’s? Submit the following. 1. Your employer’s or profession’s code (most professions have a society; most societies have a code of ethics). If the types of evidence code is essay more than a page in length you can summarize it.
If there is no official code, describe the implicit code in practice (how does the employer or profession act). Which ethical model in review the table best fits the essay code? 2. Summarize your personal ethical code. Which ethical model in the table best fits your code? 3. Discuss how your employer’s (or profession’s) code matches yours; are they are good fit? 4. What social responsibility does the types of evidence in research papers supervisor have regarding the law, ethics, and essay, management? PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH NURSING TERM PAPERS TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT. You can feel safe while using our website. Your personal information will stay completely confidential and will not be disclosed to any third party. We do our best to make our customers satisfied with the result. However, if you don’t like your paper for my first, some reason, you can always receive a refund.
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Parole and Probation Essay Sample. Probation is a situation by non academic achievement essay which the criminal, having been convicted of homework write a research factmonster com, a crime, is instead put out on the streets under supervision.(Dressler, 1969) This suspends the given jail sentence, until feedback from the probation could be reviewed. Probation comes from the latin word probatio , meaning testing period.(Villa Rose, 1979) It is meant as an opportunity for those first time offenders, minors and perpetrators of petty crime to have a second chance and to prevent them from committing unlawful acts again.(Russell, 2006) Those who are under probation live out non academic achievement, their sentence as a part of the community, albeit with certain restrictions imposed upon by the Court. These conditions are designed to help integrate the criminal into lawful society and to give them a chance to be responsible citizens. Parole is the shortening of a given sentence due to good behaviour on the part of the convict.(Dressler, 1969) They are reviewed by a parole board upon application and if approved, released unto the community following several restrictions.(United States. Congress. House. Committee on the District of Columbia.
Subcommittee on Judiciary and Education., 1989) Any infringement on those restrictions, as well as any unlawful acts, would lead the human law essay, board to non academic achievement, put the convict back in jail. Eligibility for parole usually comes after the serving of the minimum sentence, or after the on human services, serving of a fixed period. Factors affecting the decision of the parole authority include the nature of the original crime, behaviour in jail and likelihood of breaking the law again. Other extraneous factors also considered include age, physical and non academic, mental health, and degree of willingness to service the community.(NCCD Research Center.) Probation is world war one essay introduction, different from parole in that probation is given at the initial sentencing.
It may come with a suspension of jail time, or a combination of it and community service. The aim of probation is the non academic achievement, prevention of persons to become habitual offenders. Paper! Parole is meant to let back into society those offenders that have seen the error of their ways and have the potential to once again be law-abiding citizens. Probation and parole usually include a system of supervision whereas the client checks in on a regular basis with the parole/probation officer.(Erickson, 1973) Most probation systems aim to isolate the achievement essay, client and bring about rehabilitation in a new environment. Thus, most probationary systems integrate requirements like steady employment, and abiding of local laws as well as having a curfew. The clients are usually confined to a small geographical area, such that the officers would find them easier to monitor.
Being a preventive action, some systems usually provide counselling and therapy to special cases.(Klein, 1997) Parole systems also tend to follow the same system as that of probation. Parolees are sometimes first required to spend time in a halfway house, or a small community so that the transition from prison life to the outside would be gradual.(Villa Rose, 1979) Drug and in world essay, some cases, alcohol use is also prohibited in a parole/probation system. A steady form of employment and close monitoring of behaviour is also implemented. Any infringement of thee terms would result in the client being reviewed again by the parole board or the court.
In a report of the department of justice on the statistics of probations systems, we find that about 5 million individuals were supervised as probationers/parolees. The number of those probationers who committed felonies and misdemeanours are statistically equal, at non academic about 49%. The relapse rate of war one introduction, those in parole remain a steady 16% percent, while about 1 in 5 probationers are re incarcerated.(Albanese, 1981) There are also special cases that require corresponding attention from non academic achievement essay parole/probation systems. These special cases include drug addicts, perpetrators of violent crimes, those with mental illnesses and sex offenders.
In this paper, we will review the different forms of parole/probation systems and how they respond to center how to com, monitoring and managing sex offenders released into the community. The strengths and weaknesses of each system will be evaluated, and at the end, a proposal for a new system incorporating the research gathered would be formulated. Sexual offenders as a special case. Sexual offenders are often said to be the most loathed of all criminal types. The revulsion for rapists and molesters proves to be a major factor in the consideration of their rehabilitation and punishment. The stigma of having a parolee/probationer who has committed sex crimes set loose in a community of law-abiding citizens provides a higher degree of difficulty in managing such special cases.(Holmes, 1983) The balance between the concern for the safety of the community and achievement essay, the rehabilitation of the offender usually falls into conflict when related to apa research review, sex related crimes. The fear of achievement, releasing sexual offenders has prompted the enactment of the sex offender registration act in 2004, which gives awareness of any sex offenders living in one’s proximity.
Sex offense parole/probation programs. An example of a program facing these difficulties is the Multnomah County Sex Offender program in Portland, Oregon. The program aims to balance out the rehabilitation of the parolees/probationers, and the management of the risk associated with their re entry into society. To achieve this, the program initiates a thorough risk assessment of the offender, looking at court, police and jail records as well as interviews and on human services, recognition of the actions taken by the offender in achievement, lieu of the crimes in order to obtain an assessment on the risk of entering the community. Those perceived to types in research, be high risk include offenders who were found guilty of achievement, serious sexual offenses like rape or child molestation, those with a history of violence, and those who do not respond favourably to treatment and apa research review, assessment.(Schwartz Cellini, 1997) The program also includes a plan for notification of those people living in proximity of a high risk offender, the neighbours, schools, the police and churches. Achievement Essay! To monitor the essay, offender’s actions, surveillance and visits are imposed upon the offender’s house. Non Academic Essay! Interviews with neighbours and community institutions are also initiated to obtain feedback regarding attitude, actions and over all behaviour. A provision of the program also calls for the use of a polygraph to assess the offender. To rehabilitate the offender, the program employs psychological treatment, counselling and facilitates discussion between the offender and the victim.(United States.
General Accounting Office. United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime., 1996) The program also acts as a facilitator to obtain knowledge about apa research review, sex offenders in the area via the sex offenders registration act. The Multnomah County Sex Offender program illustrates the paranoia associated with perpetrators of sexual crimes.
They are essentially marked in the society the try to rehabilitate in, shunned by people in the community and watched the majority of the time. Achievement! The polygraph testing and surveillance may look to apa research paper, some as an invasion to privacy. The program takes great pains to safeguard the public against the offender, giving a smaller amount of non academic, attention as to how to rehabilitate the world war one, person. Another institute, which has programs for the rehabilitation of parolee/probationary sex offenders, is the Rehabilitations and re-entry division of the Texas department of Criminal Justice. The institute offers two very comprehensive rehabilitative programs that focus directly on the offender. Non Academic Achievement Essay! It aims to root out the psychological causes of sexual crimes through counselling and world essay introduction, cognitive therapy.
The program aims to let the non academic achievement, offenders have the essay, tools to non academic essay, help control their urges. The development of interpersonal relations as well is significant as to sufficiently provide a moral foundation upon in research, full mergence into society. This program operates upon the assumption that the urges that compelled the perpetrator to commit the act will always be there, what rehabilitation could do is to supply methods of control to regulate those urges and non academic, channel them tin ways that are acceptable to the law. Other states utilize a variety of my first essay, means to corral sex offenders in their vicinity. In California, the use of electronic tagging devices both to monitor subject’s forays outside the allotted area and to pinpoint the exact location via GPS has proven to be an effective mechanism for separating the public from the parolees/probationers. The methods utilized by both federal and state government isolate the parolee/probationer of a sex crime from the society.(Henderson) This in essence defeats the aim of the parole/probation system, because it refuses the subject a chance to fully integrate with society.(Sacks, Logan, Connecticut. Dept. of Correction., 1979) the labelling and registration schemes, although necessary and effective at trying to prevent sexual crimes, also tends to further alienate the offender from society, effectively branding them as outcasts. The sex offender registration act also makes this stigma against sex offenders a nationwide phenomenon, further increasing concerns about them mingling in public.
In formulating a new approach to sex offender parole/probation management, one must look at the factors and intentions that compose it. The concern for public safety must not be the only consideration. Additional thought must be given as to how the non academic achievement, offender can leave the crimes behind, and start anew as an paper accepted member of non academic, society. Ideal Parole/probation program for my first phone essay sex offenders. An ideal scenario for the management of such cases would be to have greater personal interaction between the parole/probation officer and the offender. In order to achieve this, the authorities must make it a point to set a small maximum number of non academic essay, cases for a particular officer to hold. Routine checks, as well as surprise visits from officers who have achieved a certain degree of familiarity with their clients would reduce the services, risk of the offenders feeling that they are and will always be under suspicion. Non Academic Essay! The building of paper, trust between officer and convict would provide additional motivation for keeping themselves in check. Steady counselling would also be a prime priority, both within days prior to parole/probation and also within the duration. Counseling designed to pinpoint the cause of why the offender performed the crime would be crucial in non academic achievement essay, the offender’s rehabilitation.
Awareness of what the offender’s act did to the victim and the impression that the offender was responsible would facilitate the development of guilt and regret. Integration of an individual in a community would be hampered if underlying suspicions and homework center write paper factmonster, fears are there. Thus, a system by which the community is not simply notified, but instead has a bigger hand in integrating the parolee/probationer in non academic, the society. By breaking down the suspicion barrier and gaining familiarity, the apa research review, community may get to see the convict not merely as a sex offender, but instead as a real person. By helping the community accept a person who is an outcast, the program would in effect help the outcast realize that he/she is a person. The program could involve the local church in surrounding the perpetrator with an atmosphere of non academic achievement, acceptance and welcome, not of suspicion and distrust. Dialogue between the essay on human services, parolee/probationer and non academic achievement, the members of the community should be encouraged, both to allay any fears and also to rehabilitate the offender. Supervision of sex offenders would entail surveillance.
This would ideally come in the form of visits, searches, and contact. Regulation of Internet access, alcohol consumption and movement at night would also be helpful in reducing the risk of a relapse. A schedule polygraph test, about once a month, would also be helpful, although this should come with the parolees consent. The facilitation of discussion between offender and victim is also a good factor to incorporate in the program. The acceptance of guilt and the hope for change are strong motivations by which a sex offender could utilize to start anew.
An essential part of the program would also include a creative and types of evidence papers, productive outlet by which the parolees could use. These may be in the form of choirs, art classes, book discussions or even simply a walking club. Any effort to incorporate the offender to join a group, however small would send the message that the people around him support his decision to change. The role of this type of program would be the prevention of achievement essay, recurrence of crime by trusting that the offender has the willingness to change. We can see that as alternatives to hail, both parole and probationary systems still have some effect on introduction, the convict. The millions that are able to have a second chance is reason enough to balance out the few that do commit crime again. Parole an probation offers ways in which a criminal could be used to better society. In sex offender cases, the affectivity of system is non academic achievement essay, reduced by the reluctance of the review, community to non academic achievement essay, open its doors and trust a fellow human being.
The associated stigma against sexual; offenders make parole/probation systems for them problematic. This, instead of being resolved by existing programs, is instead highlighted, thus further propagating the atmosphere of fear. A new type of program should face head on the need for rehabilitation and world, the fact that this rehabilitation will occur in a community. The community must learn to accept these people, and also realize their responsibility in giving them a second chance to be good citizens once more. The cloud of fear must be lifted, the distrust lessened so that those deserving of second chances would not be denied by the same society they are trying to rejoin. The criminal justice system should see that prevention of future crimes from these paroles and probationers starts not with keeping them away from achievement society. Rehabilitation for these people starts from making them realize the error of their ways, the hope that they could start anew, and the justification that the how to write a research paper factmonster com, society they are coming back to would still regard them as human beings. Albanese, J. S. (1981). Is probation working? : a guide for managers and methodologists. x, 180 p.
Dressler, D. (1969). Practice and theory of probation and parole. 347 p. Erickson, R. J. (1973). Paroled but not free. Achievement! xiii, 129 p. Henderson, D. Treating sex offenders. Holmes, R. M. (1983). The sex offender and the criminal justice system. xiii, 236 p. Klein, A. R. (1997).
Alternative sentencing, intermediate sanctions, and probation. xvii, 432 p. NCCD Research Center. Parole in the United States, Uniform parole reports. (pp. v.). [Washington] ;: Dept. of homework paper factmonster, Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Russell, C. (2006). Alternatives to prison : rehabilitation and non academic essay, other programs. 111 p.
Sacks, H. R., Logan, C. Paper Factmonster! H., Connecticut. Dept. of achievement, Correction. My First Phone! (1979). Does parole make a difference? , 120 p. Schwartz, B. K., Cellini, H. R. (1997). The sex offender : new insights, treatment innovations and legal developments : volume II. xviii, various pagings. United States. Congress. House.
Committee on the District of Columbia. Subcommittee on Judiciary and Education. (1989). D.C. Board of Parole–power and non academic essay, authority over prisoners : hearing before the Subcommittee on Judiciary and Education of the Committee on human rights law essay, the District of Columbia, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, second session, on H.R. 1792 … June 30, 1988. iii, 63 p. United States.
General Accounting Office., United States. Congress. Non Academic Achievement! House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime. (1996). Sex offender treatment : research results inconclusive about what works to reduce recidivism : report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Crime, Committee on the Judiciary, House of review paper, Representatives. 23 p. Villa, R. J., Rose, S. (1979). The probation manual.
1 v. (various pagings). Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Parole and Probation. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and non academic, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Parole and Probation. Probation is center how to a research paper factmonster com, a court ordered sanction being served by the person while under supervision in the community. Community programs are used to non academic achievement, help retain control over write a research paper factmonster criminals and to help… Probation and Parole. 1. Non Academic Essay! What did Cesare Beccaria, the Enlightenment thinker, mean when he said that a punishment should fit the crime?
A The severity of punishment should parallel the severity of phone, the… Determining Conditions of Probation. Conditions of probation and parole are primary factors that have an effect on an offender’s post-prison life. When determining conditions of probation and parole, the offenders’ background plays a very… Probation and Punishment. Law and non academic essay, order are two words that keep our society from war one collapsing on achievement essay, its self. My First Phone! We the American people have our freedom to do what ever we want; we can… Advantages and Disadvantages of Parole. The history of community corrections shows that many changes have occurred in the criminal justice system regarding punishment of offenders.
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Look for non academic achievement essay, unique features like visual timelines to highlight your educational and professional achievements, or well-crafted portfolios to showcase the very best of types in research papers your work. How to Promote Your Resume Website. Non Academic Achievement. It goes without saying that the link to your online resume should be included with every job application you send. However, you should also link to it from your social media profiles and human, consider including it as your email signature to promote it with every email you send. Don’t hesitate to add a blog so you can showcase your industry knowledge and non academic, attract more traffic to your website by publishing quality content.
It touts blazingly fast load times and carefully tuned load speed optimization. Rights Law Essay. Looking at the demo, I find I#8217;m somewhat less attracted to the dark textured background rows in the one-page layout, but this is an entirely subjective opinion. On the achievement essay, other hand, I love the stark typography on a white field that you#8217;ll see in the portfolio and blog section, and human rights law essay, the use of dark thumbnail images to create lots of contrast worked exceedingly well in this instance. Achievement Essay. I could envision using this theme for a photographer client or any creative professional with visually appealing portfolio works. If you#8217;re on the market for a truly modern and unique CV theme, this may be just the theme you#8217;re looking for. The Designer Resume theme from Template Monster is a very attractive one-page-style theme with some unique features that set it apart from the competition. The design is modern and clean. It adheres to homework a research paper factmonster, the modular row-based layout that#8217;s become popular with most one-page websites over the last year.
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Written exclusively for. Evan Scoboria is the co-founder, and developer at Shea Media LLC, the team behind Nimbus Themes, this magazine, and a bunch of very happy clients. He co-founded Shea Media with his wife Kendall in 2009. Evan enjoys hunting, fishing, code, cycling, and law essay, most of essay all WordPress! This really amazing W.P themes and thanks to apa research review paper, you for sharing this kind information with us. My most favorite theme RESUME, this theme is non academic perfect for introduction, my own website. Resume is non academic achievement essay a very vivid and impressive theme for creating an attractive CV for yourself. Glad you discovered it. Thanks for homework write paper factmonster, the suggesting Divergent to our readers! Suggest the Gridus WordPress theme: Hi Alex,n Thanks for achievement, suggesting Gridus to our readers. I really like the simplistic and clean look of this theme. as a source for WordPress Themes and Resources.
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NJ Council for the Humanities Awards Jane Addams Papers Funds to Enhance Use of the non academic achievement essay, Digital Edition by Students. We are delighted to announce that the New Jersey Council for phone essay the Humanities has awarded the Jane Addams Papers a grant of $11,400 for our “Expanding Audience Participation with the non academic achievement, Jane Addams Papers” project. This project aims to encourage use of the digital edition among students, teachers, and types in research papers the general public. We will build a crowdsourcing site where members of the public can engage with documents, create transcriptions, and rate the documents to non academic achievement build a new search option to highlights the human rights law essay, most useful documents. We also want to encourage students to work with the digital edition, and will create guides for high-school and grammar school students working on National History Day projects and school projects. Non Academic Achievement Essay? These tutorials will introduce topics, provide suggestions for the best texts and search strategies for that topic, and suggest sources for further research. We will be collaborating with students in on human services Ramapo’s Teacher Education program, with the New Jersey National History Day coordinators, and local middle and high school teachers to achievement develop these new resources on our digital edition site. The Jane Addams Papers’ mission is to digitize and describe the documents, and create historical context for them by identifying the essay on human, people, organizations, and events mentioned in the texts. We have received funding from Ramapo College, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the non academic essay, National Endowment for world war one introduction the Humanities, the non academic achievement, Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation, and the Ruth McCormick Tankersley Charitable Trust to homework center how to write a research paper com undertake this work. But we want to do more than build a site and hope that people will use it.
Scholars and advanced students will find our site, but this outreach project will advance our mission by reaching out to students, teachers and the general public. We think the best way to do that is to non academic achievement provide crowdsourcing opportunities and offer guides for using the documents in the classroom. National History Day is apa research review paper, a very popular program that challenges students in middle and high school to interpret history through one of twelve general themes. For this year’s theme “Conflict and Compromise in non academic essay History,” we advised students to look at Addams’ opposition to World War I, or her decision to open the Hull-House settlement, pointing them to the best documents and providing them with context. We will continue to expand the guides by homework how to write a research factmonster com, adding more suggestions as we mount more material on essay the site. We also want to create topic guides for other issues, such as child labor, woman suffrage, and recreation. We are looking forward to getting started on this exciting collaboration and will keep you posted on the results. Battling a Ward Boss: Addams vs.
Powers. Alderman of the my first, Nineteenth Ward Johnny Powers. To better the non academic essay, lives of poor immigrants and children through Hull-House, Jane Addams often had to involve herself in the issues her residents cared about, such as child labor regulation, establishments of juvenile courts, overpopulated schools, and sanitation. To ensure that the government’s laws heard the voice of the poor, Addams often challenged the status quo, which made political leaders uneasy. Addams specifically butted heads with the corrupt alderman of the Nineteenth Ward, Johnny Powers. Born in human Ireland in 1852, Powers moved to America at age 20 and non academic achievement settled in Chicago. He became a politician for homework how to paper factmonster the Democratic Party and served as alderman almost until his death in 1930. Since 1892, Hull-House fought Powers to build a new school for neighborhood children, which he opposed. Although ultimately victorious in that fight, Addams tried to get Powers to non academic essay clean up the my first essay, garbage in Chicago streets by non academic achievement essay, collecting 1,000 complaints but failed.
This was the start of a political battle between the two. When Addams supported his 1896 opponent, Powers fought back by eliminating the garbage inspector position held by my first, Addams and placing supervision of these activities under the Ward superintendent. This angered Addams because she had previously succeeded in surveying the achievement, streets each morning and decreasing Chicago’s litter. Powers maintained his political influence by purchasing votes. My First Phone? In 1898, Addams wrote: “Last Christmas our Alderman distributed six tons of turkeys, and four or more tons of ducks and geese . . . It is easiest to essay reach people in the holiday mood of expansive good will, but on their side it seems natural and kindly that he should do it.” Powers often financed and appeared at funerals as well to types of evidence in research gain support, earning him the nickname, “The Mourner.” Addams wrote: “If the Alderman seizes upon festivities for expressions of his good will, much more does he seize upon essay periods of sorrow. At a funeral he has double advantage of ministering a genuine craving for comfort and solace, and at the same time of assisting at an important social function” (1898). Addams argued that this made him seem like a man with virtue; however, he did not strive to help individuals. At the end of the my first phone essay, day, the streets were unclean, schools were overcrowded, and parks were unusable.
In addition to owning two saloons, a gambling establishment, and a nice house, Powers sold city franchises and bought friends in the Council and courts. Addams demanded to achievement essay know where he got his money from. Human Law Essay? “To their simple minds he gets it ‘from the rich,'” Addams wrote, “and so as long as he again gives it out to achievement essay the poor, as a true Robin Hood, with open hand, they have no objections to offer” (1898). In the 1898 elections, Addams supported Powers’s opponent, Simeon Armstrong. Because one-fifth of the voters’ jobs in the Nineteenth Ward depended on Powers’s largesse, it was a challenge for Addams to sway people’s self-interest towards a vote for review paper Armstrong. She wrote, “If the so-called more enlightened members of the community accept public gifts from the man who buys up the Council, and non academic the so-called less enlightened members accept individual gifts from the man who sells out the Council, we surely must take our punishment together” (1898). Powers hit back against Addams in Chicago Tribune : “I am what my people like, and neither Hull House nor all the world war one, reformers in town can turn them against me,” he boasted. Powers claimed that Hull-House maligned the achievement, Ward, threatening, “Mark my word, a year from today there will be no such institution in review the Nineteenth Ward.” Anonymous supporters of non academic achievement essay, Powers sent violent letters to Addams during the election; but, others, like Professor William Hill, supported Hull-House, writing, “Those who make that institution their home have always regarded the people of the Nineteenth Ward as honest, hard-working citizens.
Instead of essay, standing on his own record, Powers is trying to non academic achievement shift the responsibility for how to a research paper factmonster neglected streets and essay empty houses upon somebody else” (1898). Addams seated with Hull-House residents, 1934. Powers won the 1898 election. Despite Addams’s support for introduction his opponents, Powers won re-election for the next 30 years. Non Academic Essay? Though she failed to remove Powers from apa research, office, Addams learned through the experience. She realized that she needed to better understand and help her neighbors’ lives before wading in. Entering the essay, political world interfered with her connections with Hull-House’s neighbors and made it more difficult for her to assist them and form relationships with them. After the election, she returned to helping her neighbors directly as well as working with the of evidence, Chicago Bureau of Charities, which began development in 1894.
Addams’s short-lived success in non academic achievement keeping the Ward’s streets clean also taught Chicago residents to understand how their political leaders should work, challenging Powers and his patronage system in a more indirect way. As Ray Stannard Baker wrote in “Hull House and the Ward Boss” in 1898, “If it does not succeed, at least the residents of the ward will have had a stirring lesson in political morality, which will clear a way for success at another time.” “Defi to John Powers: Antis Accept the Hull House as the war one essay introduction, Campaign Issue. ” Chicago Tribune , 3 Mar. 1898, p. 7.; Jane Addams, “Why the Ward Boss Rules,” Outlook 58, no.14 (April 2, 1898): 879-82.; Kendall. “Alderman John Powers’ Home Bombed by Political Rivals.” The Chicago Crime Scenes Project , 17 May 2009, Blogger.com, http://chicagocrimescenes.blogspot.com/2009/05/alderman-john-powers-home-bombed-by.html. Accessed 21 Jun. 2017.; “Powers and Cullerton Talk.” Chicago Tribune, 6 Apr. 1898, p. 10.; Ray Stannard Baker, “Hull House and the Ward Boss,” Outlook (March 26 1898): 769-771.; Schneiderhan, Erik. The Size of essay, Others’ Burdens: Barack Obama, Jane Addams, and the Politics of Helping Others . Stanford University Press, 2015.; Scott, Anne Firor. “Saint Jane And The Ward Boss.” American Heritage , Dec. 1960, http://www.americanheritage.com/content/saint-jane-and-ward-boss.
Accessed 28 Jun. 2017.; “War on Hull House” Chicago Tribune, 2 Mar. 1898, p. 12. The Addams Papers Goes International! The Third Women’s History in the Digital World conference was held on July 6-7, 2017 at Maynooth University in Ireland and the Jane Addams Papers presented a panel on world war one essay introduction our digital edition. Editor Cathy Moran Hajo, Assistant Editor Victoria Sciancalepore, and our web developer Anneliese Dehner combined to present three aspects of “Editing Jane Addams.”
Cathy led off the panel talking about the non academic, “Big Picture: Conceiving a Digital Edition of world war one essay introduction, Jane Addams’ Papers,” providing a short history of the Addams Papers microfilm and book projects, and the process that went into deciding to digitize the microfilm edition. The decisions to be made involved thinking through the audience for the edition and what kinds of essay, tools and resources they needed. In addition, Cathy discussed the apa research, decision to use the achievement essay, Omeka database-driven platform for the digital edition rather than using text encoding using XML. Going with a web-publishing friendly system allowed the review, Addams Papers to design a site that not only provides deep metadata, but also manages the project’s internal workflow, tracking information on each document as it passes through our permissions and copyright checks, metadata and transcription, and proofreading. Cathy also talked about her desire to see the achievement, Addams Papers edition be flexible enough that scholars and types students can use its materials to non academic achievement build their own research projects. Cathy talking about biographical resources. Tori’s talk, “The Nuts and Bolts: How an Omeka-based Digital Edition Works,” brought us into the back end of the project, showing how we defined the metadata and relations between the 21,000 eventual documents, and the entries on people, organizations, publications, and events that are discussed in them.
She described the use of the Items Relations Omeka plugin, which we tweaked some, to build an edition that lets users move flexibly between drafts and final versions, letters written by and to introduction a person, and individuals who were members of an organization, or participated in an event. She also talked about how we decided on a transcription policy. Because we make the images of the essay, documents available on write a research paper factmonster the site, we wanted our transcriptions to be more useful as a search mechanism. We decided to standardize our transcriptions (converting British spellings, archaic spellings, and misspellings) as long as we used brackets to signal that the essay, editors had changed the text. World Essay? Readers who want to see the original need only click to achievement see the types of evidence papers, manuscript image. Non Academic? She also discussed our student workers at apa research paper, the Addams Papers–the engine that keeps the project moving. With editors focused on non academic training and world introduction quality control, it is a cadre of 10-15 Ramapo College undergraduates that are entering and transcribing documents and researching and essay writing identifications. Anneliese, Cathy, and Tori after the session at Kilmainham Gaol Museum. Anneliese discussed “Designing a User Interface for a Digital Edition.” Coming from the perspective of a digital library developer, Anneliese talked about her experiences working on the Jane Addams Papers and the Kentucky Civil War Governors Papers, also an Omeka site.
Discussing the of evidence in research papers, different values that the project had, she walked through the essay, way that developers work with editors to configure their sites, looking at who the intended users of the site will be, the kinds of searching they will need, and how much metadata should be used for site navigation. Anneliese noted that the Addams site was interested in exposing metadata, developing spatiotemporal context for documents, and homework center a research paper factmonster creating branching paths through the achievement essay, edition. The Kentucky Governors project looked to create a more linear path through documents, but were more interested in presenting transcriptions alongside images of documents. Liz Stanley gave a keynote talk on the Olive Schreiner Letters Online. In addition to our panel session, we were able to learn about some extremely interesting projects in women’s history, both here in types in research papers the U.S. and abroad. Rachel Love Monroy, Lauren N. Haumesser and Melissa Gismondi discussed the non academic, Founding Women project that seeks to build a federated documentary edition of a variety of women’s papers. On Human Services? Eric Pumroy spoke about Collegewomen.org, which seeks to build an inclusive resource about late 19th and early 20th century college experiences for women. Cecile Gotdon spoke about Ireland’s Military Pension Project, a fascinating look at detailed records of men and women involved in the Irish military between 1916-1923. And Alvean E. Jones’ work to provide access of the history of St. Mary’s School for Deaf Girls in a way that makes it accessible to deaf scholars, by non academic essay, translating digitized material into Irish Sign Language videos. Helena Byrne discussed a project to gather a digital history of Irish women’s indoor football leagues in the 1960s.
And Liz Stanley gave a wonderful presentation on the Olive Schreiner Letters Online and the difficulty of representing a person from the things left behind. Thanks to all who attended for types of evidence papers a fascinating time! Addams as Inspiration for Modern Students. A lot of times, college students sit at their desks, tapping their pens against their notepads during the middle of a three hour lecture and essay begin to think, “This relates nothing to my major; why do I need to sit through this?” Although initially eager to types papers begin the college experience that opens up the doorway for achievement essay a diverse range of opportunities, students are pummeled by human law essay, essays and group assignments that heavily decrease their enthusiasm for a college degree. It’s especially frustrating to heave through the achievement, general education requirements, like math, English, and science, when they do not relate to the student’s major. Center How To Paper? How am I going to impact the world by sitting in non academic essay Critical Reading and Writing 102, or First Year Seminar? Are all these classes I’m taking even going to lead me anywhere? Addams’s graduation picture from Rockford Seminary, 1881. Like most college students, Addams had a lot of apa research, ambition entering Rockford Seminary at non academic achievement, the age of 17. She, too, wanted to impact the of evidence papers, world by pursing an education; however, Addams had many barriers and limitations that would delay her successes like the Hull House or recognition for her speeches on non academic women suffrage, child labor, etc.
As New York Times writer David Brooks writes in world essay his article, “The Jane Addams Model,” Addams was a “morally ambitious young woman who dreamed of some epic life service without much idea about how it might come about… In her twenties she was one of those young people who don’t get to themselves quickly.” During Addams’s education she desired to pursue a degree in essay medicine, but Rockford, which was a seminary at the time, encouraged careers associated with religion. Like many college students who are indecisive in choosing their own majors, Addams considered transferring to Smith College in Massachusetts, but never followed through with it. After finishing school at center how to write paper factmonster com, Rockford, Addams felt limited in achievement her education because there weren’t many career paths options for women in additional education. Addams faced a range of personal problems that affected her education as well.
After graduating Rockford, her father, whom she viewed as one of her closest friends, died. She wrote two weeks after his funeral, “how purposeless and without ambition am I.” Any motivation she had about pursuing another degree disappeared with the death of her father. When Addams did eventually enroll in medical school, she suffered from severe back pains and psychological problems and war one essay chose to admit herself into achievement a hospital instead. In addition to these issues, she felt pressure from her family to focus inward on them rather than pursue her education. Addams standing with parasol in her class picture at human law essay, Rockford, 1881. Her life filled with the same uncertainties that many of us students have, Addams chose to non academic achievement leave these pressures and travel outside her comfort zone.
Seeing London’s streets of poverty rekindled the desire to connect with people personally. Addams recognized the on human services, contrast between the way she lived her life and the streets of Chicago and non academic felt inspired to not only provide effective services, but also protect the dignity of those she helped. In order to do this, she thought about human law essay who she ought to be and started changing her life in small ways. Non Academic? With these small changes, she was able provide comfort and safety to thousands of immigrants through the Hull-House. Students may not always know where they are headed; but the truth is Addams didn’t know either. Changing a lifestyle and becoming uncomfortable to do what’s good for others are small steps for big achievements. A three hour lecture in Math for the Modern World may be boring, or writing an essay on a topic unrelated to a major may seem useless, but they may lead to opportunities or spark a buried passion. For students, making an impact can be a simple as joining clubs on campus that they are interested in. If Addams were alive today to speak to these students, she would encourage them to vocalize their desires on a club’s executive board. Sources: Brooks, David. “The Jane Addams Model.” New York Times, 25 Apr.
2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/25/opinion/the-jane-addams-model.html?_r=1 Accessed 6 Jun. In Research? 2017. Schneiderhan, Erik. The Size of Others’ Burdens: Barack Obama, Jane Addams, and the Politics of Helping Others . Stanford University Press, 2015. Jane Addams and the News Babies of Chicago. In the early twentieth century, newsboys were a characteristic of the urban landscape, a ubiquitous presence on non academic big city street corners across America. Review? Boys and girls as young as five or six peddled penny and two-penny papers in achievement the wee morning hours, during the school day, and long, long, long after dark. On muggy and law essay sunny summer days and on blustery winter nights, children sold the news and collected their pennies. In 1900, there were ten major, general-circulation newspapers in Chicago and dozens more specialty publications, as well; and at least 4,000 newsboys and non academic achievement newgirls sold them from review, established newsstands, from non academic essay, pull carts advertised with newspaper mastheads, from makeshift box displays, and from right out from under their own little arms. The exuberant voice of the newspaper crier, which cut above the center how to write a research, chaotic din of the bustling Chicago streets, was more often than not the non academic essay, voice of my first phone essay, a child.
And where there was the voice of a child on the streets of achievement essay, Chicago, there was, of course, Jane Addams. In a number of speeches in the early 1900s, Addams argued that “something should be done to take the babies from the streets.” Through her work at Hull-House, Addams witnessed firsthand the apa research paper, dangers faced by children who earned a living on the urban streets. Popular culture has romanticized the newsboy as a “saucy, chattering” chap, whose smudged, little face and crooked Gatsby-hat belied street smarts and worldliness that made him wise beyond his years. Yet Addams would never have succumbed to such romance, for non academic her experiences had shown her otherwise. So while Chicago’s newsboys raised their voices to sell Chicagoans the news, Jane Addams raised her voice to on human protect them.
Many programs at Hull-House kept children off the streets, maybe even keeping some from resorting to the sale of the evening news. Addams spent a lifetime lobbying for child labor laws, and her hard-hitting articles and essay widely attended speeches raised public awareness about the difficulties of life for poor children, particularly those of Chicago’s immigrant families. But as was the way of the world in types of evidence the Progressive Era, many children in the inner city had few choices; and for some, the freedom of essay, movement and money in pockets made selling the news quite an alluring prospect. There were a few newsboys who made $3-5 dollars a day. One small Italian boy named Antonio, who operated two stands on the corner of Clark and Monroe streets, sold 1,000 newspapers a day. The thirteen-year-old Antonio had inherited the prime location from his father, and he benefited from a corner monopoly at a very lucrative location. Antonio was one of the lucky ones, however. Most newsboys were fortunate to take in a fraction of Antonio’s income, as typical pay was just 50 cents per 100 penny papers sold each day; and most did not have the luxury to stand still in one spot and sell such a large quantity of papers. Instead, they lugged heavy, wheeled carts, toted bulky satchels, or secured their product under their arms, as they searched the on human, streets for customers. And it was those roaming newsboys who were, of course, most vulnerable to the dangers and temptations of the city.
Children selling papers at rush hour, at dark, in terrible weather, and non academic achievement without protective supervision faced many perils. In June 1903, Cornelius Scanlan, a twelve-year-old newsboy was selling papers to street car travelers on 47 th street when he was hit and homework center write paper com killed by a northbound train. Non Academic Achievement Essay? Many newsboys were orphans or from poor families and review were inadequately attired for Midwestern rains and for Lake Michigan cold. One newsboy named Peter was found sleeping in News Alley at 2 a.m. on non academic one of the coldest days of the winter. He claimed to be an orphan who came to Chicago from Milwaukee. Weather was a constant problem for essay services those who worked and lived out of doors. Newsboys were also frequently the victims of crime. William Cullen was a blind newsboy who was “a familiar figure” at Blue Island Avenue and non academic essay Twelfth Street. He sold newspapers from a small wagon and with the protection of a dog, but one night as he slept two men stole his newspaper stand, jeopardizing his means of subsistence. Particularly troubling was the potential for sexual assault. The Chicago police collected evidence on one adult news dealer who had a prosperous corner on Halsted Street.
He made eight boys who worked for him come to his room to receive their pay “and there committed violence” on each, most under the age of 14. Human Law Essay? One-third of the newsboys sent to one reform school in Chicago had venereal disease, an unfortunate reality for many kids who risked life and health on achievement essay the streets. Of course, even those who were not abused suffered lung ailments and other sicknesses that went untreated; and if they became too unwell to sell papers, they lost income, as well. Sadly, too, adults who should have protected them were often the perpetrators of mistreatment. Many parents, some desperate themselves, pressed these children into the newsboy “economy.” Police officers were sometimes guilty of harassment, as some in Chicago took payoffs from newspaper companies to guarantee particularly lucrative corners, muscling away newsboys who “trespassed” upon those monopolies, and even arresting others for loitering.
In 1902, a group of some 200 newsboys organized the Chicago Newsboys’ Protective Association. This union tried to mediate the conditions of newsboy employment with newspaper publishers, to lobby for better conditions, and to apa research paper help members who were sick or injured. Achievement? Strides were minimal, and the streets were no less dangerous. As well, newspapers in this era had multiple editions, and papers were published at how to write paper, morning, at non academic achievement essay, noon, and at night. Apa Research Review? As such, days for newsboys were often long; and achievement truancy from school was a common problem. Working on the streets also exposed newsboys to the temptations of gambling, smoking, and war one introduction other vices that resulted from a vagrant lifestyle. Some of these kids were runaways. Edward Fink, a twelve-year-old from South Bend, Indiana, took $30 from his mother and non academic essay traveled to Chicago on a freight train. He was selling papers on the streets of Chicago and living with other newsboys when he was arrested and returned to his parents.
Another boy, a sixteen-year-old from Texas moved to Chicago to work as a newsboy because black newsboys were not allowed in his town. But when he arrived in South Chicago, police arrested him for vagrancy. In 1903, Jane Addams was part of a two-day investigation into the lives of newsboys in Chicago. Commissioned at the behest of the on human, Federation of Chicago Settlements, a committee of twenty investigators hit the streets to interview 1,000 newsboys (including 20 newsgirls) in Chicago’s “Loop.” They reported that “while favorable to the legitimate features of the achievement, newspaper industry” their investigation confirmed their “impression that Chicago needs a city ordinance which would obviate many of the abuses now apparent in the news trade.” The committee printed a 28-page, illustrated pamphlet, which outlined the work and social conditions of the children who sold newspapers and offered proposals for child labor laws to essay on human protect them. The investigation in Chicago reported that the newsboys they interviewed had ranged in essay age from 5-22 and that 127 of them (12%) were under the age of 10. Among the number, Italian, German, Irish, and Jewish immigrants were numerous. Law Essay? The investigators turned up one five-year-old child and non academic essay five other kids who were just six. War One Essay? The report noted that “the small boy, under ten years of age, is on non academic the ragged edge of the newspaper business.” No doubt, younger newsboys faced the most hardships and dangers, too. The pamphlet garnered some attention, but six years later Addams was frustrated. In a speech in human rights March 1909 about children and street trading, she complained that newsboys had fallen in the category of “merchant” and were not subject to child labor regulations. Addams was annoyed that even as Illinois had enacted a child labor law, which should have limited the working hours of all children and protected them from non academic, harsh labor conditions, it did not apply to Chicago’s newsboys. “So far, we have been unable to secure any legislative action on the subject,” she lamented. “It is a very disgraceful situation, I think, for Chicago to be placed in while the Illinois child labor law is homework how to write paper factmonster com, so good.
The City of non academic essay, Chicago is a little careless, if not recreant, towards the children who are not reached by phone essay, the operation of the non academic achievement essay, state law.” And so, Jane Addams’ battle for the safety and wellbeing of all children would continue. The remarkable, illustrated pamphlet that Jane Addams and her group published is now a part of the Jane Addams Digital Edition, where you can read the document in its entirety. You will also, no doubt, enjoy the poignant photos of real newsboys and war one introduction newsgirls who worked on the gritty streets of early twentieth-century Chicago. By Stacy Pratt McDermott, Assistant Editor. Sources : Jane Addams, “Address to the Merchants Club, March 8, 1902,” Jane Addams Digital Edition ; Jane Addams and non academic achievement Federation of Chicago Settlements, Newsboy Conditions in Chicago (1903),” Jane Addams Digital Edition , accessed March 31, 2017; Chicago Daily Tribune , 7 May 1903, 3:1; 24 June 1903, 1:6; 9 October 1903, 4:3; The Inter Ocean (Chicago, IL); 5 August 1903, 9:5; 13 September 1903, 25:1-7; Aaron Brenner, Benjamin Day, and Immanuel Ness, eds., The Encyclopedia Strikes in American History (New York: Routledge, 2015), 614; “Chicago Newspapers,” https://chicagology.com/newspapers/; Myron E. Adams, “Children in American Street Trades,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 25 (1905): 23-44. The photos featured here are included in Newsboy Conditions in Chicago . Support Federal Funding for the Humanities.
The Jane Addams Papers Project would not be possible if not for the support of the federal government, in our case, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). The work that we do, bringing rare archival documents to law essay broad audiences, serves a wide range of the public–from a scholar working on non academic achievement an interpretation of Addams’ philosophy, to a college student writing a thesis on the impact of law essay, women on achievement the Progressive Era, or a high school freshman creating a National History Day performance on Hull House. (National History Day, by the way, is also funded by the NEH). At the Addams Papers, support provided by these two agencies has funded: The microfilming of the Jane Addams Papers in the 1980s, which serves as the basis for our digital edition. Without the rights, work done finding, copying and microfilming materials, identifying dates and authors in achievement a detailed index, our work would be much more difficult. The scanning of the Addams microfilm to build our digital edition. The salaries of eight students who describe and transcribe documents and papers conduct research. This is an added boon, because federal dollars spent on student workers pay twofold. Besides the help we get on the project, it provides the students with unique experience in historical research and digital humanities work that helps them stand out whether applying for non academic achievement a job or going on to graduate school.
The salary of an types of evidence papers assistant editor who helps supervises student work and non academic achievement essay training, and insures quality control over their work through proofreading and verification. Services? She also conducts research, transcribes documents, and works on clearing permissions so that we can publish the documents. The salary of a part-time assistant editor who manages work on non academic achievement our book edition. Rights Law Essay? She selects the initial pool of documents to be published as a fully annotated scholarly print edition. She also helps with proofreading and verification. Non Academic Essay? The work of our Chicago researcher who gathers newly found Addams documents, helps us with difficult transcriptions, and conducts research on review paper Chicago-area topics. The efforts of essay, two web developers who have customized and designed the functionality of the Jane Addams Digital Edition and my first designed a beautiful site. Our goal is to provide free public access to Jane Addams’ correspondence and writings, via a digital edition. You don’t have to be a scholar who can travel to an archive, or a student at a large research library to access these documents. The site is also building a unique resource of identifications of the people, organizations, events, and publications discussed in the documents that will provide students of the Progressive Era with a rich resource.
The Addams Papers is but one of the many projects supported by the NHPRC and the NEH that help enrich our understanding of the past. Once a year, the National Humanities Alliance focuses support and attention for federal funding for the humanities. Advocates from every state come to Washington on non academic essay Humanities Advocacy Day (Tuesday, March 14) to talk to their representative and human senators about the non academic achievement essay, importance of this work and its value to all Americans. It is especially important this year due to rumors that funds for the NEH may be eliminated from the President’s budget. Take a few minutes to war one look at essay, the work supported in your state by the NHPRC and explore NEH-funded projects to get a sense of the breadth and phone essay depth of the work. Non Academic? Call or write your congressmen and ask them to support funding for the NEH and NHPRC. Share the call for help among your friends on social media. Services? Use hashtags #SaveNEH #NEHMatters.
Stacy Pratt McDermott Joins the Jane Addams Papers! It is with great pleasure that we welcome Stacy Pratt McDermott to the Jane Addams Papers team as our new Assistant Editor. Stacy comes to us with a wealth of over 20 years experience as a scholarly editor, gained at the Papers of Abraham Lincoln, where she most recently served as Associate Editor and non academic Assistant Director. Stacy holds a Ph.D. Review? from the University of Illinois and is the author of non academic, two books that came out of her Lincoln research: Mary Lincoln: Southern Girl, Northern Woman (2015) and The Jury in Lincoln’s America (2012). In addition, she worked on rights law essay four volumes of the The Papers of Abraham Lincoln: Legal Documents and non academic essay Cases , 4 vols. (2008).
She has written many articles and book reviews and given conference papers and presentations. Stacy’s primary responsibility will be managing our work on the Selected Papers of Jane Addams , starting with Volume 1, which will cover 1901-1913, but we anticipate that she will also work on our social media outreach and other editorial tasks.