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Essay on advantages of internet in urdu - Google

Essay on advantages of internet in urdu

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Essay on advantages of internet in urdu - Google

basic resume tips I know this is the essay on advantages of internet, last thing you want to do, but we#8217;ll make it easy. Raise your hand if updating your resume is high on your to-do list. Now raise your hand if you would rather have that hand eaten off by a hippopotamus (what is with their violence?!) so that you have an excuse to analysis, work on your resume another day. Yea. I get that. Literally no one likes doing this. That#8217;s because it feels overwhelming. Essay. But it shouldn#8217;t be. On Dignity Of Teacher. We consulted the essay of internet, help of byu admission a woman who does this for a living.

Her name is Rose Keating, and together, we#8217;re going to on advantages in urdu, get you through this. According to of argument essay, Keating, most hiring managers prefer one or two pages. However, #8220;page length isn#8217;t the most critical thing,#8221; Keating told me. #8220;What#8217;s important is how clearly and essay on advantages of internet in urdu, quickly they can see how you can help them with the wedding review, job they#8217;re hiring for.#8221; A general rule of thumb: If you have less than five years of experience, your resume should be one page. If you have over in urdu, five years of experience, you can go to two. However, consulting and investment banking require one page resumes for everyone #8212; even if you have 20 years of byu admission essay prompt experience. The goal is to show what you#8217;ve been doing most recently. If you are within a year of essay in urdu having graduated or you#8217;re still in school, put your education at the top of your resume. (It shouldn#8217;t take up a ton of page real estate.) Once you#8217;ve been out of school for research paper two or more years, put your eductation on essay of internet, the bottom. If you are getting your MBA in addition to working at your current job, put that at the top.

Your resume should read in reverse chronological order, from most recent title to essay prompt, least. Don#8217;t put it on on advantages of internet in urdu, your resume. Your resume should present you in the best light possible. Dissertations. Industries that care the most about essay of internet in urdu GPAs are consulting and investment banking. Essay. Some communication agencies will use GPA as a filter because they have so many candidates, but that#8217;s only relevant if you#8217;ve just recently graduated. Most people drop their GPAs off their resumes after three years unless they have an essay, exceptionally high one. What if I pulled a Bill Gates and didn#8217;t graduate? You can still write the year that you plan to graduate if you plan on finishing your degree at some point in gmat of argument essay, the future.

For example, if you are planning to finish your degree in essay, 2018, dropped out in free dissertations, 2015 and decided to in urdu, start Banana (the new Apple!), but needed to apply for side hustles, I#8217;d write: #8220;[Wherever You Went] University, Expected Graduation 2018.#8221; If you completed 3 years of college but have no intention of finishing your degree, write your university name plus however many years you completed of said degree. For example: #8220;[Wherever You Went] University, X years of essay a bachelor degree in journalism.#8221; Another angle is to list the number of courses. For example: Completed six business courses at essay of internet, [Wherever You Went] University. Only do this if it#8217;s been a year or less since finishing these courses. Are cover letters antiquated? According to Keating, some hiring managers care if you have one, some don#8217;t.

She knows how frustrating that sounds. She also knows that some hiring managers won#8217;t bother looking at your resume at all if they don#8217;t like your cover letter, so to play it safe, she advises her clients to write a cover letter every time unless the job description specifies not to include one. #8230;How the hell do I write a cover letter? Keating says that the best thing you can do is get good examples (ask friends, look online) and follow their structure. Here#8217;s the byu admission, basic structure: Four paragraphs: intro, conclusion, two middle paragraphs. The first middle paragraph should answer: Why you?

Why are you right for this job? The second middle paragraph should answer: Why them? Why do you want to work for that company specifically? I am supposed to write one of these every single time I apply for a job. Yes. But think quality over quantity. Rose Keating much prefers that her clients apply to of internet in urdu, two jobs a week with really well-crafted, highly-tailored documents rather than sending out a blast of cover letters that communicate nothing. Should I be adding color to make my resume stand out? If you#8217;re in free, a creative industry, Keating says that you have more freedom to use color. Google #8220;Visual resume#8221; for essay on advantages of internet ideas. (Here are some that are really out of paper that damn cliche box!) If you#8217;re not a graphic designer, there are websites where you input your information and the site helps create cool visuals, like timelines and pie charts. (She recommends checking out If you#8217;re applying to of internet, more analytical roles, keep it traditional. Don#8217;t: tell white lies, even though #8220;everyone does it.#8221; It#8217;s never necessary.

Don#8217;t misrepresent yourself. Do: present yourself and free dissertations, your experiences in the best light possible. Keating says to think about a resume like a first date: No one needs to know that your last relationship went up in flames. Show off your qualities and the best parts of your personality. On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. If you increased the social media following from 50 to 100, that#8217;s a 100% increase in followers #8212; so say that. Don#8217;t: use pronouns or write in first person. Your resume should never say #8220;I#8221; or #8220;me.#8221; Instead of, #8220;I worked for byu admission three months on in urdu, x project,#8221; you would write, #8220;Worked three months on x project.#8221; Don#8217;t: focus on tasks and responsibilities. Instead, focus on byu admission essay prompt, results and achievements that convey the impact of the tasks that you did and the responsibilities you had. #8220;Tell me how well you did it,#8221; Keating says.

Your resume shouldn#8217;t look like lists from your job description #8212; the on advantages of internet in urdu, person looking to hire can#8217;t learn anything from that. Instead, write the impact or the macbeth essay, result of those actions. For example: #8220;Increased office efficiency by providing accurate and timely file management. Enabled upper level to make strategic decisions by providing accurate weekly status reports.#8221; Empty adjectives do nothing. Anyone can list #8220;leader#8221; or #8220;hard worker.#8221; Write something that demonstrates how you can multitask. What would not have been possible had you been unable to juggle five things at once? If you meet about 70% of the qualifications listed, go for it.

They#8217;ve written their job description for on advantages of internet in urdu their ideal candidate #8212; they aren#8217;t expecting everyone to have every single item checked off, so you#8217;ll probably get a call. Besides, you can#8217;t get a job you didn#8217;t apply for. If you have less than 70% of the required qualifications, don#8217;t waste your time applying online, but do network your way into the company if you are passionate about what they do. 20% of your energy should go into online applications. Byu Admission Essay Prompt. The rest of your energy should go into talking and essay of internet, meeting one on one and gmat analysis essay, doing informational interviews.

Find informal interviews through alumni networks, friends, family connections and LinkedIn. Tell them you want to hear about their career-path. Essay Of Internet. It#8217;s one of the most important tools in your job search. Alright guys #8212; good luck! Check out Rose Keating#8217;s blog here for more tips and tricks to review, getting the job you want (among other things, like how to ask for a raise) Elizabeth wearing NARS #8220;Dragon Girl#8221; Velvet Matte Lip Pencil; Photographed by Krista Anna Lewis; gifs by Emily Zirimis. I was going to essay of internet, quickly scroll past this post and suppress all dreaded ugly resume feelings but then I remembered that I JUST had a conversation telling someone to free, do things that make them uncomfortable so I was like UGH I GUESS I SHOULD TAKE THE MEDICINE I PRESCRIBE TO OTHERS. On Advantages. WE CAN DO THIS TOGETHER! I am getting a salary of 6800 dollars each week.

Over a year ago I was in a horrible condition , jobless and gmat of argument, no bank credit ..tu Thanks to one of my friends who showed me a way where I was able to gather myself and making average of in urdu 58 d/h. So it can change your life as it has changed mine. Why not try this. When I looked at the draft of 6785 dollars, I have faith that brother of my friend was like really generating cash in byu admission essay, his free time with his PC..yi His aunt#8217;s neighbor has done this for only 11 months and by now repaid the loan on their home and bought a new Car. Check out Rose Keating’s blog here for essay of internet in urdu more tips and tricks to getting the macbeth essay, job you want (among other things, like how to ask for a raise) Oh I#8217;m saving this post ASAP!! You read my mind! I need help for a resume sooner than later! =) This is SO GOOD, thank you guys. Ridiculously perfect timing, you mind-reading goddesses. Just got out of career counseling, felt overwhelmed, went online to distract myself, then saw this. Almost didn#8217;t click bc anxiety, but this article makes it actually seem doable!

MR comes through again. thanks guys, perfect timing! I am a 36 yr old in the apparel industry, with 13 years experience in trend forecasting and graphic design. After being laid off this time last year I have applied for over 150 jobs, mostly in NYC. Unfortunately, right now I live in Missouri; that#8217;s where my previous job was located. I swear my resume is excellent, my cover letters are thoughtful, and my online portfolio is SMASHING. Yet, of 150 jobs I#8217;ve had less than 10 calls, 3 in person interviews, and just 1 narrow miss for essay on advantages in urdu landing an actual job. Is it like this for anyone else. I know I#8217;m qualified and talented previous managers and analysis essay, coworkers rave about me. Sometimes I feel like there is an invisible penis drawing or something on my resume that only recruiters and hiring managers can see. WHAT AM I DOING WRONG. I#8217;m sorry to hear your struggle I went through something similiar for essay of internet 1.5 years, in free, NYC.

Hundreds of cover letters, some calls, a handful of awkward in essay of internet in urdu, person interviews. My anxiety about finding a long term job increased as each month went by. On Dignity Of Teacher. This is not encouraging, but it’s probably because you’re in Missouri. The last two companies I#8217;ve worked for only looked at resumes from people in the tri-state area in order to interview and hire someone within two weeks. Thank you so much for essay on advantages of internet the response! You are definitely not alone in free, the struggle!!

The online application system isn#8217;t working well for many people these days, which is why I recommend getting out from essay in urdu behind your computer and scheduling a visit to New York so you can do some in person meetings, aka: informational interviews. By getting to know people at your target companies and presenting yourself in person, they get to free, know and be impressed by the whole you, not just you on a piece of essay on advantages paper. If you can find a friend to stay with in NY for two weeks that would be ideal as well, it#8217;s much easier to free, land a job in a new city if you can stay there while looking! Thanks for the great advice! One of the best pieces of advice I have gotten on building your professional network even if you don#8217;t live in the same city as someone is reaching out to people for informational interviews. I have done them several times and they#8217;re always worth it. On Advantages. Who do you reach out to? Go on LinkedIn and of teacher, see who went to in urdu, your Alma Mater that works in free, your industry and reach out the essay on advantages in urdu, them.

When the interview is coming to a close, ask who they recommend you talk to next. Research Paper. Lots of great articles are written on doing informational interviews I#8217;ve included two of my favorites below. Good luck!! These are great tips! If you can#8217;t use color, my professional portfolio professor told us to on advantages, really use font to your advantage. Go with something sans serif for free the header and essay on advantages of internet, sub heads, but use serif fonts for your bullets. It really helps break things up without being too obvious!

Also is on dignity of teacher this image the work of Emily I love it I really do I can#8217;t describe it it reminds me stuff but yet it doesn#8217;t, like Me Early and the Dying Girl but very quintessentially MR. Thanks for the tips! Thanks a lot! It#8217;s really useful #128578; I#8217;m definitely saving it. Essay On Advantages Of Internet. Good tips. I have 10 years#8217; experience in HR and dissertations, employee benefits, and essay on advantages in urdu, am actually wanting to of argument, make a jump to a more creative field. Nice to essay in urdu, see that some creativity is allowed in essay prompt, these things in, you know, creative fields.

One tip I#8217;d add: make sure the on advantages in urdu, grammar, spelling, proper names, job details, etc. are all correct in resumes/CVs and paper e learning, cover letters: recruiters LOOK for this stuff. If you#8217;ve got the essay on advantages in urdu, wrong job title and/or company name referenced in your cover letter, that doesn#8217;t bode well. Research Paper E Learning. This is so so helpful. I am going to apply for an internship during summer holidays and I hope this tips will help me to essay of internet, get my first prio x. Even though it is probably less money than I currently make and is only offered part-time, I remembered reading this article this week and applied for a job that is actually relevant to my desired field! ALSO, in free, further career developments, I got in to grad school this month. this is a GREAT post! love the practical tips! Next article what to essay on advantages of internet in urdu, wear to a job interview!

This is macbeth essay super helpful and does make the essay on advantages of internet, idea of updating my resume (finally, this weekend#8230;I SWEAR) seem less daunting. Although, I#8217;m still on the hunt for someone to write mine for me#8230;ha. But error: #8220;One pages..#8221; should be #8220;One page or two?#8221; Great tips, I am 100000% bookmarking this post! Really interesting post! I#8217;ve been applying for different jobs for analysis almost three years now and I remember that it took me months and essay on advantages, several people giving me advice until I was able to #8220;present myself in the best light#8221; and NOT mention the exams I failed#8230; Before that I felt like a resume or cover letter was something like an official document where you just have to state the facts in a plain and simple way. Wedding Papers. Cool. Share some other tips on resume design with you. Hope it#8217;s useful to on advantages in urdu, all of us.

Very informative and byu admission essay prompt, interesting article, Amelia! As a resume writer, I can attest that these tips are the real deal. Essay In Urdu. Length, where to put your education, customization, and being truthful are all very important. Visit the ResumeSpice website for more tips on crafting an macbeth essay clothing, effective, customized resume: This is what really helps when writing a resume: Essay Of Internet In Urdu. I think the main point in cover letter writing is that this document should tell your story.

You can#8217;t describe it as a structure (Four paragraphs: intro, conclusion, two middle paragraphs). It#8217;s absolutely crucial to essay on dignity, make it unique because it actually gets you the job. Resume is only a formal overview cover letter gets you hired.

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Essay on advantages of internet in urdu - Google

Life Of Pi Essay Survival Essays and essay on advantages in urdu Research Papers. ? Survival of PI In the novel Life of Pi , Pi goes through an essay clothing unexpected journey for . 227 days that adjusts his morals and needs to survive. Pi depends on in urdu, his survival by over looking his morals, having faith, and creating his own version of the situation rather than facing reality. E Learning. The human mind will go to great lengths to escape itself out of traumatic real life situations. Survival is the state of continuing to live or exist, typically in spite of an accident, ordeal, or difficult circumstances. Ethics , Human , Morality 829 Words | 3 Pages. Primacy of Survival in Life of Pi. ? The Primacy of Survival in Life of on advantages of internet in urdu Pi The urgent crave to survive at all costs is known as the primacy of . survival . Survival is essential for every animal, and there is no shortage of essay of teacher lengths they will go to in order to survive.

Yann Martel’s Life of Pi portrays the theme of primacy of survival based on essay on advantages of internet, Pi’s determination and research paper courage throughout his journey. Piscine Molitor Patel, known to all as Pi , is a Hindu boy who embarks on a journey to Canada along with his family and their zoo animals. Bengal tiger , Canada Reads , Life of Pi 1794 Words | 5 Pages. Karen Ramirez Pre-IB English/ Mr. Ratner 3/1/10 6th period Word count: 862 Life of Pi Essay Many people that . are religious look to God for essay of internet guidance and comfort. Especially in disastrous situations. In Yann Martel’s novel, Life of Pi , the theme of will to survive is presented and demonstrated as having faith, letting animal instincts take over, and determination. Pi keeping his faith shows how strong his faith in God is. He discusses some Hindu symbolism to describe how insignificant he feels. Atheism , God , Instinct 891 Words | 3 Pages. ENG4U-01 April 13th, 2013 Life of Pi : Quest or Enlightenment Over the course of essay of teacher this unit, I have read the so called . Essay. “ life changing” novel “The Life of Pi ” by Yann Martel.

This work of essay art happens to be a national best seller and has collected many literature awards. Piscine Molitor Patel, the young Indian protagonist is faced with a traumatic set of events which developed into a marvelous story of a castaway’s voyage, in the heart of the Pacific Ocean. This essay will discuss the essential factors. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Life of Pi 1685 Words | 4 Pages. Pi's survival can be put down to one simple thing, his trust in god. Discuss. On Advantages. Canadian author Yann Martel portrays Pi as such . a strong-minded human being in his novel ‘ Life of gmat of argument essay Pi ’, the story shows that Pi’s hunger to survive gets him through the whole ordeal of being stranded at essay on advantages of internet sea. But one can argue that his trust in God; that is, his beliefs and spirituality for three religions (Hinduism, Islam amp; Christianity) isn’t the only thing that helps him whilst he trapped at sea. His youth in Pondicherry. Human , Life of Pi , Ocean 1533 Words | 4 Pages.

Richard Parker Character Critical Essay : “ Life of Pi ” is a novel about a sixteen year old boy named Piscine Patel . Byu Admission. who survives for 227 days on a lifeboat at sea after he loses his family in s shipwreck. In Urdu. Pi is interviewed at the end of the book by two men from the ships company who do not accept his first story which involves a number of animals on the lifeboat with him. He then tells a much more brutal, realistic story where the animals are now metaphor for humans. The reader is then left to decide. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Exclusive Books Boeke Prize 1623 Words | 4 Pages. The Life of Pi , written by byu admission essay, Yann Martel, tells the life story of a young, Indian boy named Piscine Molitor Patel, . “known to all as… Pi Patel” (24). Pi narrates this story through a series of interviews conducted by an anonymous man who periodically allows the reader an account of Pi as a settled, married man; this provides the information that Pi does survive this story and moves on essay on advantages of internet, to a successful life . Pi’s life story is unusual from the on dignity of teacher, very beginning: Pi is essay on advantages, named after a swimming pool, his father. Bengal tiger , Canada Reads , Human 2868 Words | 7 Pages. Walton 1 Woody Walton Mr.

Esthus October 15, 2012 Life of Pi : The Will to Survive The main goal of every living thing on dissertations, . Essay On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. earth is to survive. Essay Of Teacher. Creatures will do amazing, extraordinary, and heroic things to live. However, they might also do terrible and horrific things in dire situations. It is interesting to think about how far one may go to essay on advantages of internet in urdu, keep their life . Free Dissertations. Shameful things might be done and morals might be broken. Essay On Advantages Of Internet. Times like these are what really show the true colors of people and hold anyone. Canada Reads , Debut albums , Life of Pi 1895 Words | 5 Pages. major role in making Life of Pi engaging. Through Martel's language and structure, he indirectly forces the audience into . believability. On Dignity. By using factual references, Martel successfully captures and portrays realism in the events, thus making fictitious ideas and the text believable. Essay In Urdu. This essay will discuss and examine how important the notion of wedding believability is to this novel through the essay on advantages of internet, language techniques of repetition, metaphors, punctuation, truncation and many more. This essay will discuss extensively.

Believe , Canada Reads , Exclusive Books Boeke Prize 1130 Words | 3 Pages. 2014 Symbolism in Life of Pi Life of Pi , written by Yann Martel, has a complex plot. Free Dissertations. It is a story . Essay. within a story. It is an adventure novel about e learning, a 16 year-old boy called Pi , who survives after the ship wrecks. He stays with a tiger on the ocean for 227 days. In the novel, the of internet, author uses various literary devices to macbeth essay clothing, present different themes. Essay. One of those devices is symbolism. Its presence is shown everywhere in the novel and it helps readers to truly understand Pi’s fight for discount papers review survival . The color orange. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Life of Pi 1012 Words | 4 Pages. Pro and Con Essay Piscine Molitor Patel, after floating on the ocean for on advantages of internet 227 days, was discovered exhausted and pale. There is no . abnormalities in vital signs discovered, which indicates that with proper cares and free rest, his body will function well.

In spite of his physical health, his mental health should be particularly examined in detail. Without precedent case, more details and aspects should be included to in urdu, consider, when evaluating if Pi is suitable to integrate to society again. Furthermore. Abnormal psychology , Delusional disorder , Mental disorder 916 Words | 3 Pages. Parker as an Escape Martel’s novel Life of Pi ends in a peculiar and confusing way. The protagonist, Pi first . tells a “better“ and more entertaining story including a Royal Bengal tiger named Richard Parker, other animals, a carnivorous island and a French castaway. Pi then, counters the first (better) story with a more realistic story replacing the animals with humans. If the reader chooses to believe the free, more realistic story, the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, question arises; why did Pi create the better story with Richard.

Ethics , KILL , Life of Pi 1339 Words | 5 Pages. plants, and essay on dignity all the Earth’s content is survivor. In Urdu. They are fighting for their rights in order to live in this beautiful world. The novel Life of . Pi written by Yann Martel, has employed a lot of symbols that is dissertations, related to the life . One of the most significant symbols is the color orange. The author uses orange as a symbol of maintenance of the spirit to survive in survival . This can be proved as most of the objects that are in the color orange in the novel generate feelings of hope, can develop courage. Canada Reads , Color , Life of of internet Pi 1513 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 Piscine Molitor Patel, a young Indian boy survives on a small life boat for 227 day with a Bengal tiger and limited supplies. In, . Life of byu admission Pi , Yann Martel uses Pi’s arduous journey and all-consuming will to stay alive, to describe Pi's transformation from a confused and sheltered boy, into a young man who is mentally devastated and strengthened by his psychological experience. The first tragic event that affected Pi’s life occurred when he came to terms with his parents’ and brother’s death.

Bible , Canada Reads , Canongate Books 1699 Words | 7 Pages. unknown. Ang Lee's film, Life of Pi and Michael Mohammad Ahmed’s nonfiction extract, “On Being Michael and Mohammed” accentuate . that a discovery is can lead to a new understanding of the world. In addition, Lee's Life of Pi and essay Li Po’s poem “Looking for a Monk and Not Finding Him” highlight that discoveries can offer spiritual and emotional development. The utilisation of a plethora of techniques assists in each of the medium's messages about discovery.

Lee's Life of Pi highlights the idea that. Audience , Emotion , Life 1296 Words | 3 Pages. as our source of faith, knowing that someday, we will all strive for our own happy endings. In the novel Life of Pi by Yann . Martel Pi is a character stranded at sea with no way out. Throughout the journey Pi uses his faith to overcome adversity and survive.

Pi's strong faith proved to of teacher, be the key in keeping Pi mentally tough providing him with hope to in urdu, maintain his physical survival . Faith gave Pi hope that he would be able to survive his ordeal. Of Teacher. To explain, there were many instances in pi's journey. Canada Reads , Life of Pi , Man Booker Prize 909 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jessica Jenny English Honors Period 3 Life 0f Pi Essay 9/21/14 “The Use of Geography in Life of . Pi ” Life of Pi by Yann Martel, follows the life of a young boy named Pi , who is marooned in essay on advantages of internet in urdu, the middle of the Atlantic Ocean after a shipwreck. Research Paper. He is only accompanied by a zebra, an orangutan, a hyena, and a brutal, barbarous Bengal tiger. Young Pi must confront the essay, elements and discount wedding papers review live at the will of of internet Mother Nature throughout the book as he tries to stay alive in the vast abyss of the Pacific Ocean. How. Atlantic Ocean , Canada Reads , Earth 924 Words | 3 Pages. Life of Pi Final Essay Now zoos have come a long way from what . they used to be. No more do we see too many animals crammed into one small cage.

Their habitats are made to mimic the animals natural habitats, they are often very large, with watering holes, small rock formations and much more. So my answer is no. Zoos are not abusive towards animals and are very important in our modern era. Free Dissertations. They are very important for the conservation. Canada Reads , Habitat , Life of Pi 793 Words | 5 Pages.

Life of essay Pi and Castaway Comparative Essay. ?Debbie Truong ENG3U1-08 Mr. Ramos 29 May 2014 Life of essay of teacher Pi Cast Away Comparative Essay : Belief and . Survival In order for human kind to survive the painfully realistic days of existence, a sort of belief system is direly needed. Essay. As shown through Pi Patel from free, Life of Pi and of internet in urdu Chuck Noland from Cast Away, holding onto a belief of something provides one with the research, determination to survive the worst conditions. Both the novel and essay on advantages of internet in urdu the book share the research paper e learning, story of two castaways who depend on their belief in something. Belief , Canada Reads , Cast Away 1453 Words | 5 Pages. Life of Pi Preparing The Literary Analysis Essay The task: You will be writing a five paragraph . essay that defends a thesis or argument. You will be showing how the author has used three different literary devices/elements of fiction in essay on advantages of internet, order to create and support a central theme. In order to succeed in this task, you must narrow down a theme statement. Theme Statements vs. Concepts Death is a concept, NOT a theme statement.

Belief is essay on dignity of teacher, a concept, not a theme statement. Be careful you don’t. Essay , Fiction , Five paragraph essay 1994 Words | 4 Pages. ENG3U1-1D Thursday, November 15, 2012 . Batul Lamaa There is a time in each person’s life when they feel like the essay on advantages, world is coming to an end and wedding papers review no one can help them overcome the problem that there in, but all of essay on advantages in urdu a sudden they get a feeling that everything is going to be all right, that somehow they’re going to be able to overcome the research e learning, crises they’ve fallen into. That spark that lights. Boy , Canada Reads , Faith 1073 Words | 3 Pages. How does Pi assert himself throughout his ordeal and how does this help him survive? Reflecting a belief that in all things there is “a . trace of the divine”, in Life of on advantages Pi author Yann Martel considers the on dignity, basic animal instincts of in urdu humanity when faced with the most adverse of conditions, and ultimately, the all-encompassing, limitless nature of faith.

Pi’s “unbelievable” survival , shipwrecked in the Pacific Ocean following the sinking of the Tsimstum and loss of his family, can at least be partly. Canada Reads , Conceptions of God , Faith 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Man’s best friend? The important thing isn’t that we can live on essay clothing, love alone, but that life isn’t worth living without it. In the novel . Life of Pi by Yann Martel, the essay in urdu, author tells a story of Piscine “ Pi ” Molitor Patel, who is struggling with religious and psychological issues.

In addition to discount wedding papers review, that, after the ship sinks Pi must survive on a life boat with a tiger for 227 days in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. On Advantages In Urdu. The Bengal tiger, Richard Parker was named after an Edgar Allen Poe character from The. Canada Reads , Edgar Allan Poe , Life of Pi 1122 Words | 3 Pages. contradictory ideas. Gmat Analysis Of Argument Essay. For instance in the novel Life of Pi , Yann Martel portrays that religion is essential in a person’s . life through the experiences of the in urdu, protagonist, Pi Patel. Discount Wedding Papers. Through one of Pi’s experiences Martel shows that religion can be used as a medium to ease self-burden. In addition religion provides a sense of comfort, and security through the presence of an eternal higher entity. Lastly religion gives people a sense of direction in life . It can be argued that a true connection with god. Canada Reads , Indira Gandhi , Life of Pi 1450 Words | 4 Pages. ? Life of on advantages of internet Pi by free, Yann Martel The life of Pi is a novel based on the life of essay in urdu a 16 year . old boy Piscine Patel, or Pi for analysis short. Essay On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. Pi explains to the reader the reasoning behind his very unusual name.

He gets this from the French translation of pool, which is Piscine, and from a pool in Paris, in which his best friend used to swim in. He shortened his name to gmat analysis, escape the taunting “Pissing Patel” “He raised his arm, pointed at me and shouted, It's Pissing Patel! And he therefor renamed himself after. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Exclusive Books Boeke Prize 1068 Words | 3 Pages. Life of Pi - Survival against the Odds The ultimate value of life depends upon awareness and . the power of contemplation but more importantly the will to survive.

Life of Pi is an intense, emotional story of survival and triumph against the odds. Piscine Molitor Patel is a near consistent peril throughout the story. On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. After losing his whole family in a shipwreck he has to essay, survive on a life boat, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. His odds of essay on advantages of internet survival are low due to many challenges he is faced. Fish , Life , Life of Pi 1077 Words | 3 Pages. World Religions In Life of Pi In the byu admission essay, book Life of Pi the in urdu, author Yann Martel wrote . about a young boy named Pi Patel surviving on a lifeboat by himself. Throughout the entire book Pi was very close to religion and in the end his religions were the main reason he had survived. At the start of the book Yann Martel introduces three religions, Islam, Christianity, and Hinduism. Essay. There are three main points that aided in Pi’s survival . One being that Pi was open to religions and started. Christianity , Five Pillars of Islam , God 888 Words | 3 Pages.

extraordinary experience. An example of this is the novel, “ Life of Pi ” because Pi grows from boy to man. He . had to mature very quickly by having to take care of himself in order to survive. Pi protects himself physically, mentally, and of internet emotionally. Pi believed in faith throughout the book to paper e learning, get through the on advantages of internet in urdu, situation that he was in. Pi uses an essay of teacher allegory of himself in the form of on advantages Richard Parker throughout the novel. Pi protects himself physically by scavenging. An example of on dignity this. KILL , Life of Pi , Novel 844 Words | 3 Pages. Blake Solberg Animal Ethics Dr. Patricia McEachern December 4, 2012 Life of Pi When I arrived at the theatre to see the . movie Life of Pi ? I was exhausted.

I had an architecture project that was due and on advantages of internet I was on essay on dignity of teacher, little to no sleep. I thought that the essay of internet, movie was going to be a bore and I would take the time to take a nap, but when the move started after the twenty minutes of commercials, it started to get to paper e learning, me. After the ship wreck the director had my full attention. Even though I was hungry. Ethics , Faith , Life 2148 Words | 6 Pages. Discuss the essay on advantages in urdu, importance of believability in this novel. In Yann Martel’s surreal novel, ‘ Life of Pi ’, views the measure of research e learning how an . individual uses their intrinsic knowledge to face up to on advantages, life’s riveting challenges. Martel portrays the protagonist, Pi Patel, as an individual who explores his own intrinsic identity through imagination, religion amp; faith as well as the fundamental difference between fact and fiction. Throughout the text, Martel, attempts to question the readers understanding of believability.

Canada Reads , Fiction , Life of Pi 1055 Words | 3 Pages. ?Characters: Piscine Molitor Patel ( Pi ) - The protagonist of the story. Research Paper. Piscine is the narrator for most of the novel, and his account of on advantages in urdu his . seven months at sea forms the bulk of the story. Piscine’s nickname, Pi , has a symbolic relationship with the mathematical pi (?) . The ratio of the on dignity of teacher, circumference (circular) of a circle to its diameter (linear) is essay, pi . The correlation between the linear journey to North America and the cycles of doubt and faith are experienced by Pi . Mathematical relationships are. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Life of Pi 1988 Words | 5 Pages. Life Of PI Summative Assessment Martel introduces and interesting sets and settings Displays the content of . story interesting tones of surrealism, comedy and reflection. Provides an escape from the social acceptance of sex and violence by placing the research paper, reader in a world filled with allegorical representation with animals and religion.

Idea: Martel suggests through the of internet, allegorical representation of Richard Parker’s instincts and Pi’s spirituality, that humankind can not survive. Canada Reads , Faith , Life of Pi 2277 Words | 6 Pages. of Pi’s exile in Life of Pi by Yann Martel Edward Said, a Palestinian American literary theorist and cultural critic, has . written that “Exile is clothing, strangely compelling to think about but terrible to experience. In Urdu. It is the unhealable rift forced between a human being and a native place, between the self and its true home: its essential sadness can never be surmounted.” But Said has also proclaimed that exile can become “a potent, even enriching” experience. In Martel’s Life of Pi , Pi’s experience. Canada Reads , Life of analysis essay Pi , Man Booker Prize 1031 Words | 3 Pages. The Life of Pi The novel, The Life of Pi , by Yann Martel is a story that reflects how people . Essay Of Internet In Urdu. develop their belief systems, and how they are challenged by their need to free dissertations, survive. This story, about a young boy living with a Bengal tiger for 227 days following a shipwreck was interesting to read because it made me think about my own belief systems, and times that I have thought of abandoning them, and why I chose not to. It also made me wonder to essay, what extremes I would have to be pushed to abandon.

Canada Reads , Faith , God 2817 Words | 7 Pages. Having Faith Life of Pi explores human experience, society, religion and nature through the eyes of Pi . Patel, an Indian boy growing up in an emerging global society. Thrown into chaos a tragic accident, Pi finds spirituality and wedding review the meaning of life through his quest for essay in urdu survival . Amongst extreme adversity, Pi keeps his sanity, refuses to dwell on prompt, the depravity of his situation, and looks within himself for guidance. Throughout the essay on advantages, book we are reminded of wedding review our emerging global society, where. Canada Reads , Faith , God 913 Words | 3 Pages.

Martel's The Life of Pi is a coming of age story about essay on advantages, a young man's reaching maturity through tragic but uplifting story of . loss and miraculous survival . The story is based on a journey which contains adventure, tradgedy, humour, and also the survival of the fittest mentality. Yann Martel depicts a story of a youth who seeks knowledge, wisdom, connectivity, and spirituality through religeon and zoology. Applying the craft's he has practiced and is taught, protagonist Pi Patel seeks survival on a stranded. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Life of Pi 1679 Words | 4 Pages. within Life of Pi Throughout the novel Life of Pi the reader is faced with many recurring . symbols and motifs to enhance the themes of religion and belief within the novel. It is most evident when analysing the main character Pi . He is faced with many challenges and has a great challenging uphill journey placed in front of wedding him, but through his beliefs he is able to push through using many techniques along the way. Hunger and thirst, as well as the struggle for essay dominance and discount survival play a.

Belief , Exclusive Books Boeke Prize , Faith 1046 Words | 3 Pages. In the essay of internet in urdu, beginning of Life of Pi , the research, author opens up with a detailed description of the on advantages of internet in urdu, sloth, the different types, the research, speed, and . the essay on advantages in urdu, wittiness. It survives by analysis essay, being slow and because of its slowness; it allows algae to grow on on advantages in urdu, its body that acts like a camouflage with the surrounding moss and foliage. The book starts out in on dignity, first person with the main character, Piscine Patel, talking about essay of internet, his name which means pool in numerous languages. Macbeth Essay Clothing. He found it weird that his parents named him Piscine but. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Life of of internet Pi 2423 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of Religion in the Life of Pi. Peter Jia Ms.Kmiecik ENG4U 2013/8/17 The Importance of Religion in the Life of Pi . Peter2 The Importance of Religion in discount wedding papers, the Life of Pi In introduction of Life of Pi , Author Yang • Martel said directly that : This book was born as I was hungry (introduction,1).

Hunger is something author refers to the emptiness in faith. The novel's protagonist Piscine, grew up in French Indochina area. Christianity , God , Islam 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Hook sentence: Reason or Belief. A choice people have to on advantages of internet in urdu, choose and whatever the decision, must believe is, the right one.

In the case of ‘ Life . of Pi ’, reason and belief both play an important role in Pi’s struggle to survive but, reason outdoes/ over gmat of argument essay ruled belief on numerous occasions. In Urdu. . . Critical thinking , Personal flotation device , The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket 602 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment 1 Martel, Yann. Life of Pi . Boston: Harcourt, 2001. Print. Gmat. I chose the swarm of flying fish as a significant symbol . in essay of internet in urdu, the novel because it represented hope. Whenever the fish appeared he not only received food from the actual fish but was also able to use them towards catching bigger bait than he used to tame Richard Parker allowing him to him live and be able to hope for land and have the necessary ingredients to a survive.

Assignment 2 (pg.14) “The Pondicherry Zoo was the source. Canada Reads , Life of Pi , Man Booker Prize 2286 Words | 5 Pages. protagonist of the novel is Pi Patel • The narrator keeps shifting from Pi to the author • Pi had studied . Macbeth Essay Clothing. religion and Zoology at UfT • Pi dislikes agnostic people for their thought of god • The author tells us Pi’s about 40, reserved and cautious yet still excitable • Pi’s uncle Mamaji was a champion swimmer. He taught Pi how to swim • Mamaji would tell stories about historic pools around the world. The best he claims is the Piscine Molitor in Paris • Pi was named after the. Life of Pi , Pi , Yann Martel 2192 Words | 6 Pages.

Connected Text Essay: Lord of the Flies and in urdu Life of Pi. texts that deal with survival and savagery in William Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies and Ang Lee’s film Life of . Pi ? The film Life of Pi directed by clothing, Ang Lee and novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding are both survival texts in which the protagonists must deal with a range of conflict. In Life of Pi the protagonist, Pi Patel, is a religious teenager who lives in Pondicherry, India with his small family. Forced to move, and essay on advantages start a new life with his family in Canada, Pi is truck with the challenge. Conflict , Exclusive Books Boeke Prize , Life of Pi 1652 Words | 4 Pages. During Life of Pi , and Castaway, characters in each experience disastrous deaths of loved ones which play with their will to . survive. However, their hope and determination pull through and overcome this heart- wrenching event. Byu Admission. For Pi , from Life of essay on advantages of internet Pi , there are numerous deaths that have a huge toll on discount wedding review, him.

Pi’s whole family dies when the boat they are travelling on sinks. Essay On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. Growing up in an Indian culture, Pi was very close to essay, his family, and a part of Pi also died that day. “Every single thing that. Aviation accidents and incidents , Canada Reads , Death 1165 Words | 3 Pages. Human Truths Discovered in Life of Pi : People's lack of faith. Essay Of Internet. Man's inability to believe anything out of the norm. . Impossible vs implausible Man's incredible will to byu admission essay prompt, survive Two-hundred twenty seven days. One man. One tiger. With as little as twenty six feet separating the two, Pi's life seems to be nothing more than a fading ember whose end only time can elicit.

With what could be classified strictly as a series of incredibly unfortunate events, the Indian boy's journey to Canada is. Belief , Canada Reads , Faith 1137 Words | 4 Pages. Instructor Claudia Gresham English 113 24 February 2014 Literary Analysis of Life of Pi The novel Life of essay of internet in urdu . Pi by Yann Martel is an intriguing story of a boy, a tiger and their perils of discount papers life at the hands of the Pacific Ocean. There are many elements of fiction the characters of on advantages of internet Pi Patel and Richard Parker. Gmat Of Argument Essay. The setting of the limitless Pacific Ocean, the many different themes like survival and religion, and the symbolism of the color orange are all very important elements in essay on advantages of internet in urdu, this story that will. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Exclusive Books Boeke Prize 2648 Words | 6 Pages. be our witness that we are Muslims (wa-shahad be anna muslimun). In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Torah to Moses, the Psalms to byu admission, David . and essay in urdu the Gospel to prompt, Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets. Muslim in Life of Pi The mosque was truly an open construction, to God and to breeze. Essay On Advantages. We sat cross legged listening to e learning, the imam until the on advantages of internet in urdu, time came to prompt, pray. Then the essay, random pattern of sitters disappeared as we stood and arranged ourselves shoulder to shoulder in rows.

God , Islam , Major religious groups 1630 Words | 5 Pages. explore a theme In Life of Pi , the of teacher, author Yann Martel analyses how a conflict was used to explore one of the main themes within . the text, coming of age. Essay In Urdu. Martel uses the free, conflict between the main protagonist Piscine Patel and Richard Parker the Bengal tiger, and how this conflict develops to essay on advantages of internet, skilfully teach the reader about what it means to become a fully grown individual. There are three stages to this conflict, when Piscine is fighting Richard Parker for territory upon the life boat, when Piscine. Canada Reads , Coming of age , Control 1239 Words | 3 Pages. Life of of argument essay Pi: Significance of the Flying Fish. Life of Pi Essay ; Significance of the essay of internet, Flying Fish In Yann Martel’s compelling novel Life of . Free. Pi , the main character of the story, Pi Patel, undergoes intense hardships as he lives a castaway’s life on the Pacific Ocean, after losing his entire family and everything he held close to him when the cargo ship, the essay, Tsimtsum, sinks into the dark depths of the sea. Pi finds himself on a lifeboat with several animals, and eventually, with a massive Bengal Tiger, and through all of this hardship and suffering. Canada Reads , Human , Life 1147 Words | 3 Pages. Unreliable Narrator in Life of Pi Life of Pi is told in essay, first person and because he is the on advantages, only . narrator, readers see what he does; the problem is, Pi’s reactions and over simplistic method of analyzing events are unrealistic.

When readers find the narrator’s voice to be unrealistic, they question the book’s validity and in turn the author’s point in dissertations, creating a character that is untrustworthy. There are many, many examples in the Life of on advantages of internet in urdu Pi where Pi forces us to step out of the pages and free twist. First-person narrative , Grammatical person , Narrative 1459 Words | 4 Pages. Karanvir Dhami Ms. Yu ENG3U March 7, 2011 Symbolism in Life of Pi In Life of Pi there are many . literary devices used to present the different themes in the novel. The main literary device used in Life of of internet in urdu Pi is symbolism. Symbolism is often used to represent an of teacher object to something else, either by on advantages in urdu, association or by resemblance. Most of the names of animals, objects and even humans in this novel have a symbolic meaning. In Yann Martel’s Life of Pi , symbolism such as pi’s name, the colour orange and the.

Canada Reads , Greek alphabet , Life of Pi 885 Words | 3 Pages. living. One’s religion can change as they develop more questions towards the religions they believe in. E Learning. Religion is one of the central ideas in . “ Life of PI ” by Yann Martel. Religion is one of the minds more most powerful thought. It can make them question who they are, what they believe in and in affects their life from many different points of view. Pi , the protagonist in the novel practices three religions which are Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity.

These religions will be the one’s making Pi’s. Christianity , Deity , Faith 971 Words | 3 Pages. The book Life of Pi by Yann Martel is a story about a young Indian boy named Piscine Molitor Patel and his journey stranded in a . lifeboat in the Pacific Ocean with only a tiger, Richard Parker. The Japanese cargo ship carrying his father’s zoo animals, his family, and workers, was traveling from essay of internet in urdu, India to Canada, where the byu admission essay prompt, Patels hoped to start a new life . On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. Unfortunately, the ship sank from an unknown cause and Pi along with a tiger, orangutan, zebra, and hyena were the only survivors of the free dissertations, wreck. A Story , Canada Reads , Life 1577 Words | 4 Pages. Life of Pi Mini Essay (14 Significant Quotes) 10 SIGNIFICANT EVENTS 1) Pi changed his name: He ticked my name off. And looked at the next boy. […] I was saved.[…] I could breathe. . […] A new beginning. - (p.25) This is essay on advantages of internet in urdu, when Pi first started his new school.

He was tired of his name being twisted and made fun of so he decided to on dignity of teacher, change it. Whereas before he was referred most commonly to on advantages of internet in urdu, as Pissing instead of free dissertations Piscine, he would so forth be called Pi . Essay Of Internet. This name is significant to his character development because it allows him o break free. 2009 albums , Cain and Abel , Faith 1643 Words | 4 Pages. Life of Pi The book starts with the discount papers, author telling in a note about going to India. In India he meets a man named Francis . Adirubasamy in a coffeehouse in Pondicherry. The response Francis comes up with to the author’s need for inspiration is “I have a story that will make you believe in essay on advantages, God.” After which he refers to the author as Piscine Patel in Toronto, who starts to tell his story. Wedding Review. When Pi was a teenager in India, he lived with his parents and of internet in urdu his brother Ravi.

He frequently explores new opportunities. A Story , Eating , Life of Pi 922 Words | 3 Pages. Piscine Molitor Patel says it himself that his survival is “hard to believe” and can hardly comprehend it looking back. Yet, the readers are . promised with a happy ending, and a happy ending with Pi’s survival is clothing, what we get. However, it raises the incredible question of just how Pi managed to survive the hardships, loss, pain and essay on advantages in urdu suffering, all in the Pacific Ocean’s harsh, unforgiving environment. The first explanation involves Pi’s inborn desire to analysis of argument essay, survive at all cost and to resist giving up. Also. Bengal tiger , Life of Pi , Ocean 1052 Words | 3 Pages. to Piscine Patel in Toronto, who immediately begins to tell his own story, starting in Chapter 1. As a teenager in Pondicherry, India, Pi . Patel describes his family – himself, his parents, and his brother Ravi. On Advantages. He is constantly exploring new opportunities and paper learning many odd and exciting things. On Advantages In Urdu. His father is the proprietor of the Pondicherry Zoo, where Pi learns much of the workings and raising of animals.

Pi’s mother is an avid reader and introduces to him numerous literary works from which. A Story , Eating , Life of Pi 980 Words | 3 Pages. Author Yann Martel Original title Life of macbeth Pi Country Canada Language English Genre Fiction Publisher Knopf Canada . Publication date September 2001 Life of Pi is divided into four sections. In the first section the main character Pi Patel, an adult Canadian, reminisces about his childhood in India. His father owns a zoo in Pondicherry. Essay. The livelihood provides the family with a relatively affluent lifestyle and some understanding of free dissertations animal psychology. Pi describes how he acquired his full.

Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Life of Pi 826 Words | 3 Pages. faith? How strong is on advantages of internet in urdu, your will to survive if the tables were turned and misfortune rocked your boat of life ? Throughout the entire novel . Life of Pi by Yann Martel, the protagonist Piscine Molitor Patel develops an extreme devotion to God. As the story progresses Pi’s faith becomes stronger, allowing him to continue living a peaceful life even when things get nearly impossible. Religion keeps Pi busy, happy and macbeth most importantly. alive. He develops a profound faith in God’s of 3 different religions. Canada Reads , Faith , God 1775 Words | 5 Pages.

Olivia Miano Prof. Blanco-Cerda English 1302 16 December 2010 The Quest for the Meaning of Life Yann Martel’s novel, Life . of on advantages in urdu Pi , is an free inspirational story of a young boy fighting for on advantages his life as a castaway with the company of a Bengal tiger. Macbeth Clothing. Through his religious beliefs and perseverance he is able to survive, but with great difficulty. In an allegorical sense, this story is brilliant. Essay On Advantages. Pi recreates his story using animals to metaphorically represent the humans who were in his treacherous, archetypal.

Allegory , Archetype , Canada Reads 967 Words | 3 Pages.

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Advantage and disadvantage of internet essay in urdu

Why doing a PhD is often a waste of time. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button. ON THE evening before All Saints' Day in 1517, Martin Luther nailed 95 theses to the door of a church in Wittenberg. Essay On Advantages In Urdu! In those days a thesis was simply a position one wanted to argue. Luther, an byu admission essay prompt Augustinian friar, asserted that Christians could not buy their way to on advantages in urdu heaven. Today a doctoral thesis is essay prompt, both an idea and an account of of internet in urdu a period of original research. Writing one is the aim of the hundreds of thousands of students who embark on a doctorate of philosophy (PhD) every year. In most countries a PhD is discount review, a basic requirement for a career in academia. It is an on advantages of internet introduction to free the world of independent research—a kind of in urdu intellectual masterpiece, created by an apprentice in close collaboration with a supervisor. The requirements to complete one vary enormously between countries, universities and even subjects.

Some students will first have to spend two years working on a master's degree or diploma. Some will receive a stipend; others will pay their own way. Free! Some PhDs involve only research, some require classes and on advantages of internet, examinations and free, some require the student to teach undergraduates. A thesis can be dozens of pages in mathematics, or many hundreds in history. As a result, newly minted PhDs can be as young as their early 20s or world-weary forty-somethings. One thing many PhD students have in common is dissatisfaction.

Some describe their work as “slave labour”. Seven-day weeks, ten-hour days, low pay and uncertain prospects are widespread. You know you are a graduate student, goes one quip, when your office is better decorated than your home and you have a favourite flavour of instant noodle. “It isn't graduate school itself that is discouraging,” says one student, who confesses to on advantages rather enjoying the discount hunt for free pizza. “What's discouraging is realising the end point has been yanked out of reach.” Whining PhD students are nothing new, but there seem to be genuine problems with the system that produces research doctorates (the practical “professional doctorates” in of internet in urdu fields such as law, business and medicine have a more obvious value). There is an oversupply of PhDs. Macbeth Essay Clothing! Although a doctorate is designed as training for essay on advantages of internet, a job in academia, the number of PhD positions is unrelated to the number of job openings.

Meanwhile, business leaders complain about shortages of high-level skills, suggesting PhDs are not teaching the of argument essay right things. The fiercest critics compare research doctorates to Ponzi or pyramid schemes. For most of on advantages of internet in urdu history even a first degree at a university was the byu admission prompt privilege of a rich few, and many academic staff did not hold doctorates. But as higher education expanded after the second world war, so did the expectation that lecturers would hold advanced degrees. American universities geared up first: by 1970 America was producing just under a third of the world's university students and half of in urdu its science and technology PhDs (at that time it had only 6% of the global population). Since then America's annual output of essay PhDs has doubled, to 64,000. Other countries are catching up. Between 1998 and in urdu, 2006 the number of doctorates handed out in all OECD countries grew by 40%, compared with 22% for America.

PhD production sped up most dramatically in Mexico, Portugal, Italy and of teacher, Slovakia. Even Japan, where the number of on advantages in urdu young people is dissertations, shrinking, churned out about 46% more PhDs. Of Internet! Part of that growth reflects the expansion of university education outside America. Richard Freeman, a labour economist at Harvard University, says that by 2006 America was enrolling just 12% of the free dissertations world's students. But universities have discovered that PhD students are cheap, highly motivated and disposable labour.

With more PhD students they can do more research, and in of internet in urdu some countries more teaching, with less money. A graduate assistant at Yale might earn $20,000 a year for nine months of teaching. The average pay of full professors in America was $109,000 in 2009—higher than the average for judges and magistrates. Indeed, the production of PhDs has far outstripped demand for university lecturers. In a recent book, Andrew Hacker and paper e learning, Claudia Dreifus, an academic and a journalist, report that America produced more than 100,000 doctoral degrees between 2005 and 2009. In the same period there were just 16,000 new professorships. Using PhD students to do much of the undergraduate teaching cuts the number of full-time jobs. Even in Canada, where the output of PhD graduates has grown relatively modestly, universities conferred 4,800 doctorate degrees in 2007 but hired just 2,616 new full-time professors.

Only a few fast-developing countries, such as Brazil and essay in urdu, China, now seem short of PhDs. A short course in supply and demand. In research the story is wedding review, similar. PhD students and contract staff known as “postdocs”, described by essay on advantages in urdu one student as “the ugly underbelly of academia”, do much of the research these days. There is a glut of postdocs too.

Dr Freeman concluded from research paper pre-2000 data that if American faculty jobs in the life sciences were increasing at 5% a year, just 20% of students would land one. In Canada 80% of postdocs earn $38,600 or less per year before tax—the average salary of a construction worker. The rise of the postdoc has created another obstacle on the way to an academic post. In some areas five years as a postdoc is now a prerequisite for landing a secure full-time job. These armies of low-paid PhD researchers and postdocs boost universities', and therefore countries', research capacity. Yet that is not always a good thing. Brilliant, well-trained minds can go to waste when fashions change. The post-Sputnik era drove the rapid growth in PhD physicists that came to an abrupt halt as the Vietnam war drained the science budget. Brian Schwartz, a professor of physics at the City University of New York, says that in essay on advantages in urdu the 1970s as many as 5,000 physicists had to find jobs in other areas. In America the rise of PhD teachers' unions reflects the analysis essay breakdown of an implicit contract between universities and PhD students: crummy pay now for a good academic job later.

Student teachers in public universities such as the University of in urdu Wisconsin-Madison formed unions as early as the 1960s, but the pace of unionisation has increased recently. Unions are now spreading to private universities; though Yale and Cornell, where university administrators and some faculty argue that PhD students who teach are not workers but apprentices, have resisted union drives. In 2002 New York University was the first private university to recognise a PhD teachers' union, but stopped negotiating with it three years later. In some countries, such as Britain and macbeth clothing, America, poor pay and job prospects are reflected in essay on advantages the number of foreign-born PhD students. Dr Freeman estimates that in 1966 only 23% of science and essay, engineering PhDs in America were awarded to students born outside the in urdu country. By 2006 that proportion had increased to 48%.

Foreign students tend to tolerate poorer working conditions, and the supply of cheap, brilliant, foreign labour also keeps wages down. Proponents of the PhD argue that it is worthwhile even if it does not lead to permanent academic employment. Not every student embarks on a PhD wanting a university career and discount wedding papers review, many move successfully into private-sector jobs in, for instance, industrial research. On Advantages Of Internet! That is true; but drop-out rates suggest that many students become dispirited. Wedding Papers! In America only 57% of doctoral students will have a PhD ten years after their first date of essay enrolment. In the humanities, where most students pay for their own PhDs, the figure is 49%.

Worse still, whereas in other subject areas students tend to jump ship in the early years, in the humanities they cling like limpets before eventually falling off. And these students started out as the academic cream of the nation. Research at one American university found that those who finish are no cleverer than those who do not. Poor supervision, bad job prospects or lack of money cause them to run out of steam. Even graduates who find work outside universities may not fare all that well. PhD courses are so specialised that university careers offices struggle to essay of teacher assist graduates looking for jobs, and supervisors tend to have little interest in students who are leaving academia. One OECD study shows that five years after receiving their degrees, more than 60% of PhDs in Slovakia and more than 45% in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany and Spain were still on temporary contracts. Many were postdocs. About one-third of Austria's PhD graduates take jobs unrelated to their degrees. In Germany 13% of all PhD graduates end up in lowly occupations.

In the Netherlands the proportion is 21%. PhD graduates do at least earn more than those with a bachelor's degree. A study in the Journal of of internet Higher Education Policy and Management by Bernard Casey shows that British men with a bachelor's degree earn 14% more than those who could have gone to university but chose not to. The earnings premium for a PhD is 26%. But the premium for a master's degree, which can be accomplished in essay as little as one year, is almost as high, at essay on advantages of internet 23%. In some subjects the premium for a PhD vanishes entirely. Discount Review! PhDs in maths and essay of internet in urdu, computing, social sciences and languages earn no more than those with master's degrees.

The premium for a PhD is actually smaller than for a master's degree in engineering and technology, architecture and education. Only in medicine, other sciences, and business and financial studies is it high enough to be worthwhile. Over all subjects, a PhD commands only a 3% premium over a master's degree. Dr Schwartz, the New York physicist, says the skills learned in the course of a PhD can be readily acquired through much shorter courses. Thirty years ago, he says, Wall Street firms realised that some physicists could work out differential equations and recruited them to become “quants”, analysts and traders. Today several short courses offer the advanced maths useful for finance. “A PhD physicist with one course on on dignity differential equations is not competitive,” says Dr Schwartz. Many students say they are pursuing their subject out of on advantages love, and that education is an end in essay clothing itself.

Some give little thought to in urdu where the qualification might lead. In one study of British PhD graduates, about a third admitted that they were doing their doctorate partly to go on byu admission essay prompt being a student, or put off job hunting. Nearly half of engineering students admitted to essay on advantages of internet this. Scientists can easily get stipends, and therefore drift into doing a PhD. Dissertations! But there are penalties, as well as benefits, to staying at on advantages university. Workers with “surplus schooling”—more education than a job requires—are likely to gmat of argument essay be less satisfied, less productive and more likely to say they are going to leave their jobs. Academics tend to regard asking whether a PhD is worthwhile as analogous to wondering whether there is too much art or culture in the world.

They believe that knowledge spills from universities into society, making it more productive and healthier. Of Internet! That may well be true; but doing a PhD may still be a bad choice for an individual. The interests of academics and universities on of argument essay the one hand and essay on advantages in urdu, PhD students on the other are not well aligned. The more bright students stay at universities, the better it is for academics. Postgraduate students bring in grants and macbeth, beef up their supervisors' publication records. Academics pick bright undergraduate students and on advantages of internet in urdu, groom them as potential graduate students. Macbeth Clothing! It isn't in their interests to on advantages of internet in urdu turn the smart kids away, at least at the beginning. One female student spoke of being told of glowing opportunities at the outset, but after seven years of hard slog she was fobbed off with a joke about finding a rich husband. Monica Harris, a professor of psychology at the University of Kentucky, is a rare exception. She believes that too many PhDs are being produced, and has stopped admitting them. But such unilateral academic birth control is rare.

One Ivy-League president, asked recently about PhD oversupply, said that if the top universities cut back others will step in to papers review offer them instead. Many of the drawbacks of doing a PhD are well known. Your correspondent was aware of them over a decade ago while she slogged through a largely pointless PhD in theoretical ecology. As Europeans try to harmonise higher education, some institutions are pushing the more structured learning that comes with an of internet in urdu American PhD. The organisations that pay for papers review, research have realised that many PhDs find it tough to essay on advantages in urdu transfer their skills into on dignity of teacher, the job market. Writing lab reports, giving academic presentations and conducting six-month literature reviews can be surprisingly unhelpful in a world where technical knowledge has to essay on advantages of internet be assimilated quickly and presented simply to a wide audience. Research Paper E Learning! Some universities are now offering their PhD students training in soft skills such as communication and teamwork that may be useful in the labour market. In Britain a four-year NewRoutePhD claims to develop just such skills in graduates. Measurements and essay on advantages in urdu, incentives might be changed, too.

Some university departments and gmat analysis of argument essay, academics regard numbers of essay in urdu PhD graduates as an indicator of success and compete to produce more. Wedding! For the essay of internet students, a measure of how quickly those students get a permanent job, and what they earn, would be more useful. Where penalties are levied on essay academics who allow PhDs to overrun, the on advantages number of students who complete rises abruptly, suggesting that students were previously allowed to research paper e learning fester. Many of those who embark on a PhD are the smartest in of internet their class and will have been the best at everything they have done. They will have amassed awards and prizes. As this year's new crop of graduate students bounce into their research, few will be willing to gmat analysis essay accept that the system they are entering could be designed for essay on advantages, the benefit of others, that even hard work and brilliance may well not be enough to succeed, and that they would be better off doing something else. Essay! They might use their research skills to look harder at the lot of the disposable academic. Someone should write a thesis about that.

Optimism is on the move—with important consequences for both the hopeful and the hopeless. Behold 2011, the on advantages of internet year of sovereign shocks. Get ready for more volatility in government bonds. The Cancun climate-change conference. The UN climate-change process is back on the road. Try not to crash it again. The rights and wrongs of hacktivism.

Protest can be disruptive but legal. But furtiveness removes its moral weight. Eastern Europe is back from the economic brink. But some political trends are gloomy. On America and Europe, WikiLeaks, GM crops, students, Sarah Palin, happiness, the number 11. Poverty looms for the long-term unemployed. A court rules part of essay prompt Barack Obama’s health reform unconstitutional. It is too early to tell whether the new strategy in essay on advantages Afghanistan is working. He needs a lot more than one minute to set himself free. Some Canadians are having second thoughts about their traditionally liberal immigration policy.

But. One of Latin America’s most troubled nations has its most popular president. Taking out the macbeth leaders of drug gangs has not quelled the mayhem. As China’s prime minister visits India, the host’s attitude towards its bigger neighbour is. Testing time for college graduates. Bangladesh responds to criticism of its plans to try war criminals. Pakistan’s largest city is being torn apart by essay of internet communal violence. A tragic sinking revives a debate about boat people. China’s disastrous diplomacy betrays the government’s insecurity at home.

African Union troops in the Somali capital have pushed back Islamist fighters. U-turn on the long walk to freedom. Twitchy governments are making life a misery for independent journalists. The president fires his chief diplomat ahead of dissertations a new round of nuclear talks. The Iraqi government brings back driving licences. Italy’s prime minister scrapes through a parliamentary confidence vote. But there may still be an. The government takes over Hungary’s independent institutions, one by on advantages of internet in urdu one.

An attempt to discount wedding review blow up Stockholm shoppers fortunately fails. Chris Cviic, chronicler of of internet eastern Europe, died on December 11th, aged 80. A dodgy election is research paper, followed by a grisly allegation. Montenegro and the European Union. Despite its new candidate status, Montenegro is far from joining the EU.

The coalition is making local government more powerful, but also poorer and—probably—more. A town tries to stop enraged minorities from on advantages in urdu tapping into broader discontent. Rising unemployment and inflation. A double dollop of ill cheer spoils the festive mood. Old and new traditions blend in a modern Christmas ritual. The coalition is trusted on fiscal discipline.

It must convince voters it understands aspiration. The UN climate conference achieved some results, albeit modest ones. An American trial is analysis, drawing nearer for Julian Assange. New twists in the story of a mysterious and sophisticated cyber-weapon. Why, beyond middle age, people get happier as they get older. Money really can buy you happiness. An elegy on essay on advantages of internet the British pub, by our obituaries editor. Medieval warfare was just as terrifying as you might imagine. China’s tourists are carving out a new European itinerary, with some unexpected stops. How Hungary circumvented Stalin and also had a bit of fun. They came to analysis America illegally, for the best of reasons.

Barbecue navigates the twin perils of mass appeal and nostalgia. Movies are uniting a disparate continent, and dividing it too. Shahabpur, a village on the Gangetic plain, is caste-addled and essay on advantages, somehow cohesive. But modernity. The Boxer Uprising means different things to different people in China. Foreign invaders have always had a difficult relationship with Afghanistan. The diary of Babur, the. If you can have everything in dissertations 57 varieties, making decisions becomes hard work. PR Man has conquered the essay on advantages world. He still isn’t satisfied.

The lounge suit, battledress of the world’s businessmen, is 150 years old—possibly. To grasp an essay important chapter in the story of writing, look to western, and then eastern. The science of recovering lost writing has made big strides. Like Easter Island, Ascension Island has lessons for the planet—cheerful ones. Like its founder, Mediaset is tacky, unfairly advantaged—and resilient. Some tech start-ups look over-valued. A mining firm snuggles up to its biggest customer. Outsourcing can cut your legal bills. Ronald Coase, the author of “The Nature of the of internet in urdu Firm” (1937), turns 100 on December 29th. Iceland has been tough with creditors and kind to itself.

Ireland may wish it had done the same. The rise in bond yields does not solve a long-running dilemma. When will China overtake America? An epic fraud continues to haunt Wall Street. Alleviating poverty may not reduce terrorism but could make it less effective. An international deal on deforestation makes it ever more important to measure the Earth’s. Forests are not the only habitat whose conservation matters to discount wedding papers the climate.

Science invades the humanities. A new way of protecting planes from the ash from volcanoes. The days of English as the essay in urdu world’s second language may (slowly) be ending. A history of the free dissertations extra-marital affair. Two centuries of essay on advantages of internet in urdu monetary and fiscal policy and banking.

Ledgers that throw light on free the past. Contemporary art that reflects the many-sided violence afflicting Pakistan. Richard Holbrooke, diplomat and troubleshooter, died on December 13th, aged 69. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on on advantages of internet, it.

Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the essay perfect person for the job. On Advantages Of Internet? For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Essay Clothing? Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about essay of internet in urdu what it means to tailor your resume here . Free? 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on essay, your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for gmat analysis, different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of on advantages of internet in urdu, this as your brag file . 3. Research Paper? Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the essay of internet in urdu fold” refers to what you see on gmat analysis of argument essay, the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of essay in urdu, a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is dissertations, going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on in urdu, reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Essay Clothing? According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to essay on advantages of internet explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for dissertations, you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of on advantages of internet, your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on essay, your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the essay on advantages of internet in urdu bottom line is paper, this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is in urdu, a good way to force yourself to do this.

If you truly have enough relevant and free important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of of internet in urdu, your resume, then go for essay clothing, it. But if you can tell the essay on advantages of internet same story in less space? Do. Byu Admission Essay? If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Essay Of Internet In Urdu? Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to essay of teacher include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the in urdu most important details on on dignity, that document, and essay of internet in urdu then include a link to essay your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to essay of internet stand out in a minute. Essay On Dignity? But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by in urdu using a font size between 10 and 12 and analysis leaving a healthy amount of essay in urdu, white space on the page.

You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of paper, Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu? If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Free? If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome.

10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on of internet in urdu, your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and macbeth clothing Twitter handle. (Implicit in essay on advantages this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in analysis of argument as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference.

Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Essay? Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only papers show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and on advantages only include the experience relevant to the positions to paper e learning which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Essay On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu? If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into research paper more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to).

14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to essay in urdu pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to e learning throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is essay on advantages of internet in urdu, readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them.

Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in free your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the essay on advantages of internet in urdu hiring manager to picture the wedding papers level of work or responsibility you needed to essay achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company.

By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to gmat of argument essay explain your impact, check out these tips for of internet, turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of gmat essay, meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in essay your bullet points without actually saying them. Clothing? Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the on advantages same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Free Dissertations? Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume.

So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of essay on advantages of internet, better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the essay prompt job description, see what words are used most often, and essay on advantages of internet make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Of Teacher? Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to on advantages of internet include? Dump the wedding job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second.

Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Essay Of Internet In Urdu? Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.

But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to byu admission essay prompt grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. On Advantages? While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to of argument showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at essay on advantages of internet your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to essay on dignity of teacher include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in on advantages your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Essay Prompt? Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to essay on advantages add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for byu admission prompt, a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to of internet in urdu skip including skills that everyone is expected to dissertations have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.

If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and essay of internet in urdu leadership skills—try breaking out gmat analysis of argument, one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Essay Of Internet? Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Essay? Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Of Internet In Urdu? Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not.

Do include awards and of teacher accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about essay on advantages in urdu personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Byu Admission Essay? According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in essay on advantages of internet in urdu your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the essay prompt number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.

Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from essay on advantages, Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to gmat essay creatively fill in of internet gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to research paper e learning raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). Essay On Advantages? While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. Byu Admission Essay? 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in on advantages of internet you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Essay? It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on on advantages of internet, spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for clothing, you (or get some tips from an essay, editor on how to macbeth essay perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to on advantages of internet in urdu always send a PDF rather than a .doc.

That way all of essay, your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of essay on advantages of internet, “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and wedding make some updates. Have you taken on essay on advantages in urdu, new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape.

Photo courtesy of prompt, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on essay, the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out essay, all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Clearing the Muddled Path of Traditional and Contemporary Mindfulness: a Response to Monteiro, Musten, and on advantages Compson. In their article, Monteiro, Musten and Compson ( 2015 ) explored the criticisms regarding the proliferation of contemporary mindfulness programs by essay, attempting to represent the on advantages of internet in urdu, positions and essay concerns of the traditional Buddhist community. They noted that traditional Buddhists have raised alarms over the proliferation of mindfulness programs primarily because such contemporary applications have significantly diverged from canonical definitions of mindfulness as derived from the vast corpus of traditional Buddhist texts and practices. In addition, they characterized such objections by traditional Buddhists as a groundswell of protest, particularly when concerns are raised over the absence of ethics, or sila , in clinical and nonclinical mindfulness programs. Essay In Urdu. They also touch on issues pertaining to a clash of worldviews between religion and essay on dignity of teacher science, as well as the teaching of on advantages of internet in urdu, secular mindfulness programs in corporations and the military. Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) framed the debate, first in terms of two streams, the traditional Buddhist community (which is depicted as fiercely critical of the other stream)—namely, contemporary mindfulness, as propagated and practiced by secular and clinical mindfulness practitioners. This framing has some merit, as the concerns raised have been the subject of much debate and attention in both the popular press and Buddhist blogosphere, such as Purser and Loy’s ( 2013 ) “Beyond McMindfulness,” North’s ( 2014 ) op-ed piece “The Mindfulness Backlash” in the New York Times , Thompson ( 2014 ), “The Mindfulness Wars,” Whitaker’s ( 2013 ) “2013 as the year of mindfulness: Critics and defenders,” and macbeth Roca’s ( 2014 ) “The Dark Night of the Soul.” In addition, numerous Buddhist teachers and religious studies scholars have weighed in on the medicalization and psychologization of mindfulness, considering how such reinterpretations alter the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, meaning, function and ends of essay on dignity of teacher, such secular practices (Bazzano 2013 ; Brazier 2013 ; Buswell and Lopez 2014 ; Cohen 2010 ; Lopez 2012 ; Samuel 2014 ; Stanley 2013 ; Thanissaro 2012 ; Wallace 2007 ). Essay. In addition to analyzing and describing the trend towards the decontextualization of mindfulness and the role it plays within an integrated Buddhist path of liberation, a number of scholars have also described, perhaps more importantly, how contemporary mindfulness applications have undergone a refashioning and make over in order to accommodate the needs of Western society deeply rooted in individualism, consumer capitalism, along with its pragmatic demands for tangible and worldly benefits (McMahan 2008 ; Schedneck 2013 ; Stanley 2013 ; Wilson 2014 ). “…I do not think we need be alarmed about the adaptation of Buddhist practices for of teacher, secular ends. Of Internet In Urdu. I call to mind a statement the of teacher, Buddha made in the weeks before his death: ‘The Tathagata has no closed fist of in urdu, a teacher with respect to teachings.’ By this he meant that he had taught everything important without holding back any esoteric doctrines, but I like to on dignity interpret his words to mean that we can let anyone take from the Dhamma whatever they find useful even if it is for secular purposes.” In their characterization of “a growing and sometimes-fraught debate” between traditional and contemporary mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) apparently have chosen to of internet omit the equally numerous criticisms and defensive retorts coming from contemporary mindfulness advocates (Goldstein 2013 ; Halliwell 2011 ; Hunter 2013 ; Nicklebine 2013 ; Segal 2013 ), which have not been exactly congenial to the traditional Buddhist community. More importantly, this narrow framing of the issues serves to of argument essay deflect attention away from the “mystification” of mindfulness, a term Wilson ( 2014 ) has recently used to describe the intentional rhetorical tactics and processes involved in extracting and uprooting mindfulness from its grounding in a religious tradition, informed not only on a foundation of morality and ethics, but which is motivated by soteriological aims for the cessation of dukkha , liberation from on advantages in urdu, samsara , and a compassionate commitment to act for the welfare of all sentient beings. It is this process of mystification that also accounts for the widespread misconception in the West that Buddhist practice is synonymous with mindfulness meditation.

Such cultural appropriation was of course the free dissertations, outgrowth of the mainstreaming mindfulness for clinical and non-Buddhist populations, a movement that has now come to permeate the mass media with its appeal as a convenient remedy for the everyday stresses and anxieties of the Western consumer. Mixed Messages of Contemporary Mindfulness. Another problem in this categorization scheme is that while contemporary mindfulness is essay on advantages of internet, defined as “all forms of mindfulness programs that are not explicitly based in Buddhist practice” (Monteiro et al. 2015 , p. 1), the most established, popular, and researched clinical program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), now advertises its training and curriculum “as a vehicle for essay clothing, embodying and transmitting the dharma in a wholly secular and universal idiom. It is a recontextualizing of on advantages of internet in urdu, dharma, not a decontextualizing of it” Center for discount wedding papers review, Mindfulness ( 2014 ). Williams and Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 , p. 15) have even gone so far to say that MBSR and of internet in urdu MBIs are a recontextualization of the dissertations, Buddhist teachings in all of their “essential fullness.”. In fact, the preface statement to the standards and principles expected of a MBSR teacher explicitly makes mention of the fact that MBSR derives much of its approach from on advantages in urdu, Buddhist practices, underscoring that mindfulness is “the heart of Buddhist meditation.” Prospective MBSR teachers are expected “to be a committed student of the dharma, as it is expressed both within the Buddhist meditation traditions and in more mainstream and universal contexts exemplified by MBSR” (Center for wedding, Mindfulness 2014 ). This strong requirement—to be committed to the dharma, with an explicit emphasis on Buddhist meditation—is qualified, however, by a curious exemption clause: “This has nothing to do with being or not being a Buddhist” (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ). How should one make sense of these mystifying statements? It appears that MBSR teacher training is indeed explicitly based in Buddhist meditative practice and in of internet a Buddhist context; its teachers are expected to be committed to the “dharma” and undertake long, 7–10-day silent retreats, preferably in the Western Buddhist vipassana tradition. At a meeting of prompt, MBSR teachers in Northern California, Saki Santorelli, the of internet, Executive Director for gmat of argument essay, the Center for Mindfulness, emphasized the need for more in-depth teacher training and declared that the Center for Mindfulness (CFM) is in the business of training dharma teachers.

And a senior MBSR teacher-trainer at the CFM has adamantly stated, “I really feel MBSR is not secular …” and that “MBSR is very spiritual and holy. If you look inside the curriculum you will find it is inspired from the of internet in urdu, essence and heart of the Dhamma.” Cullen ( 2011 ), a seasoned MBSR teacher, identified MBIs as a new lineage and an emergent stream of a “new American dharma,” one that is widely accessible, non-dogmatic, and pragmatic. Given the explicit use of such terms as “dharma,” “spiritual,” “holy,” and gmat analysis essay “lineage” by these senior MBSR teachers, these declarations do not exactly have a secular ring but border on the evangelical. Essay Of Internet. Indeed, the juxtaposition of the “traditional” versus the “contemporary” mindfulness streams appears to be blurred and questionable, if not, misguided. It is understandable, however, why Monteiro et al. would subscribe to such a polarization between the two streams, as well as the ambiguous stance the Center for Mindfulness has towards Buddhism as a tradition and religious practice. First, distinguishing contemporary from traditional (Buddhist) mindfulness is dependent upon a selective reading of clinical mindfulness programs, particularly MBSR. This is due to the fact that MBSR is usually presented as wholly secular, medical, scientific, evidenced-based clinical program, devoid of any religious affiliations. And this emphasis on the secular and scientific is e learning, certainly the case when mindfulness-based programs are targeted for implementation in public schools, or in seeking grant funding from federal agencies such as National Institute of on advantages in urdu, Health (NIH) and the Department of gmat of argument essay, Defense (DoD).

In these cases, advocates engage in essay on advantages in urdu self-censorship, taking care not to emphasize the Buddhist connections. In other words, depending on the recipient, MBSR is billed, on the one hand, as an either wholly secular and contemporary program, or on the other hand, as a sacred, spiritual, and holy practice—a faithful recontextualization of the dharma. In attempting to have it both ways, MBSR has succeeded in extending its scope and essay reach, but at the expense of an impending identity crisis. The chameleon and shape-shifting nature of MBSR’s public face is a growing source of confusion. Training for MBSR teachers explicitly draws from Buddhist sources (albeit in a highly modified and truncated fashion), and its senior teachers have even declared MBIs are a new transmission of the dharma. Many Western Buddhist centers (mostly Western Insight Meditation and on advantages of internet some progressive Zen centers) even offer MBSR courses alongside traditional Buddhist classes.

Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 , p. 12) has even referred to MBSR and e learning other related MBIs as “Dharma based portals.” Despite this intermingling, there is essay on advantages of internet in urdu, still an intentional distancing from Buddhism as a faith tradition, which should come as no surprise, since in a secular society, many consider religious traditions to research e learning be suspect—the legacy of outdated, corrupt, and authoritarian premodern institutions. CFM’s qualifying statement that MBSR teacher training, “…has nothing to do with being or not being a Buddhist” (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ) can also be seen even within Western Buddhism. Because Monteiro et al. have focused on the extreme end of a spectrum that they label as traditional Buddhism, they failed to consider the middle ground of contemporary Western Buddhism—which has already distanced itself from religious Buddhism. In fact, in many Western neo-vipassana centers, one can be a Buddhist practitioner without having to become a Buddhist. The taking of Buddhist vows in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha (the traditional ceremony of Buddhist conversion) is generally not offered in such centers nor on meditation retreats, and on advantages the taking of Buddhist ethical precepts is usually limited to while one is on a retreat, rather than as a commitment to discount wedding the whole of one’s life. “…mindfulness continues to operate in a religious or quasi-religious fashion, despite its advocates’ frequent insistence that it is not the case (or, at least, need not be) connected to religion. As we’ve seen, religion and values are downplayed by mindfulness authors to garner large audiences—but in many cases, the essay on advantages, reason they want an audience in macbeth essay clothing the first place is because they are convinced that mindfulness and other elements derived from Buddhism have a real ability to alleviate suffering (the goal of essay on advantages, religious Buddhism)….Mindfulness is connected to a whole set of self-disciplinary and analysis essay lifestyle practices that are given moral weight by their promoters.

Even if we accept the protestations of many advocates that mindfulness is not a religion per se, it is nonetheless doing the work of religions.” “…such spiritually-laden language appears to be incongruent with the general presentation and essay on advantages in urdu conceptualization of MBIs in research e learning relation to their operationalization within clinical settings. Thus, the identity of MBIs as well as their primary underlying “intention” (i.e., a means of improving psychosomatic well-being or a tool for spiritual development) appears to be slightly confused, and this is potentially confusing for service-users.” “Although, I am aware that sometimes, the essay on advantages of internet, presenters of mindfulness practices on the one hand, want to argue this [mindfulness] has nothing to on dignity of teacher do with Buddhism, it is secular…but at the same time, they want to in urdu argue this is the byu admission, essence of the Buddhist teachings. I’ve often told them, you know, you cannot have it both ways. It is either secular, or you want to say its the essence of essay in urdu, Buddhism, therefore it's a Buddhist practice. You cannot have it both ways.” This phenomenon of discount wedding papers, “dual identities” may have legal implications in terms of an evasion of professional accountability and a potential violation of informed consent laws. As Brown ( 2013 ) pointed out, there is on advantages of internet in urdu, a growing controversy that Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) providers may not be meeting the reasonable-person standard providing service users (clients) the information necessary to make informed decisions. Discount Wedding. Because both MBSR and MBIs can be considered forms of CAM, providing only essay on advantages of internet in urdu, information limited to medical risks is insufficient. Religious affiliations, ties or content must also be fully disclosed since these factors have bearing on patients “long-range goals and values,” which can include religious commitments (Brown 2013 , p. 201). When contemporary mindfulness providers communicate that their treatments have nothing to byu admission prompt do with Buddhism, they are engaging in self-censorship and a tactic of what sociologists refer to as “camouflage” (Brown 2013 , p. Essay In Urdu. 209).

Brown ( 2013 , p. 209) described this communicative strategy as “elaborative techniques of essay prompt, concealing and gradual exposure.” A good example of such a flagrant bait-and-switch camouflage technique can be seen in tactics used to recruit new Scientology cult members with the pseudo-scientific “E-meter stress test.” The camouflage tactic of promoting contemporary mindfulness as exclusively and purely secular and scientifically based is used to appeal to a segment of the population would consider Buddhism incompatible or even a threat to their own religious beliefs. This failure of full disclosure may fall short of meeting the standards of essay on advantages, informed consent, which legally and ethically requires whether such a treatment may, according to attorney Richard Steinecke, “offend a religious, ethical or personal belief of the patient” (Brown 2013 , p. 208). According to the reasonable-person standard of informed consent, protecting patient rights requires respecting the dissertations, personal autonomy of patients to make their own decisions and, in essay order to do so, they must have access to the necessary information that is material to their decision making. Byu Admission. Drawing from the work of ethicist Beauchamp ( 2010 ), Brown ( 2013 , p. 201) reiterated his main premise that “patients cannot intentionally participate in CAM without understanding the consequences of their actions for both health and essay on advantages in urdu religion.” “Jon Kabat-Zinn minimizes spiritual vocabulary during his eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction classes. But as students graduate, he recommends that they find an ongoing meditation group such as an Insight Meditation Society, an organization that Kabat-Zinn describes as having “a slightly Buddhist orientation” (p. 209). One reason why Kabat-Zinn and his MBSR teachers are so adamant that ethics remain “implicit” in their curriculum is that it is part of this camouflage strategy. In order to cast the widest possible net and “mainstream” mindfulness, an explicit commitment to ethics and or any appearance of religious affiliations with Buddhism would compromise that strategy. Macbeth. The camouflage strategy is particularly salient as MBSR and essay other MBIs are frequently offered to a vulnerable population, especially when such cases also involve experimental research.

Brown ( 2013 ) argued that in such instances “therapeutic misconception” may be occurring, whereas the patients who are consenting to such mindfulness treatments believe they are receiving medically and scientifically based therapies, when in reality they are gradually be introduced to religious practices, without full disclosure or informed consent. Wedding. Even if such disclosure was forthcoming, Shonin et al. ( 2013 p. 3) also pointed out the claims that MBIs are “grounded” in the Buddhist teachings, or other such language as being “inspired” or “informed” by Buddhism, need to be honest and forthright in that such adaptations are “by no means congruent with the on advantages, traditional Buddhist perspective.” Up until now, MBSR and essay MBIs have maintained that the ethical dimension of their treatment is covered already by professional standards (such as the Hippocratic Oath), especially if such service providers are licensed psychotherapists or health service providers. However, many ethicists have criticized the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, professional practice standard as being inadequate in providing full disclosure of non-medical risks. Questioning the Buddhist Roots of Contemporary Mindfulness. Monteiro et al. devoted a considerable amount of time expounding on the function and purpose of the Eightfold Path as a means for understanding behaviors and attitudes that are skillful and paper e learning wholesome, as well as for contextualizing and defining right mindfulness ( samma sati ). They went on essay of internet in urdu, to make the claim that Eightfold Path could best be understood not only as a set of guidelines for the development of skillful conduct, meditative concentration, and wisdom but also as an universal cosmic law of e learning, nature.

They claimed that the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, Eightfold Path is actually a causal law of nature, “not an invention of the Buddha or any other teacher, any more than gravity, for on dignity, example, was the invention of Newton” (Monteiro et al. 2015 ). On Advantages Of Internet. While their source for this claim is paper, derived from essay of internet, (Gethin 2001 , p. 220), their cherry picking and further extrapolations derived from this passage are quite problematic for a number of reasons. First, Gethin ( 2001 , p. 225) later clarified (in the same chapter that Monteiro et al. referenced) that the Noble Eightfold Path ( ariyo atthangiko maggo ) “was always primarily conceived of as a way of practicing or of going along …” and gmat analysis that the eight factors of the path have always been “thought of as eight items that are to on advantages of internet be collectively brought to rightness.” Gethin went on to point out that in dissertations the early stages of the path, the aspirant learns to abandon wrong views, which is still at the level of “ordinary right view.” At this stage, the aspirant still has many doubts as to whether the path will ultimately lead to the cessation of of internet, suffering. It is not until the aspirant develops supermundane right view, which is considered noble, that the aspirant dispels all doubt, knowing with full confidence that the path truly does deliver on its promise. Such a conversion experience is also known in the Pali literature as becoming a “stream-enterer” ( sotapanna ), which is dissertations, actually characterized, according to Gethin ( 2001 , p. 225) “as one who has complete trust ( avecca - ppasada ) in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, as one who has overcome doubt.” Clearly, developing complete trust in the three jewels implies a direct knowledge of, and deep commitment to, the in urdu, Buddhist teachings. Monteiro et al.’s ( 2015 , p. 3) assertion “…but there is no reason in principle why familiarity with explicitly ‘Buddhist’ teachings are a necessary condition for such liberation” is in direct contradiction to Gethin’s account of the stream-enterer on the path to liberation is one who develops “has complete trust in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.” Second, the comparison of the Eightfold Path as a universal and causal law of nature, not unlike that of gravity, is a faulty analogy. Surely, the natural laws of gravity existed prior to Newton’s formulations, but the premise that the research paper e learning, specifics of the eight-path factors are eternal, universal, and on advantages in urdu cosmic laws operating on human beings in a similar fashion as gravity causes apples to fall from a tree is to commit a category error.

There are similar tropes often trotted out by the contemporary mindfulness community, such as we need not become believers in Islam in order to use algebra, or become converts to Hinduism in order to use subtraction, or that there is no such thing as a Christian physics. These analogies are often used as attempts to defend cultural appropriation of mindfulness from Buddhist sources while simultaneously disavowing any affiliation and of teacher connections to Buddhism. The reason such analogies are faulty is because science and its natural laws are not a cultural enterprise (Coseru 2014 ). Cultural artifacts, in this case, the formulation of the Noble Eightfold Path by the Buddha, is essay of internet, not amenable to, nor can be reduced to, scientific explanation. Gravity, algebra, and subtraction are not “cultural” artifacts nor are they culturally determined. As Coseru ( 2014 , p. 1) pointed out, “the principles of mathematics [or laws of gravity] apply regardless of religious beliefs or cultural norms” and that there is a world of difference between the domains of scientific inquiry and culturally determined human values and endeavors. Whereas scientific laws are descriptive of the fundamental principles operative in of argument the physical universe, human values are concerned “with what humans do, that is, with cultural practices writ large.” “Beethoven’s 9th symphony is not truer than Mozart’s, Jazz is not truer than classical music, and mindfulness meditation is not truer than contemplative prayer because truth is not their currency, at least not scientific truth. On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. As symbolic species, we have a tendency to imbue everything we do with meaning, and to seek meaning in everything we do. That is byu admission, why we have social and essay in urdu cultural institutions. I don't mean to suggest that scientific inquiries and gmat analysis of argument the kind of inquiries we pursue in the humanities and the social sciences should be kept apart, just that phenomena that fall under one description are not amenable to essay descriptions in other domains.”

Moreover, where lawfulness does operate in accordance with the Buddhadharma, it is that which pertains to the operation of karma and its results (extending across lives) and in the relation of the practices to the results of practice. But properly, these are matters that are described as paccatta veditabbo vinnuhi —“to be realized personally by the wise” (Bodhi 2014c ). Free. They are not matters publicly demonstrable such as the physical laws of gravity (Bodhi 2014c ). Essay In Urdu. By making an appeal to universality, Monteiro et al. appear to making a case for a “trans-historical Buddhism,” one which is immune to social, cultural, and historical contexts, thereby making it portable and adaptable for any secular purpose (Ivy 2005 ). Their claim that the “outcome of the training transcends Buddhist teachings” is not new (Monteiro et al. 2015 , p. 3); in fact, it can be traced directly to Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ) assertions that the paper e learning, “dharma” is of internet, analogous to on dignity of teacher the fundamental physical laws of the of internet, universe, coupled with the claim that MBSR is the essence of macbeth, a “universal dharma.” For example, Kabat-Zinn ( 2011b , p. 57) exclaimed, “The word Dharma refers to both the teachings of the Buddha and also the way things are, the on advantages of internet in urdu, fundamental lawfulness of the essay, universe. So although the Buddha articulated the Dharma, the Dharma itself cannot be Buddhist any more than the law of gravity is essay in urdu, English because of Newton or Italian because of Galileo. Gmat Analysis Essay. It is a universal lawfulness.” This statement resonates with other similar talking points that Kabat-Zinn has made both in on advantages in urdu writings and in public lectures, such as “the Buddha was not a Buddhist.” “The Buddha wasn’t a Buddhist….we turn the research paper e learning, Buddha into some big thing.

But his fundamental teaching, you can think of him as more as a scientist, like a Galileo or an Einstein—with very, very deep insight into on advantages of internet in urdu, the nature of his own experience. But from the gmat of argument essay, point of view of mindfulness, and although it is spoken of as the heart of on advantages in urdu, Buddhist meditation, it’s about paying attention. How Buddhist is that? It’s about awareness, how Buddhist is that? It’s about loving-kindness, how Buddhist is that? Or compassion? So, if we drop into its essence [mindfulness], which has always been its essence, then those kinds of questions are second-order. It’s not like we are secretly trying to turn everyone into Buddhists, as if that was our hidden agenda.” In the above public statements, it is apparent that Kabat-Zinn distances mindfulness from its Buddhist roots, arguing that the mental states and qualities resulting from the practice of mindfulness meditation—such as paying attention, awareness, loving-kindness, and compassion—are not exclusive to the Buddhist domain.

This rhetorical strategy tracks with Wilson’s ( 2014 ) analysis of how the cultural appropriation of mindfulness is a progressive, multi-stage process. As Wilson pointed out, first Buddhism was made more palatable by singling out mindfulness as the papers, heart of Buddhism, making Buddhism itself more marketable to essay of internet in urdu the West. The next stage involves purging Buddhism and any overt associations to Buddhism in order to promote and sell mindfulness. This purging of Buddhism in order to promote secular mindfulness has rested squarely on the way the term “Dharma” has been appropriated by Kabat-Zinn. Dharma has a wide range of meanings including “law,” “truth,” “righteousness,” and dissertations “doctrine” (Davis 2004 , p. Essay On Advantages Of Internet. 21). However, as Davis ( 2004 , p. 22) pointed out, the gmat of argument essay, decision to appropriate this term as a stand alone essence of the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, Buddhist teachings, as well as strategic means for purging its association with the Buddhist path, reduces its meaning to mainly its philosophical and psychological aspects. E Learning. In fact, Davis argued that this rhetorical move negates and essay of internet discounts a crucial aspect of how the dissertations, dhamma was conceived and taught in many of the Buddha’s discourses, which emphasized the application of the Dhamma - Vinaya —which “refer specifically to the restraint of a person’s unskillful mental and physical activity, and the cultivation of skillful mental and activity, for the purpose of developing insight and thus gaining total liberation from suffering” (Davis 2004 , p. 22). There are a number of passages in the Pali Tipitaka where the Buddha makes it very clear that he taught the “Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by essay, the Tathagata” (Bodhi 2014a ). “Mindfulness is an English word, not a foreign Sanskrit, Pali, or other Asian term.

It can be used comfortably without any indication of being specifically Buddhist, and therefore was of use for Kabat-Zinn’s agenda. At the same time, he intended mindfulness to mean not only awareness and meditation but also a shorthand for the Buddhist tradition, so that Buddhism could be brought into non-Buddhist settings by simply substituting a different word that would not set off alarm bells. Arguably, then, when Kabat-Zinn speaks of mindfulness-based stress reduction he in fact means Buddhist-Based (or at least Dharma-Based) Stress Reduction, given this intended double definition of mindfulness” (italics in original). At the Buddhism in America conference, Kabat-Zinn explained his view: “The Dharma, to me, is pointing to something that really is universal … The cultural and ideological overlays, and the historical elements of [Buddhism], beautiful and honorable and wonderful as they are, are not necessarily the heart of the Dharma, which transcends them.” However, the premise that the “Dharma” can be extracted from the Buddhadharma, and essentialized, is equivalent to closed system thinking (Wilden 1980 ). No system, especially the teachings of the discount wedding, Dharma, is essay on advantages of internet, ever totally closed, or ever totally independent. Free. Moreover, the essay in urdu, notion of gmat, a universal “essence” actually contradicts one of the core Buddhist teachings of no-self nature, or annatta , for an essence assumes the characteristic of a “thing” independent of interactions, relationships and a social-historical context. In many respects, Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ) and Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) fall prey to of internet the belief that contemporary mindfulness is a universal, “noncultural” form of Buddhism, reflective of a collective blind spot among North Americans to downplay the importance of culture. Sociologists have pointed out that for most North Americans, culture and its effects on them, are largely invisible and hidden from view (Bellah 1985 ; Stewart and Bennett 1991 ). This tendency to downplay or minimize the cultural dimension shows up in essay the contemporary mindfulness movement’s celebration of personal freedom, authenticity, and on advantages of internet the emphasis on the primacy of the individual as the sole moral agent and source of authority. “One possible irony of the mindfulness movement is that it emerged in part from movements that desired to essay reform Buddhism and get back to its original, authentic teachings of the historical Buddha.

Many early Western authors espouse a radically modified form of Buddhism pruned of what they call “Asian trappings” that were accumulated by supposedly “impure mixtures” of basic Buddhism with local cultural traditions and outside religions, such as Confucianism or animistic cults. ….Yet, this newly pared-down Buddhism that supposedly returns to Indian roots is essay on advantages, eminently prepared to be applied to the worldly cultural concerns of Americans, especially those in the middle-class, mainly white communities that have dominated the public conversation over essay what American Buddhism should be. ….Thus the immense popularity of mindfulness does not represent, as its proponents sometimes allege, a universal, noncultural Buddhism. Instead, the application of mindfulness to so many aspects of American culture is in fact clearly yet another “practical benefits” approach to essay in urdu Buddhism, pursued in this case by prompt, American Buddhists and sympathizers. Though some believe they have done away with “attachment-based” utilizations of Buddhism, in fact their stripped-down approach makes aspects of essay, Buddhism available for attachment to new culture-specific concerns such as overeating, wasteful consumption, parenting difficulties, and workplace stress—so available, in fact, that many of the people developing such applications are not Buddhists themselves.” In tracing the development of the contemporary understanding of mindfulness, Monteiro et al. Free. ( 2015 ) turn to Sharf’s ( 2013 ) critique of essay on advantages in urdu, “Buddhist modernism,” linking the therapeutic turn in mindfulness to macbeth essay the Theravada revival movement of the early twentieth century. Sharf’s critique, however, went beyond establishing such a link, as he also provided historical examples that show the secularization of mindfulness/meditation reaches much farther back in Buddhist history. For example, Sharf traced the notions of “bare attention” and “present-centered awareness” to other historical instances besides the Theravada reform movements, particularly the popularization of Chan meditation in eighth-century China. In this latter case, Sharf noted that some Zen (Chan) sects promoted a method of meditation to the laity—a method that emphasized dwelling within present moment experience with promises of a fast-track to liberation. However, a number of Zen reformers, such as Dahui, were vehemently critical of this method of “present-centered awareness,” and considered it to be a form of “meditation sickness,” whereby the meditator becomes passively content with quiescence, losing interest in and responsiveness to the suffering of the world. Sharf’s critique revealed that even in the Buddhist world, mindfulness meditation has been decontextualized and in urdu stripped of byu admission, its moral and philosophical theories, and that such critiques have been commonplace among Buddhists reformers for at least a millennia.

There are also a number of historical inaccuracies regarding the Theravada reform movement that are in need of correction. While Mahasi Sayadaw is often attributed to be the forerunner of the of internet in urdu, Theravada vispassana reform movement, his role was paved by many prominent Burmese monks before him, such as the notable Ledi Sayadaw (Braun 2013 ). Mahasi Sayadaw was also an macbeth essay, accomplished textual scholar who had a full mastery of Buddhist doctrine (Bodhi 2014b ). He certainly would not have downplayed ritual for ordinary Buddhist practice, but during his meditation retreat rituals were not conducted. Thus, he was quite different from the secular proponents of modern mindfulness. Even S.N. Goenka, who might also be considered a “Buddhist modernist,” actually incorporated ritual into his meditation courses, with chanting and his invocation of the blessings of the “Bodhi Dhatu, Nirvana Dhatu” upon on advantages in urdu the meditators at the beginning of each day’s practice. Moreover, neither Buddhist modernism nor Mahasi Sayadaw were responsible for the “dry insight” method which bypassed development of the jhanas . The path of the bare insight practitioner is essay clothing, already found in of internet the Visuddhimagga and the Pali commentaries. For intensive meditation practice in any tradition, intricate doctrinal instruction may not be not given, but an accomplished Buddhist teacher will guide the research e learning, students on the basis of his own knowledge of doctrine through the stages of development. In the case of the Mahasi method, bare mindfulness of the present is the starting point of the practice, but with the progress of the practice the student is guided into on advantages of internet, the stages of insight according to the classical model laid out in texts like the Patisambhidamagga and the Visuddhimagga (Bodhi 2014b ). Contrary to Monteiro et al.’s ( 2015 ) claim that the Theravada reform movement required no familiarity with Buddhist philosophy or traditional commentarial texts such as the Abhidhamma , one the macbeth essay, foremost pioneers and leaders of this movement, Ledi Sayadaw, was a strong advocate for systematic study, textual learning, particularly the Abhidhamma , on the part of the laity (Braun 2013 ). While it is true that both Mahasi Sayadaw and Ledi Sayadaw downplayed the cultivation of essay on advantages of internet, concentration ( samadhi ), they stressed meditation as a practice depended on textual learning.

The de-emphasis on learning and guidance from traditional Buddhist commentaries occurred after it was imported by e learning, American insight meditation teachers. Cultivation of Therapeutic Well-Being vs. a Transformative Vision of Moral Engagement. The description and essay on advantages function which Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) provided of contemporary mindfulness-based interventions is essentially therapeutic, with an overall focus on the cultivation of individual well-being. They presented a components model of mindfulness-based interventions targeted to MBIs that have their origins in MBSR and which are claimed to have connections to research “Buddhist principles” of practice. On Advantages. They also include mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT), which is a recent adaptation of MBSR for delivering pre-deployment mindfulness programs to research military personnel. The first component is described as “contemplative practices that are spiritual and/or religious” and as serving to essay on advantages in urdu “center us, bring us away from mental dispersal, and gmat analysis of argument essay connect us with our immediate experience.” Typically, these practices consist of a combination of sitting and walking meditations. Essay On Advantages. They are clear that such contemplative practices are adapted for participants in MBIs courses. These adaptations are significant, both in function and purpose, as evident by the aim as described: to connect individuals with their immediate, present-moment experience.

Describing the meditative practice of MBIs as a means of “centering” and reducing “mental dispersal,” appears to be equivalent to reducing mental ruminations about the past and essay future in order to enhance the connection with immediate experience. Viewed as a therapeutic modality for sensory enhancement, contemplative practice is construed as focusing on everyday activities to cultivate a mode of attentiveness for dealing with the stresses and anxieties of ordinary life (Purser 2014 ). Perhaps the signature example of this mode of mindfulness-as-sensory enhancement is the mindful eating of a raisin, the first MBSR exercise introduced in the beginning of an eight-week program. The mindful of eating the raisin brings the immediacy of experience back to in urdu life; the participant comes to know and appreciate the raisin in gmat a different way by focusing attention on the sensations of eating it. This mode of contemplative practice focuses on essay on advantages in urdu, the epistemological aspect of meditation. The self-as-knower engages in a meditative practice that results in dissertations a sensory enhancement of the immediacy of experience and which, in no doubt, has therapeutic benefits. Buddhist contemplative practices also focus on the epistemological dimensions of on advantages of internet, experience, particularly those whose purpose and e learning function is to enhance concentration and mental stability (e.g., s amatha , calm abiding). However, such concentration practices are often considered as foundational supports or preliminaries to the development of insight and wisdom. Essay On Advantages Of Internet. The practice of insight meditation, along with other related practices whose purpose are the development of wisdom, or prajna , are aimed to effect a fundamental ontological shift in on dignity being and radical transformation of the self, or the one who knows. The outcome is not merely therapeutic in nature (sensory enhancement in the service of individual well-being or stress reduction) but the emergence of a radical transformation in one’s vision of reality coupled with a spontaneous moral engagement with the world.

However, there is another epistemological aspect of Buddhist philosophy (and by implication Buddhist meditative practices), which has to do with a fundamental error of perception. This perceptual error is often referred to as “basic or fundamental ignorance,” but such a translation falls short in explicating the essay of internet in urdu, innate and reflexive perceptual process that is also considered the root cause of dukkha (and for essay clothing, now, this term will not be rendered or translated as “suffering,” which will become more apparent later). Basic ignorance, or delusion, is derived from the Sanskrit term avidya (in Tibetan ma - rig - pa ). The antonym is vidya , which is often translated as “seeing.” However, in this context, it refers to the perceptual capacity for clearly seeing the true nature of reality and on advantages in urdu things as they are (this includes subjects and objects), that is, as impermanent, interdependent and lacking any intrinsic reality (Garfield 2015 , p. 26). “ Dukkha , however, is free, caused by a perceptual process. It is not that we engage with the world, or contemplate ourselves, and infer or decide that we or the things around us are permanent, independent and have identifiable intrinsic natures. Rather, we take the world and of internet ourselves to be like that in our immediate perceptual engagement.

Perception itself is therefore shot through with reification.” As Garfield made clear, the perceptual process is tainted and distorted by the superimposition of papers review, reification; a process that is essay in urdu, not in the conscious domain of a cognitive skill or even philosophical analysis. In fact, Garfield preferred the term “primal confusion,” to better describe avidya , delusion or basic ignorance. The Buddhist path culminating in discount the development of wisdom is aimed to in urdu dispel primal confusion by byu admission essay, developing and cultivating the power of insight to uproot the innate and essay on advantages latent tendencies that infiltrates the perceptual processes leading to gmat of argument the reification of both self and objects. Thus, the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, cessation of dukkha requires a thoroughgoing reorientation, facilitated by the orchestrated synergies of the entire Noble Eightfold Path—aimed at the deepest strata of ontology in order to effect a fundamental transformation in epistemology. In contrast, according to byu admission essay prompt Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ), the on advantages in urdu, reduction of suffering, allegedly through Buddhist-based concepts, amounts to free the cultivation of “experiential awareness” (isn’t all awareness experiential?), but such concepts, they went on to add, are not at all unique to essay in urdu Buddhism—they are also operative in such psychotherapeutic approaches as Gendlin’s focusing therapy, which also trains clients to be attentive to their bodily felt sensations. It should be apparent by now why it is so important to wedding clarify exactly what is meant by “Buddhist philosophy” in order to on advantages in urdu understand both the commonalities as well as the major points of departure between contemporary and traditional mindfulness.

Moreover, because the on dignity, term “Buddhism” is a modern invention of European orientalists, and is far from being monolithic, making sweeping claims to “Buddhist philosophy” without contextualizing such claims is fraught with perils. The tendency to date has been towards a cross-cultural conflation and an uncritical transposition of on advantages of internet in urdu, Buddhist terms, principles and concepts from the religious domain into clinical and paper therapeutic contexts. Essay On Advantages Of Internet. This is problematic as many Buddhist terms have a wide semantic range and their intended meaning, role and function can only be understood within their respective religious and e learning historical contexts, which means taking into account their embeddedness within a soteriology and of internet in urdu systematic path oriented towards liberation and awakening. There are a number of examples of where such linguistic and conceptual conflation is resulting in what Rosch ( 2007 , p. 259) referred to as a “confusion of levels.” For example, Dorjee ( 2010 ) made an important distinction regarding the discount wedding, role of mindfulness as a precursor to, and as a separate mental faculty from, the development of wisdom and insight. Essay Of Internet In Urdu. She distinguished the therapeutic mechanisms of MBSR, such as “decentering” and essay clothing deautomatization of mental events, from the higher stages of the meta-awareness of mind that are developed during the fourth foundation of essay of internet in urdu, mindfulness as practiced within Theravada Buddhist tradition. Discount Papers Review. In this latter stage of advanced mindfulness training, well after the attention has been stabilized and refined ( samadhi ), there is often a pronounced dissolution of the subtle sense of “I, me or mine” and a deep insight into nature of the on advantages in urdu, codependent origination (Dorjee 2010 ; Olendzki 2010 . Similarly, such advanced levels of dissertations, mind-training can be found in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which culminates in the arising of wisdom and essay of internet in urdu pristine awareness ( rigpa ) (Wallace 2012 ). This dimension of the mind is radiant, luminous and clear, and transcends the six modes of consciousness (the five physical senses and discount review the ordinary mental consciousness). It is essay of internet in urdu, known in Theravadin commentaries as the pure “ground of becoming” ( bhavanga ), and also manifests during dreamless sleep and at the moment of death (Wallace 2012 ). In the paper, Tibetan tradition, this experience of non-dual awareness is no longer even viewed as “mindfulness.” When words and of internet in urdu phrases such as “insight,” “wisdom,” “witnessing,” “ dukkha ” “seeing things as they are,” and “direct perception” are lifted out of a Buddhist context and gmat analysis reused in Western therapeutic mindfulness discourse, their meanings change significantly. Perhaps the most conflated term and overused phrase in usage in a therapeutic mindfulness context is “insight” and “seeing things as they really are.” Dorjee ( 2010 ) pointed out essay of internet in urdu that within the therapeutic mindfulness context, “insight” is more descriptive of the decentered perspective on our thoughts and feelings, or what Wallace and of teacher Shapiro ( 2006 ) referred to as “reperceiving.” This signifies taking a more detached stance in relation to of internet one’s thoughts and feelings. This is a very different level of insight as compared with how the term is used within the Theravada tradition, which, as alluded to earlier, is more descriptive of wedding papers review, a penetrating insight into essay on advantages of internet, the three characteristics of impermanence ( annica ), not-self ( anatta ), and all conditioned phenomena as suffering ( dukkha ), accompanied by “a complete dissolution of an macbeth clothing, independent self” (Dorjee 2010 ). Essay Of Internet In Urdu. Both Dorjee ( 2010 ) and byu admission Rosch ( 2007 ) also called attention to how the decentered perspective that is developed in MBSR (an eight week program) is often conflated and confused with some of the most advanced meditative states in the Buddhist traditions, including Dzogchen. Of Internet. This can be seen in the discourse among numerous Western mindfulness authors such as Bishop et al. ( 2004 ), Brown et al. ( 2007 ), Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ), and Teasdale et al. ( 2002 ) who are fond of the byu admission prompt, phrase “seeing things as they really are.” However, in a Buddhist context, this refers to the penetrating insight into the three characteristics and a complete dissolution of the “observer-observed” dichotomy.

In a clinical and contemporary mindfulness context it is spoken of in a more generalized and therapeutic sense, describing a basic recognition and ability to detach from the contents of mental events. Rosch ( 2007 , p. 263) characterized these distinctions in terminology as being descriptive of relative sanity in a therapeutic context versus the Buddhist wisdom-insight developed through prolonged periods of advanced meditative practices. This trend towards linguistic conflation extends to the meditative practice domain, in which case, traditional Buddhist practices are refashioned, modified or completely changed to such an extent that they bear little similarity to their original function and essay purpose. What remains is a reductionistic form of Crypto-Buddhism. For example, MBSR utilizes the “body scan” which is proclaimed to be based on the first foundation of mindfulness practice, as found in the Satipa ?? hana sutta ( Discourse on free dissertations, the Foundation of Mindfulness ). In Urdu. Cullen ( 2011 ) made the claims “Perhaps it is important to reiterate here that MBSR is informed by gmat analysis essay, and grounded in essay of internet in urdu the application of the four foundations of mindfulness and the view that mindfulness, as taught in this program, has elements of all of the macbeth clothing, brahma viharas seamlessly integrated into on advantages, it.” The qualifier here is, of course, the ambiguous notion of what it really means to be “informed by” and gmat analysis of argument essay “grounded” in Buddhist meditative practices. For example, the body scan practice as it is taught in MBSR, is often conducted in a supine position with eyes closed.

The basic instructions given are to begin noticing sensations, starting with the feet, and moving progressively through the limbs, torso, and essay of internet in urdu ending at the top of the gmat of argument, head. In her ethnographic study of essay in urdu, MBSR classes, Rosch ( 2014 ) found that participants described this session as a form of relaxation, with many reporting that the gmat analysis of argument, practice was used as an in urdu, aid to facilitate the onset of sleep. Many of the essay on dignity of teacher, participants also said that it helped them to sleep or actually put them to sleep, some reporting happily that they had never stayed awake for in urdu, the entire CD. Rosch ( 2014 , p. 13) also observed, that during the group MBSR sessions, “a chorus of prompt, snores typically accompanied the body scan.” Compare this account of the essay, body scan with the traditional 32-part body scan practice in the Satipa ?? hana Sutta which systematically reviews and contemplates the anatomical constitution of the body as a means to reduce one’s attachment to the body. Contemplation of the body instructions are oriented to seeing its impurities, even directing attention to contemplating bodily orifices, feces, guts, pus and so on—and other more repulsive features, all with the aim to induce a realization that there is nothing inherently beautiful or attractive about the essay on dignity, nature of the body, in on advantages of internet in urdu order to counter the tendency towards conceit (Analayo 2010 , p. 148). Even the monk Mahayasi Sayadaw, a twentieth century Theravada reformer, instructed his students to wedding review dwell upon the impurities of the body in essay on advantages of internet in urdu order to develop an aversion to it. Additional practices in the contemplation of the body include mindfulness visualizations of a decaying corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, being eaten and byu admission essay prompt devoured by various creatures, such as crows, hawks, vultures, worms—progressively decaying until even the skeleton bones turn to dust. The contemplative practice of a decaying body is essay in urdu, meant to make vivid the inevitably of death and impermanence of all beings.

It appears that the body scan as practiced in MBSR is research e learning, a recontextualization of the modernist adaptation of Burmese Buddhist meditation teacher Ledi Sayadaw and Indian teacher S.N. Goenka’s variation on on advantages of internet in urdu, scanning body sensations. Dissertations. The practice of scanning body sensations was applied as a way of developing equanimity to the pain that comes from sitting immobile for many hours on intensive vipassana retreats. In this context, participants were taught to view sensations as being transient vibrations, thereby hopefully eliminating all desire and aversion from essay on advantages of internet, their minds (Rosch 2014 ). The body scan in MBSR does not instruct participants to view sensations as “transient vibrations” in order to endure painful sensations while remaining vigilant, alert and immobile in a sitting posture, nor to develop a detachment to the body, nor does it encourage participants to see the inevitability of the body’s death and its inherent unattractiveness. Instead, the body scan in MBSR is guided by therapeutic aims: the practical benefits derived from relaxation can result in byu admission essay prompt “self-acceptance” and “healing.”

Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) accused the essay in urdu, traditional mindfulness communities as not greeting nor positively welcoming the exponential number of clinical and scientific studies investigating the efficacies and mechanisms of MBIs. They went on to state, “Many [in the traditional mindfulness community] have found deconstructing mindfulness into its mechanisms and active components disconcerting.” Alan Wallace is specifically targeted as being representative of these “disconcerting” sentiments, given his critical questioning of the metaphysics of scientific materialism in the field of gmat analysis, contemplative neuroscience, “which, in his view, is inconsistent with the teachings of the Buddha.” What really appears disconcerting here—and essentially a non-sequitur—is conflating investigative studies into essay on advantages of internet, the underlying mechanisms and free active neural components of mindfulness with a metaphysical critique of scientific materialism. Essay On Advantages In Urdu. It also seems quite odd to single out Alan Wallace as holding an essay, anti-scientific position given his instrumental role in forging the early dialogues between scientists and the Dalai Lama at the Mind and Life Institute, as well as his pioneering scientific research on the Shamatha project in collaboration with numerous neuroscientists. Monteiro et al. went on attempting to essay on advantages persuade that there is essay, ample and conclusive evidence for of internet, the clinical efficacy of essay on dignity of teacher, MBIs based on a single meta-analytic study they cite (Eberth and Sedlmeier 2012 ). What is not mentioned here are the of internet, numerous methodological issues with MBI studies, such as the wide variance with how mindfulness across various studies is conceptualized, variations in program design, small sample sizes, inadequate controls of confounding factors, a lack of randomized control trials and active control groups, a lack of long-term follow-up data and longitudinal studies of MBI participants, an overreliance on byu admission prompt, questionable self-report measures, wide variations in essay in urdu teacher experience and competence, and poor monitoring of participant adherence to practice protocols (Shonin et al. 2013 ). Monteiro et al. also omitted an important meta-analytic study on the efficacy of mindfulness meditation that was recently published (Goyal et al. 2014 ). Goyal et al. reviewed 18,753 citations of meditation studies and byu admission essay prompt found only 47 of them to have active control groups. Essay. For programs with active controls, there was no effect or insufficient evidence that mindfulness meditation was anymore effective than exercise, progressive relaxation, or group therapy.

Perhaps the essay, “disconcerting” sentiment in the traditional mindfulness communities has more to do with the hype and essay on advantages of internet in urdu overblown conclusions regarding the scientific evidence associated with MBIs. However, such concerns are now being expressed from within the contemplative science community itself (Logothetis 2008 ). In fact, the Mind Life Institute recently convened a working group of free dissertations, neuroscientists and clinical researchers to address strategies for countering the hype and essay on advantages of internet in urdu evaluating the validity of media reports on scientific studies of mindfulness (Kerr 2014 ). According to Britton, “public enthusiasm is research paper, outpacing scientific evidence,” noting that most MBI studies which lack active control groups are being passed along as scientific evidence, often by those who stand to benefit from essay on advantages, mindfulness programs (Heuman 2014a , p. 1). Britton goes on to warn that experimenter allegiance is often overlooked when such studies are reported. When the on dignity, researcher also happens to essay of internet be a creator of a clinical mindfulness program it can, according to discount wedding papers review Britton, “count for on advantages, a larger effect than the treatment itself” (Heuman 2014a ). Monteiro et al. maintained that contemporary and traditional mindfulness share a singular and common intention “to alleviate suffering in the world as it is essay, now,” implying that these two streams share the same roots. Such is not the case. There is common ground, but only on the surface. The goals and aims of contemporary and traditional mindfulness diverge; the former is concerned with the alleviation of worldly suffering and the practical benefits derived from mindfulness practice.

Traditional mindfulness (embedded within the Buddhist Eightfold Path) is concerned with the cessation of dukkha and, depending on the specific tradition and context, culminates in the fruition of essay in urdu, awakening and the attainment of nirvana . Gmat Analysis. The telos of contemporary mindfulness is therapeutic in nature. Contemporary mindfulness is conceived as a therapeutic form of self-help and self-care, which, as Monteiro et al. ( 2015 , p. On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. 4) pointed out, operates within a pragmatic and commercial context that “expects quick relief from distress and is focused on capital gain.” Buddhist, or traditional mindfulness, operates within a soteriological context or path ( marga ) that creates a commonality of concern which informs all the on dignity of teacher, various strands of its religious endeavor—moral values, ritual observances, doctrinal teachings, and contemplative exercises—into a unified network of essay of internet in urdu, practices focused on liberation (Buswell and byu admission prompt Gimello 1994 ). Rather than being motivated by “quick relief from distress and capital gain,” some Buddhist traditions consider the path of liberation as evolving over of internet in urdu many lifetimes, involving deeper levels of renunciation from gmat essay, worldly life. A common misconception—that contemporary and traditional mindfulness share the same intention—is based on the “suffering” trope; this can be attributed to a mistranslation of the Buddha’s statement, “I teach one thing and one thing only: suffering and the end of suffering.” However, as Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) has pointed out, the correct translation is, “In the past, monks, and also now, I teach suffering and the cessation of suffering.” Moreover, Bhikkhu Bodhi has also clarified that any utterance of the Buddha was always guided by the intention to enhance the welfare and happiness of essay on advantages of internet, those receiving his message. Free Dissertations. The Buddha’s statement regarding the cessation of suffering was made in a particular context, specifically in essay of internet in urdu response to a question someone had asked the Buddha in the hopes that he would engage in metaphysical speculation. Taken out of context, many contemporary mindfulness teachers have misconstrued this statement as being representative of the whole of what the Buddha taught. As Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) has pointed out, the Buddha taught on free, a wide range of topics besides suffering and its cessation, including important topics like the workings of karma, moral and ethical behaviors and dependent co-origination, as well as many practical topics for householders, such as marriage, the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, distribution of dissertations, wealth, and household budgets. Summarizing this misconception, Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) stated: “…But his words are not always tied to the theme of ‘suffering and its cessation.’ To insist on confining them to essay this topic is to drastically narrow the papers review, range of the dharma.” “We can now see why dukkha is so pervasive, and so why the of internet, term dukkha does not admit of easy translation into a language that does not encode this view of reality.

Suffering, dissatisfaction, unease, stress, anxiety and pain are all kinds or aspects of dukkha, but none of them exhaust it. Siddhartha Gautama’s genius was not simply to see that we suffer, or that many of us are unhappy. That has been noted many times by philosophers in many traditions. His genius was instead to clothing see that dukkha is the fundamental structure of essay on advantages, our lives, what Heidegger would have called our existentiale. To be human is to live in dukkha.” In describing the current practice of traditional mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) seem to privilege the Anapanasati and paper Satipa ?? hana suttas , the primary instructions for mindfulness training in the Theravada tradition. These suttas have also been the mainstay for Western neo-vipassana insight meditation centers and in urdu it is no coincidence that these centers are the wedding papers review, most closely aligned with MBSR. However, associating traditional mindfulness to only these two suttas from the Pali Nikayas does not do justice to the wide range of conceptions and practices of on advantages in urdu, mindfulness within the Buddhist tradition. Research E Learning. For example, even within the Theravada tradition, there are many other seminal texts and commentarial treatises (such as the Milindapanha , Abhidamma , Visuddhimagga ), with each offering nuanced understandings of the essay on advantages, moral phenomenology of mindfulness.

Beyond this, the Mahayana traditions (such as Chan, Zen, Pure Land) and the Tibetan Vajrayana (Mahamudra, the Tantras, and Dzogchen) each have unique conceptions of mindfulness and essay its function on different stages of the path. Classic teachings by these later traditions, along with the teachings of on advantages of internet in urdu, such Buddhist adepts as Asanga, Kamalasila, and Shantideva have rarely entered the essay on dignity of teacher, contemporary mindfulness discourse. “Rather than encouraging the meditator to see through the illusion of the on advantages in urdu, Self which is ‘observing’ phenomena, its language implies such a position can be adopted, and by doing so one can enhance one’s control of (particularly negative) mental and essay emotional experiences. At a subtle level, such habitual positioning may actually reinforce one’s sense of self such that, if one were to continue practicing beyond a course (as MBCT encourages), the essay in urdu, very progress such practices are designed to facilitate on the Buddhist path would be blocked by an unrealistic view or assessment of the meditative process.” (italics in original). There are a number of papers review, unexamined assumptions that such a therapeutic stance entails.

First is the notion that the individual client has full control and agency for their own emotional reactivity, as well as their ability to essay on advantages decenter from the contents of their experience. Essay Prompt. Lomas et al. ( 2014 ), however, have recently challenged this assumption, noting that clients currently suffering from depression may lack the mental strength to engage in the challenging work of decentering from negative cognitions, and that MBCT could potentially exacerbate mental ruminations (see also Teasdale et al. 2003 ). Second, the essay on advantages of internet, assumption that a client has full agency over their cognitions also assumes that they are fully responsible for essay, their own “healing,” a popular narrative in the complementary and alternative medicine domain. Essay On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. This philosophy is closely aligned with much of the self-help and pop psychology literature which proselytizes mindfulness can tap into “inner resources” that will facilitate recovery from, or at least acceptance of, an illness—and in analysis of argument some cases, serve as preventive medicine from the onset of stress-related diseases and chronic illnesses (Barker 2008 ). It is also closely related to the therapeutic practice of increasing a client’s sense of conscious control over their thoughts and emotions (often referred to as “client motivation”), and more recently, has been promoted as developing more “willpower” (McGonigal 2013 ; Moloney 2013 ). The policy implications of these claims are also suggestive that a client’s misery (along with the full agency and capacity to heal) and mental suffering is simply located inside their head, and therefore mindfulness-based interventions provide the means for of internet, enhancing self-regulation, self-management, self-acceptance, and self-control. In contrast, Foucault has noted how these types of “psy discourses” present a benevolent face with their professed claims at of self-emancipation, while their actual usage may make individuals more manageable and disciplined within current institutional structures (Illouz 2008 ). Payne ( 2014 ) has suggested that the contemporary mindfulness community has failed to essay recognize their highly privatized, atomistic, and neoliberal conceptions of the autonomous self/individual. This cultural bias places a heavy burden on the individual, as the source of suffering is viewed as a lack of self-regulation and on advantages of internet in urdu entirely self-made. Macbeth Essay Clothing. Mindfulness-based interventions are in close resonance with the essay on advantages of internet, ideological basis for “blaming the victim,” as it is the individual (not the paper e learning, social context, history, or factors such as socio-economic status, inequities) that is held fully responsible for their own emotional reactivity, mental suffering and misery, as well as their own illnesses. In addition to the fields of psychology and medicine, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) also claim mindfulness approaches have “given new perspectives to organizational psychology and changing organizational cultures.” However, there is not a single empirical study to date in any of the top-tier organizational studies journals that provides convincing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions in organizations have led to substantive and essay on advantages of internet fundamental changes in organizational culture. Even the most visible and publicized corporate mindfulness program at Google, “Search Inside Yourself,” for byu admission, which over 2000 Google employees have taken, has not yielded any publishable or empirical results with regards to corporate culture change. The issue of whether mindfulness-based interventions could have unintended consequences in suppressing or marginalizing critical thought that investigates the very context, structures, and on advantages in urdu systems of causes that give rise to discount wedding papers review social suffering will be addressed later in this article.

Both streams—contemporary and traditional mindfulness—are devoted to means of responding to human suffering. On Advantages Of Internet. For contemporary mindfulness, it is via therapeutic interventions that enhance skills in self-regulation, reducing the proliferation of negative cognitions and paper mental ruminations. For traditional mindfulness, it is essay on advantages in urdu, via a comprehensive mental and macbeth ethical training system whose soteriological aim is the full path of liberation from the cycle of samsara. While these streams share a mutual interest in acknowledging the plight of human suffering, the commonality is nominal and at the surface-level only. Once beneath the surface, their aims and intentions substantively diverge as contemporary and traditional mindfulness address suffering and the nature of mind at qualitatively different levels of depth and ontology. Conflating both the means and ends regarding these two streams only contributes to conceptual confusion. The claim that contemporary mindfulness retains the “essence of essay in urdu, a tradition” was shown earlier to be a strategy of appropriation and radical decontextualization (Wilson 2014 , p. 44).

Ethics in Mindfulness: Their Absence or Presence Is Not the (Only) Question. Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) attempted to represent the Buddhist critique of contemporary mindfulness as stemming from: (1) debates and fundamental differences between religion and science; (2) incompatible conceptual frameworks, and mainly; (3) a decontextualized and secularized form of mindfulness that is void of an ethical foundation. Recent advocates of contemporary mindfulness have launched fierce criticisms and macbeth essay rhetorical attacks on the Buddhist tradition. For example, Sam Harris ( 2014 ) exemplified this when he characterized the Buddhist religious tradition as an “accidental strand” of essay of internet, history and tells those in the mindfulness movement that they “no longer need to be in the religion business.” Or take the book, Search Inside Yourself : The Unexpected Path to Achieving Success , Happiness ( and World Peace ), written by Google’s top in-house mindfulness advocate, Tan ( 2012 ). Essay. The inside front cover flap immediately signals that the authority for essay on advantages of internet in urdu, mindfulness certainly “cannot be the essay, domain of bald people in funny robes.” Rather it lies with the essay on advantages, scientists in white lab-coats, as Tan cited study after study to back up his claims that mindfulness delivers greater happiness, prosperity, health, and career success. And when it comes to mindfulness, Tan insisted, “everything can be completely secular.” Dan Harris ( 2014 ), co-anchor of ABC’s Nightline and Good Morning America , and the author of the best-selling book 10 % Happier , said, “I always thought mindfulness practice was for people who live in of teacher yurts, or collect crystals …as it turns out, there is all this science that says it can boost your immune system, reduce your blood pressure, and rewire key parts of your brain,” as he decried “meditation’s massive PR problem”, code for shedding any associations with anything that smacks of tradition. Sam Harris gave an obligatory nod to tradition, “That’s not to say that people who have brought meditation to the West haven’t done great and truly heroic things …but now we are at a new stage. The science has shown that this can truly have a revolutionary impact on of internet in urdu, the brain, at least its strongly suggestive of that.” These are familiar tropes of the contemporary mindfulness movement: that science, in validating mindfulness practice, has liberated it from the flaky, foreign, irrational, outdated and spooky metaphysics of religious tradition. This rhetoric is troublesome in that it casts the gmat analysis of argument, Buddhist tradition as amounting to nothing more than an outdated set of cultural accretions. Essay In Urdu. Such messages betray not only macbeth clothing, a terrible lack of understanding of the essay of internet in urdu, very nature of religion in general and Buddhism in gmat essay particular, or what it means to engage meaningfully with a tradition, but they also perpetuate a naive belief in essay of internet the unassailable authority science and research paper e learning the form of logic derived from it.

These views are representative of scientism, a fundamental belief that “scientists alone hold the key to understanding reality, and that key is the range of scientific methods accepted by the orthodox scientific community” (Wallace 2014 ). In Urdu. Contrary to Monteiro et al.’s characterization, the debates are not between religion and macbeth essay science, but religion and scientism. Essay On Advantages In Urdu. When contemporary mindfulness advocates marginalize the Buddhist religious tradition, they are essentially defending the beliefs of research paper e learning, scientific materialism, dismissing any methods or evidence that is incompatible with this belief system. Why engage in a dialogue with tradition when it is considered, at best, as basically irrelevant, or even as a detriment and anachronistic to on advantages of internet the progress of the mindfulness movement? The messaging is that it is of strategic necessity that Buddhism be purged, that all residues of tradition jettisoned, if mindfulness is to be widely propagated as a scientifically approved method immune to cultural and historical influences. In other words, we cannot trust what tradition has transmitted for byu admission essay, the last 2600 years—it is prima facie suspect. Essay Of Internet. Only by placing our faith in science can we validate the value of mindfulness. With regards to the second claim, the issue of incompatible conceptual frameworks, the problem is dissertations, more than merely one of on advantages, transporting terminologies from a soteriological to essay a clinical context. Rather, what is often missed among contemporary mindfulness advocates is a modernistic bias that presupposes that the modern world-view is universal, immune to it own cultural assumptions.

Mindfulness, no matter whether traditional (religious) or contemporary (secular), is essay, always situated by a context, and dissertations such contexts frame meanings. A stripped-down and decontextualized model of contemporary mindfulness is problematic only because it assumes that mindfulness has an essence free of context, and by extracting that essence it can be better understood, studied and practiced. Of Internet. The mindfulness movement suffers from a massive blind spot because it obviously grows out of a distinctly American context that has prided itself on the narrative of scientific progress, the belief in the individual as the sole nexus of meaning, an entrepreneurial ethos, and other underlying and generally unexamined assumptions that are anything but universal, much less Buddhist, but are simply absorbed from our social environment. This narrative also creates a radical break with the essay of teacher, past, which conspires to reinforce the view that mindfulness operates outside of, rather than within, the existing social and historical context. In this respect, the mindfulness revolution is a big bang innovation myth, a uniquely American cultural phenomenon. Monteiro et al. framed the Buddhist critique as mainly being a matter of the omission of of internet in urdu, ethics in contemporary and essay prompt clinical applications of mindfulness, but this formulation misses the heart of the essay in urdu, matter.

The issue is not whether ethical dimensions of mindfulness are present or absent, implicit or explicit in macbeth essay contemporary mindfulness applications, but a set of assumptions that view ethical frameworks for contextualizing mindfulness practice as an inconvenient “add-on,” a set of prescriptions, rules or moral imperatives for behavior and action. Monteiro et al. added to essay of internet in urdu this confusion by presenting the Buddhist ethical concerns as simply being a matter of developing “right” ( samma sati ) versus “wrong” mindfulness ( miccha sati ). Contemporary mindfulness teachers go to great lengths to macbeth clothing explain their position that ethics must remain implicit in order to avoid potential value conflicts in secular settings where mindfulness practices are offered. There are a variety of arguments offered that support this position: the practice of clinical and contemporary mindfulness practices naturally lead to ethical behavior; that ethical dimensions are “built-into” the on advantages in urdu, practice itself; ethical outcomes depend on discount wedding papers review, the mindfulness teacher “embodying” and modeling ethical behavior, and so on. There appears to be an avoidance of moral inquiry in contemporary mindfulness discourse, along with a general reluctance to consider how the practice of mindfulness and questions of the good are unavoidably intertwined.

This is due partially to essay on advantages of internet in urdu the fact that the contemporary mindfulness movement is operating within a market society, where the essay on dignity of teacher, dominant ethos is market logic and the value neutral discourse of economics. Thus, there is a powerful appeal to avoid engagement with moral and ethical questions when economistic conceptions of virtue have entered spheres of life that were traditionally buffered from market logic (Sandel 2013 ). Essay On Advantages. Letting the market decide questions of the essay, good, assuming that ethical behavior will “naturally” arise out of either the practices themselves or via the professionalism and essay on advantages of internet in urdu “embodiment” of teachers, or through the happenstance of inductive self-discovery, might be referred to as the “laissez-fare mindfulness” school (Wilson 2014 , p. 194). Disentangling Buddhist Ethics: Moral Engagement and the Problems of free, Social Suffering. Like many other contemporary mindfulness teachers, Monteiro et al. are fond of viewing MBIs—whether applied in clinical, corporate, or public sector contexts—as another Buddhist utilization of skillful means or upaya . Monteiro et al. and others, such as Kabat-Zinn, have appropriated this Buddhist concept as a way of retrospectively explaining how their adaptations of mindfulness to modern contexts is “developed in a manner consistent” with Buddhist teachings. Their interpretation of skillful means is that it is of internet in urdu, equivalent to a pedagogical tool for adapting mindfulness practices to the needs of discount wedding review, a secular and cultural context, however, omits a few important details. The concept of skillful means can be traced to the Mahayana schools, and figures prominently in the Lotus Sutra , a classic text in that tradition. In the on advantages of internet, Lotus Sutra , numerous parables show the Buddha taking on macbeth essay clothing, different forms and deceiving his audiences—purely out of compassion in order to lead them to the final destination of essay on advantages of internet, liberation and research e learning awakening.

Even the Theravada tradition (which Monteiro et al. is suggestive that because of its close adherence to the monastic code of essay of internet in urdu, ethics, the vinaya , is a version of Buddhist fundamentalism), also has teaching stories from the sutras that exemplify the Buddha’s skillful means. Paper E Learning. A classic teaching story is Kisa Gotami, who tragically loses her infant son and pleads to the Buddha for him to bring her son back to life. The Buddha agrees, but only if Gotami can first bring to him a mustard seed from a home that has never encountered the on advantages, death of a loved one. Gotami, of course, despite the many homes she visits, cannot find any home or family that has not witnessed death. She returns herself healed and becomes a nun and disciple of the gmat of argument essay, Buddha. In all of the examples and allegories, whether in Mahayana or Theravada texts, it is the fully awakened Buddha and highly advanced Bodhisattavas who employ expedient, skillful means to lead their followers to the path of essay on advantages of internet, liberation. This skillful use of deception (Buddhist variants of the Trojan Horse) was reserved for Buddhas and Bodhisattavas. As (Wilson 2014 , p. 91) pointed out, when people like Kabat-Zinn and paper e learning other mindfulness teachers such as Monteiro et al., “draw on essay in urdu, the concept of skillful means, they authorize themselves via the example of the Buddha to change aspects of the tradition to e learning better suit the different environmental circumstances of Buddhism outside of its premodern Asian historical context.” Mindfulness in corporations is also considered as an example of this modernizing of “skillful means.” The skillful Trojan Horse metaphor is often used to defend claims that introducing mindfulness programs into corporations will naturally and eventually lead to a major transformation of corporate behaviors and practices—away from self-interest and narrow concerns for essay on advantages in urdu, maximizing shareholder profits—to more humanistic, compassionate, and socially responsible organizations that are concerned for the public good. Corporate mindfulness advocates have often compare their initiatives with the byu admission prompt, work of the essay on advantages in urdu, Buddha, noting that he often taught kings, merchants, and feudal village leaders. This is true, but misleading.

While the Buddha taught the dharma to leaders and the merchant class, what he taught was not a mindfulness-based intervention so they could simply feel better about byu admission themselves, nor did he simply provide them a meditative technique for improving their concentration so that they could obtain even more wealth and riches, rather, the Buddha advocated a wiser form of ethical leadership that counteracted the mental poisons of greed, ill will and essay on advantages of internet delusion. Monteiro et al. Papers. have positioned their assessment of MBIs in terms of the degree to essay on advantages of internet in urdu which these methods are in alignment with basic Buddhist principles, which they have circumscribed in terms of right mindfulness, insight into on dignity, the root causes of suffering, and in urdu the inclusion of the ethical components of mindfulness. This is admirable, but also limiting, for their assessment fails to critically examine how MBIs are limited—not because they fall short of emulating Buddhist principles—but because of their adherence to a therapeutic culture and essay of teacher discourse of of internet, self-help that is premised on a highly privatized sense of self and neoliberal conceptions of subjectivity that is clinically withdrawn from the public sphere. There have been numerous claims that MBIs are based on the four foundations of mindfulness (Cullen 2011 ; Kabat-Zinn 2011 ; Stahl 2014 ). What is actually meant by the claim that MBIs are “based on” one of the most highly revered discourse of the Buddha, the Satipattthana Sutta , remains ambiguous. The four foundations of mindfulness provide exact instructions on the practice of mindfulness meditation (Analayo 2010 ). The original, overarching purpose and context of these mindfulness practices were based on free, the renunciation of greed, desires and discontent with the world, and on advantages these instructions in the four foundations were considered as a vehicle for byu admission essay, a direct path to liberation ( nibanna ). Essay On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. The discourse is divided into four sections, pertaining to mindfulness of the body ( kaya ), feelings ( vedana ), mind ( citta ), and mind-objects (also called dhammas , or phenomena). Essay Prompt. Mindfulness of the body ( kayanupassana ) comprises fourteen subjects of meditation, with mindfulness of the breath ( anapanasati ) being the most popular. On Advantages Of Internet. Mindfulness of feeling ( vedananupassana ) is of three types, pleasant, painful, and neutral, referring to gmat of argument both material and spiritual feelings. Mindfulness of mind ( cittanupassana ) is differentiated into contrasting states of mind, namely, with and without lust, hatred, delusion, a mind contracted or distracted, exalted or unexalted, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or unconcentrated. On Advantages Of Internet. Finally, mindfulness of byu admission essay prompt, mental objects or phenomena ( dhammanupassana ) consists of five categories: the five hindrances, the six internal and external senses, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the four noble truths. In addition, the instructions also include contemplations directed towards observing the arising and passing away of these phenomena in the stream of experience. While MBIs may claim and appear to draw, albeit highly selectively, from the of internet, four foundations of mindfulness, their extraction from the context of Buddhist liberation radically alters the nature and meaning of these practices.

Mindfulness meditation becomes psychologized and reoriented to free dissertations improving and enhancing ordinary worldly life—a method for alleviating the stresses, anxieties and worries of middle-class lifestyles. There is, of course, nothing problematic in utilizing Buddhist techniques for therapeutic and clinical purposes, but to claim that MBIs are equivalent secular expressions of the on advantages, four foundations of mindfulness goes too far. How is it, for example, that MBIs which emphasize “nonjudgmental awareness” engage in the third foundation of essay, mindfulness which entails discriminating unwholesome states of mind to contemplating the presence (or absence) of higher states of mind? How do MBIs provide instructions in essay of internet in urdu the fourth foundation of mindfulness, which includes contemplating the seven factors of awakening and the four noble truths (including the paper, eight fold path)? There is on advantages, also a strong emphasis in the Satipa ?? hana on both internal and analysis external phenomena, especially in terms of of internet, noting their impermanent nature. MBIs, however, tend to be much more internal in focus. There is also very little emphasis or training in analysis of argument contemplating the conditioned and impermanent nature of the essay of internet in urdu, five aggregates (material form, feelings, cognition, volitions and consciousness). This perhaps explains why several practices are omitted in MBIs, such as contemplating the essay prompt, body as a decaying corpse, contemplating the inevitability of the death of one’s own body, and viewing the body in terms of the four elements (components of the first foundation of mindfulness). As I previously pointed out, the body scan in MBIs only has a distant family resemblance to the 32-body part practice in the Satipa ?? hana . In the latter text, the body parts are visualized and contemplated with a view of seeing them as composite, impermanent and unattractive. On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. The whole aim of this practice is to reduce attachment to the body as well as conceit, not merely to release tension and stress. Granted, those who enroll in free dissertations 8-week MBI courses are there for relief of chronic pain and essay stress, not for byu admission essay prompt, ultimate religious liberation from the wheel of birth and death, detachment from the essay of internet in urdu, body and worldly concerns, and the abandonment of craving.

Perhaps the clothing, most dubious claim among MBI advocates is that ethics are implicit, and need to remain so, in both the practice and in the teaching of mindfulness in secular settings. Essay. Monteiro et al. turned to prompt a single study by Shapiro, Jazaieri and Goldin ( 2012 ) to justify their claim that implicit ethics, as exemplified in MBSR, leads to an increase in ethical decision making and moral reasoning. What they fail to report is that this study is based on an extremely small sample size of 25, mostly Caucasian women, lacking both randomized and active control groups. Furthermore, the study relied completely on self-report data using the essay on advantages of internet, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), both of which have been the subject of severe criticisms in the clinical literature (Grossman and Van Dam 2011 ). The debate on whether ethics are implicit in mindfulness practice itself, or whether ethics should remain implicit in the teaching of secular mindfulness, is papers, partly driven by on advantages in urdu, a fundamental misconception that the ethical aspects of byu admission prompt, Buddhist mindfulness practice and on advantages of internet its path of gmat essay, spiritual-moral development are derived from adherence to prescriptive behaviors and on advantages ethical imperatives, or the intentions of a self-as-agent. In other words, Monteiro et al., Kabat-Zinn, and others in the MBI community view ethics and morality through a Western Judeo-Christian lens, equating them to a set of abstract principles to essay which one can be compelled to ascend. The usual reservation raised by MBI teachers is on advantages in urdu, that there is no room for allowing ethics or moral discourse into secular mindfulness programs as it could potentially be seen as an imposition of religious dogma or pose value conflicts—is premised on this Western view of ethics. Attempting to hermeneutically force Buddhist ethics into an MBI curriculum unaware of such ethnocentric biases is bound to result in misconceptions and facile understandings.

Monteiro et al. proposed a confusing admixture of virtue ethics, a distorted conception of Mahayana Buddhist ethics as utilitarianism, deontological claims to universality via a misreading of Gethin, and analysis a strained attempt to essay convert traditional Buddhist teachings into secular counterparts (the Four Noble Truths now become the cultivation of “moral courage”). Keown ( 2001 ), whom Monteiro et al. cite throughout this section, warned against prompt the subtle danger of “cultural misappropriation” in attempts to selectively import Buddhist morality into Westernized views. At this point, one begins to wonder what the aim is here given that Monteiro et al. stake out contemporary mindfulness in the very beginning as “mindfulness programs that are not explicitly based in Buddhist practice.” Even (McCown 2013 , p. 65), who is of internet, cited as an advocate for MBIs, seems wary of importing Buddhist ethics into contemporary mindfulness practice as he states, “To articulate an ethic based on distinctly Buddhist concepts or uses specifically Buddhist language, then, would run counter to the concepts and practices that have, in smaller or larger part, fueled the research e learning, growth of MBIs.” Perhaps the most problematic and disconcerting exposition in this paper is the interpretation of Mahayana Buddhist ethics, which Monteiro et al. use as an example to justify and rationalize killing, as well as a supposed means to go beyond the seemingly narrow edicts of the essay on advantages of internet, Theravada school. Byu Admission. Monteiro et al. turned to Harvey ( 2000 ) for justification, “some scholars have stated that killing may not be something to condemn if it arises from virtuous intentions.” The question here is who arbitrates whether such intentions are virtuous?

If a military combatant kills in the name of “My God, My Country” and in the spirit of essay of internet, unity with their unit, is byu admission, it virtuous? Is such killing virtuous in unjust wars or in American imperialist interventions such as in the war in Iraq? Are drone operators trained in mindfulness exempt from essay on advantages of internet in urdu, all moral accountability because their intentions are simply to defend our “national interests”? This is evidently no problem for prompt, Monteiro et al. as one “could mitigate that form of essay of internet in urdu, unwholesomeness [killing]” by simply “acting from the Bodhisattava’s ideal.” “The sword is generally associated with killing, and of argument essay most of of internet, us wonder how it can come into connection with Zen, which is a school of Buddhism teaching the gospel of love and mercy. The fact is the art of swordmanship distinguishes between the sword that kills and the sword that gives life. The one that is used by a technician cannot go any further than killing, for he never appeals to the sword unless he intends to kill. The case if altogether different with the one who is compelled to lift the sword.

For it is really not he but the sword itself that does the killing. He had no desire to wedding papers review do harm to anybody, but the enemy appears and essay of internet makes himself a victim. Of Argument. It is as though the sword performs automatically its function of justice, which is the function of mercy….When the sword is expected to play this sort of essay on advantages of internet in urdu, role in free human life, it is no more a weapon of self-defense or an instrument of killing, and the swordsman turns into essay on advantages, an artist of the first grade, engaged in analysis producing a work of genuine originality” (quoted in Victoria 2006 , p. 110). Monteiro et al. are basically dredging doctrinal support for war and violence through an overly simplistic use of the skillful means ( upaya ) teaching. On Advantages. As described earlier, this doctrinal teaching has been vulnerable to much abuse and misuse. The classic teaching story illustrative of skillful means in the Mahayana is to be found in the Upayakausalyasutra , which describes an incident when the review, Buddha Shakyamuni was still a bodhisattva in one of his past lives. In this story, Shakyamuni was on a ship and became aware of on advantages, a robber on board who had the intention of killing all the passengers on wedding, the ship. To prevent this act from happening, Shakyamuni decides to on advantages kill the papers review, robber out of essay on advantages in urdu, compassion—saving not only the passengers, but also the robber from accruing even greater negative karma.

Because the Buddha Shakyamuni acted out of great compassion, because his intention was wholesome, his act was morally justified. This story, along with other sutras, have been historically misinterpreted and distorted to sanction warfare and violence. What is essay, omitted and glossed over by those who distort these teachings is that it is essay of internet, a highly advanced Bodhisattva or even a Buddha that is macbeth essay, engaging in these acts, not Japanese kamikaze pilots emboldened by Imperial Zen propaganda or by 18-year-old privates in the US Marines engaging in mindfulness practice for twelve minutes a day as they do in mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT). Moreover, in Buddhist soteriological theory, since awakened Buddhas have put an on advantages of internet, end to their own karma, they act without intention, that is, their acts of compassion arise spontaneously (without deliberate conceptuality) out of non-dual transcendental wisdom. Attempting to find moral justification via an appeal to the Mahayana for killing, even if such acts are driven by positive intentions within morally ambiguous situations, is fraught with peril. Free. This is especially problematic when the essay of internet in urdu, attempt is to find Buddhist doctrinal support for contemporary mindfulness applications involving police and military forces that are receiving mindfulness training. It is quite dangerous to simply assume that police and military forces are engaged in right mindfulness, or are uniquely and heroically acting as awakened Bodhisattavas, carefully discerning and “weighing the essay of teacher, ultimate cost of shooting or not shooting” prior to essay making the decision to free kill the targeted person.

The risks of self-deception, group loyalty at any cost, and nationalistic jingoism can easily be rationalized as harboring positive intentions. There is really no need to force fit or misappropriate Buddhist Mahayana teachings for such purposes. Of course, there are indeed exceptional and extreme cases, such that not taking a life or not retaliating would lead to essay on advantages in urdu even greater tragic losses, such as in the instance of Hitler’s expansionism of Nazi Germany, or in a case where a police officer must shoot to dissertations prevent a lunatic gunman from on advantages of internet in urdu, killing innocent children at a school site. But even for these extreme cases, one could turn to our own Western ethical tradition, utilitarianism, or Kohlberg’s ( 1981 ) stages of moral development, for guidance. Perhaps the main confusion in the Monteiro et al. paper as it pertains to Buddhist ethics, and its possible import to contemporary mindfulness, is that it is ultimately not a clean moral theory of analysis essay, action. Rather, as Garfield ( 2015 ) suggested, Buddhist ethics should be thought of more as a moral phenomenology of on advantages, experience . This suggestion might come as a surprise to many, as Buddhist ethics has often been seen through the lens of either utilitarianism or Aristotelian virtue ethics. What is frequently, if not perhaps always overlooked among contemporary mindfulness teachers, is that Buddhist ethics is situated within a complex nexus of thoroughgoing interdependence, dependent origination ( pratiyasamutpada ). It is perhaps no coincidence then that MBSR and MBIs have omitted what the Buddha actually declared as to be one of his core teachings (“to understand the dharma is to understand dependent origination”). Garfield ( 2015 ) was adamant that Buddhist moral phenomenology is concerned with locating human action within a vast causal nexus of paper e learning, interdependence, and of karma , that “Moral reflection on action must take all of these dimensions of dependence into account. Essay. To focus merely on motivation, or on character, or on the action itself, or on macbeth essay, its consequences for others, would be to ignore much that is important” (Garfield 2015 , p. 313).

Contemporary mindfulness proponents are operating from a faulty premise, at least from a Buddhist moral theory point of view, that ethics are somehow separable from the nature of experience and from meditative practices themselves—in other words, because ethics are still viewed as a set of imperatives or consequentialist calculus for deciphering “virtuous intentions” and their relation to of internet action—they miss the essential point. Buddhist practice, as Garfield ( 2015 ) emphasized, is about solving a problem and that problem is dukkha and its triune roots, aversion, attraction and confusion (Olendski 2014 ). The Buddhist eightfold noble path is a solution to wedding review the problem of dukkha , and simply focusing on motivation and intention as the arbiter of ethical action is to take an extremely narrow view. Again, Garfield ( 2015 , p. 315) cautioned us against on advantages in urdu superimposing Western ethical biases on Buddhist moral theory: “The eightfold path identifies not a set of rights or duties, nor a set of virtues, but a set of areas of concern or dimensions of conduct. The path indicates the complexity of human moral life and the complexity of the sources of suffering.” This also points to the fact that any ethical orientation to mindfulness must be situated within a larger social context; ethical action only has meaning and sense when it pertains to how actions affect and essay impact the lives of others in the vast causal nexus of interdependence. The issue of whether ethics should be implicit or explicit is essay of internet, a moot point. Clothing. There is no way of avoiding a moral point of view, as ethical engagement is essay on advantages of internet in urdu, predicated on our perceptual process. Debating whether ethical imperatives should be introduced into mindfulness programs is the wrong question. When ethical engagement is viewed in terms of a reordering of our perceptual process, rather than on “embodying virtuous intentions,” deciphering actions, rights, duties and prescriptions, or virtues – we can begin to essay prompt think of mindfulness in terms of whether it cultivates, what Garfield has termed “morally awakened perception” (Garfield 2015 , p. 325).

However, this is only half of the equation. What is of internet, often missed in contemporary mindfulness is that elevating ethical concerns in mindfulness curricula, practices, and community discourse raises the stakes to act and essay care for the suffering of others. Essay. Such a project means moving beyond the therapeutic to activism. Repositioning ethical dimensions within a framework of causal interdependence also reframes the nature and locus of suffering and welfare, transcending both a self-oriented and other-oriented dualism. This is the innovative contribution of the Mahayana, and the bodhisattva ideal, that genuine well-being is always grounded in essay on dignity of teacher an ethic of care and action on behalf of all sentient beings, near or far. “Sincerity [in carrying out orders] means having feelings and actions of absolute service, giving one’s all [to the task at in urdu hand]. In doing this there can be no thought of personal loss or gain….By carrying out our [assigned] tasks, we become part of the life of the entire universe; we realize our original True Self…..This is the most noble thing a human can do” (quoted in Victoria 2006 , p. 185). This is a bold claim, that submitting oneself to the larger corporate interest, one can realize the True Self—which, in Zen, is equivalent to enlightenment. It is tempting to discount this example as merely a byproduct of Japanese collectivist culture.

Yet, this example illustrates how a secular adaptation of byu admission essay prompt, traditional Zen Buddhism, along with its use of samadhi power (focused concentration and attention enhancement), has been coopted for bolstering obedience, conformity and essay on advantages of internet loyalty to corporate authority. What parallels might we see in the current trend of corporate mindfulness in free the West? Wall Street traders and of internet hedge fund managers speak of the benefits of research paper, mindfulness training in terms of how it is helping to essay on advantages of internet “fine-tune their brains,” or as a means for “upping their game,” and “giving them an discount wedding papers, edge” (Burton and Effinger 2014 ). Of Internet In Urdu. At Goldman-Sachs, where corporate mindfulness programs have now become immensely popular, traders often liken themselves to the “new Samurai” or as “Ninja warriers” (Burton and Effinger 2014 ). Monteiro et al. listed numerous benefits of corporate mindfulness programs—better listening, seeking common ground, and learning to essay navigate the dialect of the organization (citing Bush and Goleman 2013 ). In other words, mindfulness in the workplace is on advantages in urdu, promoted as a way to e learning reduce friction, increase efficiency, and relieve the pressures of in urdu, late-capitalism. They go on to claim, “In workplace programs, concepts such as being comfortable with uncertainty, taking a nonjudgmental stance to a situation, or cultivating compassionate action are intended to transform emotional reactivity so that the on dignity, situation can be met with skillful means” (p. 11). In all of essay in urdu, these examples, the scope of the mindfulness training is wedding papers review, focused on the individual employee. The conditions of uncertainty, stressful conditions and toxic situations, are attributed to the emotional reactivity of the individual. Of Internet. The onus of responsibility is placed squarely on the individual—the sources of stress, anger, conflict and confusion—are a personal, privatized problem which corporate mindfulness is designed to essay on dignity of teacher fix. Essay. It isn’t a misperception “that mindfulness programs intend to develop an macbeth essay, indiscriminate tolerance for stress,”, as they put it, but the fact that corporate mindfulness programs have excluded inquiry into the systemic sources of stress in the organization. Stress in organizations cannot merely be attributed to an individual’s emotional reactivity and lack of self-regulation; it is also systemic, cultural and institutional in scope. Restricting the scope of essay of internet in urdu, mindfulness intervention to research the level of the individual in essay in urdu corporate settings amounts to blaming the gmat of argument, victim.

Huffington ( 2014 ), an avid promoter of mindfulness in the workplace proposed a “third metric” of success—well-being, wisdom, and essay in urdu wonder (the first two metrics, of course, are money and power). The message here is that “wisdom” and mindfulness are fully compatible with late-capitalism and the primary metrics of money and macbeth power. Social critics, such as (Zizek 2001 , p. 1), contended that the Western Buddhist (and by extension, the corporate mindfulness) “meditative stance is arguably the most efficient way for us to fully participate in capitalist dynamics while retaining the appearance of mental sanity.” The jury is still out on whether corporate mindfulness programs will remain limited to a palliative for helping employees cope and tolerate the conditions of essay on advantages in urdu, corporate capitalism, reinforcing rather than challenging the status quo. Many promoters of corporate mindfulness claim that offering mindfulness programs to individuals, even if limited to personal stress reduction, works insidiously from within, and will eventually lead to wiser, more compassionate and socially responsible corporations (Boyce 2014 ; Halliwell 2014 ; Hunter 2013 ; Maturano 2014 ; Tan 2012 ). Organizational and social change is, as Stanley ( 2013 ) pointed out, envisaged as beginning with the individual. Corporate transformation of essay clothing, institutionalized suffering will be “changed one mindful individual at a time” (Stanley 2013 , p. 8). This is, again, the mindfulness is a “Trojan Horse” argument. The notion that corporate transformation is effected through the power of empowering individuals with mindfulness training resembles in some respects the “experiments” and dubious claims by Transcendental Meditation (TM) aspirants that groups of TM practitioners meditating together could lower crime rates in a large metropolitan city. Boyce ( 2014 , p. On Advantages In Urdu. 8), editor of the glossy newsstand magazine, Mindful , made the claim: “Mindfulness may begin at stress relief but it does not end there. Discount Review. It naturally leads to inquisitiveness about our own minds and examination of how we are connected to other people, of the causes and effects of essay, our actions….Who knows what a leader…might do for the greater good with the aid of a little mindfulness?”

That is a good question, who knows? Monteiro et al. themselves acknowledged that it is probably naive to expect that corporate mindfulness training programs that focus on individuals will lead to any sort of significant change in corporate culture. They allude that the training of individual employees in mindfulness will lead to the creation of micro-climates that offer some limited benefits. At best, corporate mindfulness programs have succeeded in creating what Healy ( 2013 ) referred to as “integrity bubbles,” myopic islands and byu admission essay privatized glimpses of stress reduction and enhanced focused attention while mindlessly externalizing macro-tensions and structural inequalities. Essay In Urdu. For example, Google, which has now become the poster-child for corporate mindfulness programs, has created integrity bubbles for on dignity of teacher, some 2000 engineers while it profits enormously in manipulating the attention of consumers, as its main export is to make an industry out of cultural distraction. There appears to be no attention given in the Search Inside Yourself mindfulness curriculum for being mindful of, or cultivating wise attention to in urdu call into question the long list of Google’s nefarious corporate practices such as privacy violations, off-shore tax evasion, their grueling 80-hour work weeks, or their negative impact on housing evictions in San Francisco (Ream 2014 ). Or take Monsanto, once idolized for analysis, its early adoption of corporate mindfulness programs, but notorious for its egregious ethics violations, negligence of public health, abuse of on advantages of internet, patent laws, and production of potentially risky genetically modified organisms (GMOs), along with their lobbying efforts to essay on dignity defeat consumer protections. General Mills, another company that has received media attention for its large-scale corporate mindfulness program (Gelles 2012 ), has collaborated with Monsanto in lobbying against the consumer rights groups which are demanding the full disclosure of the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, content of Cheerios, one of their signature cereals that is marketed to macbeth clothing children. What all of these examples call forth is whether corporate mindfulness programs are the “Trojan Horse” and “disruptive technology” (Hunter 2013 ) that they claim to on advantages in urdu be, or whether such media publicity amounts to a form of “saffron washing” (Fiet 2014 )? When on the crest of a wave, it is also difficult to e learning say whether the essay on advantages of internet in urdu, corporate mindfulness movement is an institutional fad or a sustainable innovation. Only time will tell.

Mindfulness, however, is not merely a frivolous and passing fad such as hula-hoops. Research E Learning. The enthusiasm for mindfulness programs is having a contagion effect, now endorsed and promoted by essay on advantages of internet, physicians, psychotherapists, educators, corporate CEOs, politicians, and top military brass—requiring significant institutional investments—and erroneously assuming, as Cathy Kerr worries, that its “suitable for all people in all circumstances” (Heuman 2014b ). These are serious professionals who believe they are not easily fooled or duped by the latest novelty, fad or fashion. The illusion of diffusion occurs when enthusiasm is mistaken for empirical evidence (Best 2006 ). However, as Best ( 2006 , p. 18) pointed out, the byu admission essay prompt, illusion of essay on advantages of internet in urdu, diffusion plays a key role in institutional fads, as serious people have a strong conviction “that far from essay, being a fad, this innovation represents progress—it is an improvement that is worthwhile and will endure.” The contemporary mindfulness movement could become a formidable force for essay of internet in urdu, a radical transformation of Western capitalist society if it can manage to overcome what (Fromm 2010 , p. 15) called the “pathology of normalcy.” Fromm’s social critique of psychotherapy and psychiatry of his day was aimed at how the essay, notion that mental health in society complacently had become a matter of individual adjustment to the status quo of essay of internet, a society that was itself off kilter. For Fromm, the macbeth essay, “normal” functioning of society could itself be a disturbing pattern of collective pathology. Krishnamurti ( 1966 ) once remarked, “It is no measure of health to essay of internet be well-adjusted to a profoundly sick society.” The same injunction may hold true for contemporary mindfulness if its primary function is limited to individual adjustment to and an macbeth essay clothing, uncritical acceptance of the status quo. In order to do this, the contemporary mindfulness movement will have to come to terms with its current limitations and deficiencies. First, it should dispense with the rhetoric that the essence of the dharma is encapsulated in a single practice divorced from a wider cultural and historical context.

This includes the development of more other-oriented and relational forms of essay of internet in urdu, meditative practice that aim to analysis of argument cultivate prosocial behaviors. To meet this challenge, contemporary mindfulness programs will also need to essay on advantages of internet expand their foci to include the macbeth essay, social context of essay of internet in urdu, suffering in all it manifestations. This omission has been due to the rapid psychologization of mindfulness and it merger with the e learning, self-help industry under the essay of internet in urdu, aegis of therapeutic discourse. Free. A major fall-out of this psychologized conception of mindfulness is that it comes to essay on advantages in urdu be understood at best—as a path for personal salvation, and at worst, as just another self-help technique—both of which are blind and insensitive to the social, political and economic dimensions of suffering. Such discourse has deemphasized social relations and has covertly depoliticized socio-economic problems, localizing the macbeth clothing, causes of distress and unhappiness as being strictly internal and of internet within the essay prompt, individual (Moloney 2013 ). On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu. Rather than serving as a social lubricant for the smooth functioning of society, contemporary mindfulness programs can begin to encourage critical thought and of argument investigation into the wider social and political causes of social suffering. In other words, rather than concealing socially induced forms of suffering as exclusively problems of “emotional self-regulation,” “reactivity,” “self-acceptance,” and of internet in urdu “self-management,” mindfulness programs can assist people in diagnosing the mentally toxic aspects of their social contexts. As Wallace ( 2005 ) pointed out, human flourishing entails a mindfulness practice that is gmat analysis essay, congruent with a way of on advantages of internet, life that supports one’s own and others’ genuine happiness. A mid-course correction is needed which would entail prioritizing a focus on interdependence and a relational view of mind that is inseparable from the wide sociocultural context.

An other-centered “civic mindfulness,” (Healy 2013 ) can expand the realm of practice towards a relational perspective that is e learning, discerning of essay on advantages in urdu, social dukkha , developing corporate mindfulness program curricula that examine the causes of macbeth essay clothing, institutionalized greed, ill will, and delusion (Loy 2003 ). Contemporary mindfulness has yet to develop an essay in urdu, efficacious ethical framework in macbeth clothing an explicitly normative way that is integrated with practice. On Advantages Of Internet. However, rather than eschewing ethical principles, or misconstruing Buddhist ethics through a Western lens, a secularized ethics would focus on the relation between behavior and its effect on one’s own and others’ genuine well-being. But this requires that one draw a distinction between hedonic and genuine, or eudaimonic, well-being. Paper. A true mindfulness revolution would call into question a Western sense of entitlement to on advantages of internet in urdu happiness irrespective of ethical conduct. Finally, the contemporary mindfulness movement is in dire need of becoming more communal, fostering ways individuals can forge mutually supportive bonds with a sense of shared purpose and continuity over time. Communal well-being is a prerequisite for authentic happiness, and a sustainable path towards even this secular end is unlikely to take root if mindfulness is reduced to a form of “mental fitness” conducted in isolation. The heart of on dignity, mindfulness is a collective practice, that which unites people towards acting for the common good, which in turn provides the basis for human flourishing and social transformation. Ronald E. Purser 1 Email author 1. College of Business, Bus 349 San Francisco State University San Francisco USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

.RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Essay. Part of essay on dignity, Springer Nature.

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Advantage and disadvantage of internet essay in urdu

A Guide to Britain’s Most Famous Writers Through History. Britain arguably has more famous writers than any other country, their works spanning every period of history and many literary styles. They’ve written some of the most recognised lines, dreamt up characters whose fame goes beyond the novels of which they’re the subject, and imagined plots that have captivated readers for centuries. Stretching back over a thousand years, the on advantages of internet British literary tradition is vast and shows no signs of byu admission essay coming to a halt. Here’s our guide to a mere handful of Britain’s most famous writers and their most celebrated works. Tolkien’s translation of Beowulf has only of internet in urdu recently been published.

We don’t even know the name of the first famous writer on this list, but his or her composition is one of the most famous poems of e learning all time. The Anglo-Saxon epic known as Beowulf was written sometime between the essay on advantages of internet 7th century and the early 11th, though its exact dating is e learning, unknown. The 3,128-line tale – set in Scandinavia – depicts a world of heroes, kings and monsters, shedding a unique light on a period of history that we know comparatively little about. Its most famous scholar was J.R.R. In Urdu! Tolkien, who was influenced by Beowulf in his creation of his own mythological world, Middle Earth.

Geoffrey Chaucer is considered by many to be the Father of free English Literature and the greatest poet of the Middle Ages. Born around 1343, he’s most famous for The Canterbury Tales , a series of stories (mostly in verse) based around a group of pilgrims travelling to the shrine of Thomas Becket. The pilgrims have a story-telling competition, resulting in each of the tales being called by the character telling them – The Knight’s Tale, The Miller’s Tale, and on advantages of internet, so on. Chaucer was instrumental in developing the essay on dignity of teacher use of the on advantages of internet vernacular Middle English, during a period when most works of literature were being written in Latin or French. Sir John Gilbert’s ‘The Plays of William Shakespeare’ shows an assortment of scenes and characters, including Henry VIII, Hamlet and byu admission essay prompt, Ophelia, Falstaff and the Merry Wives and in urdu, Lear in the storm. It’s hard to know where to begin when describing the works of possibly the most famous writer of all time, William Shakespeare. Essay Of Teacher! Also known simply as “The Bard”, Shakespeare’s works are so numerous, so universally admired, and his characters so memorable, that his output has never been equalled. The Elizabethan playwright, born in of internet 1564, continues to captivate audiences with tales of star-crossed lovers in prompt Romeo and Juliet , make audiences ache with laughter at the antics of his mischievous knight Sir John Falstaff in Henry IV Parts 1 and 2 , make us recoil in horror at the violence of Titus Andronicus , and inspire romance with his beautiful sonnets. His 37 plays are still performed all over the world every single day, most notably by The Royal Shakespeare Company, headquartered in essay on advantages in urdu Shakespeare’s hometown of Stratford-upon-Avon, which counts among its acclaimed productions some of the dissertations world’s most famous actors.

Another famous poet named William was born in 1770 and helped develop a new literary movement called Romanticism, which saw a new focus on nature and emotion. Famously penning the words “I wandered lonely as a cloud”, Wordsworth is most strongly associated with the essay on advantages in urdu Lake District region of England, the essay clothing beautiful landscape of which was a big inspiration for in urdu him. Discount Wedding Papers Review! Wordsworth was Poet Laureate from on advantages of internet 1843 until he died in essay clothing 1850, and essay on advantages, he’s also noted for The Prelude , a semi-autobiographical poem published after his death. Pride and Prejudice was runner-up in a 2003 poll to find Britain’s best-loved book. The author of such literary classics as Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility has a deserving place among Britain’s most famous writers. Born in 1775, Jane Austen is discount wedding review, known for six novels, all set among the aristocracy and of internet in urdu, fundamentally romantic, but each also containing much humour and free dissertations, social commentary.

Her novels have inspired numerous television and film adaptations, which have served to widen her appeal still further. Characters including Elizabeth Bennet, Mr Darcy, Emma, Marianne Dashwood and essay on advantages of internet in urdu, many more are familiar to millions of readers around the world, though Austen herself was not famous during her lifetime; she was writing at a time when female writers weren’t taken seriously, so her works were published anonymously while she was alive. It’s hard to believe it now, but her fame was only achieved posthumously, following the publication of clothing a biography by her nephew. While Jane Austen published anonymously to ensure her work would be taken seriously, Mary Ann Evans used a male pen name to essay on advantages ensure the prompt same, with the result that we know her by the somewhat unfeminine name of George Eliot. Born in 1819, George Eliot wrote several of the most famous works of English literature, including Silas Marner , The Mill on essay of internet in urdu, the Floss and essay, Adam Bede . Essay! But the crowning glory of her literary output was Middlemarch : a masterpiece of social commentary and essay clothing, a novel considered to on advantages this day to essay be one of the greatest ever written in the English language. Elizabeth Gaskell’s 1857 biography of Charlotte Bronte established the family’s fame. The Bronte sisters were contemporaries of George Eliot, living in a parsonage on the Yorkshire moors. There were three of them: Charlotte, born in 1816; Emily, born in 1818; and Anne, born in essay on advantages of internet 1820.

Like George Eliot, they wrote under male pen names: Currer, Ellis and Acton respectively. Their works earned attention for their unbridled passion, which was unusual for essay on dignity the time and not always well-received. Essay On Advantages Of Internet! They all died young, but between them, these remarkable sisters wrote some of the most famous novels in English literature, including Jane Eyre by Charlotte, Wuthering Heights by Emily and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall by Anne. Born in 1812, the byu admission Victorian novelist Charles Dickens – considered by essay on advantages of internet, many to essay clothing be the greatest of his age – is responsible for some of the essay in urdu most widely recognised fictional characters ever created. From Oliver Twist and free, David Copperfield to Ebenezer Scrooge and Miss Havisham, Dickens’ characters are one of the best aspects of his imaginative novels, and just one of the ingredients of his literary genius.

His many celebrated novels include Great Expectations , Bleak House , Nicholas Nickleby , A Christmas Carol , The Old Curiosity Shop and The Pickwick Papers . Dickens was a literary celebrity on on advantages, an unprecedented scale, and one of his many novels – A Tale of free dissertations Two Cities – is the best-selling novel of all time. His literary influence is on advantages, so great that his name has spawned a new adjective – “Dickensian” – which means anything reminiscent of his works, particularly as regards the poverty he so vividly describes (though it’s often also used to refer to people who call to mind some of his entertainingly horrible characters). Thomas Hardy was born in this cottage in Dorset in 1840. Thomas Hardy was a younger contemporary of Charles Dickens, born in 1840. His style was rather different, but he was influenced by Dickens and achieved wide literary acclaim in his own right, both as a novelist and, later, a poet (indeed, he considered himself to be more a poet than a novelist, writing novels mainly for essay the income they brought).

While Dickens’ novels tended to be set in an urban environment, Hardy’s focus was the countryside and its decline. Many of his works are set in Wessex, a partly real, partly imagined rural region that harked back to essay England before the Norman Conquest. His hugely successful novels include Far From the Madding Crowd , Jude the Obscure , Tess of the D’Urbervilles and The Mayor of Casterbridge. This portrait of Forster was painted by Dora Carrington, a fellow member of the Bloomsbury group. E.M. Forster was born in 1879 and is famous for dissertations novels including A Passage to India , Howard’s End and on advantages of internet, A Room with a View . Though his works achieved admiration during his lifetime, they’re best known to readers today through the popular series of film adaptations by macbeth clothing, Merchant-Ivory Productions. Forster’s works focus primarily on the Edwardian middle classes in different situations; for example, together with Where Angels Fear to Tread , A Room with a View looks at the narrow-mindedness of English tourists in Italy. A Passage to of internet in urdu India was Forster’s most successful novel; it concentrates on the relationship between West and free dissertations, East at a time when India was subject to British rule.

The horrors of the First World War inspired a new generation of poets to write some of the most well-known lines in English poetry, and among the most famous was Wilfred Owen. Of Internet In Urdu! Owen’s poems graphically describe gruesome scenes from the trenches with brutal realism. His most celebrated poem, Dulce et Decorum Est , depicts the essay effects of an attack by poison gas, and continues to on advantages of internet be recited at commemorative events to this day. Its title is ironic, referring to macbeth clothing a line by essay in urdu, the Roman poet Horace: “Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori”, which translates roughly as, “It is sweet and honorable to die for one’s country”. Tragically, Owen lost his life just a week before the end of the war, and most of his poems were published after his death. Castle Howard has often stood in for Brideshead in of teacher TV and essay on advantages of internet in urdu, film adaptations of Brideshead Revisited . Evelyn Waugh is byu admission essay prompt, best known for his novel Brideshead Revisited , though he wrote several other well-received novels and on advantages of internet, was also an accomplished journalist.

He was born in 1903 and attended Oxford University, where his experiences were the inspiration for many of the Oxford scenes for which Brideshead Revisited is essay on dignity of teacher, so famous. Essay On Advantages! The novel was successful at the time of its publication, but it achieved a new following decades later with the release of a long television adaptation starring Jeremy Irons. To this day, there will always be a handful of Oxford undergraduate each year trying to emulate the hedonistic lifestyle of Charles and Sebastian – including, of course, the discount wedding papers mandatory teddy bear (inspired, it is said, by the poet John Betjeman’s bear). There was seemingly no end to the imagination of one of the greatest 20th century English writers. J.R.R. Tolkien (whom we’ve already encountered as a Beowulf scholar) didn’t just pen epic works of fantasy; he created an entire mythology to go with them, complete with languages, maps, chronologies and genealogies. Middle Earth, as he called his extraordinarily detailed imaginary world, was the setting for hugely successful novels including The Hobbit – intended primarily for children – and the rather darker three-volume epic The Lord of the Rings , which has been voted by essay on advantages, Amazon readers as their favourite book of the millennium. David Suchet has played Agatha Christie’s detective Hercule Poirot in ITV adaptations of all 33 novels and numerous short stories. Agatha Christie is Britain’s most famous crime novelist, the author of 66 detective novels and creator of two of the most well-known literary sleuths, Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple.

According to the Guinness Book of Records, Christie is the best-selling novelist of all time; she’s often referred to as “the Queen of gmat analysis of argument essay Crime” for her mastery of suspense. Of Internet! Her titles include Murder on the Orient Express and Death on analysis of argument essay, the Nile , which were also two of the most popular film adaptations of her works. Bringing this list right up to essay on advantages of internet in urdu date, we end with J.K. Rowling, author of the essay phenomenally successful Harry Potter series – seven books that tell the tale of the eponymous young wizard and his battle to save the of internet world from the macbeth essay onslaught of the evil wizard Voldemort. The world Rowling created has captured the essay of internet imaginations of children and gmat analysis essay, adults alike, in in urdu particular the school at the centre of the story, Hogwarts School of research paper Witchcraft and Wizardry.

Though Rowling’s novels arguably lack the literary merit of the other novels we’ve mentioned in this article, she’s certainly one of the most famous British writers of modern times, and therefore worthy of a place on this list. She’s now turned her attention to writing books for adults, assuming the pseudonym Robert Galbraith in an attempt to have her writing viewed independently of the success of the Harry Potter series. Do you have a favourite British writer whom you think should be on this list? Let us know in the comments below! 21 Responses to “A Guide to Britain’s Most Famous Writers Through History” August 27, 2014 at essay in urdu 4:29 pm, Alexia said: A famous british author who I think is missing from the list is Arthur Conan Doyle, creator of the essay of teacher famous character Sherlock Holmes, who I think might be more famous than Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple. Today there are several adaptations of his story, like the BBC tv series Sherlock. January 31, 2015 at 2:14 pm, Megg said: William Somerset Maugham!

July 19, 2015 at 12:56 pm, Young Man said: Oscar Wilde is actually Irish. On Advantages Of Internet! Other than that, I agree with your choices! July 20, 2015 at 11:35 am, ORA Admin said: Good point – we’ve taken him off this list. July 29, 2015 at 2:56 pm, Olaoluwa Segun said:

John Milton, C S Lewis. September 01, 2015 at 9:00 pm, Dr A G Saunders said: I think Austen’s amazing! December 24, 2015 at 10:08 am, Neville Higgins said: July 21, 2016 at 3:24 pm, Ankur Ghosh said: One author which no one has written about is essay of teacher, geoffrey archer. July 21, 2017 at 3:44 pm, sdjjshj said:

January 16, 2016 at 6:26 pm, justme said: No Maugham, really? April 09, 2016 at 2:06 pm, KEL said: i am very satisfied with this but i want to know if a famous writer is also a great writer. May 02, 2017 at 9:48 pm, Louise Peterson said: they wouldn’t be on this list if that weren’t the case. April 24, 2016 at 4:39 pm, Prasad said:

Am I missing something ?? Arthur Conan Doyle ?? July 21, 2016 at 3:21 pm, Ankur Ghosh said: One author i think that must be included in this list is roald dahl. He is undoubtedly one of the greatest authors of all times. Essay On Advantages! Although known primarily for writing childrens book the level of sophistication and twists in gmat of argument his short stories remain unparalleled. No one can say that his stories are monotonous and his stories often reflect the mood and mindset of the essay on advantages of internet british pilots during World War Two. He himself served in the RAF during world war two. And his autobiography Going Solo also gives us a perspective of the war from North Africa. February 08, 2017 at research paper e learning 8:38 am, Barbara smith said: Oscar Wilde stated that although he was born in Ireland he was English by essay on advantages of internet, race, is that true? March 03, 2017 at 6:44 am, Waqas Ahmad said:

Arthur Conan Doyle, P D James, Agatha Christie, and a few others should also be listed. March 19, 2017 at 3:39 am, Jule said: I think that Arthur Conan Doyle really deserves to be on this list. The Sherlock Holmes series is on dignity, a masterpiece in on advantages of internet mystery and crime.In addition the way he winds up the plot is amazing. And Roald Dahl too is deserving of this honour. His imagination is brilliant and gmat, he really knows what the children would like to read. April 27, 2017 at 10:21 pm, Maria G. On Advantages Of Internet In Urdu! Marron said: What about John Milton?

Is Rowling more important than him? I don’t think so.