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Salters OCR Chemistry Coursework …

Ocr salters coursework

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Ocr Salters Chemistry Coursework …

bressay heritage Bressay shelters Lerwick from the east and can be reached by car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the east coast of ocr salters Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and wild flowers. Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the minority essays bustling centre of Lerwick to ocr salters another world. You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and endothermic essay, a profusion of archaeological and historical sites. The east side of the island is sparsely inhabited, a place of peace and quiet where birds and sheep wander undisturbed. The Bressay ferry sails from Albert Buildings in the centre of Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on Friday and ocr salters, Saturday nights. The ferry berths in on first train Bressay right next to ocr salters the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on the culture, history and natural heritage of the island. The centre is open part time from May to September. Much of Bressay is accessible by car on the single-track roads which radiate from the shop and post office at Mail (the place-name means the sands and long pre-dates the Royal Mail).

The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for cars and minority essays, the best way to enjoy the wild east side of the ocr salters coursework island is on foot. The south-eastern corner in particular has some fine walking country but is nowhere more than three miles from the centre of Lerwick. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the on first of travelling North Sea and for many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of refuge for shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in the 17th century. Ocr Salters Coursework. This natural harbour and the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the in a train Ward of Bressay (742'/258m), gave the island special significance from prehistoric times. From the summit, all of Shetland is visible: on a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the coursework natural arch in essays the Gaada Stack on ocr salters, Foula, away to the west, in the Atlantic; to the north-east lie Out Skerries; to the north Ronas Hill and Saxa Vord (Unst); and to the south Sumburgh Head. As our prehistoric and slavery, Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and coursework, from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in February.

Bressay is also home to the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of facilities and treatments are available. There is plenty of birdlife to see in Bressay, including most of the species found in Noss. The south eastern corner of the island includes the Puffin cliffs of the Ord and essay on first experience of travelling in a, has a breeding colony of several hundred Great Skua around the loch at Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and ocr salters, other moorland birds. The Merlin is sometimes seen and occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and autumn bring Bressay its share of migrating birds. Great flocks of Redwing and minority essays, Fieldfare can be seen and the island has some rarities on its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. In winter the lochs are used by parties of up to a dozen Whooper Swans. Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and Goldeneye are common winter visitors.

The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and ocr salters coursework, Common Seal. Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by humans over the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes: The road north from slavery Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in 1724 and noted for its walled gardens. Another little road north passes through the coursework crofting hamlet of Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of willows) and over the hill to the townships of Beosetter and Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is one of the best birdwatching spots in the island, noted for waders, divers and sea ducks. Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and Gunnista is the site of the ruined chapel of St Olaf, with an interesting graveyard. The Bressay Kirk is a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and two handsome memorial tablets to local landlords. For times of services and to view the interior, visitors should contact the minister of Lerwick and minority essays, Bressay Parish Church at St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125). Ocr Salters Coursework. South from the Mail Shop the essay road winds past modern housing at Glebe Park and Fullaburn to the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. Built in 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the light is now automatic. The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation.

In the dramatic geo (cove) below the lighthouse the Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in a 1993 storm. All 60 crew were rescued by the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and Lerwick Lifeboat. Ocr Salters Coursework. The wreck site is now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to character essay on mercutio a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over a ruined broch. Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the ocr salters memorial to minority essays the daughter of ocr salters coursework a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and essay on first experience of travelling, inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered. There is a replica on site but the original is ocr salters coursework, stored in slavery essays the new Museum of Scotland at Edinburgh.

Safety First - Remember, all the cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in the wet. On no account should you attempt to climb them or approach the edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of gulls and terns or you may cause them to desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and tenants of the land have given permission for these recommended walks to be included in this guide, on condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on a leash. The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and wildlife and you are respectfully asked to ocr salters comply with the farmers' and crofters' wishes. Drop by the Bressay Heritage Centre and delve into the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the poetry is not the proper antithesis to prose Burn of Setter is a good place for a close look at the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills.

There are several on this burn and many more throughout Bressay. Ocr Salters. Once an essential part of every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is a restored one in working order at the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. In A. A walk around the west shore of the coursework Voe of Culbinsbrough brings you to endothermic hell essay the old stone and slate quarries in Aith Ness, topped by ocr salters the remains of a six-inch naval gun from the First World War. Like the gun on Bard Head at the southern tip of Bressay, this one was installed in the last year of the war and essay, was never fired in anger. If you have only a little time in Shetland, one of the best ways to sample most of what the islands have to offer is to spend a day on this glorious walk round the uninhabited coast and hills between Noss Sound and the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in some of the coursework wildest scenery in the islands. Follow the tarmac road to Noss Sound and then head south along the coast, past the volcanic vent of the Muckle Hell and its colony of Herring Gulls, until you come to the waterfall below the ruined watermill on the burn from the essay Loch of Grimsetter. The boulder beach of Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore.

At Grutwick there is coursework, a stone cairn erected by the people of Bressay to hell commemorate the bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in November 1997. Turning inland, the deserted hamlet of ocr salters Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Across the anti essays Loch of Grimsetter is the croft of Gorie, an oasis of trees and bushes in ocr salters coursework the hill. South of Wadbister the cliff walk gives superb views of character caves and natural arches, including the remarkable triple arch of the Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for Common Seals. Ocr Salters Coursework. Here too is the ruined medieval settlement of Stobister, where legend has it that the inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the chimneys - perhaps the same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Anti Essays. Walking on past the collapsed sea cave of the Gore's Kirn you come to the breeding territory of Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the wild, lonely loch of Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Beyond are the cliffs of Bard Head and the old WWI gun still standing on its concrete plinth. Ocr Salters Coursework. Two hundred feet (61m) below is the tide race of the Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for Gannets and other seabirds.

From here to the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of southern Shetland. The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of these graceful birds wheeling in the updraft, but here and in on first of travelling in a train many corners of the ocr salters Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and Tysties. From the Ord there's an easy walk down to the lighthouse, through the ruined crofts of Scrana and is not, Daal. Once back on the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and fields to the Lerwick ferry by the Maryfield pub. Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. Ocr Salters. As soon as you set eyes on college service, the mile-long seabird cliffs of ocr salters Noss you can see why the island was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1955: this is one of the most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. At the peak of the breeding season the essay stupendous chorus of around 150,000 birds and chicks is ocr salters, unforgettable - as is the essay in a smell of the guano which stains the cliffs white! In the words of National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is a world-class cliff. Millions of years of wind and ice have honeycombed thousands of nesting ledges in sandstone cliffs up to 592 feet (181m) high. Ocr Salters. As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the preferred size and shape.

Although not the biggest seabird colony in Britain, Noss is the most accessible one, combining very large numbers of birds with a wide variety of endothermic hell essay species and spectacular scenery. The cliffs are only one of the coursework Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and former cultivated land, all of which support other birds and animals. Resident seals and the visiting Otters feed in the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. Is Not The Proper Antithesis To Prose. The spectacle of: festooned over a mile of cliffs, up to 592’ (181m) high, is simply astounding, as is the coursework roar of the mass ‘choir’ parents and chicks. There are two very different ways to experience Noss and minority essays, many visitors choose to do both: Excursion boat from Lerwick. This is easily the best way to view most of the seabird nesting sites at close range (and the only way when the island is closed to visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on ocr salters coursework, Noss. If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into the coves, right alongside the lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into minority essays, the Cave of Noss, with an underwater camera to explore the kelp forest as well. Details of daily sailings from the VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434.

The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the summer season (late April - late August) while the wardens are living on the island. You first take the Bressay ferry from Lerwick, then walk or drive the three miles (5km) across Bressay to Noss Sound where the ferry, a small inflatable boat with an coursework outboard motor, will take you across the poetry is not antithesis to prose narrow sound to ocr salters coursework the Noss landing place at Gungstie. For more information or to book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and slavery essays, giant waves. Ocr Salters. In addition to the proper antithesis its ornithological importance, Noss is also of great geological interest.

It is ocr salters, made of the same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. The cliff face is usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of processes that can attack it. There are three types of weathering: physical (eg. Character On Mercutio. frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and biological (eg. growth of lichen or large amounts of guano). The products of weathering and weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action. This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of other rocks units is easy. The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites.

Noss Sound is a relatively new channel and was probably made by storm waves that breached the sandy spit that once joined Noss to Bressay. A clue is that the name Noss is a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'. If it had been an island when they arrived in the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the coursework fact in their name for the place and it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'. There are physical traces of a gigantic wave along the Bressay coast south of Noss Sound, and also a legend of a clifftop croft washed out by the sea at Stobister. Because the grazing on essay on first in a train, Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the cliff vegetation of Noss is more luxuriant than in more heavily grazed areas, despite the ocr salters coursework plague of rabbits which each winter's cull only just keeps in essay of travelling train check. In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and blue Spring Squill fade, the cliffs present a palette of ocr salters white Sea Campion and Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and anti essays, Roseroot and the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to set off the brown Heather moorland with its patches of ocr salters coursework Cotton Grass, Lousewort and orchids. Slavery. As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Coursework. Place name evidence and the remains of a mediaeval chapel on Big Ness ('promontory of the buildings') suggest that Noss was home to a Celtic Christian community before the poetry is not Viking invasion. What those marauders did to ocr salters coursework the priests in Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined. Essay. From time to time, winter storms shift the sands at coursework Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the ancient graveyard.

The sandy soils around the endothermic hell essay 17th century house at Hametoun were easy to coursework work - and to fertilise with seaweed from beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and barley could grow and the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to make cheese. From the mid-18th century onwards, whenever the tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of that relative prosperity are still visible in the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on Turr Ness - the review traces of ploughing by oxen which were swum across the sound from Bressay at low tide and herded at night in coursework Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at the north end of the big cliffs. In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and anti, oxen. By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at Setter, half way between the low-lying western end of the isle and the cliffs to the east. Ocr Salters. By 1861 the essay on mercutio population peaked at 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the census night in summer lodges at Booth's Voe. From 1871 to 1900 the Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for his County Durham coal mines. A display in coursework the old Pony Pund tells the story of this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the higher cliffs to stop the mares falling over. The stallions were kept in Bressay until required. Successive farming tenants and their families lived year-round in Noss until 1939.

After that it was occupied in summer only until 1969 when the last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and ferryman) gave up the lease. Since 1970 the island has been part of the Garth Estate's home farm and staffed by summer wardens who also provide the ferry service across Noss Sound. Noss is open to visitors during the summer (except on Mondays and character essay on mercutio, Thursdays) and closed in winter (September to mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on the island can visit Noss on any day of the year if the weather is suitable. Ocr Salters Coursework. In the summer season a warden is usually on duty at poetry antithesis the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions. It is also possible to arrange guided tours with groups. If the weather's too bad for the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to cross Noss Sound the wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to coursework avoid disappointment you should check with the slavery VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for ocr salters, Noss.

If going to essay experience of travelling in a train Noss by the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to wear sensible footwear - the ocr salters rocks on both sides of the sound can be slippery. Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the weather on Noss can be very changeable. Visitors' dogs are not welcome. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only essay, photos. Stick to the shore path and don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas. If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps.

Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to deter the skuas - they're only defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom! For more information see the SNH Noss website. Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart. Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland. ZE1 0LL.

Telephone +44 (0)1595 693345.

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Salters Chemistry A2 Coursework Mark Scheme

kubelka munk thesis Improved Acquisition Technique of Underdrawings in ocr salters Oil-Paintings Using IR-Reflectography. Infrared analysis has long been used in the fields of art history and restoration. It can be used to determine the authenticity of artwork or establish the period of an anonymous work. However, the poetry is not the proper antithesis to prose, most commonly used application of infrared radiation in regards to painting analysis is the unmasking of underdrawings.

Infrared analysis provides an easy yet nondestructive means of coursework removing the overlying paint from the is not the proper antithesis to prose, underdrawings of many pieces of art. However, most documented processes have only coursework, made use of infrared imaging, while ignoring the possibilities for a clearer, higher contrast image of an anti, underdrawing by coursework comparing images in the visible and infrared regions. Prior infrared analysis techniques also have been unable to successfully expose portions of underdrawings that are hidden by mediums that reflect infrared radiation. Underdrawings can be found in many works of art from any time period. An underdrawing is a preparatory drawing for a painting sketched directly on a ground.

Underdrawings are typically sketched using charcoal, but artists have been known to also use chalk, pencil, or paint and brush and other media. These underdrawings are later covered with the artist's medium. Underdrawings vary in detail from artist to artist, from simple perspective outlines to detailed sketches. Therefore, an underdrawing can provide much insight into the creative process of an individual artist [1]. The media used by the artist greatly affect whether infrared analysis will be effective. Character Essay. The materials used for the underdrawings must be able to reflect radiation in the infrared region, such as charcoal or graphite. Underdrawings done with red chalk are invisible to infrared and therefore are poor subjects for analysis. Coursework. White chalk sketched on character on mercutio a dark ground has also been found to be difficult to analyze. For infrared analysis to effectively expose an underdrawing it is also necessary for infrared radiation must be able to pass through the paint layer of a piece of art. Using infrared analysis to coursework image an underdrawing also becomes impossible if the on first experience train, pigments have large amounts of energy absorbing carbon. As the thickness of the overlaying paint layer increases, the ability to successfully image the underdrawing is diminished [2].

The optical theory of Kubelka-Munk is coursework needed to understand the interaction of the paints and infrared radiation. Radiation incident on the paint layer is partly absorbed and partly scattered. Scattering of the initial flux causes diffusion of the light. Internal reflectance exists when the diffuse flux reflected from the canvas is the proper then reflected by the under-side of the paint layer [3]. Using Kubelka's work, the reflectance of a uniform paint layer (R) of a certain thickness (X) can be found using the formula: where a and b are defined by ocr salters coursework the equations: where R G is the background of reflectance, S is the scattering coefficient of the is not the proper antithesis to prose, paint layer and K is the absorption coefficient [3]. Therefore the successfulness of exposing the underdrawing is most affected by the scattering power of the paint layer and the thickness of the paint layer. The ability to extract the ocr salters coursework, underdrawing is is not the proper antithesis also affected by the contrast of both layers. As the wavelength of the radiation increases, the coursework, scattering by the particles is reduced. Therefore, at a longer wavelength, the radiation is able to pass through the layers of paint to be reflected or absorbed by college service the underdrawing. Therefore, infrared radiation is capable of passing through the paint layer while visible radiation is ocr salters coursework reflected by it. The limitations of wavelength exist in the thermal IR, at about 5.0 mm [4].

There are some limitations that exist in the Kubelka-Munk theory. Since the character essay, theory assumes that Lambert's law is true, the specular reflectance from the upper side of the film boundary is not considered. This in turn means that the theory would be applicable only if the pigments are contained in a medium with the same index of ocr salters refraction as the surrounding medium [5]. However, since it is only necessary to find an approximation of the relationship of the paint layer thickness to the radiation wavelength, Lambert's law is unimportant [6]. Another assumption is that there is essay review service uniformity of the ocr salters, scattering and absorption coefficients throughout the paint layer, which rarely occurs in older paintings. The absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient are both related to essay service the pigment/medium ratio, or pigment volume concentration. For many paintings, pigments were hand ground and were therefore not uniform in coursework size [5]. The Proper Antithesis To Prose. Again, however, various influences such as the refractive indices of the media and the need for uniformity of particle size can be disregarded because the relationship between thickness and ocr salters wavelength must only be approximated [6]. Minority Essays. Another limitation of the Kubelka-Munk theory is ocr salters coursework that its parameters are dependent on slavery wavelength [5]. Although infrared photography was the first form of coursework infrared analysis to minority essays be applied to paintings, it has now been replaced by infrared reflectography in most instances.

It was discovered in the late 19th century that black and white film normally sensitive to only ultraviolet and visible light could be extended to react to ocr salters infrared light by adding dyes to the silver halide crystals. This obviously lengthens the silver halide crystals, which in essay turn allows the molecules to be sensitive to higher wavelengths. Films that originally were sensitive to coursework a wavelength less than 0.5 m could then respond to wavelengths up to 1.1 m [3]. Unfortunately, this also lowers the character essay on mercutio, upper limit of the film sensitivity, and therefore while the film still remains sensitive to the red and flesh-tone pigments it can no longer penetrate the blues and greens [7]. In any other regard the ocr salters, procedure is similar to the normal photographic process. Infrared false color film introduces a different method. Similar to normal color film, infrared false color film contains three layers. With normal color film, one layer is sensitive to the visible blue region, while another is sensitive to the visible green and a third is sensitive to the visible red.

To allow for detection in the infrared region, the sensitivity of the film must again be shifted. Therefore, while one layer is character essay sensitive to the green band and another is sensitive to the red, the coursework, third is sensitive to the near infrared region. A filter is needed to college review remove blue radiation from the coursework, system, as all three layers are sensitive to it [8]. Obviously, a light source that emits a relatively high concentration of infrared radiation must be used to illuminate the imaged area. Is Not. Tungsten filament lamps, quartz lamps or an average glass bulb can be used to illuminate the imaged area for either method.

Fluorescent lamps are a poor choice as they emit relatively little infrared radiation. The glass covering of the ocr salters, lamp or bulb should always be clear because the phosphorus coating will decrease the college essay service, amount of infrared radiation [2]. There are several limitations of infrared photography. The largest obstacle is that often the entire underdrawing is ocr salters not visible using infrared photography. While the both infrared photography techniques do well in essay in a removing certain colors, they are unable to ocr salters penetrate others. Paintings in reds, whites and browns provide the best results, while blue and some green parts of paintings can not be penetrated using this technique. Therefore, while the underdrawing is usually visible from under the lighter-colored areas, blue and some green areas of the paintings will appear entirely black. Asperen de Boer first developed infrared reflectography in the 1960's using a lead-sulfide detector, which had a peak response of 2 microns. While Asperen de Boer initially used a Barnes T-4 Infrared Camera in his research, he soon switched to an infrared vidicon television system when they became available. Minority Essays. The Barnes T-4 Infrared Camera was originally chosen because of its high response to a region that extended far beyond the area used by infrared photography.

Although satisfactory results were achieved, the Barnes camera also offered several disadvantages, including difficult mirror optics design, heavy and cumbersome instruments, difficulties in analyzing large paintings, and a high cost. The infrared vidicon television system helped to solve these problems [5]. Infrared reflectography using a vidicon tube system soon became the preferred method of ocr salters infrared analysis. Vidicon systems typically have a sensitivity that reaches about 2.0 mm. It was determined that the 1.5 - 2.0 mm region best reveals underdrawings done in chalk, charcoal, metals and inks [4]. In a vidicon tube system, a television camera is fitted with a vidicon tube, which is sensitive to infrared radiation. This is directly connected to a Digital Image Processing system and the resultant image is displayed on a monitor. The same lamps used for infrared photography can be used to minority essays illuminate the imaged area. Filters can be placed in ocr salters front of the imaged area to remove the visible radiation in order to reduce the resolution of the slavery, vidicon tube system [9]. Ocr Salters Coursework. Use of a filter becomes necessary as the thickness of a paint layer increases [3]. However, problems existed with the essay on mercutio, infrared vidicon television system.

The vidicon tube is ocr salters coursework highly sensitive and can easily be damaged by over-exposure. Also, as the tube causes thermal noise as it heats up, and the system can only be operated for periods of about an hour at a time [3]. An infrared reflectography system using a silicon CCD camera was first developed in the 1990's and anti slavery essays is still currently used. Solid state CCD systems can range in sensitivity (typically anywhere in the range of 0.6 to 5.7 mm). A solid state CCD system are better than the ocr salters coursework, vidicon tube system in poetry terms of geometric distortion, signal stability, linearity and coursework MTF. All of minority essays these characteristics improve the overall image quality [10]. Solid state CCD systems are also superior to vidicon tube systems in regards to sensitivity. Ocr Salters Coursework. This is most likely due to a CCD's high light sensitivity, low noise and high contrast that exists at any resolution [11]. Because a video system is restricted to 640x480 pixels, sampling areas of the painting and piecing them together into a mosaic will obtain the best results. Some overlap should exist between the imaged areas is needed for good registration.

Twenty percent has proved to be a sufficient amount of overlap to recognize similar features while still keeping the number of images to a minimum [10]. Unfortunately, this need for a mosaic of images created difficulties. Essay Experience Of Travelling In A Train. Because edges can appear within the result, there is a need for ocr salters coursework near-uniform illumination of the essay review, image space. To eliminate the need for a mosaic, D. Ocr Salters. Bertani's research modified the infrared reflectography technique by making use of a scanning method. The infrared detector used in Bertani's procedure was a simple optical head placed at the center of the image. A pinhole with a diameter of 0.4 mm was then placed in front of the detector so an object area of 0.2 mm could be sampled when the optical magnification was 2:1. A translation system was then used to move the optical head and a small illuminator along the X-Y plane. A personal computer made use of anti a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter to sample and digitize the output signal of the detector. Ocr Salters. An ATVISTA image-processing board then displayed the final result [12]. On First In A. The use of a scanner removed the need for a mosaic and the result was a smoother image that requires less manipulation. It was also found that the image exhibited greater definition and legibility by using the coursework, infrared scanning method [12].

Infrared reflectography is able to alleviate some of the problems found in infrared photography. The greatest advantage is the increased sensitivity of infrared reflectography systems over on mercutio infrared photography systems. Therefore, while an underdrawing will still remain hidden under most blue areas of a painting, the ocr salters, underdrawing is now visible in all green areas of the painting. Other advantages of infrared reflectography over infrared photography include speed and the ease of use. The film used in infrared photography must be exposed up to half an hour before developing, where the results from infrared reflectography are nearly instantaneous.

Another drawback to character essay infrared photography is photographs and film will deteriorate with age. However, the final result in infrared reflectography is digital, and as a result images captured using this method will not degrade over ocr salters coursework time. Also, details can be manipulated and enhanced using infrared reflectography. Overall, an infrared reflectography system is less expensive than one for infrared photography [3]. Despite improvements, there are still limitations to the infrared reflectography method. Minority Essays. The most difficult of these problems is that this method is still unable to ocr salters penetrate blue areas of the painting.

A related problem is that this method is unable to expose parts of an underdrawing covered by a medium that absorbs and reflects infrared radiation. The use of filters requires the illumination level of the imaged area to be increased. It is necessary for the X-Y translation of the character on mercutio, object on a plane that is perpendicular to the camera. Images can still appear grayish and may therefore have poor contrast. Optical and geometrical distortions can be caused by the camera and must therefore be taken into account by the software when analyzing the data. However, the ocr salters coursework, interpolation utilized by the software to correct these problems can also create errors and artifacts in the resulting image [12].

Image B.1: Visible Image of a Sample. Image B.2: Infrared Image of a Sample. Although most infrared analysis research dealt with only the capture of an infrared image, there have been a few studies in which Digital Image Processing techniques have been used to analyze the data. J. Coddington made use of several digital image processing techniques, including contrast enhancement and histogram modifications, to obtain a larger amount of useful information from digitized infrared images. For this study, Coddington used an infrared reflectography - vidicon system to poetry the proper antithesis capture infrared images. Coddington was then able to use the software package, Mosart, and software included with the Matrox 1024b PIP digitizing board to coursework mosaic and to accomplish several manipulations to enhance the image. It was found that the fragments of on first experience of travelling underdrawings became more visible after expanding the images' histograms [13]. Image B.3: Enhanced Contrast of Infrared Image (Image B.2) The technique that is proposed by this research draws from many of these previous studies.

For this research, the infrared reflectography - CCD camera method was used. The CCD camera captured images of the underdrawing in both the visible and infrared regions. Coursework. In order to uncover the underdrawing, approximations of the endothermic essay, Kubelka-Munk theory were applied to compare the differences between the ocr salters coursework, two images. It was expected that this process would be able to uncover an underdrawing even when behind a medium that is able to reflect infrared radiation. By doing so, this method was expected to offer the best of the previously described procedures; it allows for the entire underdrawing to character on mercutio be visible and will offer higher contrast by ocr salters coursework using differences between images captured in character essay the visible and infrared regions rather than relying on solely an infrared image. An understanding of the optical theory of Kubelka-Munk is necessary to determine the ocr salters coursework, interaction of poetry is not the proper antithesis paint with light, or more specifically for this case the differences between the ocr salters, interaction of paint with visible radiation versus the interaction of paint with infrared radiation. The light flux incident on a paint layer is partly absorbed and partly scattered. The flux that is neither absorbed nor scattered by the surface of the paint is able to penetrate the paint layer.

Diffusion of the light is created by the initial scattering and the re-scattering of the penetrating flux [5]. Internal reflectance exists when the diffuse flux is reflected by the ground and then by character essay the under-side of the paint layer [3]. Image T.1: Interaction of Light with Paint Layer and ocr salters Ground. The exact fractions of the light that are scattered and absorbed are defined by the coefficients S and service K, respectively. Both of these coefficients are directly dependent on the thickness of the coursework, paint layer, which is defined by the variable x. The absorption coefficient and on mercutio the scattering coefficient also vary with regards to the pigments used in a paint. The difference between the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient can be found by the equation: If a paint layer has a black background, it can be considered to be perfectly absorbing. Therefore, the reflectance of this layer of coursework paint with a finite thickness is found to be a function of the the proper to prose, scattering coefficient: where a and b are defined by the equations: Unfortunately, this ideally simplified equation does not usually exist for most situations. However, by using Kubelka's work varying absorption can be considered when determining the ocr salters coursework, reflectance of a uniform paint layer of a certain thickness through the college review service, use of the following formula: where a and ocr salters coursework b are defined by the equations: where R G is the ground reflectance, S is the scattering coefficient of the paint layer and K is the absorption coefficient [3]. When an underdrawing exists, the background of a paint layer will have two distinctly different reflectances, R B (background reflectance of the underdrawing) and R W (background reflectance of the ground).

As the antithesis, paint layer reflectance is coursework dependent on the background reflectance, the college review, paint layer will also exhibit two distinctly different reflectances. Coursework. The contrast-ratio between these two paint layer reflectances is hell essay therefore found to be: where R pB is the paint layer reflectance of the underdrawing and R pG is the paint layer reflectance of the ground. Ocr Salters Coursework. To obtain a certain contrast-ratio the layer thickness must equal the value X D . The contrast-ratio can then be found using the equation: The value X D is known as the hiding thickness. Therefore, an imaging system is able to differentiate between the background reflectance of the underdrawing and the background reflectance of the ground when the paint layer thickness is less than the hiding thickness [5]. To expose the underdrawing of a painting, the above equation must be solved for the background reflectance of the underdrawing (R B ). Two distinct models were used to approximate the Kubelka-Munk equation. While the exact fractions of the light that are scattered or absorbed are dependent on the thickness of the minority essays, paint layer, the paint layer thickness can be disregarded because it is coursework infinitesimally small for this case. In the equations, P VIS (x, y) defines the essay, visible image and P IR (x, y) defines the infrared image, while the resulting underdrawing image is defined as P UD (x, y).

The variables S and K correspond to the scattering and coursework absorption coefficients. Anti. Both equations used a scaling and shifting factor (X 1 and X 2 , respectively). Therefore, an increase in ocr salters coursework the value of essay in a train X 1 would create an increase in the contrast of the image, while an increase in the value of X 2 would cause an increase in the total brightness of the ocr salters coursework, image. These equations are: Each sample was created using a swatch of canvas approximately 2 by 2 square. Each swatch was prepped by sketching a design on essay on first in a the surface using an artist's charcoal pencil. A thin coating of flake-white oil-based paint was then applied to conceal this sketch.

Flake-white oil-based paint was chosen for this research because its index of refraction is approximately equal to the index of refraction for linseed oil. Ocr Salters Coursework. This can be partly attributed to the lead found in flake-white. Had it been necessary to use linseed oil to thin the paint, the choice of flake-white paint would have cut out a needless calculation. It has also been determined that lead white paint is the most common admixture found in oil paintings [5]. After the paint dried, a second sketch was applied to the surface. The second sketch always had a different orientation than the first. This was necessary to poetry is not antithesis help determine. Image M.1: Preparation of Samples. For these samples, the original sketch simulated the underdrawing while the oil-based paint and second sketch would simulate the overlying paint layer of a piece of art. The second sketch is coursework of particular interest as previous methods of character on mercutio infrared analysis were unable to remove it. For this research, a Cohu CCD camera was connected to a 386 clone PC with a standard black and coursework white video monitor.

This CCD camera was used because of its sensitivity to a high range of wavelengths, specifically for the visible and infrared regions. A round fluorescent tube, which fit around the camera lens, was used as a source of illumination. Although this lamp wasn't necessary to produce solid results, it helped to create equal illumination across the poetry the proper antithesis to prose, image. A large tungsten light source was added to increase the amount of infrared radiation reaching the camera. The software program IMLAB was used to capture and save the image. This setup was used to obtain two images of each sample: one in the visible and the other in the infrared. Samples were first imaged in the visible region.

A Kodak Wratten filter 87C then needed to be placed directly in front of the camera lens to capture an infrared image of the sample. The images were analyzed and ocr salters compared using both a Visual Basic program and MathCAD 7.0. For both, approximations of the Kubelka-Munk theory were used to simulate the scattering and absorption of light caused by the oil-based paint layer. These approximations, as noted in essay on first the Theory section, are: For each set of infrared and visible images, the values of S and K were adjusted until the underdrawing was exposed as much as possible. Ocr Salters. The variable X 1 was used to adjust the contrast of the image as needed while the variable X 2 was used to increase the overall brightness of the resulting image. It was determined through the analysis of endothermic hell essay five samples that both approximations appeared to work equally well to expose the underdrawing from the ocr salters coursework, layers above. Further, it was found that no single value for the scattering coefficient worked equally well for all the essay, samples tested. It was similarly found that no single value for the absorption coefficient appeared to exist.

Image R.1: Visible Image of a Sample. Image R.2: Infrared Image of ocr salters coursework a Sample. Image R.3: Enhanced Contrast of Infrared Image (Image R.2) Image R.4: Exposed Underdrawing Using Approximation Equation #1. Image R.5: Exposed Underdrawing Using Approximation Equation #2. Image R.6: Enhanced Contrast of Exposed Underdrawing Using Approximation Equation #1. Image R.7: Enhanced Contrast of Exposed Underdrawing Using Approximation Equation #2. As can be seen from the images above, both Images R.4 and R.5 have the overdrawing (horizontal lines) and paint layer removed while allowing for the underdrawing remain. Endothermic Hell Essay. This is clearly an improvement over coursework the infrared image (Image R.2). As mentioned before, most other methods have stopped their analysis with the capture of an image in the infrared region. Some will also perform minimal digital image processing such as increasing the contrast of the image.

The greatest difference between the infrared image and the approximation images is that the charcoal overdrawing can be removed by the approximation equations. An unfortunate problem that exists with this type of research is that it is difficult to determine an acceptable quantitative method to determine the effectiveness of these equations. Qualitatively, it should be obvious that the analysis of differences between the infrared and visible images using an approximation of Kubelka-Munk offers improvement over prior infrared reflectography methods. Although error could have been caused by several sources during this research, there is essay no question that the greatest possibility for error lies in the handling of the Kodak Wratten filter 87C. This filter needed to be placed directly against the camera lens in order to allow only infrared radiation to enter the camera when capturing an infrared image. As no suitable device was available to ocr salters coursework hold the filter in a position close to the camera lens, it was necessary to hold the filter by hand. It was impossible to essay review service use both hands to keep the filter firmly in place, as one hand was needed to capture the image. Because the filter was flimsy, it is possible for the filter to have bent while being held in place, allowing some visible light to enter the camera lens. It is unlikely that the amount of stray visible light remained the same for each infrared image.

As a result, it is possible that while there is some continuity between images captured in coursework the visible region, no continuity exists between images captured in endothermic the infrared region. The amount of stray visible light would not have been enough to seriously alter the final outcome of the results, namely, the possibility of uncovering the underdrawing. However, stray visible light illuminating the infrared image would change the values for the scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient for each set of infrared and visible images. Therefore, this possibility of stray visible radiation entering the camera while capturing an infrared image could then explain why no single value for the scattering coefficient or the absorption coefficient could be found. It is also possible that each set of infrared and visible images were not aligned with each other. The infrared and visible images for each sample could not be captured simultaneously or in rapid succession because a filter had to be placed into to the system in order to obtain the infrared image. As a result, any movement of the camera or sample during the time between the ocr salters, capture of the images would cause the infrared and visible images for that sample to be out of registration with each other. The possibility of this occuring was again magnified by essays the fact that the filter had to be inserted into the system manually. The camera aperture had to be manually opened for ocr salters the infrared image due to the limited amount of radiation passing through the filter. The camera or the table could have been jarred in either instance, causing the images to be out of registration.

The results obtained by this research indicate that it is possible to expose a larger portion of the underdrawing by using approximations of the Kubelka-Munk theory to evaluate the infrared and visible radiation reflected by poetry is not antithesis to prose a painting. However, there still are several limitations associated with this form of analysis. The proposed incorporation of Kubelka-Munk theory into infrared analysis does nothing to help expose an underdrawing if the underdrawing is composed of a medium that does not reflect infrared radiation. The probability of an exposed underdrawing also decreases if the overlying layer that reflects infrared radiation is of the same orientation as the underdrawing. The method will be unable to reveal the coursework, underdrawing if the entire paint layer is composed of a medium that reflects infrared radiation. It is essay review service obvious errors did exist in this research. However, those errors did not affect the ability of this research to expose an underdrawing nor do they belie the fact that this form of analysis is an improvement over ocr salters coursework previous methods. Similarly, simple steps can be taken to remove these errors from future use of this method. Stray visible light can be removed from the character essay on mercutio, system by developing a method to seal the filter tightly around the camera lens. This could be accomplished by constructing a border around the filter out of ocr salters coursework a material such as cardboard.

This border would help to prevent the filter from bending while being held against the camera lens. College Essay Service. If additional money is available an automated method could be developed to place the filter in front of the camera lens. Ocr Salters. By removing the need to essay of travelling in a train manually introduce the filter into the system both the possibility of stray visible light and jarring of the equipment would be reduced. Anchoring the camera with more than one support would help to reduce the possibility of lack of registration. Placing the computer system on a separate table could also prevent any jarring of the camera equipment or sample. The implication of coursework this research is clear.

The fact that approximations of the Kubelka-Munk theory offer a better image of the underdrawing suggests that an algorithm of the Kubelka-Munk theory should be developed for the evaluation of underdrawings in oil paintings. By evaluating an underdrawing using a derivation of the Kubelka-Munk theory it is likely a greater portion of an underdrawing will be revealed.

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essay on chinatown Film Guide to Chinatown (1974) by Mark Graves, SUNY Fredonia. United States. English. Color. 131 minutes. Available: VCR and DVD. Director: Roman Polanski. Screenplay: Robert Towne, Roman Polanski (uncredited)

Cinematography: John A. Coursework? Alonzo. Editing: Sam O'Steen. Original music: Jerry Goldsmith. Production design: Richard Sylbert. Costume design: Anthea Sylbert. Producers: Robert Evans, C.O. Essay On First Train? Erickson.

Jack Nicholson (Jake Gittes) Faye Dunaway (Evelyn Cross Mulwray) John Huston (Noah Cross) Perry Lopez (Lieutenant Lou Escobar) John Hillerman (Russ Yelburton) Darrell Zwerling (Hollis Mulwray) Diane Ladd (Ida Sessions/Evelyn Mulwray Imposter) Roy Jenson (Claude Mulvihill)

Roman Polanski (cameo as man with knife) Joe Mantell (Walsh) Bruce Glover (Duffy) Belinda Palmer (Katherine Cross) Burt Young (Curly) Jake Gittes is an L.A. private eye who specializes in matrimonial strife and infidelity. He is called upon by a woman who falsely identifies herself as Evelyn Mulwray, wife of wealthy landowner and ocr salters coursework, city water commissioner Hollis Mulwray.

The imposter has Gittes spy on character essay, her husband to coursework find out if he is having an affair. Jake takes some pictures of Hollis with a young lady, but the photos are stolen and essay review service, published, as a publicity attack on an already unpopular Hollis. (L.A. Ocr Salters? is in the middle of a water shortage as the result of poetry the proper to prose, a drought, and coursework, Hollis has become something of a scapegoat for the angry public.) Gittes soon comes to understand how he has been used, when the real Mrs. Mulwray appears in his office with her lawyer, trying to character essay defend her husband's reputation. However, when Hollis Mulwray is found murdered down by coursework, an L.A. river the next day, Mrs. Mulwray hires him to find the killer. Jake gradually uncovers a plot to buy unwatered land for low prices, divert the city's water supply in order to water the essay land, and ocr salters coursework, then sell the minority essays land off for millions of dollars. The plot is masterminded by Noah Cross, Evelyn's father and Hollis' one-time business partner, who has a vast network of ocr salters, corrupt city officials and landowners backing him up. While Gittes continues to unravel the details of this scandal, he falls for minority essays the recently-widowed Mrs. Mulwray, and slowly becomes aware of a second scandal involving the personal lives of her, her father, and the mysterious young lady he saw with Hollis. In the end, Jake's struggle to uncover the truth leads him into ocr salters, Chinatown (the site of a past failure during his years as a cop), and eventually results in essay on mercutio Mrs.

Mulwray's death at the hands of the ocr salters coursework corrupt L.A. Experience In A? police. Noah Cross wins, and Gittes walks away defeated. Summary of Critical Reviews. Cocks, Jay. Lost Angelenos, Time , 1 July 1974: 42. In talking about ocr salters coursework Chinatown , Cocks continually refers to a predecessor in the private-eye genre: writer Raymond Chandler, and his own fictional detective Philip Marlowe. He does this by making Chandler's stories the standard by which this film is measured. He cites the poetry is not to prose movie's main strength as its setting, a 1930s Los Angeles which closely matches reality, or at least the most common images associated with that era, ranging from the standard joke, six suburbs in search of a city to Marlowe's description, a big dry sunny place with ugly homes and no style. Ocr Salters? In contrast, Cocks describes the characters as shallow and unrealistic, once again naming Marlowe as the model of what Jake Gittes should be.

While Cocks is minority essays, correct about the way Jack Nicholson's and Faye Dunaway's acting do not meet the stereotypical roles of private eye and femme fatale, he has missed the ocr salters point: they're not supposed to. College Essay Review? Each character trait that Cocks calls a shortcoming (from Nicholson's simplicity to Dunaway's feigned elegance) is not only intentional, but is also an integral part of the overall image being built in this movie. Gilliatt, Penelope. Private Nose, The New Yorker , 1 July 1974: 70. Gilliatt's short review is almost sickeningly positive; there is not a negative phrase within it, as she applauds Chinatown for everything from its wittiness to its characterization and coursework, even Gittes' wardrobe. This overbearing praise is almost nauseating, a feeling which is augmented by her fascination with word games (both her own and the film's characters', particularly Noah Cross's). Also somewhat annoying is her obsession with pointing out all of Polanski's hidden jokes and slavery essays, oblique farce, some of which are not quite believable in terms of their effectiveness or the probability of coursework, their actually having been intended by director Roman Polanski; she at one point suggests that Noah Cross's name is derived from the poetry the proper way an actor feigning a Chinese accent might say no cross me.

The review also contains some very long, fragmented sentences and several distracting, irrelevant side comments (one of the few complete pairs of pajamas I have seen in the last twenty years) which do not make it a smooth read. Coursework? All of these factors in combination do not give the slavery impression of its being a very credible review. Zimmerman, Paul D. Blood and Water, Newsweek , 1 July 1974: 74. Although Zimmerman's review is also predominantly acclaim of the ocr salters coursework movie, it is much more convincing because of the on mercutio depth of his observations. He identifies Polanski's title and setting as not only appropriate choices for the action, but also as a clever and effective metaphor for ocr salters coursework the moral climate that he believes is Polanski's real underlying theme in this work: the Byzantine corruption and decadence of the 1970s. He makes further insightful and congratulatory comments on endothermic essay, Nicholson's and Dunaway's abilities to adapt their usual acting styles to meet their assigned characters, and coursework, also on Polanski's success at developing meaningful messages and parallels (like the one between a dam scandal in a fictional 1950s L.A. and the then-volatile Watergate scandal in real-life 1970s D.C.) despite the difficulty of adhering to the limitations of the gumshoe genre. Berardinelli, James. Chinatown. ReelViews . 2001.

James Berardinelli. Accessed 11 March 2002 . Berardinelli's opinion of Chinatown is minority essays, that its success is born of the fact that it is the exception to ocr salters so many rules and expectations. Not only does he cite this movie as the high-water point in the careers of both lead-actor Jack Nicholson and director Roman Polanski, but also dubs it the finest color entry into the film noir genre. His main point is that the film takes all of the is not cliches and conventions of the stereotypical private-investigator movie and re-works them to give the story life and depth, establishing expectations early on and then breaking them as the plot unfolds. In keeping with this same line of thought, Berardinelli's one key disagreement with all three of the earlier reviews is his statement of how unrealistic Polanski's 1930s L.A. is ocr salters coursework, (calling it the exaggerated stuff of dreams and movies). While this statement fits well into his argument (as another example of Polanski playing with the norms), one has to doubt the accuracy and/or credibility of such a statement, seeing as how Berardinelli is the most recent of the four reviewers and poetry is not antithesis, therefore the ocr salters least likely to have actually experienced the '30s firsthand. In 1968 Polish-born film director Roman Polanski first came to Hollywood where he easily gained a reputation with the psychological thriller Rosemary's Baby.

However, after the brutal murder of his wife Sharon Tate by the infamous Charles Manson gang in 1969, Polanski decided to return to college review Europe. Chinatown marked Polanski's 1974 return to the USA, and seemed to foreshadow a promising Hollywood career in store for him. Coursework? but after his conviction for the statutory rape of a 13-year old girl, Polanski once again fled from America, this time in order to avoid imprisonment. (IMDb, Roman Polanski) Polanski has a cameo in the movie: he is the hood who slits Jake's nose. This scene was actually extremely complex to film, and Polanski and Nicholson both got so tired of minority essays, explaining how it was done that they simply began to claim Nicholson's nose was actually cut. Coursework? (IMDb, Trivia) Writer Robert Towne originally intended Chinatown to have a happy ending. However, during pre-production Polanski and Towne argued over minority essays it, with Polanski insisting on a tragic ending. Polanski won the argument and, when the picture was re-released in 1999, Towne admitted that he had been wrong. (IMDb, Trivia) With Chinatown , Robert Towne won the 1975 Oscar for Best Writing - Original Screenplay.

Other 1975 Oscar Nominations for Chinatown were: Roman Polanski for Best Director; Jack Nicholson for coursework Best Actor in a Leading Role; Faye Dunaway for Best Actress in a Leading Role; Jerry Goldsmith for Best Music-Original Dramatic Score; Robert Evans for Best Picture; John A Alonzo for Best Cinematography; W. Stewart Campbell, Ruby R. Levitt, and Richard Sylbert for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration; Anthea Sylbert for Best Costume Design; Charles Grenzbach and Larry Jost for Best Sound; and Sam O'Steen for Best Film Editing. Essays? The film fared better, actually, in the British Academy Awards; Robert Towne again won for Best Screenplay, joined this time by Roman Polanski for Best Direction and Jack Nicholson for ocr salters coursework Best Actor. The trio also won Golden Globes that year, with the college review film as a whole winning the award for Best Motion Picture - Drama. (IMDb, Awards) Chinatown was actually the first part of a planned trilogy written by Robert Towne about Jake Gittes and coursework, Los Angeles. The second part, The Two Jakes , was directed by essay on first, Nicholson in ocr salters 1990. Neither Towne nor Nicholson won any awards for this sequel. (IMDb, Trivia) Los Angeles, the setting for Chinatown , was actually one of the filming locations: Gittes spies on Mulwray while he is boating at Echo Park Lake. The other filming locations were all still in California: Avalon, Catalina Island; Big Tujunga Wash at Foothill Boulevard, Sunland; Canyon Drive, Hollywood; South Oakland Avenue, Pasadena; and Point Fermin, San Pedro (this last location is where Gittes' nose is sliced). (IMDb, Filming Locations) Jake Gittes was named after Nicholson's friend, a producer named Harry Gittes. (IMDb, Trivia)

Some odd items are included in antithesis to prose the contents of Ida Sessions' pocketbook when Jake Gittes rummages through it, specifically a $2 bill and a Screen Actors Guild membership card. (IMDb, Trivia) The central conspiracy in ocr salters coursework Chinatown is actually based on a real historical event: the 1908 Owne River Valley Scandal. The name of the film's Water and Power Engineer, Hollis Mulwray, is a play on the name of the real-life head of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power during that scandal, William Mulholland (1855-1935). Mulholland brought the Owne River to the San Fernando Valley after cheating its residents out of their land. Robert Towne got much of hell, his information regarding this scandal from Carey McWilliams' interpretive history entitled Southern California Country, an Island on coursework, the Land. (Ebert) Jerry Goldsmith scored the film for an odd combination of instruments: two harps, one trumpet, a string section, and four pianos. The reason for using four pianos is that Goldsmith had the players use them in is not the proper antithesis to prose four different ways throughout the film: one was a standard performance piano, one was intentionally detuned, one was played by ocr salters coursework, the strings inside the piano (instead of by the keys), and one was prepared (a technique where the essay of travelling train sounds produced are altered by ocr salters coursework, placing various objects on the strings while playing). (Davis, 58) The very name of the Roman Polanski's Chinatown is misleading.

Without looking at a cast list or reading a review, you might even expect this to be another contribution to anti slavery essays the massive martial arts genre, permeated with Oriental culture (or cliches thereof) and consisting of a string of endless fight scenes with some sort of loose plot leading from one to the next. Even upon digging as deep as the videocassette sleeve and discovering that Jack Nicholson plays an L.A. Coursework? private investigator opposite femme fatale Faye Dunaway, you could still be quick to write this off as another murder-mystery flick. Of Travelling? At the coursework very least, you would assume the essay experience of travelling in a train story actually takes place in the Chinatown district of ocr salters, L.A. These, however, are just the first round of falsehoods and fallacies you would encounter in the course of viewing this deceptive 1974 film. Chinatown , generally considered to be a revival of the film noir genre that dominated America cinema from the mid 1940s to the mid 1950s (Cook, 449-453), bears much resemblance to the classic private eye films that precede it. Jake Gittes (Nicholson) appears to be of the character on mercutio same brand of hard-boiled independent vigilante we are used to seeing in Sam Spade, Phillip Marlowe, and even Lieutenant Columbo. Ocr Salters? Gittes is an ex-cop who felt the need to operate outside the confines of the insincere and ineffective police department, and now earns his living gathering evidence for paying clients. Minority Essays? For a while, his role in the film is also consistent with that of the archetypal sleuth; he serves to gradually reveal small pieces of coursework, a larger puzzle that eventually all fall into endothermic hell essay, place, at which point the mystery is solved and the finger is pointed at the bad guy. The film even contains all the other typical players in your standard whodunnit mystery plot: the seductive femme fatale Evelyn Mulwray (Dunaway), the ocr salters coursework always-suspicious antagonist Noah Cross (John Huston), the uncooperative lawman Lieutenant Lou Escobar (Perry Lopez), the inevitable murder victim Hollis Mulwray (Darrell Zwerling), and the tough henchman Claude Mulvihill (Roy Jenson; also a nameless knife-wielding thug played by Polanski himself).

The classic recipe has, in its simplest form, been fulfilled. Poetry Is Not The Proper To Prose? (Man, 139-142) The success of Chinatown , however, lies in the ways in which it transcends the stock murder-mystery story. Even from the start, Gittes does not match the image of past private-eyes. Instead of the ocr salters sparsely-furnished hole-in-the-wall office you would expect, Gittes works in an environment of style: an office building with brand-new venetian blinds in every room, three-piece designer suits and well-groomed facial features, a full liquor cabinet, and a small paid staff (two operatives and a secretary) at his command; certainly not the humble character usually associated with the gumshoe image. Poetry Is Not To Prose? The irony of this clean-cut first impression, though, is obvious to the point of being humorous, as our first indication of Gittes's dirty line of ocr salters coursework, work comes from racy pictures being flipped through by slavery, his distraught client Curly; Gittes is a muckraker, earning his living by ocr salters coursework, taking pictures of essay of travelling train, people engaged in extramarital affairs to ocr salters coursework support his clients' divorce cases. By engaging in such low-brow activities in order to elevate his personal appearance to high-class, Gittes has shattered the on first in a train wall of morality that usually separates the private-eye from the world he must investigate; he has bought right into commercial culture and become consumed by the same amoral greed that grips everyone else (Man, 140, 144). Coursework? This image foreshadows Gittes' inability to fulfill the role of the ingenious private investigator when a real issue arises, because he is not distanced enough from the minority essays outside world to appropriately observe or change it. One could surmise, even, that Gittes is on some level aware of ocr salters coursework, this shortcoming, since he shows great reluctance to endothermic even tackle the simplest stage of investigation with regards to ocr salters the high-profile water commissioner Hollis Mulwray; when a woman posing as Mulwray's wife hires Gittes to investigate him for evidence of adultery, Gittes instinctively tries to sidestep it by advising the poetry the proper antithesis woman to let the matter go if she truly loves her husband.

Gittes, already as blind as he is to the whole situation, can perhaps already sense that he's getting in over his head. Chinatown 's reliance on coursework, murder-mystery cliches that get broken down is so effective, in on mercutio fact, that Gittes himself can not escape the pre-established illusion. Ocr Salters? Gittes's primary downfall is that he is actually trying to live within the cliches, because the cliches are all he understands. The truth is on mercutio, continually clouded for him because he is always trying to fit new clues and information into predetermined categories that lead to ocr salters coursework given stock scenarios: Mulwray's involvement with the young girl must be adultery (he's really her stepfather), Mulwray's murder must have been committed by Evelyn out of jealousy (despite all the evidence regarding his death as a way to keep the water scandal from getting out), the hidden Katherine must be a kidnapped murder witness (she's really being hidden from Cross by her protective mother/sister), the union between Evelyn and her father Noah Cross must have been rape (really just another of Cross's manipulative deeds, leading his daughter into sensual pleasures in an otherwise bleak existence), and is not antithesis to prose, Cross's water scandal must be about material greed (instead of the power trip Cross has proven his lust for on countless occasions). Gittes falls into this trap more often than even the film's audience does (Man, 144-145). He can't even view himself correctly; he is surprised when Evelyn calls him innocent (Slade, 91).

Gittes tries so hard to fit the mold of the ideal detective, that he instead makes himself out to be a bumbling clown, an ocr salters coursework image made complete by the nose bandage he wears for most of the anti slavery film; his lifestyle has made him far too innocent, so that he misperceives things continually (Lev, 56). Gittes' physical appearance, at ocr salters the beginning and throughout the slavery essays course of the film, runs parallel to that of Chinatown 's 1930's L.A. Both are visually appealing on ocr salters, the surface. Southern California's weather is bright and sunny, the anti slavery essays people are all as well-groomed as Gittes, and the general look of things in the early scenes of the film is clean and colorful. But, as with Gittes, all of L.A.'s dirt is beneath the surface, corrupting the city from within. This hidden ugliness seeping out into the city from ocr salters coursework, its core is character essay, represented by a gradual shift of the visual representations of both the scenery and coursework, of Gittes himself.

The lighting gets progressively darker as time passes, and the previously unspoiled appearance becomes soured. When Gittes's nose gets sliced by character, the Roman Polanski character, ruining his pristine and unlined face, it is almost simultaneous with the ruining of the face of L.A. (Lev, xxi, 55); the same connection can be made of the flaw in Evelyn Mulwray's eye, which Jake discovers while alone with her in her stylish mansion. The discovery of ocr salters, each other's physical flaws - his sliced nose and her flawed eye - is a key moment in the film, for endothermic hell (at least) two reasons. First off, this unfolding of their imperfections leads them to bed, much the same way that the movie as a whole suggests settling into sensual pleasures and personal luxury in light of the hopelessness of morals and prosocial action against the mass corruption in capitalist society. Chinatown is markedly ant-icapitalist, showing without a doubt that money has far more power than government. Even Marxism is more hopeful in ocr salters coursework its message, suggesting an alternative solution, but this movie indicates there is essay on mercutio, no solution; an individual is far better off serving his own interests and minding his own business than trying to beat the system (Lev, xxi, 58-59) The scene where Gittes discovers the flaw in Evelyn's eye is also key because of the attention it brings to vision as a central theme in the movie. It is a particularly ironic discovery because Gittes is the one with the consistently flawed vision.

Another literal occurrence of this theme is the key piece of evidence Jake finds that eventually leads him to Noah Cross as Hollis Mulwray's killer: a pair of glasses in the pool behind Evelyn's house. But there are far more non-literal examples of ocr salters, this theme: the superficial cleanliness of L.A. and of Chinatown 's characters, the snooping and spying that Gittes does to earn his living, and on first experience of travelling in a, Gittes' continual blindness to the truth. Another sight reference is ocr salters, Cross's gigantic vision of character essay, incorporating the coursework San Fernando Valley into Los Angeles, which Gittes never fully perceives. Gittes' shortsightedness comes into play one last time in the closing sequence of the film: his faith in the law force that he has quit is still so strong (despite all his external convictions about its powerlessness and his continual defiance of its mandates) that he trusts that they can fix everything at the end once they hear the truth from hell, his mouth (Slade, 91). Coursework? Despite everything he has witnessed, Gittes is still surprised by Evelyn's desperate cry, He OWNS the police! And, just as they did in experience of travelling his days as a Chinatown cop, the police force lets him down by killing and convicting the wrong person - Evelyn Mulwray - so that Cross goes unharmed (Man, 145). This recurring vision motif plays itself out once again in ocr salters coursework the final scene of the film, with Evelyn bleeding from her eye after she is shot to hell essay death, and Cross covering the young Katherine's eyes to shield her from Evelyn's death (and lead her away into ocr salters, his world, where she is probably doomed to repeat the life of her mother/sister before her). The water scandal in Chinatown , made in 1974, can be seen to stand for such then-current issues as they OPEC oil cartel, the Agnew bribery, and, most obviously, the Watergate scandal.

The association of the threat from water motif with the fragility of anti, human existence is a common archetype in movies. The motif usually involves physical danger or death, whether in the form of murder by drowning ( The Parallax View ), shipwreck disaster ( The Poseidon Adventure , Titanic ), or creatures from the sea ( Jaws , 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea ). Here, it is a deeper form of coursework, fragility; the whole city is falling prey to a behind-the-scenes political/business scandal. Even the man perpetrating the scandal, Noah Cross, has a sort of moral fragility that allows the greed and power from the scandal to consume him. Cross thinks he is college review, doing good in all his evils; in his mind, he is helping L.A. by coursework, expanding it into essay on mercutio, the valley and coursework, bringing it to the water, and he is on first experience train, protecting and raising Katherine like a good father should. What even he doesn't see, in all his power and influence, is that his treatment of Evelyn and Katherine is an extension of his exploitation of the ocr salters coursework business world - the water scandal - to a more personal/intimate/sexual level (Lev, xxi, 54, 56-58). In the anti slavery end, we finally see why Chinatown is named as it is, despite the ocr salters fact that only the last five minutes or so takes place in that location. The Chinatown district's lawlessness and political immunity has extended to encompass all of L.A. (Slade, 91), and essay on mercutio, its inscrutability due to prevailing ignorance (of its dominant foreign [Oriental] culture, as demonstrated by Gittes's' tasteless Chinaman joke from the barber shop) has extended to encompass human existence as a whole.

Rendered virtually helpless to change all this, Gittes causes Evelyn's death by meddling in things he can't understand or control (Lev, xxi, 57). Gittes' failure to ocr salters save Evelyn and essay review, Katherine is a reenactment of an earlier failure during his career as a cop in Chinatown - driving home the futility of an coursework individual trying to beat the prevailing evil in the world around us (Man, 142-143). Hence the big picture is this: Chinatown intentionally alludes to the classic gumshoe genre - basically saying wouldn't it be nice if all man's evils were actually that simple? - and then capsizes those established expectations as a way of on mercutio, portraying the loss of faith in American society (Man, 139). How should we, the ocr salters audience, respond to this? Perhaps it should be the same way Gittes's operative Walsh does with the is not the proper movie's closing statement: Forget it. it's Chinatown. Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film , 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1996. Davis, Richard. Complete Guide to Film Scoring . Ed. Jonathan Feist.

Boston: Berklee Press, 1999. Ebert, Roger. Chinatown . The Chicago Sun-Times . 6 February 2000. Accessed 11 March 2002 . The Internet Movie Database. Accessed 8 April 2002: Awards: Chinatown (1974) Filming Locations for Chinatown (1974) Roman Polanski Trivia for Chinatown (1974)

Lev, Peter. Ocr Salters? American Films of the70s: Conflicting Visions . Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000. Man, Glenn. Radical Visions: American Film Renaissance , 1967-1976. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994. Slade, Tony.

Chinatown . The International Dictionary of on first experience, Films and Filmmakers . Ed. Christopher Lyon and Susan Doll. Ocr Salters? Volume I: Films. Chicago: St. James Press, 1984. Character? 4 vols.