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Compare and Contrast Essay Structure: Block Method pdf 2 Кб
How to teach Cambridge First Certificate Writing Part One essays. Summary: Teaching tips and contrast steps classroom activities for the essay task in in democracy essay the updated FCE exam from January 2015. Essay questions seemed to have almost completely disappeared from Cambridge FCE until January 2015, when they suddenly became the essay organization steps only possibility in Writing Part One and therefore half of the _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬ РЊ_Рї writing exam and its marks. This is presumably to make FCE more of an academic exam and standardise it with the other Cambridge tests such as Cambridge Advanced, but it is contrast organization steps likely to be a problem for both students and teachers. One potential issues with having to write an essay in kids homework FCE Writing Part One is that it replaces the increasingly common skill of emailing. Students are more likely to have experience of emailing than of essay writing but it has now become just one of four options in Writing Part Two and so not included at all in some tests. Contrast? There are also more EFL teaching and learning materials available for emailing than essays.
The second major issue with having to write an essay in the exam is that FCE essay tasks are not really the kids homework helper same as those which are normally set by teachers in real universities and high schools. Compare Contrast Organization Steps? They are also quite unlike the more genuinely academic IELTS and TOEFL essays, and indeed any homework tasks I set in kids homework my own EFL classes. This means that the tasks, tactics, language and activities used in class and for homework must be quite specific to Cambridge First. What students have to do with FCE Writing Part One essay tasks. All the six official tests released so far for the updated 2015 FCE include these parts: “In your English class you have been talking about Now, your English teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay using all of the notes and give reasons for your point of view.
(statement) Do you agree?” or “(question asking to choose between two options)?” or “(yes/ no opinion question)?” 3. (your own idea) Write your essay. You must use grammatically correct sentences with accurate spelling and punctuation in a style appropriate to the situation.” Topics in the tasks released by Cambridge so far include the environment (twice), fashion, work and money, friends and family, and modern life. Question stems include “Which is organization more important or ?”, “Is it better to or?”, “We should Do you agree?”, “Some people say that has a bad effect on people’s lives.
Do you agree?”, and write my law “ Do you think these problems can be solved?” The subtopics which students must include in contrast essay organization steps their answers include “the kind/ type of which is/ are”, “the reasons for”, “how much time is spent”, “who you can with”, “who will you when you”, “whether is important”, and for college essay “the price of” Many of these are not subtopics that I would choose if I had more freedom to write on the topic and a few are frankly even a little bizarre, so I think it is necessary to think of this part of the contrast essay organization steps task as a problem that needs tackling rather than something that is _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЊ_Рї likely to help students plan as perhaps was intended. Compare Essay Organization Steps? Some of the subtopics also seem to almost exclude one of the two possible opinions that students have been told that they can express. For example, it is difficult to have a paragraph on music dissertations “the kinds of animals which are in danger” if you disagree with the compare organization steps statement “We should do everything we can to for college save animals which are in danger of disappearing from our planet”. Answers must be between 140 and 190 words, although students don’t seem to automatically lose marks for going a bit over or under this as long as they fully answer the question and don’t go off topic. Compare Contrast Organization? Students will be marked for content, communicative achievement, organisation, and language. Content is basically what used to be called task achievement, meaning properly answering the scholarships for college question. Communicative achievement is compare successfully communicating ideas at the right level of scholarships formality. Contrast? Organisation means organising and for college linking together sentences and paragraphs, and compare essay organization steps language includes both level and dissertations accuracy of grammar and vocabulary. To at compare contrast essay least pass this part of the exam students must: - Think of one more subtopic to include in their answer before they start writing (in addition to the two which are given) - Decide before they start writing whether they are going to give their opinion in the introduction and then support it, or if they are only going to give their opinion at the end.
- Organise their essay into at my law least two main paragraphs plus an introduction and summary/ conclusion. - Include all three subtopics (the two given plus the one they thought of) in their answer. - Support all their arguments. - Use a neutral or formal level of language. - Leave at organization steps least a couple of minutes for final editing of spelling, punctuation, grammar, vocabulary, etc. - Finish in about 40 minutes, and no more than 45 minutes max, to leave enough time for Writing Part Two (which is an equal length and _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬ has equal marks) - Underline important words in compare steps the question and its instructions, to write make sure that they answer the question properly. - Use different kinds of essay steps support (reasons, examples, personal experience, other people’s experiences, things read or heard, logical arguments, generalisations, facts, etc) for each of their arguments.
- Make sure that the things that they add to each opinion do actually support their arguments (meaning they aren’t just vaguely on the same topic, don’t actually support the opposite side of the argument, and aren’t just phrases they’ve learnt which don’t really link to what they are trying to prove) - Avoid repeating words, instead rephrasing or using referencing expressions (including in the final summary/ conclusion) - Make sure that the essay is neat enough to be understood without needing to be read again (but see below for limits to how much they need to worry about this) - Start writing as soon as they can think of write my law essay one reasonably suitable third subtopic (rather than wasting time brainstorming better options) - Be ambitious with the language that they use, showing the examiner that they have a high language level and making up for their inevitable weaknesses in other areas such as accuracy. - Also add more ambitious language at the editing stage. Students should probably: - Choose to compare essay organization steps express and dissertations database support whatever opinion seems easier to compare steps write about, e.g. because it easily matches the my law subtopics given, rather than automatically deciding to write their real opinion. - Use as high a level of formality as they can, including things like avoiding contractions (“I am” rather than “I’m” etc), because more formal language will also be higher level language/ more ambitious language. - Show the strength or weakness of their opinions.
- Use longer versions of basic phrases, e.g. using “I strongly believe” rather than “I believe” - Give some background to contrast organization steps the question by describing how it is important, interesting and/ or topical in the introduction (making sure that what they say is coursworks believable, not just a recycled phrase from a model answer) - Use rhetorical questions (unlike in some genuine academic writing) - Make up their own personal experiences etc to support their arguments (as long as they are believable) - Write their opposite compare steps, of their real opinion (if that is easier to support) - Do Writing Part Two first if they have a mental block with the Writing Part One essay, coming back to the first task later. - Use some slightly more informal but high level language such as phrasal verbs. - Use Latin abbreviations such as “e.g.” and kids homework “etc” - Cross things off and use little arrows to insert missing words (rather than overusing their eraser, if they have an erasable pen) - Add whole missing sentences to the middle of the text, by putting the sentence in a box at compare essay steps the top or bottom of the page and drawing a long arrow to show where it should go. - Skip Part One and do two tasks from _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬ Part Two instead (they will only be credited for Part Two and essay so be limited to a failing 50% mark at best) - Use very informal language such as textspeak or Twitter abbreviations (“gr8” for “great”, “lol”, etc), exclamation marks, “”, words all in capitals, underlined words, or slang. - Try to look at both sides of each of the three subtopics (as there is neither the РЏВ¬___в‚¬ time nor space within the steps word limit) - Waste time brainstorming lots of ideas for the best third sub-topic. - Waste time brainstorming lots of support for their arguments before they start writing (unless perhaps they really can’t decide whether to look at both sides or just one side in their essay) - Use academic conventions which aren’t suitable for a school setting such as avoiding personal pronouns, using “The author”, and giving academic references. - Make up things to helper support their arguments that are outside their own experience such as imaginary statistics, quotations or page numbers of books.
- Use multipurpose phrases like “This is compare contrast essay steps a controversial topic nowadays” in all the essays that they write (as they will often not match the situation in the question and so will negative proof of their real language level) - Start paragraphs with multipurpose phrases like “Secondly” and “On the other hand” (rather than “The second argument for is” and write “Turning to compare essay the arguments against”) - Leave editing Part One until they have written Part Two too (as they will almost certainly run out of time first) - Assume knowledge that the examiner might not have (such as detailed knowledge of coursworks their hometown) - Waste time counting every word. - Include other arguments in compare essay their summary/ conclusion which they didn’t mention in the body of write my law essay their essay. - Stick to basic language in an attempt to essay organization make sure that they don’t make mistakes (ambitious language being at least as important) - Waste time editing the essay down if they go over 190 words. - Use exactly the homework same words in their summary/ conclusion as in the body of the essay. - Use paragraph headings (as these will be used in compare contrast Writing Part Two reports and Cambridge like students to write show a distinction between the two writing genres, even if that doesn’t really match real life) Students don’t need to: - Produce incredibly neat work (because Cambridge and the examiners know how unrealistic a handwritten essay is nowadays) - Think of an interesting title (or indeed any title) - Worry about how clever their ideas are (as it doesn’t affect their marks one way or the other) - Worry too much about British and American English (just not spelling the same word two different ways is probably enough at FCE) - Deal with the subtopics in the same order as they are given on compare essay organization the question sheet. - Necessarily look at both sides of the argument (if they have a strong opinion on one side or the other) The students have free choice whether they want to give their opinion in the introduction and _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬ РЊ_Рї then support that argument related to the three sub-topics or give both sides of the essay organization steps argument and scholarships for college essay then give their own opinion in essay organization steps the conclusion. If students don’t think they can support their position related to РЏВ¬___в‚¬ РЊ_Рї all three topics and so want to compare contrast organization steps take the _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬ latter approach, they could give reasons for their conclusion related to two topics and give the compare contrast essay steps other side related to the other one. Alternatively, they could deal with all three topics in just two main paragraphs in the body, one for each side of the scholarships argument.
I would recommend that in the introduction students rephrase the question, give background to contrast essay organization steps the topic etc, but most of the student answers provided by РЊ_Рї, Cambridge just start by answering the question, so that seems to compare essay organization steps be acceptable. I also strongly recommend against one-sentence paragraphs, including in the final summary, but again this doesn’t seem to be a big issue with Cambridge so students could stop and move onto music dissertations the Part Two question if they have reached the word limit and are already over 40 minutes into the exam. If they do want another sentence it is fairly easy to compare contrast organization steps add consequences of their conclusion such as “Because of this, governments/ families/ companies/ bosses should” Language that the students are likely to need in FCE essays includes phrases for different ways of supporting their opinions, giving weak and strong opinions, weak and strong agreeing and disagreeing, summarising, concluding, giving reasons, and looking at both sides (advantages and disadvantages, etc). A review of linking phrases such as the difference between “In contrast” and “On the coursworks other hand” would also be useful.
You could also teach language for contrast organization steps, giving the background behind a topic in role essay the introduction (“Nowadays”, “Recently”, “Many people believe that”, etc). Lesson ideas for FCE Writing Part One essays. First lessons including FCE Writing Part One essay questions. Given the importance of this part of the compare exam and how it can be very useful to of judiciary in democracy get some idea of students’ strengths and weaknesses in writing right at compare essay the beginning, I highly recommend bringing this topic into the very first lesson of the course and giving an essay task for coursworks, the first homework. Luckily, this is organization steps not too difficult given that the _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЊ_Рї questions are basically opinion questions. First lesson topics that are easily linked to students giving and essay steps supporting opinions include good ways of studying English, studying for the exam, improving their skills in particular papers, or using class time. They could also give their opinions on music database the exam itself such as which the trickiest (looking) parts of the exam are and what they think about the 2015 changes. Opinions on language learning can be made amusing by giving them a mix of sensible and essay organization crazier ways of improving their English, including things like “I think it’s a great idea to listen to English radio while you are asleep” and “In my opinion, you should describe everything that you are doing around the kids house in English as you are doing it”. Compare Organization Steps? This is even more fun if students have to _С—Т‘_Сџ_ choose the ideas at organization random and write my law then support whatever opinion they are given. If you give students statements starting with opinions language like “I really think the story task was the easiest”, after the speaking activity students can try to remember those phrases, then brainstorm similar ones for agreeing and disagreeing, supporting arguments, etc. All the topics just mentioned follow on quite naturally from a needs analysis stage where students interview each other about their reasons for taking the test, their previous FCE studies, their previous English studies, their strengths and contrast essay organization steps weaknesses etc.
Other Writing Part One-style topics that can lead on from a needs analysis stage include education and work in their country, and the position of English in modern life. Another way into discussion topics that are similar to the exam is through Speaking Part Four, although as these questions are fairly heavy you’d still need to start the coursworks class with something lighter such as asking each other needs analysis questions. Another possibility is to start with some kind of Speaking Part One (asking personal questions) game or activity, moving onto compare contrast essay organization Writing Part One questions on scholarships essay the same topics like family and hometowns to discuss, plan one or more of, and write one of for homework. This is more realistic than it may sound, because Writing Part One tasks tend to be on fairly light topics like friendship, though you will want to introduce heavier ones like “the environment” later in the course. Combining essay writing with Use of English. The easiest way to combine other parts of the FCE exam with Writing Part One is for students to compare contrast essay organization do Use of English exercises that have been designed to music dissertations database test and contrast essay organization steps expand their knowledge of write my law useful language for the essay task. For example, you can have multiple choice cloze tasks like “I _______________ think that is a good idea” with the options “strongly”, “surely”, “really” and “very”, open cloze tasks like “To ____________ another example”, word formation tasks like “_____________, that argument has no merit at compare contrast all” with the essay key word “frank”, or key word sentence transformation tasks like “In my personal experience, this rarely works” with key word and gapped sentence “_________________ it rarely works. Contrast Organization Steps? FIND”. You can find many games that you can do with those Use of role essay English tasks in compare contrast essay my articles on each part of that paper.
Other classroom activities for FCE Writing Part One essays. There is scholarships for college essay virtually no limit to the number of possible classroom activities that could help with this task, but most of them fit into one of compare organization steps these categories: - Discussing/ analysing model answers. - Looking at other students’ answers. - Brainstorming suitable language. - Other tasks with suitable language such as matching up cards to make nice long Writing Part One phrases. - Giving and discussing tips on what they should and coursworks shouldn’t do before and organization during the exam. - Writing FCE Writing Part One essay questions for coursworks, other groups to discuss and maybe write answers to, probably with typical question stems and/ or topics to help them come up with ideas. - Competing to make suitable sentences more and more formal or longer and longer.
- Students analysing different exam questions, for example to compare contrast essay steps find the similarities and differences between them. - Discussing their opinions on the questions given (“. Do you agree?” etc), probably before they write about the same topic for homework. - Giving students tricky positions to support and/ or subtopics and asking them to come up with opinions that their partners can accept. These can also be combined in one lesson. For example, students start by giving each other tips on Writing Part One with topic prompts like “introduction” and “planning”. They then identify the bad tips in write essay a list that they are given, before brainstorming suitable language to compare do the good things, such as “I totally agree with this idea” for the tip “Show the write my law strength or weakness of your opinions”. Perhaps after some hints such as phrases with mistakes, gapped phrases or key words, students compare their ideas for useful phrases with the list prepared by the teacher.
Correction tasks for FCE Writing Part One. FCE used to have an error correction task in contrast organization the Use of English paper, but perhaps because of an kids, emphasis on communication they have both done away with that and contrast organization put less and less emphasis on grammatical accuracy in _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЊ_Рї the writing test. Error correction tasks are still worthwhile though, as long as you see them as a way of presenting useful language for the exam as much as dealing with typical mistakes. You will also probably want to contrast essay organization steps deal with errors other than grammatical ones such as collocations, functional language like agreeing, formality, punctuation, spelling, paragraphing, task achievement, and not really supporting your opinions. Possible classroom tasks with such typical errors are the _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬ РЊ_Рї same as with non-exam classes, including: - Students racing to compare contrast essay find mistakes in sentences, paragraphs, or complete texts. - Students working in pairs to find out _С—Т‘_Сџ_ which version is compare essay organization steps correct when their two texts vary, without showing them to in democracy each other. - Students working out if phrases are wrong are wrong or just too informal, and then making the necessary changes.
Making FCE Writing Part One exam practice realistic and useful. There are probably at least as many possible lesson ideas for each of the categories of contrast lesson activity above as there are for error correction, so I won’t attempt to make a complete list. Homework Helper? However, sooner or later you will want to do proper exam practice, so that is worth special mention. I tend to contrast organization steps set all timed writing for homework but with clear instructions (spoken and written on the sheet they should write their answers on) making sure they do so in near exam conditions. _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬? Near exam conditions mainly consists of not looking at compare essay organization the question until they are ready to start a timed task, not using help like dictionaries and their notes from the in democracy essay class, stopping on exactly 40 minutes, and making sure that they have had as short final edit within that time. I then allow them to do extra work with their help of their textbooks, model answers etc. However, I tell them to change colour pen, not use an organization steps, eraser, write down what kinds of changes they made, and tell me how much extra time they spent on it. These two stages help them actually expand their language knowledge at the same time as getting useful exam practice, as well as giving me loads of useful information about their present strengths and coursworks weaknesses. Written by organization, Alex Case for UsingEnglish.com.
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Analysis of #8220;Dover Beach#8221; by Matthew Arnold Essay Sample. #8220;Dover beach#8221; is a beautiful poem written by a famous poet, Matthew Arnold; from the romantic era. The poem is melancholic and pessimistic in nature and shows human misery through the ages. The diction changes as the poem progresses, from the beginning till the end, soft and loving to hard and rough, respectively. The images are centered around the ocean, this is to show the analogy that life can be both turbulent as well as placid. The time that the contrast organization steps poem occurs is through the night, having mystery and possibly some romance. The poet intricately weaves nature and man together in his poem. The first stanza describes the sea, whereas the second stanza talks about historical philosophers, the penultimate stanza is kids homework, once again linked with the sea and finally the last stanza is about mankind once again. This poem has four stanzas, each containing 14,6,8,9 lines respectively. This poem is comprised of free verse, though there is an compare contrast steps, iambic stress on write my law each line. The first stanza has a rhyme scheme of #8220;abacdbdcefcffg#8221;, the second stanza has a rhyme scheme of #8220;abacbc#8221;.
In the third stanza only half of the lines rhyme, the other four do not, the compare contrast essay organization rhyme scheme is #8220;abcdbedf#8221;. The last stanza#8217;s lines have iambic pentameter and a rhyme scheme of scholarships for college #8216;abbacddcc#8221;. The reason for a fluctuation in compare contrast organization steps the rhyme scheme is to portray the unpredictability of life, which is similar to the sea; that has a mind of its own. Dover beach is a large beach on coastal England opposite from France, where there are great white cliffs that give it its name #8220;Dover#8221;, after the white doves. This is a romantic place, and therefore the scholarships for college essay poet chose it to be the title of the poem. Compare Organization Steps! The title is a slight misnomer, as the poem does not deal with romantic ideals, instead evokes the social issues of humanity. The great usage of a literary feature; pathetic fallacy, causes the reader to associate the role of judiciary essay sound of the waves with the nature of human misery. Compare Contrast Essay Steps! The poem starts with #8220;The sea is calm to-night#8221;, this is a direct contrast with the last line #8220;Where ignorant armies clash by _С—Т‘_Сџ_ night#8221;, the first line shows a vast #8216;sea#8217; that is peaceful.
The last line on the other hand shows the result when armies fight in compare essay steps the night; they do not know their enemies from their allies, and there will be great causalities on both sides. The persona continues to comment on the tides and moon in, #8220;The tide is full, the moon lies fair#8221;, shows a scientific fact that the moon#8217;s gravitational pull causes tides in the ocean, this was well understood by the poets from the romantic era. During this time, most people#8217;s belief was waning from kids homework, religion, and attracted towards the sciences. This was due to contrast essay organization, the lack of explanation in religious scripts. The closeness of the beach and France is music database, shown in #8220;Upon the straits;-on the French coast the light/ Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand#8221;, the caesura in #8220;upon the compare organization steps straits;#8221; makes the audience pause and observe the beauty of the strait between France and England. The image of a lighthouse is brought out through #8220;the light/ Gleams and is gone#8221;, and adds to the effect of the #8216;ebb and flow#8217; of the waves; the coursworks waves hitting the land and receding. The persona and his maiden are in a house, as he says #8220;come to the window, sweet is the night-air!#8221; this shows that he seems to be optimistic and excited, smelling the essay steps air.
The vastness of the coursworks ocean is brought out essay organization steps, in, #8220;Only, from the long line of spray#8221; showing the fury in which the waves come crashing causing the spray. #8220;Listen! You hear the grating roar#8221;, this shows the sudden excitement in the persona. The reason for #8220;Listen!#8221; is scholarships, also to prepare the compare contrast essay organization reader for the fore-coming auditory imagery #8220;the grating roar#8221;, showing a very negative and write essay, pessimistic view of the beautiful ocean. Essay Organization Steps! From this line onwards the view of the poet changes from appreciating the nature and the fruits it has to offer, to commenting of all the negatives in this world. The lines, #8220;Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling,/ At their return, up the essay high strand#8221;, shows the power that nature has over man and compare contrast organization, through the words #8220;pebbles#8221;, #8220;draw back#8221; and essay, #8220;fling#8221; the picture of David versus Goliath is brought out, David using his slingshot to bring down the great colossus. The #8220;high strand#8221; could be the white cliffs of Dover, this shows the strength and power of the ocean as it is capable of #8216;flinging#8217; the rocks up the face of the cliff.
The movement of the ocean is brought out in #8220;Begin, and cease, and then again begin#8221;. #8220;with tremulous cadence slow, and bring/ The eternal note of sadness in#8221; The #8220;tremulous#8221; gives a description of shaking, this can only happen when the music is at a very low frequency, almost like that of crashing waves. The #8220;eternal#8221; shows the everlasting sadness in the world. The parallel between #8220;cadence slow#8221; and #8220;note of compare contrast organization sadness#8221; is because slow notes in dissertations database music depict sadness. Compare! This whole stanza has great images of the ocean and its positives and negatives, but the poet continues to speak of the great human misery. The persona brings out the fact that there was human misery in the world before. The persona goes into a flashback in _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЊ_Рї #8220;Sophocles long ago/ Heard it on contrast essay steps the Aegean, and for college essay, it brought/ Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow/ Of human misery; we#8221;. Showing a great thinker with experiences on compare contrast essay organization steps the #8220;Aegean#8221;, bringing him thoughts, of _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬ РЊ_Рї misery like the flow of the ocean. #8220;Find also in the sound a thought,/hearing it by this distant northern sea#8221;, the reader realize that the persona too had thought of something, while next to this northern sea. This stanza has a very coordinated rhyme scheme namely; #8220;abacbc#8221;, this could show that the persona could have thought about these things before, and the smoothness in which it is said, shows the confidence that Arnold has over this subject.
Once again, the theme switches from mankind to nature, in the next stanza. #8220;The Sea of Faith#8221;, this is contrast essay organization steps, a great religious metaphor, that shows the music dissertations vastness and diversity of religion that proliferates through the world. Contrast Organization Steps! #8220;Was once, too, at the full, and round earth#8217;s shore#8221;, shows that at kids homework helper, one point in time, people believed in religion around the world. #8220;Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furl#8217;d#8221;, usually in high tide the contrast organization shore is enveloped by the ocean, this also is an instance of clothes imagery, like the #8220;folds#8221; in a cloth. The alternate meaning for this could be that during the #8220;high tide#8221; of religious belief, there was a large following. The poet cannot see religion continuing in the same stride, #8220;But now I only hear/ Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar#8221;, the end of religion is kids, nearing, as religion itself is compare steps, like a beast that is given up, with a great rumble of noise. The retreating wave is similar to religion and #8220;down the vast edges drear/ And naked shingles of the world#8221;, the naked shingles are beaches lined with pebbles, and hence the waves or religion are receding away from the habitation of man; land. The persona now gives his maiden a real loving thought, #8220;Ah, love, let us be true/To one another! For the coursworks world, which seems#8221; this shows that the persona wishes that the relationship will be tight knitted and that there will not be any secrets kept away from the other. #8220;To lie before us like a land of dreams,/ So various, so beautiful, so new,/ Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,/ Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;#8221; this is a listing of what religion has to offer and what it cannot, and hence showing that religious beliefs are useless in the eyes of Arnold. The theory of life is evoked in #8220;And we are here as on compare contrast organization a darkling plain#8221;, and questions his very existence on earth, and shows that the future is in haze and is unclear. The dilemma that the persona goes through is substantiated with #8220;Swept with confused alarms of РЊ_Рї struggle and flight/ Where ignorant armies clash by night#8221;, this shows that humanity is in deep confusion with its struggles against its miseries and cannot find a cure for it, but Arnold says that poetry is the cure. The ignorant armies clashing in the night, can only lead to disaster. This can be linked with man, as man is still in the darkness and hence the internal problems that he has can only lead to his doom. This poem ends in a rhyming couplet with an elegiac tone.
Matthew Arnold is a world renowned poet as well as a thinker. Contrast Steps! Arnold using his powers of communication through great works of literature, created #8220;Dover Beach#8221; that has great depth and insight into the reality of life. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Analysis of #8220;Dover Beach#8221; by Matthew Arnold. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Analysis of #8220;Dover Beach#8221; by homework Matthew Arnold. The concept of #8220;The Door#8221; is based on the idea of taking risks and embracing change.
The poet uses a persuasive and insistent tone to encourage the audience to take#8230; Analysis of #8220;The Tropics in New York#8221; by Claude McKay. Essay Organization Steps! The Tropics in New York was written by Claude McKay in 1920. Write Essay! McKay was born in Jamaica in 1890 and immigrated to the United States in 1912. The twenty-two years#8230; Discuss the compare essay steps form and poetic qualities of #8220;Easter Wings#8221; This poem appears to be a dramatic monologue, spoken by the character at a moment when he/she was approaching death. Using key terms within the last stanza, we can infer#8230; Prayer before birth analysis.
Louis MacNeice expresses his strong views on the human life by writing a poem through an unborn child#8217;s voice. He starts off by asking God to protect him from various#8230; Robert Frost#8217;s poem #8220;The Road Not Taken#8221; The poet basically says that everyone is a traveler and choosing the roads to coursworks, follow on the map of life is never a straight path that leaves someone with one#8230;
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. Compare Essay? It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of coursworks emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg.
Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the compare contrast essay organization steps most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the essay backbone of human civilisation.
Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Compare Contrast? Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings.
Marriage creates new social relationships and write, reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in compare contrast a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of database marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below.
Edward Westermark. “Marriage is contrast organization steps a relation of database one or more men to one or more women which is contrast essay organization steps recognised by custom or law and essay, involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the compare contrast key function of legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and kids helper, between spouses and their children.
William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of compare organization steps marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the homework helper newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. Compare Contrast Steps? For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and role essay, wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract.
Personal happiness is contrast essay given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to scholarships for college essay another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of compare organization steps standing in the community or society.
(3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for dissertations database, the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in compare contrast essay steps general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and coursworks, replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like.
Many of organization these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for role in democracy, the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and compare contrast, disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. For College? Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of compare contrast steps marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of coursworks property become a basic function.
Thus, to compare essay organization not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is my law based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Compare Contrast Steps? Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on write my law the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society.
Marriage can be broadly divided into compare essay steps, two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of coursworks marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the spouse or one of the contrast essay steps partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the role of judiciary in democracy most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. It should be noted that on compare essay organization a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the in democracy essay second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment:
In this form of compare contrast marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the essay number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the compare children are looked after with earnest attention of essay parents.
The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the compare steps parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of coursworks marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in compare essay family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of write my law essay them work for essay, strengthening the economic condition of the my law essay family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life.
Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. Contrast? The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of kids homework helper Living:
It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to contrast organization live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife.
It is more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the kids helper death of parents. Monogamy is essay steps a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to dissertations database adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to essay organization Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children.
They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon role essay, their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. Contrast Organization? Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬ РЊ_Рї? They are counted equal to men. Compare Contrast Organization? Some people do not like this form of marriage.
When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of homework marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in compare essay which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”.
Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by scholarships, the attitudes and values of essay organization steps both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Database? Polygamy is compare contrast essay of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and _С—Т‘_Сџ_ РЏВ¬___в‚¬, (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. Compare? In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the music dissertations database prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda.
In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses.
It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the compare essay organization wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of role of judiciary sexes in the Population:
When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females.
Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of contrast essay organization wives represented greater authority and write essay, status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of contrast essay wives in order to role of judiciary in democracy essay prove their superiority. Compare Contrast Essay? A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. Coursworks? So where marriage is essay steps taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural.
6. Role Of Judiciary In Democracy? Economic Reason: Where the contrast essay organization people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the role of judiciary essay child.
Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to essay organization steps obtain more children. 10. Of Judiciary In Democracy Essay? Absence of children:
According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in contrast essay steps her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society:
Polygyny is database found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population:
In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at contrast, home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of my law essay sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny.
(6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of compare contrast essay steps pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about coursworks their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for compare contrast essay organization steps, fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to write my law socialize their children in compare essay organization steps a proper manner in such atmosphere.
3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only kids helper, husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Contrast Essay? Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in coursworks father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the members.
As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. Compare Essay Organization? According to K.M.
Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in helper which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of compare organization steps polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and my law, Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of compare contrast essay organization steps polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers.
They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the _С—Т‘_Сџ_ wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the compare organization wife continues to stay in the family of music her mother. Compare Essay? This type of РЏВ¬___в‚¬ polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to compare contrast essay Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is write my law essay found.
For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is compare essay organization steps found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the scholarships for college name of father are known by mother’s name.
Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and compare contrast essay organization, her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of write Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. Essay Steps? When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family.
Thus production and income increases, further there is write my law no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of compare steps work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is _С—Т‘_Сџ_ found in such areas which are situated far away from compare steps modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the kids male members of the compare contrast essay steps family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at coursworks, that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the essay size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to РЏВ¬___в‚¬ РЊ_Рї unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the contrast essay members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure.
Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the coursworks members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of organization steps Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of music husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in contrast organization the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs.
When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to for college biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment:
In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice.
Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of compare steps women. Each man of male group is scholarships for college considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Compare? Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in essay the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on compare contrast spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited.
Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to write the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate.
In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is compare contrast organization steps a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from my law wife or wives. Concubinage is contrast steps sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution.
A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: