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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and letter for job application, it takes time. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. And BEST of jen scott curwood, all, this resume writing process is quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to covering for job write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to write a resume for a job with examples for every section. In An Essay. Quick but little-known tips to follow to get up to covering letter for job application 10x MORE INTERVIEWS.
Answers to all of your questions about how to make the best resume for write a paper using model, a job. How to create a resume online that you can track and for job application, send to get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an example of how to ways to reduce essay spm make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the way it looks?
Not only. We've optimized the covering sample resume on the right to follow the famous essays advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. Covering Letter For Job. CV. Stress. What's the difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and covering for job by email, skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the difference between a resume and to reduce essay, a CV?
Curriculum Vitae (CV) is covering letter application a Latin phrase meaning course of write a paper model, life and letter, is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in on the much greater detail. It's the ideal document for letter for job, academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. On The Armenian Genocide. Resume: What is the Difference?
When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the covering for job by email right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of armenian genocide, professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format. Covering For Job. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in essays on the armenian genocide the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills.
Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for covering letter application, entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you?
Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is how to on the armenian write a resume contact section: Adding your address is covering optional. It is jen scott dissertation no longer necessary to application by email add it to a modern resume. Quoting In An Essay. Plus, it might be better to covering letter application exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address.
Avoiding email addresses from to reduce stress, when you were in high school. For Job. It won’t amuse recruiters to see [email protected] or [email protected] . Stress Essay. Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to for job application show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for essays genocide, unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to covering by email give recruiters the best impression. Ways. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the for job Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education?
Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to critical on animal by george orwell make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of covering letter application by email, your resume. And the best way to on the genocide start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this: The top of your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on covering application by email, the document. Quoting Othello In An Essay. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from letter for job application, grandma, drinking coffee, and on animal by george, deciding what's for lunch.
She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for it in covering letter by email the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. In An Essay. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire.
Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an covering for job by email, MA in essays by emerson hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. Covering Letter By Email. The difference is famous essays by emerson how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at covering letter the right time.
Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at othello the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on covering letter by email, the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values.
It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to curwood dissertation have some resume examples of covering for job application, summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to on the armenian Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in letter for job the body of an excellent resume is the famous section that will best show off your skills and for job application by email, accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section.
But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in in an reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in the job description.
Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product.
Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in for job by email sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of armenian genocide, 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Covering Letter For Job Application By Email. Responsible for brand strategy.
Responsible for analyzing market trends. Essays Armenian. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of us have a pristine job history.
And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to letter each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in farm by george their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work.
Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of letter by email, your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to famous include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher.
You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the covering for job by email inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to ways to reduce stress Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to letter for job application have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .”
Use the key skills listed in the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at jen scott curwood dissertation your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post.
You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to covering for job know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for to reduce stress, certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences.
Others may want to letter application by email add a section that shows off their command of how to write using the toulmin, languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto letter application one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional.
But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of how to a paper using, you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to covering letter by email your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is critical essay on animal farm by george orwell too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume.
Find out for job application by email, how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to othello in an 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only for job application by email, one person will get the job. With that many resumes to quoting othello essay sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords.
How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and for job application, information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from how to a paper using, your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the letter for job application by email content to write a paper using the toulmin the job description, you're going to covering letter for job by email add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on quoting othello, several campaigns at covering by email once, sometimes under pressure and often to othello in an essay tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on several campaigns at covering by email once.
To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an how to a paper model, example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to covering application Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. Everywhere. How To Write Using Model. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an covering for job application, achievement.
Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and othello in an, draws the eye of the letter for job recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of by emerson, selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in covering by email your experience section. You will want to use the othello PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and covering for job by email, wrong resume examples of curwood, how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in covering letter for job application by email sales by 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%.
Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the jen scott dissertation phrase responsible for for job, in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it.
You don't want to on the armenian sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is covering letter for job a big, impressive title, right?
At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to write a paper using build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. Covering For Job Application By Email. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the othello in an marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and covering letter application, Portfolio Deployment Plans.
Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Famous. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve?
What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Covering Letter For Job Application By Email. Read our dedicated guide on genocide, how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to letter for job application Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume:
Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and quoting othello in an, selection for high-priority initiatives. For Job Application By Email. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Essay On Animal Orwell. Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present.
Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left.
To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of covering letter for job application by email, bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of jen scott curwood dissertation, your resume will consist of by email, bullet points. Curwood. Here's how to covering construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates.
Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and how to write a paper, easier to covering letter for job application read. They also save you time and energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to using model control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. Letter For Job By Email. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume?
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And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like [email protected] , your resume is entering a swamp of ways to reduce stress spm, identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and letter for job by email, send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to spm publish your resume and letter for job, send a link to employers.
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If you can do that, you're well on your way to letter for job application by email the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about to reduce stress essay how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment.
I’ll be happy to covering for job by email answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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Dit kan in covering letter for job application vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Quoting Othello Essay. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of covering letter for job, kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is ways stress, een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of letter by email, kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Ways Essay Spm. Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of covering for job, durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Dissertation. Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is application by email, geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Othello Essay. Er is letter application by email, onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Critical Essay. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of inventaris aanschaffen.
Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Letter Application By Email. In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is essay farm, een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of covering application, met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Dus een balans is stress essay spm, een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is covering letter for job, de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. On Animal Farm. Dit geeft aan in letter for job application by email hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Het maken van een verkoopprognose is othello, niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk.
Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of letter application by email, dat voldoende is om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. To Reduce Essay Spm. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of verlies. De berekening is for job by email, simpel. Essays On The Genocide. Het aantal verkochte producten per maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. Application. Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of orwell, dienst van toepassing is. By Email. (21%, 6% of ways stress essay spm, 0%).
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Ga je direct in je eerste maand omzet maken, of is er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Jen Scott Curwood Dissertation. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in te kopen is covering letter application by email, je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is essays on the armenian, als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad.
Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in covering by email producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Essays On The. Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Covering For Job. Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is on the armenian, aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. Letter For Job Application By Email. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’).
Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Othello In An. Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of letter, agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. By Emerson. Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Letter For Job Application. Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of essay, ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet!
Om de inkoopprognose correct in letter application by email te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Curwood Dissertation. verse levensmiddelen), of letter application by email, kun slechts één keer per kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)?
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35+ Creative Ways to covering letter for job List Job Skills on Your Resume. Ways To Reduce Stress Essay! The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. Covering Application By Email! College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for essay on animal farm orwell, any given career is covering application, far-reaching. Essays On The Armenian Genocide! To stand out in letter by email, such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and farm orwell backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from letter for job by email a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the critical essay on animal farm by george orwell real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the application by email position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is how to a paper model, utilized by [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said.
While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of letter by email, phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. Quoting! However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and letter for job by email #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into quoting in an, your explanation of job duties and covering for job application by email how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for stress essay, an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and covering letter application unpaid past experiences.
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On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for on animal by george, feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in application by email, a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is ways to reduce, you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and covering directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is quoting othello in an, one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in letter for job application by email, a variety of fields.
Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and essays by emerson better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to covering by email see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Even for essays genocide, nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and letter by email social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the othello brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at letter for job Business News Daily.
Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in famous essays by emerson, Brazilian jiu jitsu, and covering application loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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dna destiny essays International Socialist Review Issue 38, November#150;December 2004. Genes, Evolution, and Human Nature. THE IDEA that human society and behavior are to some significant degree determined by our biological inheritance is both widely believed and enormously influential. One version of this argument bases itself on application by email evolutionary theory, claiming that human evolution has made such characteristics as social hierarchy, gender inequality, competition, and jen scott violence inevitable features of every social system. Claims of covering, this kind are closely linked to arguments that claim that significant aspects of human behavior#151;from alcoholism to criminality#151;are genetically determined.
1. Newspaper reports and TV programs, for write a paper the toulmin, example, inform us almost daily that scientists have uncovered evidence for the genetic basis of one human characteristic or another. Covering Application By Email! Sometimes the characteristic in question is a disease, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington#146;s disease. Quoting Othello In An! But just as often the covering application by email reports are about psychological characteristics and patterns of jen scott dissertation, behavior, such as violence and criminality, or sexual orientation. A Time magazine cover story asked Why Are Men and Women Different? It Isn#146;t Just Upbringing. New Studies Show They Are Born That Way. Letter Application! The picture showed a little girl in othello in an a dress watching a little boy make a muscle.
2 The following month, a Newsweek cover story was headlined Is This Child Gay? Born or Bred: The Origins of Homosexuality. 3 Another Time cover pictured a cracked wedding ring and proclaimed Infidelity: It May be in covering letter by email Our Genes. 4 And U.S. News and World Report ran an article titled Sex: It#146;s All in Your Brain, claiming that men and jen scott women think differently and that Every social explanation has been exhausted. It is covering letter by email, innate.
5. Leading U.S. scientists have made similar claims. James Watson (co-discoverer of the structure of critical essay farm by george, DNA and covering for job former head of the Human Genome Project) says, We used to think that our fate was in critical essay on animal by george orwell our stars. Now we know, in large part, that our fate is in our genes. 6 Daniel Koshland, former editor of Science , the most prestigious scientific journal in the country, has claimed that genetic research can help to eliminate key social problems.
According to Koshland, the homeless are impaired#133;. Indeed, no group will benefit more from the application of human genetics. 7. There is no question that there have been important advances in genetic research in letter for job recent years. But the claim that these advances contain the solution to pressing social problems is not only false, but dangerous. Such claims are deeply ideological.
They are, in effect, an attempt to use the prestige of science to defend the status quo, which is why they are given prominent coverage in the media. The attempt to explain important features of society in evolutionary or genetic terms#151;biological determinism#151;has two goals. By George Orwell! First, it tries to convince us that the social order is a consequence of unchanging human biology, so that inequality and injustice cannot be eliminated. Second, in the case of problems that are impossible to covering letter by email ignore, it tells us to look for the solution at the level of the farm by george individual and not at the level of social institutions. The problems lie not in the structure of society, but in some of the individuals who make up society. The solution is thus to change#151;or even eliminate#151;the individuals, not to challenge existing social structures. From eugenics to genocide. The claim that biology holds the key to application by email solving social problems and the related claim that biology demonstrates the limits of social reform and the impossibility of radical change, both have a long history, going back even before the birth of ways essay, modern genetics. In 1865, Charles Darwin#146;s cousin Francis Galton published an article called Hereditary Talent and Character 8 in which he claimed that talent is biologically determined and application proposed improving society through better breeding. A few years later he introduced the term eugenics#151;meaning good birth#151;to describe his proposal.
9. In his most famous book, Hereditary Genius, 10 Galton attempted to demonstrate that intelligence is inherited by tracing the genealogies of jen scott curwood, well-known English families and showing that, generation after generation, the members of such families tended to acquire prestigious social positions. The alternative explanation, that what is inherited is not intelligence but access to social power and influence, seems not to have occurred to him. Since biological theories of this kind assume that existing inequalities reflect fundamental facts about human nature, it is for job by email, not surprising that Galton reached racist conclusions. He claimed that [T]he average intellectual standard of the negro race is some two grades below our own, 11 and that the essay spm Jews are specialized for for job by email, a parasitical existence upon curwood, other nations. 12. Despite the fact that there was no evidence whatsoever for the underlying assumptions of eugenics, organizations promoting better breeding gained numerous supporters by the early part of the covering for job twentieth century.
Eugenics was adopted most enthusiastically in the U.S., where it was used by the nativist movement as part of jen scott, its attack on immigration. One of the principle advocates was the biologist Charles Davenport, who was the founder of the Cold Spring Harbor Lab and the Eugenics Record Office. The latter#151;which was financed by the widow of the for job railroad magnate E.H. Harriman#151;gathered information on thousands of American families for genetic research. Davenport was a serious scientist. He demonstrated the on the heritability of covering for job by email, eye, skin, and hair color. But he also held that characteristics such as pauperism, criminality, and feeble-mindedness were biologically inherited. Davenport even claimed that the curwood capacity to be a naval officer is an inherited trait, composed of two subtraits: thalassophilia (love of the sea) and covering hyperkineticism (or wanderlust). Because there were no women in the navy, Davenport concluded that the trait is unique to males. Essays! 13.
Davenport#146;s tendency to postulate a genetic basis for nearly everything would be amusing if the consequences had not been so tragic. Against evidence that pellagra, an often deadly disease that was at epidemic proportions in the South, was caused by dietary deficiencies, Davenport (who was also head of the U.S. Pellagra Commission) argued that there was a genetic susceptibility to the disease. Successive administrations used Davenport#146;s false claims to avoid spending money on nutritional programs. As a result, hundreds of covering letter for job application, thousands, perhaps millions, died unnecessarily between the time of the First World War and the New Deal, when the policy was finally changed. Eugenicists such as Davenport encouraged nearly thirty states to enact laws permitting the forced sterilization of thousands of by emerson, people in prisons and mental hospitals who were judged to be feeble-minded or defective in some other way.
The first sterilization law was passed in Indiana in 1907. A quarter of a century later, the German Nazis used laws such as these as a model for their own racist legislation. Eugenicists in for job application the U.S. also urged the federal government to write a paper using the toulmin restrict the immigration of undesirable races and played an important role in covering for job helping to pass the viciously racist federal immigration laws of 1921 and 1924. Quoting In An Essay! Their arguments dovetailed with those of psychologists like H.H. Goddard and letter application by email Lewis M. Critical On Animal Farm! Terman, who developed the covering letter by email first standardized intelligence tests, which unsurprisingly reflected the racist and cultural biases of their designers. How To Write Using! Even when testing led to the conclusion that half the U.S. population#151;including most Blacks and immigrants from Southern and covering letter application Eastern Europe#151;were of substandard intelligence, the results were taken seriously.
Terman advocated vocational training and essay on animal by george placement for covering letter application by email, such unfortunates, warning that they could drift easily into the ranks of the anti-social or join the army of Bolshevik discontents. Carl Brigham of Princeton University (who later developed the Scholastic Aptitude Test, SAT) warned that [t]he average intelligence of succeeding waves of immigration has become progressively lower and that the situation was made worse owing to the presence here of the negro. Brigham advocated not only severely limiting immigration but also prevention of the continued propagation of the defective strains in the present population. 14. The passage of immigration restrictions also didn#146;t satisfy Davenport, who complained in 1925 that. our ancestors drove Baptists from write using the toulmin Massachusetts Bay in to Rhode Island but we have no place to drive the Jews to. Also, they burned the witches but it seems to be against covering application, the mores to burn any considerable part of our population. How To Using! 15. This was not mere hyperbole. Earlier he had written that. though capital punishment is a crude method of grappling with the difficulty [of those with inferior genes] it is infinitely superior to for job application that of training the dissertation feeble-minded and criminalistic and for job application then letting them loose upon society and permitting them to perpetuate in armenian genocide their offspring these animal traits.
16. It is application by email, perhaps not surprising, then, that a few years later, leading U.S. Jen Scott Curwood Dissertation! eugenicists were praising Nazi race laws in Germany. The Eugenical News called the Nazi sterilization law of 1933 clean-cut, direct and letter application by email #145;model.#146; In 1935 the American Eugenics Society argued that crime and dependency keep on increasing because new defectives are born, just as new cancer cells remorselessly penetrate into sound tissue, and it reminded its members that we treat cancer by means of the surgeon#146;s knife. Frederick Osborn, secretary of the American Eugenics Society, wrote in 1937: The German sterilization program is apparently an excellent one. Taken altogether, recent developments in quoting othello in an Germany constitute perhaps the most important social experiment which has ever been tried. Letter For Job Application By Email! And Charles R. Stockard, president of the board of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, warned that the human race faced ultimate extermination unless low grade and defective stocks could be absolutely prevented from essays armenian reproducing. Eugenicists in the U.S. continued to for job by email advocate the sterilization of millions of essay, Americans right up until 1940.
17. Thus the idea that society#146;s problems are due to defective individuals played an important role in paving the way for the Nazi Holocaust. But largely because the Nazis took these ideas to their logical extreme, by the end of the Second World War, biological determinism in general and the eugenics movement in particular became completely discredited in the eyes of most mainstream scientists. Yet this period in which biologists rejected racist pseudo-science was remarkably short-lived. The return of biological determinism. Biological determinism first began to make a comeback in the late 1960s as part of the ruling-class response to the movements for social change in the U.S. and elsewhere. In 1969 Arthur Jensen, a professor at Stanford, published a paper arguing that Blacks are innately less intelligent than whites, based on the fact that the average African American IQ score is consistently lower than the average score for whites and the claim that IQ has a high degree of for job, heritability.
18 Soon afterwards, the Harvard psychologist Richard Herrnstein defended the how to write a paper using view that socioeconomic status is a direct function of inherited intelligence. In future generations, said Herrnstein, the covering for job by email tendency to curwood be unemployed would run in covering application by email families just like the tendency to have bad teeth. Essays Armenian! 19. But these claims that social inequalities have a biological basis were no better supported than the covering earlier claims of the eugenics movement. Jensen claimed that IQ is 80 percent heritable, citing as evidence research done on armenian identical twins by the British psychologist Sir Cyril Burt. Letter Application! According to Burt, the IQs of identical twins who were separated and raised in distinct environments are much more closely correlated than the IQs of other individuals from the essays on the two environments. But Burt#146;s data seemed suspicious to the Marxist psychologist Leon Kamin, and covering for job a careful examination of Burt#146;s research revealed that it really was too good to be true. For example, Kamin discovered that even though Burt#146;s sample sizes got bigger, some of the correlation coefficients he claimed to have calculated stayed identical to three decimal places. Write! 20 It soon emerged that Burt#146;s work had been perhaps the biggest scientific fraud of the twentieth century. His supposed coauthors and research assistants did not exist, the twins he claimed to have studied were fictitious, and his data had been completely fabricated.
21. Not only is the claim that IQ is letter for job by email, highly heritable unsupported, it is also irrelevant to Jensen#146;s main conclusion, which was that compensatory education programs are doomed to fail. Even if IQ was highly heritable, it would not follow that differences between groups could not be overcome by improved educational opportunities. Heritability is a measure of the variation in a trait due to genetic differences within a group, and is irrelevant to the issue of whether a characteristic can be altered by changing the environment. The same genotype (or collection of genes) may be expressed differently in different environments, so heritability estimates apply only to essays on the a specific population in a specific range of environments. Letter For Job Application By Email! Hereditarians such as Jensen simply assume that we have already done all we can to alter the environment#151;a laughable assumption when it comes to education.
More generally, the idea that IQ tests measure an individual#146;s innate and fixed degree of on animal by george, intelligence, or that intelligence can be measured on a single scale, are equally dubious. 22. Who knows what IQ measures? asked the biologist Stephen Jay Gould. It is a good predictor of #145;success#146; in by email school, but is such success a result of ways, intelligence, apple polishing, or the assimilation of values that the leaders of society prefer? 23 Historically, IQ tests have been used to justify existing social hierarchies.
The tests are calibrated to ensure that those who occupy more privileged positions in the hierarchies receive higher scores. The scores are then used to claim that social inequalities reflect natural differences. The philosopher of science Hilary Putnam has argued that the notion of IQ is built on the assumption that there are a few #145;superior#146; people who have this one mysterious factor#151;#145;intelligence#146;#151;and who are good at everything, and a lot of slobs who are not much good at anything. Letter For Job Application By Email! If this assumption seems plausible to some people, it is only because we live in a society that is highly stratified. Essays Armenian! In fact, ordinary people can do anything that it is in their interest and do it well when (1) they are highly motivated and (2) they work collectively. As Putnam points out: That motivation plays a decisive role in acquiring almost any skill is a matter of everyone#146;s experience. The importance of application, working collectively is a paper the toulmin, also evidenced in many ways. The Black and Latin prisoners in Attica Prison are presumably part of [what Herrnstein calls] the covering application by email low IQ residue. But they organized brilliantly. Every popular revolution in history makes the same point#151;that ordinary people in on the genocide a revolution can perform incredible feats of organization, planning, strategy, etc.
But collective intelligence is covering application, not restricted to the context of by emerson, revolution. Since the 1950s a series of studies have shown that even in application by email the context of modern capitalist production, workers perform better, and find their jobs less dissatisfying, when the managerial hierarchy is reduced. 24. The claims of Jensen, Herrnstein, and stress spm other biological determinists, were simply an attempt to rationalize race and class inequalities as more or less inevitable. Covering Application By Email! As genuine science, they lacked all merit. 25. From sociobiology to evolutionary psychology. From the mid-1970s, new attempts were made to use biology to explain social phenomena.
In his widely read book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 26 the Harvard entomologist E.O. Wilson attempted to extend evolutionary explanations of social behavior in jen scott non-human animals to explain human behavior as well. Wilson argued that certain forms of human behavior are universal, and that the best explanation for this is that they are the result of natural selection and hence are coded for in our genes. Like the for job application eugenicists of the early twentieth century, Wilson postulated genes for a wide variety of traits, including entrepreneurship, creativity, spite, conformity (human beings are absurdly easy to indoctrinate#151;they seek it), xenophobia, and homosexuality. 27 Again, like the earlier eugenicists, Wilson claimed that these supposed biological facts made certain aspects of society, such as male domination of public life, all but inevitable. Ways Stress Spm! My own guess is the genetic bias is intense enough to cause a substantial division of labor even in the most free and egalitarian of future societies, he wrote shortly after Sociobiology was published. Letter For Job! Thus, even with identical education and equal access to all professions, men are likely to play a disproportionate role in political life, business, and science.
If we attempt to create a more egalitarian society, Wilson continued, we will place some personal freedoms in ways stress essay jeopardy. 28 Concerning Marxism in particular, Wilson reportedly joked later, Wonderful theory. Wrong species. 29. Sociobiological claims about human society received massive attention in the media. A Time magazine cover story was headlined Why You Do What You Do. According to covering the accompanying article, the theory can explain loyalty to church, corporation and nation.
30 BusinessWeek soon claimed that sociobiology provided A Genetic Defense of the Free Market. Sociobiology means that individuals cannot be molded to fit into socialist societies without a tremendous loss of efficiency. Bioeconomists say that government programs that force individuals to be less competitive and selfish than they are genetically programmed to be are preordained to fail. 31. Even Playboy got into the act: Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes. Inside, the magazine#146;s readers were told that. Males are#133;driven by their genes to reproduce.
They tend to famous be more promiscuous because in time past that was their best way to reproduce the most offspring. If you get caught fooling around, don#146;t say the application devil made you do it. Write A Paper! It#146;s the devil in your DNA. 32. Like their eugenic predecessors, these sociobiological speculations lacked any serious evidence in letter for job by email their support. 33 Consider for essays by emerson, instance the application claim that supposed human universals have a genetic basis. Essays Armenian Genocide! The mere fact of universality (if it is covering letter application by email, a fact) does not show this, since there might easily be a non-genetic explanation. German speaking is nearly universal in Germany, but the explanation is not that inhabitants of the country are genetically predisposed to speak a particular language. Often sociobiologists claimed that non-human animals share the spm characteristic in question#151;aggression, for instance#151;and that this shows that it probably has a genetic basis.
But this kind of reasoning is quite unpersuasive, as Wilson#146;s Harvard colleague Richard Lewontin has pointed out: How do we decide that slavery in ants and ant queens are like human slavery and like human royal families? How do we decide that the covering application by email coyness we see in people is the same as the behavior in animals called coyness? What happens is that human categories are laid on animals by analogy, partly as a matter of ways stress spm, convenience of language, and then these traits are discovered in animals and covering for job by email laid back on humans as if they had a common origin. There is in fact not a shred of evidence that the anatomical, physiological, and genetic basis of what is called aggression in rats has anything in common with the othello German invasion of Poland in 1939. 34. Similarly, there is no convincing evidence for the claim that various behaviors have been selected for in humans because they increase our biological fitness. Sociobiologists were initially interested in covering application the question of why some animals are apparently willing to reduce (or even give up) their own chances of reproducing in order to benefit others. An extreme example is the existence of sterile members of insect colonies. Famous Essays By Emerson! How could such traits have evolved? One possible explanation is covering letter for job, that an individual might give up its own prospects of reproducing in order to increase the chances of its relatives reproducing, thus passing on some of its genes to othello essay the next generation indirectly.
These are known as cases of kin selection, in contrast to cases of individual selection, in which the organism attempts to pass on its genes directly by having offspring. Another possible explanation in letter application by email cases in which the a paper using the toulmin model sacrifice is temporary is that the for job application individual that benefits is likely to jen scott curwood reciprocate in the future. This is known as reciprocal altruism. Kin selection and reciprocal altruism are important ideas in covering for job by email evolutionary biology, but whether or not they are the quoting correct explanation for any particular trait has to be demonstrated. But sociobiological explanations of human behavior simply assume what they need to prove. When we combine individual selective advantage with the possibility of kin selection and reciprocal altruism, it is letter application by email, hard to imagine any human trait for which a plausible scenario for its selective advantage could not be invented. Famous! The real problem is to find out whether any of these stories is true .#133; At the very minimum, we might ask whether there is any evidence that such selective processes are going on at the present, but in fact no one has ever measured in covering for job any human population the using the toulmin actual reproductive advantage or disadvantage of any human behavior. All of the for job application by email sociobiological explanations of the evolution of human behavior are like Rudyard Kipling#146;s Just So stories of how the camel got his hump and how the elephant got his trunk. Famous Essays By Emerson! They are just stories.
Science has been turned into a game. Letter Application! 35. But perhaps the most basic point is othello in an essay, that the covering letter for job application behaviors that sociobiologists claimed are coded into famous essays, our genes, are not universals at covering for job by email all. Not every human society has exhibited the same sexual division of labor as our own. And not every human society has been capitalist or even competitive. For example, the anthropologist Peggy Sanday conducted a survey of on the armenian genocide, about 150 different societies going back as far as the application sixth century BC to see whether they were male-dominated, female-dominated, or based on collective decision-making. She found a huge diversity of sex roles in these societies, showing that such roles derive not from human nature, but from specific historical and ways to reduce stress spm political circumstances.36 More generally, there has been tremendous cultural evolution in the past few thousand years that cannot be explained in biological terms because there simply hasn#146;t been enough time for natural selection to operate. 37.
Sociobiology reinvents itself. Sociobiology, however, has proven too ideologically useful to die, and it has reemerged over the past decade renamed as evolutionary psychology. Books by New Republic editor Robert Wright, 38 science writer Matt Ridley 39 and Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker 40 have popularized the ideas of evolutionary psychology for a general audience. Covering Letter Application! Pinker is particularly pugnacious. He claims that inequality and conflict are inevitable features of human society. He attacks Marxists, academic feminists and cafe intellectuals and says The standard Marxist theory of human nature has probably been refuted by many sources of evidence, including the anthropological record and Darwinian theory. 41. Evolutionary psychology claims to be an advance of stress, old-style sociobiology in at least two respects. First, it proposes that it is by email, not specific behaviors but underlying psychological mechanisms that are shaped by natural selection.
This leads evolutionary psychologists to to reduce essay adopt a modular theory of the human mind, which sees it as consisting of a large number of distinct informational processing devices (or modules), each with a specialized task#151;in other words a Swiss army knife model of the mind. Covering! There is considerable evidence that at least some aspects of the mind#151;such as language abilities and the visual system#151;are independently functioning modules, but evolutionary psychologists take this idea to absurd extremes, proposing such modules as a cheater detector (able to essays by emerson tell you when someone is deceiving you) and a sexual attraction module (which supposedly leads human males to be attracted to young females, and females to be attracted to high-status males). Covering Letter For Job By Email! Even more modest versions of the modularity thesis leave us with a picture of the mind that is jen scott curwood dissertation, atomized and relatively inflexible. 42. Second, the more technical work in evolutionary psychology makes use of covering for job by email, sophisticated mathematical models in order to determine what kinds of psychological mechanisms would have been optimal for our ancient ancestors to how to write a paper using model evolve in the supposed environment of evolutionary adaptation that they had to letter application face. The underlying assumption is that the quoting in an human mind evolved to solve the problems faced by hunter-gatherers hundreds of thousands of years ago in the Pleistocene era and letter that its basic psychology has remained unchanged ever since. Contemporary social problems are thus rooted in the fact that we find ourselves with a Stone Age mind in an increasingly complex modern world.
43. But this whole approach is highly problematic. First, we have very little detailed knowledge of the environment of evolutionary adaptation faced by our early ancestors, so anything we say about this is highly speculative. Second, just like sociobiologists before them, evolutionary psychologists often ignore alternative explanations of human behavior, as well as evidence that the psychological characteristics that they claim were built into the human mind hundreds of thousands of years ago are not universal after all. I#146;ll consider just one example#151;violence. It is othello, certainly true that human history is characterized by high levels of violence#151;including war, blood feuds, and murder#151;much of which seem on the face of it highly irrational.
So why have generations of human beings killed each other rather than cooperating in ways that might have been mutually beneficial? Here is one possible explanation. Our distant ancestors, hundreds of thousands of covering application by email, years ago, found themselves in an environment in which violence was necessary to jen scott curwood survive. Those individuals who developed a psychology that distinguished between members of their own group and strangers, and who were psychologically prepared to use deadly violence against letter application by email, the latter, were better adapted to how to a paper this environment than those less inclined to use violence, and letter so these psychological characteristics were selected for in early humans. This tendency to violence continues to exist in modern humans even when it is no longer beneficial and the only critical essay on animal farm by george orwell, way to covering for job application keep it under control is to set up a strong central state that can, at least to some extent, hold these tendencies in check. That, in a nutshell, is the story that Steven Pinker tells about violence in his most recent book The Blank Slate , where he argues that human beings have a bloody prehistory stretching back hundreds of by emerson, thousands of years and that violence in humans is#133;part of letter by email, our design. On Animal By George Orwell! 44. Unfortunately for Pinker, and fortunately for the rest of us, this view of human prehistory is letter for job application, quite simply a myth.
In support of the claim that long before history began murderous strife was universal and unending, 45 Pinker cites the work of the University of Illinois archaeologist Lawrence Keeley, who claims that humans have always made war. Curwood! 46 In fact, Keeley demonstrates nothing of the kind. His evidence consists of a compilation of various instances from the archaeological record in which humans died violent deaths at the hands of others. But what Keeley fails to show is that these cases were typical or common, rather than relatively isolated aberrations. According to the Rutgers anthropologist R. Brian Ferguson, probably the letter for job by email leading expert on the early history of war, the global archaeological record contradicts the idea that war was always a feature of how to a paper the toulmin, human existence; instead, the record shows that warfare is largely a development of the past 10,000 years. 47 In a continuing global survey of all the available archaeological evidence, Ferguson has so far discovered no evidence of systematic violence in pre-historic human societies in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, or North America. Ferguson argues that warfare became a feature of human society only as a consequence of covering letter, specific historical developments, including the establishment of permanent settlements with accumulated wealth and the emergence of social hierarchy, an elite, perhaps with its own interests and rivalries. The fact that for most of human existence there is no evidence of systematic large-scale violence, totally undercuts Pinker#146;s theory, which is really just a restatement of one of the using the toulmin oldest elements of ruling-class ideology#151;that states exist to protect us from ourselves, not to protect the for job interests of the in an elite and to keep the mass of the letter for job by email population in its place. But the problem is not just what Pinker says about violence. The whole idea that human psychology is relatively rigid and unchanging#151;one of the central claims of evolutionary psychology#151;is incompatible with what we actually do know about essay farm human evolution. Application! The first modern humans are believed to have evolved in southern Africa about essay 120,000 years ago.
According to Marta Lahr, Professor of by email, Evolutionary Studies at jen scott curwood Cambridge University, these creatures had the potential of invention that we have. And I think that#146;s actually what makes them modern#151;they [could] invent solutions to new problems. 48. Around 50,000 years ago groups of covering by email, modern humans began to how to a paper the toulmin model migrate from Africa and disperse around the world, coming into contact with other hominid species that had left Africa about a million and a half years earlier. Modern humans arrived in Europe around 35,000 years ago, where they lived side by side with Neanderthals, a closely related but distinct human species. Neanderthals, unlike modern humans, were physiologically well adapted to the cold European climate, but they were intellectually inferior to our ancestors. According to the archaeologist Paul Mellars, the most remarkable thing about Neanderthal technology is the way it hardly changes significantly over application by email about a quarter of a million years. You get essentially the same shapes of tools made by famous essays, the same techniques over this whole period. Now as soon as you get modern humans on covering for job application the scene you get a whole range of dramatic changes. They suddenly start producing new shapes of curwood dissertation, stone tools obviously designed for different functions, and for job application they start producing tools from bones, antler and ivory, which had never been used before. 49.
It was this creativity and how to using the toulmin ingenuity of for job, our ancestors#151;also exhibited in their elaborate ornaments, art, and burial rituals, and the complex networks of trade and exchange they established#151;that explains why they survived and the Neanderthals did not. When temperatures in Europe began to plummet with the onset of a new ice age, Neanderthals were unable to curwood dissertation adjust to letter application by email the new conditions. But modern humans continued to thrive, even in mountainous areas. Essay Farm! By 28,000 years ago the last remaining Neanderthals had disappeared. Covering Application By Email! Similar developments took place around the world, where modern humans replaced other hominid species. Thus the key to critical essay on animal our ancestors#146; success was their enormous flexibility and covering by email ability to learn, not patterns of behavior hardwired into their brains. 50. Sociobiologists and essays on the armenian genocide evolutionary psychologists distort Darwin by adopting an ultra-adaptationist view that tries to letter application by email explain every significant aspect of human behavior or psychology as a biological adaptation, shaped by natural selection. But while human intelligence was surely the subject of natural selection, it is highly implausible to think that specific behaviors or psychological characteristics are hardwired into our brains. As Stephen Jay Gould once put it: The central feature of our biological uniqueness also provides the major reason for doubting that our behaviors are directly coded by specific genes.
That feature is, of critical essay on animal by george orwell, course, our large brain. Covering Letter For Job Application! [M]arkedly increased brain size in human evolution. added enough neural connections to convert an inflexible and rather rigidly programmed device into a labile organ, endowed with sufficient logic and how to write the toulmin memory to substitute non-programmed learning for direct specification as the ground of social behavior. Flexibility may well be the covering for job application most important determinant of human consciousness; the direct programming of how to write using, behavior has probably become inadaptive. 51. The evidence for for job application, sociobiology and on the armenian evolutionary psychology is just as weak as for earlier versions of biological determinism. Next issue: The New Eugenics. Phil Gasper is a member of the ISR editorial board. He teaches philosophy of science at Notre Dame de Namur University and is an associate editor of the online journal Human Nature Review (www.human-nature.com). 1#9;The arguments are linked because natural selection can only operate on characteristics that have a genetic basis. 2#9; Time , January 20, 1992.
3#9; Newsweek , February 24, 1992. 5#9; U.S. News and World Report , February 27, 1995. 7#9;Quoted in Evelyn Fox Keller, Nature, Nurture, and the Human Genome Project, in Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy Hood (eds.), The Code of Codes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 282. 8#9;Originally published in Macmillan#146;s Magazine , 12, 157#151;66, 318#151;27, available online at http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Galton/talent.htm. 9#9;Francis Galton, Inquiries into letter for job application by email, Human Faculty and its Development (London and New York: Macmillan, 1883; second edition, Dent and on animal by george Dutton, 1907), 17. 10#9;Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius (London and New York: Macmillan, 1869; second edition 1895). 11#9;Ibid., second edition, 338.
12	Correspondence With Alphonse de Candolle, from the Web site Life of Francis Galton by Karl Pearson, Vol. 2, 1884, available online at http://www.mugu.com/browse/galton/search/pearson/_vol2/pages/vol2_0239.htm. 13#9;On Davenport and the history of the eugenics movement see Allan Chase, The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975), Daniel J. Kevles, In the covering for job application by email Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of stress essay, California Press, 1985), and Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America#146;s Campaign to Create a Master Race (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003). 14#9;Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: Norton, 1981), 182, 227, and 230. 15#9;Letter to Madison Grant, April 7, 1925, quoted in C. E. Rosenberg, No Other Gods: On Science and letter for job application by email American Social Thought (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), 95#151;96. 16#9;Quoted in Chase, The Legacy of Malthus , 159#151;60. 17#9;All quotations from this paragraph are from Barry Mehler, Eliminating the Inferior: American and Nazi Sterilization Programs, Science for the People (Nov#151;Dec 1987), available online at http://www.ferris.edu/isar/archives/mehler/eliminating.htm. Osborn, incidentally, was also one of the on the armenian founders of for job by email, The Pioneer Fund, which still promotes theories of black inferiority and is a major financial supporter of the ultra-right Federation for American Immigration Reform. 18#9;Arthur Jensen, How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Harvard Educational Review 39: 1#151;123. 19#9;Richard Herrnstein, IQ, Atlantic Monthly , September 1971, 43#151;64.
20#9;Leon J. Kamin, The Science and Politics of IQ (Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974). 21#9;Gould, The Mismeasure of Man , Ch. 6. R.C. Lewontin, Steven Rose, and essay on animal farm by george Leon J. Kamin, Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (New York: Pantheon, 1984), 101#151;06. Other genuine studies of application, identical twins are problematic on jen scott other grounds. See for example Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, 106#151;16 and Jay Joseph, Twin Studies in Psychiatry and Psychology: Science or Pseudoscience? Psychiatric Quarterly , 73:1, Spring 2002, 71#151;82. 22#9;The originator of IQ tests, the French psychologist Alfred Binet, viewed them as simply a diagnostic tool to determine which school children needed additional assistance, not as a measure of fixed intellectual capacity.
It was only when the tests were adopted in by email the U.S. in the early twentieth century that American hereditarians began interpreting the results in this latter way. Stress Essay Spm! See Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, 146#151;58. For Job Application! For the most influential critique of the idea that intelligence is a single entity or capacity, see Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1983; second edition, 1993). 23#9;Steven Jay Gould, Racist Arguments and IQ, in quoting othello in an Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History (New York: Norton, 1977), 245. 24#9;Hilary Putnam, Reductionism and the Nature of Psychology, Cognition 2:1, 1973, 141#151;43. 25#9;This, of course, did not stop either Jensen or Herrnstein from continuing to get a respectful hearing for their pseudo-scientific views. Jensen elaborated his views at covering letter for job length in Bias in Mental Testing (New York: Free Press, 1979). Herrnstein later collaborated with the jen scott curwood right-wing pundit Charles Murray to write the racist tract The Bell Curve: The Reshaping of American Life by Difference in Intelligence (New York: Free Press, 1994). Jensen#146;s views are demolished by Stephen Jay Gould in Jensen#146;s Last Stand, in application by email An Urchin in the Storm: Essays about essays on the genocide Books and Ideas (New York: Norton, 1988).
For an equally devastating demolition of The Bell Curve , see Ned Block, Race, Genes, and IQ, Boston Review , December 1995/January 1996, available online at http://www.bostonreview.net/BR20.6/block.html. 26#9;E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975). 27#9; Sociobiology , chap. 27. 28#9;Quoted in Human Decency is Animal, New York Times Magazine , October 12, 1975. 29#9;Quoted in J. Getlin, Natural Wonder: At Heart, Edward Wilson#146;s an covering for job application by email Ant Man, Los Angeles Times , October 21, 1994. 30#9;Time, August 1, 1977.
The article also reported a claim by the sociobiologist Robert Trivers that feminism was going to decline because feminists were not having children and, therefore, would not pass on their feminist genes! 31	A Genetic Defense of the Free Market, BusinessWeek , April 10, 1978. 32#9;Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes, Playboy , August 1978. In a 1981 issue, Playboy went further, claiming that rape is very likely genetically based. a strategy genetically available to low-dominance males that increases their chances of how to a paper model, reproducing by making more females available to them than they would otherwise acquire.
Claims of this kind remain a staple of sociobiology and its more recent descendant evolutionary psychology, most notoriously in Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer, A Natural History of Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). For a thorough critique of Thornhill and Palmer see Cheryl Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and covering letter for job application Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003). 33#9;The most comprehensive critique of sociobiology is Philip Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for write a paper, Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985). Covering By Email! Kitcher, who is perhaps the most respected contemporary philosopher of science, concludes that most human sociobiology is based on unrigorous analyses, problematic concepts, dubious connections, and spurious arguments. Also see Marshall Sahlins, The Use and Abuse of Biology: An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology (Ann Arbor: University of ways essay spm, Michigan Press, 1976), and Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, Not in Our Genes, Chap. Covering Letter Application! 9. 34#9;Richard C. Lewontin, Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA (New York: HarperPerennial, 1993), 95#151;96. 35#9;Lewontin, Biology as Ideology , 100. 36#9;Peggy Reeves Sanday, Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality (New York: Cambridge University Press, l981). 37#9;Attempts by sociobiologists to write a paper deal with cultural evolution have not been successful. Application! See Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition , Chap.
10 and Gould, Genes on the Brain, in An Urchin in the Storm . 38#9;Robert Wright, The Moral Animal: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Pantheon, 1994). 39#9;Matt Ridley, The Red Queen: Sex and the toulmin model the Evolution of Human Nature (New York: Simon and covering letter Schuster, 1994). 40#9;Steven Pinker, How the on the armenian genocide Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997) and The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (New York: Viking, 2002). 41#9;Quoted in John Horgan, Darwin on His Mind, Lingua Franca , November 1997. 42#9;For critiques of evolutionary psychology see Hilary Rose and Steven Rose (eds.), Alas Poor Darwin: Arguments Against Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Harmony Books, 2000); David Buller, Evolutionary Psychology, in Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa (eds.), A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind (An official electronic publication of the Department of covering, Philosophy of essays on the armenian, University of Rome 3, 2000), available online at covering letter http://host.uniroma3.it/progetti/_kant/field/ep.htm; John Dupré, Human Nature and the Limits of Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001); and ways Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and Rape . Buller#146;s forthcoming book, Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for letter application, Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), due out in 2005, promises to be the most comprehensive critique to date. 43#9;Leda Cosmides and othello in an essay John Tooby, Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer, available online at http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/_research/cep/primer.html.
Buller calls this the Flintstone theory _of human nature. 44#9;Pinker, The Blank Slate , 306 and 314. 45#9;This is a quotation from Winston Churchill with which Pinker begins his chapter on covering violence. The quotation, together with the fact that most of the chapter borrows heavily from the pessimistic seventeenth century philosopher Thomas Hobbes, suggests that Pinker#146;s views reflect old prejudices rather than a careful assessment of the available scientific evidence. 46#9;Lawrence Keeley, War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 47#9;R. Essays Armenian! Brian Ferguson, The Birth of War, Natural History , July/August 2003, available online at http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/0703/0703_feature.html. 48#9;Quoted in letter Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution , a BBC/The Learning Channel documentary, originally broadcast on essays on the genocide TLC in August 2000.
Also see Robin McKie, Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution (New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2000). 49#9;Quoted in Dawn of Man . 50#9;For more on the Neanderthals see Paul Jordan, Neanderthal: Neanderthal Man and the Story of Human Origins (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1999). For an up to date guide to what is currently known about human evolution see Roger Lewin et. al., Principles of letter for job application by email, Human Evolution, second edition (New York: Blackwell, 2004). 51	Potentiality vs. Determinism, in Ever Since Darwin , 257.
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