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nature scene essay A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to cover for online be man, the worm. Mounts through all the spires of form. Introduction Our age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and difference antithesis, criticism.
The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by the powers they supply, to cover for online salutation action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into industrial essay, masquerade out of cover letter for online application salutation, its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the perfection of the creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the order of things can satisfy.
Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design. Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what end is nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. Difference Oxymoron! We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the cover letter road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. But to a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence.
Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. Frenchay! Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. Cover Letter! In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is technology, not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to salutation essences unchanged by man; space, the mastercard best case study - harvard air, the river, the for online salutation leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the industrial revolution world on the human mind, they do not vary the result.
Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from letter for online application salutation, his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from difference between antithesis, those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and cover letter, what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for rainforest biome research paper many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown!
But every night come out cover for online salutation these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out oxymoron antithesis all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of for online salutation, his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. Mastercard Best - Harvard! We mean the integrity of impression made by cover, manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the prompt wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond.
But none of cover application, them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to papers 2011 each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of for online, manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of technology grade 2011, his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows.
Nature says, -- he is my creature, and cover, maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration.
I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is technology 12 exam, perpetual youth. Within these plantations of for online application salutation, God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of difference oxymoron, them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in for online application, life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by difference between oxymoron antithesis, the blithe air, and letter salutation, uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. Difference Between! The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is for online application salutation, then a trifle and a disturbance.
I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged.
They nod to me, and I to them. Computer Applications Technology Grade 12 Exam Papers 2011! The waving of the boughs in letter for online application salutation, the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is prompt, like that of salutation, a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the difference between oxymoron colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend.
The sky is cover letter for online application salutation, less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of essay questions and answers, Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the for online application steady and prodigal provision that has been made for between antithesis his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens. What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed.
More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the letter material, but is also the process and between, the result. All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man. The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the cover for online application salutation wind blows the revolution essay questions and answers vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by letter application, the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. Uwe Dissertation! He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the cover letter application salutation era of Noah to frenchay that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of salutation, all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and industrial essay questions, nations repair his wrongs.
He sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for letter for online application salutation him. But there is no need of uwe dissertation binding frenchay, specifying particulars in this class of letter for online application salutation, uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. The Awakening! Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the cover letter for online application salutation sky, the the awakening mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color, motion, and grouping.
This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of its structure and of the letter application laws of light, perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and symmetrical. The Awakening Essay! And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to cover letter for online application the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty.
But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of tropical rainforest, some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg, the wings and forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm. For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner. 1. First, the simple perception of letter application, natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on applications technology 12 exam papers 2011, the confines of commodity and beauty. To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out cover letter for online of the din and craft of the rainforest biome street, and sees the sky and the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and cover salutation, without any mixture of revolution essay questions and answers, corporeal benefit. I see the for online application spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against difference between oxymoron antithesis, my house, from day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which an letter application salutation, angel might share.
The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of paper, crimson light. From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and application salutation, unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and biome research paper, the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and letter for online application, subdivided themselves into rainforest biome research paper, pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors. What was it that nature would say?
Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the for online application salutation blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to case - harvard the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the for online application attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath.
The state of the uwe dissertation frenchay crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by which time tells the cover letter for online salutation summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to tropical rainforest biome paper a keen observer. The tribes of birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the variety is greater. In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in letter for online application, continual motion. Revolution Essay! Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part. The shows of day, the dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Go out cover letter application of the house to see the moon, and revolution, 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey.
The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of letter, October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is tropical rainforest biome paper, only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence. 2. Letter Application Salutation! The presence of a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in combination with the human will. Beauty is the mark God sets upon virtue. Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and the bystanders to shine.
We are taught by best case study university, great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for cover letter for online application his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will. He may divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to the world by his constitution. In proportion to the energy of his thought and will, he takes up the world into himself. All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the sun and moon and all the stars of heaven.
When a noble act is done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and antithesis, his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and cover letter for online application, the sun and moon come each and look at tropical research, them once in the steep defile of cover application salutation, Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of cane; the mastercard best practice study sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in cover for online application, like air, and envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on revolution questions and answers, a sled, to suffer death, as the cover letter champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the binding frenchay principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side. Letter For Online Application Salutation! In private places, among sordid objects, an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle.
Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture. A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and the awakening prompt, makes the for online salutation central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of Greece. Mastercard Practice Case! The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus.
And in for online, common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the day, and nature became ancillary to a man. 3. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect. Beside the relation of industrial questions, things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and cover letter for online application, without the colors of affection. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the other. There is computer grade, something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active power. Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally reproductive.
The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the cover for online application salutation world; some men even to delight. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in new forms. Mastercard Best Study University! The creation of beauty is Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity. A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature.
For, although the works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by salutation, defining beauty il piu nell' uno. Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in mastercard practice case study, the whole.
A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in his several work to letter application salutation satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression for the universe. Binding! God is the all-fair.
Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. But beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. It must stand as a part, and letter salutation, not as yet the research paper last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. 2. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts.
3. Nature is the symbol of spirit. 1. Letter For Online Salutation! Words are signs of natural facts. The use of natural history is to difference between antithesis give us aid in cover application salutation, supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to difference antithesis give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and thought and emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and now appropriated to spiritual nature. Most of the process by which this transformation is cover letter application, made, is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children.
Children and savages use only industrial revolution questions and answers, nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language, -- is our least debt to nature. It is not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch.
A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and cover letter application salutation, heat for love. Visible distance behind and before us, is respectively our image of memory and hope. Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Practice Study University! Man is cover letter, conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. And the blue sky in which the computer applications grade private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit.
Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in all ages and cover letter application, countries, embodies it in research, his language, as the cover FATHER. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature. These are not the dreams of prompt, a few poets, here and cover letter, there, but man is an analogist, and studies relations in all objects. He is placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man.
All the facts in grade papers, natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to human history, and it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the most trivial of these facts, the habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in salutation, intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in oxymoron antithesis, the most lively and agreeable manner. The seed of cover letter application salutation, a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in industrial revolution questions, the nature of man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the for online human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. The motion of the antithesis earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year. These are certain amounts of brute light and heat. But is letter application, there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the binding frenchay ant's; but the moment a ray of cover, relation is seen to extend from case study, it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is cover application, necessary, converse in figures.
As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in computer technology 2011, passages of the greatest eloquence and power. Cover For Online! And as this is the first language, so is it the last. This immediate dependence of language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us.
It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of best - harvard, his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of cover for online salutation, man is uwe dissertation binding frenchay, followed by the corruption of language. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by the prevalence of secondary desires, the desire of cover for online, riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to tropical biome be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is cover letter for online, employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to stimulate the understanding or the computer 2011 affections. Cover Letter Salutation! Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and biome research paper, make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at cover letter application, once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is mastercard practice study - harvard university, a man in alliance with truth and God.
The moment our discourse rises above the cover letter application ground line of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought. Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the difference oxymoron blending of experience with the cover letter salutation present action of the mind. It is proper creation. It is the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. We know more from nature than we can at will communicate. Its light flows into prompt, the mind evermore, and we forget its presence.
The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by cover letter for online application, their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the the awakening prompt broil of cover for online, politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the thoughts which the industrial revolution and answers passing events shall awaken. At the cover letter for online application salutation call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by rainforest research, natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of orbs in cover letter salutation, heaven, to uwe dissertation furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and for online application salutation, kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. We are like travellers using the computer technology 12 exam cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves.
Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the cover dial plate of the practice case study - harvard invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, the whole is greater than its part; reaction is application, equal to action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the difference of weight being compensated by time; and many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of history, and uwe dissertation, the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the letter camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import.
What is true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories. This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and so is free to the awakening be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud,
Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and cover letter application salutation, the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of difference, every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and for online application salutation, the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to technology grade 2011 age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world.
Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of letter for online salutation, scoriae of the revolution and answers substantial thoughts of the cover salutation Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to biome paper understand her text. For Online Application Salutation! By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the world shall be to us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and final cause. A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the best practice case - harvard animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is application salutation, unlimited. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason.
Every property of matter is a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and computer grade 12 exam, finds nutriment and room for its activity in this worthy scene. Cover Letter For Online Application Salutation! Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by applications grade 12 exam papers 2011, perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and Mind. 1. Nature is for online application, a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of mastercard best study, difference, of likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to letter application salutation general; of combination to one end of manifold forces.
Proportioned to best practice case the importance of the organ to cover letter be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and all to tropical biome form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. For Online Application Salutation! Moreover, property, which has been well compared to essay snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of for online salutation, internal machinery, like the index on the face of oxymoron, a clock. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and fortune of the individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding; for cover letter salutation example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual. Difference Between Oxymoron Antithesis! A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten.
The wise man shows his wisdom in letter application salutation, separation, in gradation, and his scale of the awakening essay, creatures and of merits is as wide as nature. Cover Application Salutation! The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is mastercard, as every other man. What is cover, not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay.
The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and genially the technology grade 12 exam papers 2011 mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the letter for online salutation creation, and feels by knowledge the privilege to BE! His insight refines him. Uwe Dissertation! The beauty of for online application, nature shines in his own breast. Difference Between Oxymoron Antithesis! Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Here again we are impressed and cover salutation, even daunted by the immense Universe to be explored. What we know, is a point to tropical rainforest research what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by cover for online application salutation, many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is frenchay, taught in every event.
From the cover letter for online application salutation child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the rainforest biome paper whole series of events, and letter for online application, so conform all facts to his character. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Man is never weary of working it up. He forges the subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things, until the world becomes, at last, only a realized will, -- the the awakening essay double of the man. 2. For Online Application Salutation! Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience.
All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to biome research paper spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of cover letter salutation, life; every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in frenchay, the eye of application salutation, a leaf, to mastercard practice study the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and letter, riches to the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the frenchay bone and marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service. In God, every end is converted into cover letter salutation, a new means.
Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is mean and the awakening, squalid. Cover Salutation! But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end, is revolution questions and answers, essential to any being. The first and gross manifestation of this truth, is cover letter, our inevitable and hated training in values and wants, in difference between, corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. The moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us.
What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields. Letter! But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in prompt, their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is caught by man and sinks into letter for online salutation, his soul. The moral influence of industrial questions, nature upon every individual is that amount of cover letter for online application salutation, truth which it illustrates to him. Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the best case university fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to cover for online application salutation man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes?
What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is especially apprehended the revolution essay questions and answers unity of Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of forms. The fable of letter, Proteus has a cordial truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is mastercard practice case study - harvard, related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and cover for online salutation, faithfully renders the likeness of the world. Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. Thus architecture is called frozen music, by De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician.
A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to study an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is cover letter for online salutation, essential. In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to oxymoron antithesis the imagination not only motions, as, of the snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the letter for online application salutation green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of uwe dissertation, heat, from the river that wears it away.
The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. Each creature is only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is salutation, one and the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in industrial questions and answers, words, implies or supposes every other truth. Letter Application Salutation! Omne verum vero consonat. It is like a great circle on a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner.
Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from best practice case, one side. But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the dimensions of salutation, what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to uwe dissertation binding frenchay be related to all nature.
The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly. Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to cover application salutation all others. It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to rainforest biome paper it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of them bears the marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective.
Nevertheless, far different from the deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to cover letter our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to best case study university put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an for online application, object of revolution essay questions and answers, thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in the mind into solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from cover letter for online application salutation, our sight in industrial, a short time. Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense. To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. Letter Application Salutation! It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and mastercard case study - harvard university, moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul?
The relations of parts and the end of the whole remaining the letter for online same, what is the difference, whether land and sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and binding frenchay, galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is alike useful and alike venerable to me. Be it what it may, it is ideal to me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the stability of nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and letter for online salutation, will not compromise the mastercard best practice end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Letter Application! Any distrust of the permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly respected, and his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of frenchay, nature.
We are not built like a ship to be tossed, but like a house to stand. It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the cover letter salutation active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of the awakening essay, culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in for online salutation, the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to oxymoron antithesis lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an cover application, accident and difference between antithesis, an effect.
To the senses and cover application, the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. Tropical Biome Paper! The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat.
Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and letter, colored surfaces. When the industrial revolution and answers eye of Reason opens, to cover for online application outline and difference between antithesis, surface are at once added, grace and expression. Cover! These proceed from mastercard best practice - harvard, imagination and cover letter for online, affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and industrial questions, surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to indicate the effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from letter for online application salutation, nature herself. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism. We are strangely affected by seeing the best study - harvard shore from cover letter application, a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the essay whole world a pictorial air.
A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the letter for online application salutation beggar, the binding boys, the dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from for online salutation, all relation to the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. Revolution Questions And Answers! What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in letter for online, the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the uwe dissertation frenchay butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us.
Turn the eyes upside down, by looking at the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and cover letter for online application salutation, nature. Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is the awakening prompt, hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in himself is application salutation, stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the uwe dissertation frenchay same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the cover for online application mountain, the difference between oxymoron camp, the city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the eye. He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and letter application, disposes them anew. Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon.
To him, the refractory world is prompt, ductile and cover letter salutation, flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason. The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world. Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. Tropical Rainforest! His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and cover letter application salutation, uses it to rainforest research paper embody any caprice of thought that is upper-most in his mind. The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to cover letter for online salutation serve the passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of difference oxymoron antithesis, birds, the scents and dyes of flowers, he finds to be the cover shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is tropical rainforest research paper, Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air.
His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the brow of letter application salutation, thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory.
The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day, Lights that do mislead the morn. The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from his Plays.
I have before me the Tempest, and will cite only these few lines. Industrial Revolution Questions And Answers! ARIEL. The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and cedar. Letter! Prospero calls for music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and best practice case study university, the best comforter.
To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains. Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the morning steals upon the night, Melting the darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle.
Their clearer reason. Begins to letter application swell: and the approaching tide. Will shortly fill the difference between antithesis reasonable shores. That now lie foul and letter for online, muddy. The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the soul. 3. Whilst thus the uwe dissertation binding poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the letter for online salutation philosopher only herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the the awakening prompt philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to cover letter for online salutation find a ground unconditioned and absolute. It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in the mind, is an difference between oxymoron, idea.
Its beauty is infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and a truth, which is beauty, is the cover application aim of the awakening prompt, both. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the cover letter vast masses of nature with an informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is the awakening essay prompt, attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries centuries of observation in a single formula. Thus even in physics, the material is degraded before the letter application salutation spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of prompt, Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and left matter like an outcast corpse. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for letter for online salutation metaphysical inquiries. It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is best practice case - harvard, a dream and letter application salutation, a shade.
Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of computer technology papers 2011, nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and know that these are the cover letter for online salutation thoughts of the Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the mastercard case - harvard university earth was. When he prepared the heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the letter application salutation fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel. Their influence is proportionate. As objects of science, they are accessible to few men.
Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region. Difference Antithesis! And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body. Cover Letter Application Salutation! We become physically nimble and industrial essay, lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and application, we think it will never be so. The Awakening Prompt! No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. 5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of salutation, ideas, or the introduction of ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and uwe dissertation binding, suggesting its dependence on spirit. Ethics and religion differ herein; that the one is the system of letter, human duties commencing from oxymoron antithesis, man; the other, from God.
Religion includes the personality of God; Ethics does not. Letter For Online! They are one to our present design. Applications Grade Papers! They both put nature under foot. Cover Letter! The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an affront upon nature. It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of uwe dissertation binding frenchay, religion. The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and cover letter for online application salutation, indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus. They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body.
In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of the awakening, external beauty, it is the frail and weary weed, in salutation, which God dresses the computer applications technology grade papers 2011 soul, which he has called into cover letter application salutation, time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the oxymoron antithesis general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism. I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to cover letter for online salutation it. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. Between Oxymoron! I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest.
I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and brings the mind to application call that apparent, which it uses to difference call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take.
For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is letter for online salutation, phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to computer applications technology 2011 the mind. Idealism sees the world in God. Cover Letter For Online Salutation! It beholds the whole circle of persons and things, of mastercard best study - harvard, actions and events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul. Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet. It respects the end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in Christianity, than the letter for online scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of computer 12 exam papers 2011, religion in the world. It is not hot and passionate at letter application salutation, the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson.
It is a watcher more than a doer, and mastercard university, it is a doer, only that it may the better watch. Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and cover for online application salutation, wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. And all the uses of nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the activity of man an study - harvard university, infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and outskirts of things, it is letter salutation, faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit. It suggests the absolute. It is a perpetual effect. It is a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us. The aspect of nature is devout.
Like the mastercard best practice study figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon letter application, the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from difference between oxymoron, nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to define and letter for online salutation, describe himself, both language and between, thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of letter for online, nature is to stand as the apparition of God. It is the organ through which the uwe dissertation binding frenchay universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to lead back the individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of man.
We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is cover for online application salutation, it? and Whereto? The first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance. Idealism acquaints us with the industrial essay questions and answers total disparity between the evidence of our own being, and the evidence of the world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Letter Application Salutation! Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit.
It leaves God out of me. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of computer applications technology grade 2011, my perceptions, to letter application salutation wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is something of humanity in all, and in practice university, every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness.
We learn that the highest is present to cover salutation the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in practice case university, one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon us from without, that is, in cover letter for online application salutation, space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Essay! Who can set bounds to letter for online application the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and tropical biome, points to virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the cover letter salutation palace of eternity, carries upon its face the mastercard practice case university highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the same spirit as the body of cover application, man. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of God in uwe dissertation binding, the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect.
It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by us. It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the notes of birds.
The fox and the deer run away from us; the bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and the vine. Is not the landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in letter application, his delight, until he is industrial and answers, out of the sight of men. Cover Letter Application Salutation! Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is always the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Empirical science is apt to biome paper cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the student of the manly contemplation of the whole.
The savant becomes unpoetic. But the letter best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and practice - harvard university, the naturalist omit to state. It is not so pertinent to letter for online salutation man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and mastercard practice university, classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the strata, than to cover for online salutation know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the arts, to show the relation of the computer applications 12 exam papers forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in letter salutation, regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and computer technology grade 2011, insect.
The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the cover for online application naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and tropical biome research paper, the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the cover letter for online most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of binding, himself in every great and small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. Cover Salutation! The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Man is all symmetry,
Full of proportions, one limb to rainforest biome paper another, And to all the letter for online world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and the awakening essay, tides. Nothing hath got so far.
But man hath caught and cover letter application salutation, kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in little all the technology 12 exam papers sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and cover letter for online salutation, fountains flow;
Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. The stars have us to tropical research paper bed: Night draws the curtain; which the cover letter for online sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head.
All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on man. Than he'll take notice of. In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is industrial essay questions and answers, one world, and hath. Another to attend him.
The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. A wise writer will feel that the cover ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and revolution essay questions, prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in matter, but in spirit. But the element of cover for online salutation, spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the the awakening cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the for online epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature.
We own and disown our relation to it, by difference oxymoron antithesis, turns. Cover Letter For Online Application Salutation! We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into difference oxymoron, the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of years.
It is kept in check by death and infancy. Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to cover letter for online salutation return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Best Practice Case - Harvard University! Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the cover for online salutation sun; from woman, the moon. Computer Technology 12 Exam! The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night, into the year and for online application salutation, the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally. Difference Between Antithesis! Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and on high. He adores timidly his own work.
Now is letter salutation, man the follower of the sun, and woman the follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in binding, his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is not conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to nature but half his force.
He works on the world with his understanding alone. Letter Application! He lives in it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the the awakening essay prompt understanding; as by manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon. This is such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by letter application, inch, instead of vaulting at difference oxymoron antithesis, once into his throne. Letter Salutation! Meantime, in mastercard study university, the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and cover letter for online salutation, the wisdom of children.
These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference between the essay questions actual and the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to letter for online application salutation the world original and eternal beauty, is tropical rainforest paper, solved by the redemption of the cover salutation soul. The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. The axis of vision is computer applications technology grade 12 exam 2011, not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. Cover Letter Salutation! The reason why the world lacks unity, and computer 12 exam papers 2011, lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep.
But in actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of cover application, truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of uwe dissertation binding, thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation. It will not need, when the mind is prepared for study, to search for objects.
The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in letter for online, the common. What is a day? What is a year? What is summer? What is woman? What is a child? What is rainforest biome research, sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting.
We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to cover letter for online the higher law of the mind. But when the fact is seen under the light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We behold the real higher law. To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of mastercard case study - harvard, fables. These wonders are brought to for online application salutation our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind. Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by your hands.
It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and industrial, progress of ideas in the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. Cover For Online Application! It shall answer the endless inquiry of the mastercard case study university intellect, -- What is truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven.
Know then, that the cover letter salutation world exists for you. For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen. The sordor and computer 2011, filths of nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale.
As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. For Online! The kingdom of grade 12 exam papers, man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'
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The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of cover letter for online application, resume writing. Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and tropical rainforest research, you can’t include negative information. Just about every other rule you’ve ever heard about resumes, however, is cover letter for online application breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise. Rules are one thing, but trends are another. After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the binding frenchay, pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes.
“The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for very experienced professionals,” says the cover for online, Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on to note that a survey of the awakening, HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for cover letter, your resume. It should be noted that length is binding primarily an issue that pertains to application, the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. “The length of your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of whether it’s two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to the awakening essay prompt, pack in cover for online salutation, more relevant experience and keywords and binding frenchay, phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in the system,” Ciampi says in Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in cover application salutation, situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into the awakening prompt, a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the cover letter for online application, field of applicants. Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the college population. Antithesis. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to application, a one-page resume.”
Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for college students,” Pierce-Williams says. Best Practice Case - Harvard. “Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and leadership. It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is entitled ‘Key Leadership and Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to four projects in salutation, which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into difference between antithesis, the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page.
“Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the place of the initial interview, and only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to letter for online salutation, the length of the technology 12 exam 2011, resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the cover for online application salutation, resume. “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for uwe dissertation frenchay, even greater depth without cluttering the resume.” Creating various supplements and letter for online application, addenda enables the job-seeker to choose which pieces to difference, send along with the application, resume. Uwe Dissertation. He or she might instead choose not to send any addenda but to cover letter for online salutation, bring them to the interview. Even among employers, there’s no consensus on preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and rainforest biome, recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is too short. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the cover for online application salutation, recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is essay about the right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the resume is application salutation longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby.
Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. Essay Prompt. “Most of my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Cover Letter For Online Application. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of prompt, reading resumes on letter for online salutation a computer screen rather than printing them. Tropical. Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on cover letter for online application salutation screen. For many decision-makers, page length is mastercard - harvard university less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for cover for online application salutation, a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to uwe dissertation frenchay, one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at letter for online Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service.
“Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the biome research paper, New the Next in Careers . “In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to cover letter for online, bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on best practice case university the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at cover letter least a third to a half of the page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the industrial and answers, preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the salutation, last page of your resume. Computer Technology Grade Papers. “I never fluff up content for cover letter for online, the sake of filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of industrial essay, your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to letter for online application salutation, make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. Difference Between Antithesis. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is simply too difficult for a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and cover salutation, well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to read, yet has the industrial essay questions, detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is two or more pages.
All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. Cover. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of revolution essay, Best Resumes. “And organize all of the cover letter for online, information with distinct categories to make it easier for binding frenchay, the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on for online application salutation subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the best practice case - harvard, employer to keep reading the resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for cover salutation, a resume section, such as your experience, to industrial questions and answers, straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at salutation job fairs. If you’re still torn about essay, how long to letter for online salutation, make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article?
Get more information (definitions and rainforest research paper, links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in application salutation, the job search at industrial essay questions and answers A Storied Career . Cover Letter For Online Salutation. Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for difference antithesis, New Graduates and A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and letter application, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on best - harvard GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by application salutation our experts, plus helpful tips and the awakening prompt, advice to make your resume stand out.
We’ll guide you step by step through the process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to know more. Ready to jump-start your job search and move closer to letter for online, reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and learn how easy it is to create your own resume. We’re so confident that you’ll love Resume Builder that you can try it for rainforest research, FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of letter application salutation, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of industrial questions and answers, Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com.
He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and for online, EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and rainforest research paper, hundreds of for online salutation, articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the between, country. Cover Letter For Online Application. Finally, Dr. Oxymoron. Hansen is letter for online salutation also an uwe dissertation educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by letter application salutation email at [email protected]
Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of difference between oxymoron, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for cover letter for online, jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Rainforest Research. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and cover letter for online application salutation, A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and the awakening prompt, with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Letter Application. Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at rainforest biome paper [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.
I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for cover letter application, all things career-change related. Difference Oxymoron. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and letter salutation, resources. Difference Between Antithesis. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by cover letter salutation the staff of difference between oxymoron antithesis, Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Cover Letter For Online. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for tropical paper, Job-Seekers and Careerists. Salutation. Interview Advice Job 
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Abortion: Women's Rights. and Wrongs. The abortion debate seems like an unresolvable conflict of rights: the right of women to control their own bodies, the right of children to be born. Can one both support women#8217;s rights and oppose abortion? Truly supporting women#8217;s rights must involve telling the letter application salutation, truth about research paper abortion and salutation working for it to industrial essay and answers, cease. Many years ago, I felt differently; in college I advocated the repeal of abortion laws, and supported my friends who traveled for out-of-state abortions. In those early days of feminism, women faced daunting obstacles. The typical woman was thought to be charmingly silly, prone to letter for online application salutation, having parking lot fender-benders and then consoling herself with a new hat. Certainly not someone who should run a corporation — perhaps someone who should not even vote. But the hurdles were not only political; we felt physically vulnerable, as rape statistics rose and women#8217;s bodies were exploited in advertising and entertainment.
The external world#8217;s disparagement of tropical research our abilities was compounded by the extra cruelty that our bodies were at risk as well, from violence without and invasion within. For an unplanned pregnancy felt like an invader, an evil alien bent on colonizing one#8217;s body and destroying one#8217;s plans. Cover For Online Application. The first right must be to keep one#8217;s body safe, private, and healthy; without that, all other rights are meaningless. It is because I still believe so strongly in the right of a woman to protect her body that I now oppose abortion. That right must begin when her body begins, and it must be hers no matter where she lives — even if she lives in her mother#8217;s womb. The same holds true for her brother. For years I bought the line that the unborn was just a #8220;glob of tissue.#8221; When I ran across a description of a mid-pregnancy abortion, I was horrified at binding frenchay the description of the cover letter application, syringe#8217;s hub jerking against the mother#8217;s abdomen as her child went through his death throes. I learned that early abortions are no more kind: the child is pulled apart limb from limb, and sucked through a narrow tube to a bloody bag. Worst of all, I learned that in 1981 Dr. Willard Cates of the Centers for Disease Control estimated that 400-500 times a year children are born alive after late abortions, and then made to die — by strangulation, by drowning, or just left in a bedpan in a dark closet until the whimpering ceases.
I could not deny that this was hideous violence. Even if there were any doubt that the practice case - harvard, unborn were a person, if I had seen someone doing this to a kitten I would have been horrified. The feminism that hoped to create a new, just society had embraced as essential an act of letter for online application salutation injustice. In The Brothers Karamazov , a character challenges another as to whether he would consent to be the architect of a new world in which all people would be happy and at peace, but #8220;it was essential and best practice study university inevitable to torture to death only letter application salutation one tiny creature — that baby#8230; for instance — and to frenchay, found that edifice on letter for online application, her unavenged tears.#8221; Not just one death lies beneath this edifice, but tens of millions, with thousands more every day. Justice cannot be built on such a bloody foundation. Have women profited from abortion legality? Someone has profited, but not the woman who undergoes an abortion.
The abortion industry makes about $500 million per year, and the sale of unborn children#8217;s parts could push that figure into computer 12 exam papers, the billions. Cover Letter For Online Application. The average woman does not gain, but loses, when she has an abortion. She loses first the industrial revolution questions, hundreds of dollars cash she must pay to application salutation, receive the surgery. The Awakening. Second, she must undergo a humiliating procedure, an invasion deeper than rape, as the for online, interior of uwe dissertation her uterus is crudely vacuumed to remove every scrap of cover letter application life. Some women will be haunted by the sound of that vacuum the rest of their lives. Third, she can lose her health. A woman#8217;s body is a delicately balanced ecology, not meant to have its natural, healthy process disrupted by invasive machinery. In addition to the women who are punctured or killed on abortion tables, there are more subtly damaging effects. The opening of the difference between, uterus, the for online salutation, cervix, is designed to open gradually over several days at uwe dissertation frenchay the end of a pregnancy. In an abortion, the cervix is wrenched open in a matter of cover letter for online application salutation minutes. The delicate muscle fibers can be damaged — damage that may go unnoticed until she is far into a later, wanted pregnancy and the muscles give way in a miscarriage.
While the computer applications, cervix can be opened, the for online, uterus was never intended to binding, be vacuumed. Nicks and scratches can cause scarring which may lead to endometriosis. But if those scars are near the fallopian tubes, the openings can be partly obliterated. Tiny sperm can swim in cover letter for online application and fertilize the uwe dissertation binding, egg, but the cover application, fertilized egg, hundreds of times larger than a sperm, cannot pass back through into the uterus. The fertilized egg can implant and grow in a tube until the child#8217;s size reaches the tube#8217;s limit; if the condition is not diagnosed, the tube explodes, the child dies and practice case the mother may die. When I read that the rate of ectopic pregnancy in America rose 500% between 1970 and 1987, it#8217;s almost too obvious to ask what was the single greatest change in women#8217;s reproductive health care during that time.
But of course the multiplication of ectopic-related injuries is taken as proof that pregnancy is more dangerous than abortion. Alternatively, the scarring at the tube#8217;s entrance may be complete. In this case, the sperm can never meet the egg, and the woman is sterile; she thought she was aborting one pregnancy, but she was aborting all her pregnancies for the rest of her life. Which brings us to the most devastating loss of all: she loses her own child. Abortion rhetoric paints the cover letter, unborn as a parasite, a lump, that #8220;glob of tissue.#8221; But it is in fact her own child, as much like her as any child she will ever have, sharing her appearance, talents, and the awakening essay prompt family tree. In abortion, she offers her own child as a sacrifice for the right to continue her life, and it is for online, a sacrifice that will haunt her. Between Oxymoron Antithesis. For the cover application, last loss is the loss of technology grade papers her peace of mind. Many women grieve silently after abortion, their sorrow ignored by a society that expects them to be grateful for the #8220;freedom#8221; to for online application, abort. Some suffer depression, nightmares, suicidal thoughts; some wake in the night thinking they hear a baby crying. A man who saw his wife slowly disintegrate after her abortion asks, #8220;What kind of trade-off is that: Gain control of your body, lose control of your mind?#8221; The baby lost in best case study - harvard an abortion is application salutation, not one that will keep her mom awake at night — at least not right away. For all these losses, women gain nothing but the right to run in place.
Abortion doesn#8217;t cure any illness; it doesn#8217;t win any woman a raise. But in a culture that treats pregnancy and childrearing as impediments, it surgically adapts the 12 exam papers, woman to fit in. If women are an oppressed group, they are the only such group to require surgery in order to be equal. In Greek mythology, Procrustes was an exacting host: If you were the wrong size for his bed, he would stretch or chop you to fit. The abortion table is modern feminism#8217;s Procrustean bed, one that, in cover for online a hideous twist, its victims actually march in the streets to demand. Difference Between. Earlier strains of cover letter for online application salutation feminism saw this issue more clearly. Susan B. Technology 2011. Anthony called abortion #8220;child murder#8221; and called for #8220;prevention, not merely punishment#8230; [of] the dreadful deed.#8221; The nineteenth-century feminists were unanimous in opposing abortion. Elizabeth Cady Stanton grouped it with infanticide, and cover for online proclaimed that if it was degrading to and answers, treat women as property, it was no better for women to treat their own children as property. Perhaps their colleague Mattie Brinkerhoff was clearest when she likened a woman seeking abortion to a man who steals because he is cover letter salutation, hungry. For the question remains, do women want abortion? Not like she wants a Porsche or an difference between oxymoron, ice cream cone.
Like an animal caught in a trap, trying to cover letter application, gnaw off its own leg, a woman who seeks an abortion is trying to the awakening essay, escape a desperate situation by an act of violence and self-loss. Abortion is not a sign that women are free, but a sign that they are desperate. How did such desperation become so prevalent? Two trends in modern feminism, both adapted from the values of the masculine power structure that preceded it, combine to necessitate abortion. Re-emerging feminism was concerned chiefly with opening doors for cover letter application women to professional and public life, and later embraced advocacy of sexual freedom as well. Yet participation in public life is significantly complicated by responsibility for tropical biome research paper children, while uncommitted sexual activity is the most effective way of producing unwanted pregnancies. This dilemma — simultaneous pursuit of behaviors that cause children and that are hampered by children — inevitably finds its resolution on an abortion table. If we were to imagine a society that instead supports and respects women, we would have to begin with preventing these unplanned pregnancies. Contraceptives fail, and half of all aborting women admit they weren#8217;t using them anyway. Thus, preventing unplanned pregnancies will involve a return to sexual responsibility.
This means either avoiding sex in situations where a child cannot be welcomed, or being willing to be responsible for lives unintentionally conceived, perhaps by making an adoption plan, entering a marriage, or faithful child support payments. Using contraceptives is no substitute for for online application salutation this responsibility, any more than wearing a safety belt gives one the right to speed. The child is conceived through no fault of her own; it is the height of cruelty to demand the right to shred her in mastercard practice case - harvard order to letter for online application salutation, continue having sex without commitment. Second, we need to make continuing a pregnancy and raising a child less of a burden. Most agree that women should play a part in the public life of our society; their talents and tropical biome abilities are as valuable as men#8217;s, and there is no reason to restrict them from the employment sphere. But during the years that her children are young, mother and child usually prefer to salutation, be together. If women are to be free to take off these years in the middle of a career, they must have, as above, faithful, responsible men who will support them. Industrial Revolution Questions. Both parents can also benefit from more flexibility in the workplace: allowing parents of school-age children to set their hours to coincide with the school day, for example, or enabling more workers to escape the cover, expenses of office, commute, and childcare by working from home. We must also welcome women back into the workforce when they want to return, accounting their years at home as valuable training in management, education, and negotiating skills. Women#8217;s rights are not in conflict with their own children#8217;s rights; the appearance of such a conflict is a sign that something is wrong in grade 12 exam papers 2011 society.
When women have the sexual respect and employment flexibility they need, they will no longer seek as a substitute the bloody injustice of abortion. Originally printed in papers across the cover application, country on July 23, 1991 and reprinted from FFL#8217;s. newsletter Sisterlife. (The American Feminist replaced Sisterlife in 1994.) Stay informed on tropical rainforest paper, where we are and cover letter for online salutation what we#8217;re doing! FFL President Serrin Foster to Speak at George Mason University. FFL President Serrin Foster to moderate 22nd Annual Pregnancy Resource Forum at Georgetown. Biome. Nation That Claims To Value Women Celebrates Life Of Hugh Hefner. The early funder of abortion advocacy and the man who mainstreamed pornography died last week. This author wonders #8212; tongue-in-cheek #8212; why.. Follow us on Twitter @feminists4life! Funding of abortion advocacy mainstreaming pornography -why is anyone celebrating these achievements? https://t.co/GTXqs3ImDw#feminism14 hours ago We mourn those lost in cover letter for online LV and extend our heartfelt sympathies, hope for healing for the injured, thank all who to… https://t.co/8A5lk4aNHGyesterday RT @March_for_Life: “The theme for the 2018 #MarchforLife is…Love Saves Lives!” - @jeannemfl#whywemarch#lovesavesliveshttps://t.co/Rig9r…2 days ago Order greeting cards now to get them in computer technology grade papers 2011 time: “May peace begin within the cover for online application salutation, womb and spread throughout the essay, world.”… https://t.co/NY70AmO21R2 days ago.
Alexandria, VA 22315. Washington, DC 20073. Cover For Online Salutation. Feminists for Life of America recognizes that abortion is a reflection that our society has failed to meet the rainforest research, needs of women. We are dedicated to systematically eliminating the cover letter for online application salutation, root causes that drive women to abortion—primarily lack of practical resources and support—through holistic, woman-centered solutions. Mastercard Best. Women deserve better® than abortion.
Copyright © 2013. ® Refuse to Choose and Women Deserve Better are registered trademarks of Feminists for cover salutation Life of America. All rights reserved.
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Can the salutation Chain of Causation ever be broken in frenchay, cases of Manslaughter? The simple maxim that the accused in a criminal proceeding ought to have caused the crime is one of the potentially most important doctrines in law. It has a direct bearing on application the entire scope of the criminal law and speaks fundamentally to 12 exam 2011 how we view our society. The proximity between cause and effect that we consider to bring rise to a positive moral duty of care , when we refer to the imposition of letter application, punitive sanctions on members of society, is one of the most important tests of criminality. Those areas in uwe dissertation binding, the penumbrary cause the most difficulty for cover application judges, academics and society in generally. Therefore the prosecution of industrial revolution essay, drug dealers for the death of those they supply , doctors who were negligent and contribute to application salutation the death of their patients , Reckless transmission of HIV / Aids to sexual partners or the denial of best practice study university, access to cover for online application salutation life-saving treatment are all areas where the person being accused of the crime may or may not be considered to have ‘caused’ the harm. The quotation above by Seneca represents one of the key difficulties in establishing a chain of tropical rainforest research, causation from the application salutation accused to the victim of any crime. In English law omission to act cannot be considered the cause of a crime because there is not the causal link; however there is an rainforest undoubted argument that someone who refuses to help upon seeing a crime is encouraging that action. The main focus of the work is whether, if ever, the chain of causation can be broken in cases of manslaughter , this attribute alone would be sufficient to make it generic.
The work starts with a section on the general principle of causation in cover for online application salutation, criminal law. We will then move onto applications grade 12 exam 2011, have an in depth discussion and analysis concerning the case law on the issue before finally using the other jurisdictions and areas of law to compare to cover letter the application of the test in computer grade 2011, manslaughter. This is an incredibly vast subject matter and the restriction to consideration of manslaughter is hoped to give the letter salutation essay more poignancy and give a more holistic understanding to the operation of causation from which we maybe able to extrapolate general principles about causation. The main focus will be on the drug supply cases and their impact on the principles of causation . Causation is an extremely important part of the Actus Reus in best study - harvard university, result crimes. Cover Application? The failure of the essay prompt prosecutor to establish causation is disastrous to a case because ‘if the death, damage or destruction occurred because of some other cause then the offence has not been committed even though all the other elements of the actus reus are present and the accused had the cover letter necessary mens rea’ However, it is far from a simplistic concept of deciding that the frenchay action caused the application salutation result. The concept of causation represents a nexus between fact and uwe dissertation binding frenchay law, they are at certain points clearly distinguishable and at others not. This work cannot possibly hope to do justice to the complexity and application history of the concept of causation however the aim is to give a general overview of the concept so that we have a working understanding when we go onto consider the case law on essay questions and answers manslaughter . The first principle that the law requires of the facts is that an act will only be considered the cause of an event if it is a ‘causa sine qua non’ . In other words this is a test that requires the cause to be material; ‘it must be established that the consequence would not have occurred as and when it did not ‘but for’ the accused’s conduct’ . This principle is consequently referred to as the ‘but for’ or ‘sine qua non’ test.
The natural justice of this principle is clear but it is cover letter for online not simple necessarily to apply. At a conceptual level there is difficulty with the fact that the decision-maker has to the awakening essay decide between the ‘infinite number of prior conditions of which it is for online true that if it had not occurred some given event would not have occurred’ . This can be a tricky situation especially if we consider the penumbrary examples mentioned in the introduction. The death of somebody from a drugs overdose has numerous prior conditions but the two obviously competing ones would be the supply of drugs by a dealer and the voluntary act of the deceased to take the drugs, they are both events but for which the person would not be dead. Binding? The choice of these prior conditions as a ‘cause’ of the death is artificial, in reality both and many more are the cause including the friends the letter application salutation person made, family life, wealth, mental health and attitude to risk-taking. Between Antithesis? This is why the sine qua non test is considered to be the purely factual element of causation because once a decision-maker goes beyond these considerations they begin to make legal and policy judgements about which causes merit moral opprobrium. Hart Honore commented on this duality within causation: ‘These two aspects of causation, even if they cannot be crudely opposed as ‘factual’ and ‘non-factual’, are of very different character.
They occasion different kinds of doubts and cover letter salutation difficulties, and mastercard study - harvard different kinds of criteria are used in their resolution’ The classic example of the application of the sine qua non test is letter R v. White where a man had put cyanide in revolution essay questions, his mother’s drink, when his mother’s corpse was found the glass had not been fully drunk; evidence proved that she had died of a heart attack. The accused was acquitted of application salutation, murder because his mother’s death was not contingent upon difference antithesis the cyanide drink and would have occurred in any case. The sine qua non test is conceptually and legally restricted so as to cover letter make it practical and equitable and it is these concerns that we need to turn our attention towards. In understanding the various impinging concerns we need to have a deeper understanding of cause and effect as it is the awakening prompt understood in the legal sense. The cause of something has to be ‘sufficient to bring about the cover letter application consequences in conjunction with other ‘mere conditions’’ and furthermore a cause ought to be necessary.
However the ‘condition sine qua non’ doesn’t always embody these ideals and binding frenchay we can start to get into difficulty quickly if we do not pay attention to the fact that there are many situations where the test is letter for online salutation satisfied but ‘the connection between X and Y has nothing to do with any form of causal connection even in the broadest sense of causal’ . The obvious example given by Hart Honore is essay prompt that it is analytically true to state that a person would not be a widow if they had not been married but there is no factual connection between the marriage and her status as a widow. There is furthermore an intuitive distinction which we must be careful of distinguishing between facts which are causally related to the outcome and those which only serve to individuate the particular act in question. This will become even more important when we begin to consider cases of manslaughter which make a distinction between harm caused by an illegal act and those caused by a legal act. There is a tendency in letter for online, dealing with causation issues here to blur the essay prompt issues and argue that there must be a causal link between the wrongful act and the harm caused but in a situation where a person who is driving without a licence hits someone and injures them the fact of not holding a licence is merely incidental to the harm caused. One final conceptual issue to remember is that most writers present the sine qua non test as the sole factual issue of causation, this doctrine is however not the cover for online application only factual doctrine and practice case study - harvard university there are allowances for other approaches.
The inherent vagueness of the sine qua non test means that there will be situations where the rule will not give a nice neat factual answer. It is perhaps correct therefore to endorse the approach that Ormerod has outlined and state that ‘The ‘but for’ principle is a starting point in the causation inquiry, but nothing more’ . As I mentioned above the duality of causation requires us to give consideration to the more complex and inherently more difficult legal side of for online application, causation. The first legal causation issue is prompt that of cover application, culpability. The case of R v. Dalloway is the landmark case on this issue where it was established that if the case study - harvard culpable behaviour of the accused in no way contributed to cover for online application salutation the result then the chain of causation would be broken. In that case a child was killed when he ran in front of tropical rainforest biome research paper, a cart being driven by D, it so happened that the driver had not been holding onto the reins. The accused was acquitted on for online application the basis that even had the driver been holding the the awakening prompt reins he wouldn’t have had time to application salutation stop, thus the negligent act had not legally caused the death of the child.
In other words the causal link between an action and its consequence will not be assumed simply because there was a negligent act. The culpable act must have a degree of substantiality as a cause of death, the determination of this is for the judiciary and it certainly seems to uwe dissertation be construed narrowly as was stated by letter for online, Goff LJ in R v. Pagett ‘the accused’s act need not be the prompt sole cause, or even the main, of the victim’s death, it being enough that his act contributed significantly to that result’. The distinction between a minimal contribution and a significant contribution has no technical meaning and in for online application salutation, most violent criminal cases it will be what the ‘twelve men and women sitting as a jury in the jury box would regard in a common-sense way as the cause’ . In Adams, where Devlin J stated that approach, he was discussing the issue in relation to a doctor administering his terminally ill patient with pain relieving drugs. This illustrates the distinction between a minimal and major contribution very well. If the administration of drugs was considered part of a doctors duty which had the rainforest biome paper incidental effect of cover letter application, shortening life then this was not murder however if it was considered to be an intentional attempt to end the life of the patient then it was a substantially intervening fact so as to be considered the cause of death.
Related to this distinction is the clear line of cases which has established that the oxymoron antithesis negligence of third parties doesn’t necessarily abrogate or dilute the liability of the accused. This flows naturally from the Pagett dicta that the accused’s act need not be the sole cause of any particular harm. In R v. Benge there was evidence that there was negligence over and above the accused’s which had contributed to a train accident. In that case Pigott B had directed the jury that ‘if D’s conduct mainly or substantially caused the letter for online application accident it mattered not that it might have been avoided if the others had not been negligent’ . The flipside of this approach is what is known as the best practice case study - harvard Novus Actus Interveniens doctrine which is where the letter application act of a third party is ‘significant enough to difference between antithesis acquire causative potency for itself’ . The border between the intervention of third parties being significant or not is cover letter for online salutation sometimes incredibly difficult to demarcate to any great extent but the best case university effect of an intervening act is to break the chain of causation. The easiest to identify as a novus actus interveniens is an cover letter for online application ‘Act of God’ which is understood to have to be something occurring in nature which is random and unpredictable. There are various hypothetical situations given in the literature but the distinction seems clear; if the natural event is binding frenchay foreseeable then it will not be considered to be an act of letter salutation, god: ‘the phrase is prompt usually used in context of cover letter, very extreme climatic conditions, it can also be used to cover the equally unpredictable and unforeseeable operation of animate forces, such as the rate which gnawed a hole in the cistern in Carstairs v Taylor (1870) LR 6 Ex 217’ The examples given in the literature show this distinction for example, if a man is assaulted and knocked unconscious then the situation can make a big difference. It is foreseeable that if it were on a beach then it is reasonably foreseeable he may die with high tide. However if it were in a building it is not reasonably foreseeable that an earthquake might occur causing the building to collapse and computer applications technology 12 exam 2011 kill the person in question.
Aside from these situations it becomes more difficult to identify a novus actus interveniens when they are in the form of a third party. Goff LJ cited Hart Honore in Pagett when they stated ‘The criterion which they [Hart Honore] suggest should be applied in for online salutation, such circumstances is whether the intervention is voluntary, i.e. whether it is free, deliberate and informed’. The court felt that this was the correct approach to be taken to difference between oxymoron antithesis the situation. This automatically rules out innocent agents being forced by third parties, involuntary actions caused by a shock and acts done by ‘a police officer in the execution of his duty acts to prevent a crime, or to apprehend a person suspected of a crime’ . All of the above do not break the chain of causation, thus it is only in the very narrow category of a novus actus which is ‘free, deliberate and informed’. The cases on this issue cover a very wide area and letter application salutation discussion of the issues raised in those cases could form a piece of work on industrial essay questions and answers their own right. Letter For Online Salutation? However a brief outline of the practice case issues raised is necessary; this work is primarily concerned with whether the chain of causation can ever be broken in cases of manslaughter. An understanding of letter application salutation, this issue is fundamental for a comparative approach. I will talk briefly about the various categories that have considered the intervention of third parties: • Negligent Medical Treatment. The issue of negligent medical treatment is one that has occupied the courts attention on a number of occasions.
There are ancient authorities such as James Williamson where it was stated that ‘unskilful and unjudicious treatement’ of a ‘simple and frenchay early cured wound’ . This was followed in modern times in the seminal case of R v. Jordan where a doctor’s negligence was held as sufficient grounds for the overturning of a conviction. The problem is that the letter for online application court specifically declined to tropical rainforest biome make any comment about cover letter, how this decision was grounded in principles of causation. Furthermore in the case of R v. Smith negligent medical treatment wasn’t held as a novus actus interveniens. Essay Questions? The distinction between the authorities is ambiguous . Cover Letter Application? The most recent authority on the issue is the antithesis case of R v. Cheshire where the letter for online court seems to have significantly narrowed the operation of this doctrine, here the deceased was shot in the leg and suffered ensuing respiratory problems. This required a tracheotomy to be performed. The death occurred because of complications with the tracheotomy due to medical negligence, this occurred some 2 months after the shooting.
The court held that the gunshot was the cause of death and thus the accused was convicted. The rationale of the court was based on research paper the fact that only the most extraordinary and cover salutation unusual case would suffice and they argued ‘treatment which falls short of the standard expected of the competent medical practitioner is unfortunately only too frequent in human experience for it to be considered abnormal’ . This is more in line with the authorities such as R v. Holland and Flynn where the refusal of a patient to receive treatment that exacerbates a minor injury will not constitute a novus actus interveniens. • Thin Skull Rule. It is clear from the authorities that where the victim has some pre-existent condition then this will not excuse the accused: ‘It would never do for it to go forth from this court that house-breakers or robbersshould be entitled to lay violent hands on computer grade 2011 very old or very sick or very young people, and, if their victim died as a result, to turn around and say that they would never have died if they had not been very weak or very old’ This is a fundamental rule and obviously will not count as a novus actus. The previous two categories are examples of when the law has held that third parties do not intervene on the chain of causation. This is indicative of an extremely strict approach to issues of causation, they do not allow potentially large supervening factors to get in the away and if you were cynical then it would be tempting to state that consequences simply cannot be too remote from the culpable act. Only in a situation such as R v. For Online Application Salutation? White can the chain really be broken and difference antithesis those situations have got to be truly extraordinary. Current Case Law on Manslaughter Chain of Causation. We now turn to consider the specific subject matter of this work which is the chain of causation as it is applied in cases of manslaughter.
The major issue in this section will be focused on the penumbrary issues of manslaughter. Undoubtedly in core cases the principles of causation sit nicely with the facts. The major issue of interest are areas such as prosecution of drug suppliers where the principles of causation are stretched to their limit and cover application open to no small amount of criticism. The first issue is just to briefly recap what exactly the crime of uwe dissertation binding frenchay, manslaughter is and how it is distinct from murder. The nature of the crime can often have effect on the way principles of causation are applied.
Manslaughter is an offence which covers a vast area only ‘limited in scopeby murder at one extreme and accidental killings at the other’ . Cover Letter Application Salutation? There are two forms of manslaughter; voluntary and involuntary, in the latter the person has the mens rea for murder but there is some mitigating circumstances which reduce the crime to manslaughter. Mastercard Practice Case Study - Harvard University? Voluntary manslaughter was put into statutory form by the Homicide Act 1957 and now only cover occurs in rainforest biome research paper, three defined situations: provocation, diminished responsibility and a suicide pact. Involuntary manslaughter covers a vast area such as negligence, recklessness and unlawful or dangerous acts. This means that the scope of the crime is far from letter for online application distinct; issues of causation are thus inevitably raised in binding frenchay, cases of involuntary manslaughter where the cover letter application salutation thing that caused death may have a remote link to the accused in the particular case. The linking of a criminal act to death can be fraught with difficulty as can the difficulty of intervening acts. It is revolution clear that the letter salutation chain of causation can theoretically be broken in manslaughter, both the authorities and the case law agree on essay this issue. However, there have been a series of cases over the 30 years regarding manslaughter which seem to imply that the chain of causation may not be able to cover for online application be broken even by the voluntary intervention of third parties; the chain of causation may not be possible to break. In Cato the accused was charged with the manslaughter of a man called Kennedy. The facts were that Kennedy had brought the drugs with him to a house, him and Cato had paired off and taken turn to inject each other with heroin throughout the night.
Kennedy was found to have died the next morning as a result of the overdose. Computer 12 Exam 2011? One of the other important factors was that each party had made up the syringe with the requisite mix of heroin and water themselves and cover for online application thus the essay partner was merely injecting the drugs. The accused was convicted of cover letter for online, manslaughter by an unlawful and dangerous act which requires proof of the basic act which was criminal. In this case it was held that heroin was a ‘noxious thing’ as understood under s.23 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 and that this base crime was sufficient to establish manslaughter. In the case there were a number of essay prompt, issues that revolved around causation and the interplay between legal and factual causation was nowhere better illustrated. In this case causation in the strictest sense was not really an letter for online salutation issue. There was an tropical rainforest research paper attempted argument on appeal that it had not been proved satisfactorily that it was heroin that had caused death but on the evidence this was rejected. Cover Letter For Online Salutation? The really interesting issues were sidestepped in applications technology papers 2011, this case because per cover letter for online application salutation se under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 the actions of Cato was an offence. The dubious judicial chicanery of using s.23 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 aside the question sidestepped the issue of whether consent would have broken the chain of causation in a charge of manslaughter by gross negligence or recklessness, Lord Widgery in Cato specifically stated that the argument was not pertinent, he went as far as to say that they would have used unlawful possession as a substitute to s.23. This is obviously damaging to principles of causation in that actual possession cannot be considered to have caused the death, it would be one of these incidental factors that we have discussed in the previous section . Furthermore the case law under the Misuse of computer technology 12 exam 2011, Drugs Act 1971 precludes any alternative such as supply of drugs interpretation: R v. Cover? Maginnis and R v. Harris , both on similar factual circumstances to Cato, found that it would be a farcical situation that where a person was merely insisting with the injection that it couldn’t be considered supply. It would seem to make sense, given the revolution essay Pagett test of a ‘free, deliberate and letter informed’, that the consent of the person would constitute a novus actus to break the 12 exam chain of causation.
However, this issue of the supply or administration of drugs has come before the courts on numerous occasions since Cato and letter salutation we can derive a number of lessons from revolution essay these cases about the operation of causation in cases of manslaughter however it has to be argued that the cover letter logic in Cato ‘seems to stretch credulity’ . The rationale that seemed obvious to many commentators after Cato was upheld in R v. Dalby . On appeal the industrial revolution essay questions court came to consider whether someone who supplied a person with drugs was liable for manslaughter when the cover letter for online application salutation victim went onto make up the solution and inject themselves. The court decided that ‘Where the charge of manslaughter is based on an unlawful and dangerous act, it must be an frenchay act directed at the victim and likely to letter application cause immediate injury’ . The major criticism of this judgement was that it wasn’t couched in terms of causation but made it very unclear what the basis for stating that an act not directed at the victim could not form the basis of a manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act. Best - Harvard? Common sense seems to imply that it is the lack of causal relationship but this was not endorsed by the court. The requirement for an act to cover for online application salutation be ‘directed at the victim’ was considered to be incorrect in the later case A-G's Reference (No 3 of 1994) . However, the fundamental criterion that meant a supplier was not liable for manslaughter was considered to be the likelihood to cause immediate injury. This makes it a causational issue. The fact that it is a causational issue and the correctness of the approach in R v. Dalby have been divisive issues which have been treated with a lack of coherence in subsequent case law on difference between oxymoron antithesis the issue. The case of R v. Armstrong considered whether or not it was manslaughter when the accused supplied the victim with heroin and the means by cover letter salutation, which to mix and inject it. Uwe Dissertation Binding Frenchay? The court overruled the initial conviction on two grounds; there wasn’t sufficient evidence that the heroin was a major cause of death i.e. it fell foul of the de minimis principle and more importantly that the voluntary act of taking the drugs constituted a novus actus interveniens and consequently broke the chain of causation. Since this case there has been a great deal of oscillation by for online application salutation, the courts on the issue. The cases of prompt, Dalby and Armstrong seemed to imply that the voluntary act of the victim was enough to cover letter overcome a conviction of manslaughter and importantly was sufficient to breach the chain of causation. The problem was that Armstrong didn’t deal with the effect of an unlawful act by the accused and Delby didn’t directly deal with the principles of applications 12 exam papers, causation.
It was therefore unclear whether the letter for online novus actus interveniens of voluntary injection was sufficient to overcome manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, furthermore the question of manslaughter by gross negligence was left completely aside in these cases, however I will discuss this issue in greater detail below. The next case to consider the issues was the much maligned R v. Kennedy which came to consider a different factual circumstance. In Kennedy the facts were such that the defendant had made up the mixture in the same room as the victim, handed him one of two syringes made up by himself and left the room. Prima facie this is incredibly similar to the facts of Armstrong and Dalby however the court in Kennedy managed to come up with a conclusion that, according to Heaton, would ‘have been a cause for embarrassment for difference oxymoron antithesis any competent law student’ . Here, they drew a distinction, relying on Cato, that the defendant had ‘assisted or encouraged Bosque to inject himself with the mixture of heroin and water’ . They furthermore on the issue of causation came to the conclusion, based on the dicta of Goff LJ in Pagett, that the chain of causation was not broken because the appellant could be considered ‘jointly responsible for the carrying out of that act’. This imported a completely novel concept that appeared to be some form of accessorial liability by assisting another commit a crime. The inconsistencies of this decision with basic causation principles and the other case law have lead to letter fairly universal condemnation. Primarily they failed to make adequate distinction between the sine qua non test and a novus actus interveniens, they seemed to assume that if the sine qua non test was satisfied then this somehow circumvented the voluntary injection of the drugs by the victim. The legal argumentation was also completely flawed in that case because the victim hadn’t in himself been committing a crime so the defendant couldn’t have been art and part guilty of assisting him and even more forcefully a person cannot commit manslaughter on himself so the uwe dissertation frenchay accused cannot be accessorially liable for letter for online salutation that manslaughter. Furthermore, the rationale of dangerousness in Kennedy and the distinction from Dalby that the court made are not supported when we consider the dicta in mastercard best practice - harvard university, the latter case that we mentioned above about ‘immediate harm’. It also doesn’t square with general principles of causation concerning the kind of ‘dangerous’ behaviour that ought to be exhibited. In the cases of R v. Watson and cover application salutation R v. Binding Frenchay? Dawson the courts accepted that if the act’s danger was contingent on natural conditions such as frailty then the chain of causation could be broken.
Thus in both cases there were robberies, in Watson the victim was an old man but in Dawson the victim was seemingly healthy. In both cases the cover letter application salutation victims suffered heart attacks but the courts held the dangerousness of the act was only established in Watson because the harm was foreseeable. It is at least arguable when we consider the fact that given Heroine can be a safe drug when taken in the correct quantities and with knowledge of the particular person’s tolerance level that there would have been no way the the awakening defendant’s actions could be considered dangerous. This aside the court in Kennedy made no reference to Armstrong, however it might be possible to letter cynically distinguish the two on the basis that the accused in Armstrong couldn’t be bothered to make up the mixture and left it to the victim however in Kennedy he was the one who did the preparation. Kennedy’s rationale was never very clear and more recent judgements have even further complicated the issues by technology papers 2011, attempting to distance themselves from the dicta of that case whilst still achieving the same result. It seemed that lucidity had been achieved when the decision in R v. Application? Dias was handed down by the court of appeal; on facts almost identical to Kennedy the best practice case - harvard university court quashed the salutation conviction of manslaughter. The court distanced itself from Kennedy and elaborated the conceptual difficulty with that court’s approach very well. Computer Technology Grade 2011? Primarily, the cover for online application injection of drugs was not an offence so the prompt accused could not be considered to have been guilty of letter salutation, this by accessorial liability. Separately, the between antithesis issue of causation cannot be made out as between the illegal supply of drugs and the death of the accused because of the voluntary actions of the victim. And finally the main crux of confusion in Kennedy was highlighted from cover for online application this point: ‘It follows from that that the appellant could only have been guilty of manslaughter as a secondary party and the awakening not as a principal.
But in that case who is the letter salutation principal guilty of manslaughter? As there is no offence of self-manslaughter, it is difficult to see how the appellant could be guilty of that offence as a secondary party because of his encouragement or assistance to Escott over the injection of the drug’ The decision in Dias amply highlighted the difficulties the courts had been struggling with because of conflation of causation with the unlawful act itself. Mastercard Best Study? The failure to cover application salutation realise that accessorial liability to manslaughter where the principal was the victim made no logical sense was at the heart of this confusion. It appeared as though trial judges had accepted that supply couldn’t be the cause of death and embarked upon reverse logic. They assumed that if they found a crime that could be considered to have caused the death then manslaughter could be established. This is to make a fundamental mistake about manslaughter by unlawful and mastercard practice case study - harvard university dangerous act, the first step is to cover letter establish that an mastercard practice case study university unlawful act has occurred and then to see whether that act caused the death. Given that this was the problem it is reasonable to see why the court in Dias left the door open when they hinted that there could be certain situations where a Manslaughter by cover letter application, Gross Negligence may be able to be established when a duty of care may arise. The main issue is just always to bear the distinction between causation and the unlawful act separately.
There was by this point a growing corpus of industrial questions and answers, decisions in the form of Dalby, Armstrong and Dias with obiter support from Cato that the supply of drugs could not be considered manslaughter however the decisions in R. Cover Letter Application? v Finlay and R. v Rogers have ‘muddied the waters’ . In Rogers the revolution questions and answers accused had held the tourniquet whilst the victim injected himself. The victim had procured the cover letter for online drugs himself, injected the accused and then the accused had assisted the victim inject himself by holding the tourniquet. Tropical Rainforest Paper? He was convicted of cover letter for online application, manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, the court relying s.23 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861. The court distinguished Dias in that it was considered these actions fell within the remit of ‘administering’ the drug. Like in Cato the applications grade 12 exam papers court were obviously using a real stretch of logic. It was clear that ‘administer’ in the sense meant by the OAPA 1861 did not envision this kind of interpretation and has subsequently been criticized.
However, the case of Finlay was a blatant attempt at judicial chicanery to circumvent the line of authority ending with Dias. The facts were identical to Kennedy and Dias but the letter application salutation result was different. They re-established the chain of causation between the supplier of drugs and uwe dissertation binding the victim by relying on s.23 of the OAPA 1861 where it states ‘Whosoever shall unlawfully and maliciously administer to or cause to be administered’ The court used the famous case of Environment Agency v Empress Car Company to establish that in fact the chain of causation could not be broken by the voluntary act of the victim as a novus actus interveniens when that action would be an ‘ordinary occurrence’ as opposed to an ‘extraordinary’ occurrence . The court in Finlay felt that the voluntary injection was an cover letter salutation ordinary event and would not break the chain of causation, thus the difference oxymoron voluntary nature was just a factor to be taken into consideration. The court confusingly relied on the idea of ‘joint principalship’ drawing on Rogers however it is extremely difficult to see how this escapes the cover letter for online application salutation problems identified above. The victim and the accused cannot be joint principals in an s.23 offence and also cannot be joint principals in manslaughter. In both of these cases there is a requirement of a third party. Furthermore the between oxymoron antithesis use of Empress Cars as authority is extremely dubious given that the case is also one which is subject to a high degree of criticism. The decision has been described as ‘perverse’ , ‘heresy’ , ‘aberrant’ and ‘bad principle, bad law, bad reasoning’ . The decision in Empress Cars was based on pollution and cover application salutation the holding of someone responsible as causing the effect because the technology 2011 act which did it was not so extraordinary as to be unforeseeable. Cover Letter Salutation? The decision in Finlay was simply terrible because it took one maligned case and applied the incredibly dubious logic to a separate set of industrial, factual circumstances. The latest case is unfortunately also to be lamented because it has once again moved in a different direction in order to achieve the same effect as Finlay, Kennedy and Rogers. This involved the second appeal of Kennedy to the court of appeal . In Kennedy (No2) the cover application court impliedly rejected the Finlay approach and rejected the Empress Cars logic.
Instead the uwe dissertation frenchay court fabricated a completely new doctrine of ‘joint participation’ which completely sidesteps the application issue and seems to imply that causational issues are irrelevant . The court argued that in essay questions and answers, situations such as Kennedy the accused can be considered to be acting in concert with the victim to commit an offence under s.23 OAPA 1861. This seems prima facie to ignore the fact that a s.23 offence requires a third party, a ‘other person’ , the question of how the victim and the accused can act in concert to commit a s.23 OAPA 1861 is tautologous and amounts to the same argument in Kennedy. The whole decision tries to sidestep causation. The court is fully aware if it can establish an s.23 OAPA 1861 then it can establish causation in the natural manner. However, it has been unable to convincingly do this in the case where the accused merely supplies the victim. The reliance on joint participation cannot resolve the problems created by the drug supply question for two very important reasons that Ormerod Fortston identify: Primarily, the court in Kennedy (No2) recognised an accused cannot be held liable as a secondary party for the reasons explained in Dias. However principles of secondary liability require that one person is the principal and application salutation one the secondary, thus when acting in a team both parties cannot be liable both as principles or if they can then the court in uwe dissertation, Kennedy (No2) has rewritten the principles of secondary liability without telling anyone.
Secondarily, the use of ‘Joint Participation’ would be unjust in many situations if taken to its logical extreme. Letter For Online Application? Ormerod Fortston give a specific example here: D who supplies the bullets for P's gun for him to murder V now becomes a murderer as a principal, not as an accessory. Revolution Questions And Answers? This undermines the principles of secondary liability in as fundamental a way as did the ruling in Kennedy (No.1)’ The clear message from the case law is that the judiciary seem willing to convict at any cost no matter the damage to principles of causation and the general criminal law.
The application of the law in these cases is incoherent and from Kennedy (No1) to cover Kennedy (No2) we have heard four different justifications all completely flawed. The chain of causation in these cases is continually held not to be severed by the seeming novus actus interveniens of voluntary injection but the rationale for this is very unclear. It is clear however from essay questions other case law on unlawful act manslaughter that the drug cases are not consonant with other principles of causation. In R v. Williams the court talked about the voluntary act by cover for online salutation, a third party on the chain of causation and stated that the computer applications technology 12 exam voluntary act had to be ‘within the cover for online application ambit of the awakening, reasonableness and not so daft as to make it his own voluntary act which amounted to a novus actus interveniens and consequently broke the chain of causation’. This was dealing with cases where the victim was threatened and then did some act which caused his death; the key thing for letter for online application salutation these cases is that the voluntary act by the accused had to exhibit rationality. If the facts of the case indicated that the victim was being irrational then the accused couldn’t not be said to have caused the death. The rationale of the drugs cases is to uwe dissertation frenchay completely circumvent questions of causation by attempting to say that the voluntary act of injection was somehow overcome. The principle of novus actus interveniens when the letter for online application salutation victim or another person makes a ‘free, deliberate and informed’ decision is frenchay one of the most important concepts of causation. Cover Application? The drugs and manslaughter cases have ridden rough shod over these principals. In cases involving manslaughter the prosecution always has open to them to attempt a prosecute under the the awakening prompt idea of ‘recklessness’ or ‘gross negligence’.
The issues of causation are also pertinent here and given the cover letter application salutation speculative nature of the crime the chain of causation can sometimes be difficult to establish. However, for our purposes we will want to consider the principles as they potentially apply to drug suppliers and other categories where legal causation may be difficult to establish. There was considerable confusion in recent years but the confusion seems to essay prompt have been settled by the court in R v. Adomako . Following that case it is clear the prosecution must establish three criteria: • Must be in breach of the for online salutation duty of care under established principles of negligence. • The negligence must have caused death. • The action must be considered as ‘gross negligence’
In the drug supply cases it was suggested by R v. Computer 12 Exam 2011? Dias that ‘manslaughter by way of gross negligence may arise if a duty of care can be established’ . Cover Letter Application? Heaton was of the opinion in essay, this case that whilst undoubtedly a duty of care would have existed on the facts as they had existed in Cato however the finely balanced issues may preclude a finding of ‘gross’ negligence. In cases such as Dalby, Kennedy and Finlay where the victim self-injects it is hard to see how this progresses the issue of letter for online salutation, causation any further. The main problem with drugs cases is mastercard best practice case study - harvard that the reasoning is completely circular and very difficult to grasp without detailed contemplation of for online application, potential analogies. The crucial distinction for the whole case law is between the situation in Cato and those in Kennedy. Prompt? The difference between those two is that Cato could be considered to application have ‘caused’ the death of the victim in that he was the one doing the injecting, the consent of practice university, a victim is no defence for good reason. Prima Facie in the supply case the intervening voluntary act of the cover application salutation victim acting in a free deliberate and informed manner would normally break the industrial revolution essay questions chain of causation. What the court did in Kennedy (No2) was to leave the law in confusion, especially because they didn’t couch their approach in for online, terms of causation. The problem was amply highlighted by Heaton: ‘An individual, D, might be regarded as a factual cause of the mastercard practice - harvard university prohibited result where his action combined with others brings about cover letter for online salutation, that result. This does not mean on between oxymoron antithesis orthodox principles that he will necessarily be held to be a legal cause: his actions may well be treated in law as too remote’
The use of joint participation to cover application salutation establish the s.23 OAPA 1861 doesn’t close the causation gap because the supplier still is too remote. The court attempted to circumvent this inevitability by best practice university, relying on R v. Latif and others : ‘The free, deliberate and informed intervention of a second person, who intends to letter application exploit the situation created by the first, but is not acting in concert with him is tropical rainforest research paper held to relieve the first actor of criminal responsibility’ Thus causation becomes reliant on for online salutation the perception of ‘acting in concert’ however this causes a beehive of problems. Whilst they maybe acting in concert how does this create an unlawful act? S.23 was clearly instituted for the ‘protection of the person to whom the substance is administered ’ and thus surely they cannot act in concert to the awakening essay prompt commit a crime that only one of them can commit. The court seems to have made a mistake here and conflated legal causation with factual causation, they seem to think that Cato has created authority that if you can establish administration then automatically causation is established. It is clear that this is not the case however the for online court in Kennedy wants to shift the legal basis the difference between antithesis facts remain the same there was not a traditional causational link. The basic answer to whether the chain of causation can be broken in cases of manslaughter is letter for online that theoretically and it has been broken in numerous cases. Difference Between Antithesis? However, the logic and approach of the courts in the drug supply cases threatens to letter undermine all these principles. 2: Comparison to other areas of Criminal Law.
The decisions in applications technology grade 12 exam papers 2011, Empress Cars and the drug supply cases have been heavily criticised as having caused ‘a revolution within the field of criminal causation’ . It is primarily because in Empress and the drug supply cases they have completely disregarded the novus actus interveniens of a third party’s voluntary actions. Cover Letter For Online Salutation? The chain of causation can only really be broken by a limited number of defined cases as we discussed in the first section these are roughly stated, failure to be a sine qua non or failure to establish an intervening act between the cause and effect. The removal of the voluntary action intervention distorts these principles and if taken to its logical extreme could cause serious defects in criminal causation. However, the principles of causation, as traditionally understood always seem to find the ‘best illustrations supporting the thesisin cases other than homicide’ , this is undoubtedly an accurate description. The interesting thing about this area of law is oxymoron antithesis that whilst there are plenty of academic authorities to the fact that ‘The novus actus rule is of fundamental importance’ it is particularly difficult to find cases other than the ones we have mentioned already where the court has upheld a novus actus. However, one of the main justifications for cover for online application the existence of the rules on causation is the distinction in criminal law between principal and accessory ; it is in these cases that we are able to find dicta which are at odds with the approach in the drugs supply cases. The whole basis of accessorial liability is based on the fact that the accused didn’t in fact cause the harm, in fact he may have had absolutely no intention to commit the crime but he can still be an uwe dissertation accessory to cover letter for online application salutation the crime. Thus take the famous case of R v. Bainbridge as an example of why the logic of causation is heinously wrong in the drug cases. In Bainbridge the accused sold oxygen-cutting equipment to another person, that person in mastercard case study, turn broke into letter salutation, a bank and stole £18,000.
The accused was convicted as an accessory to the theft. Here we have analogous facts to between oxymoron antithesis the drugs supply cases, if we leave aside the fact that the third party did in fact commit an offence in this case. One cannot be accessory to theft where there are only two parties. For example if the third party had taken the oxygen-cutting machine and letter application broken into his own house and grade papers ‘stolen’ £18,000 then no offence is committed by the accused. However it maybe that the accused is guilty of an offence such as supplying the cover letter salutation oxygen-cutting machine without a licence. The problem is that in this case there is no extra element such as in a homicide which is an unlawful act resulting in death.
Therefore lets say when the third party is using the oxygen-cutting machine breaking into his own house he cuts himself, there is no crime of self-injury but there is one of assault. Using the logic in Kennedy (No 2) the accused and the third party could somehow be ‘joint participants’ in causing an assault on the third party. Applications Grade? This obviously makes absolutely no sense and would be completely ridiculous. Thus the approach taken in the manslaughter cases doesn’t sit easily with principles of accessorial liability because as I have argued above legal causation seems to have taken precedence over factual causation which means that establishment of letter salutation, who is the principal and difference oxymoron the accessory become questions of legal construction as well as fact. The rest of the criminal law of result crimes however shows a distinct pre-occupation with voluntary actions, thus there have been plenty of cases such as R v. Hanson where the letter for online application accused was the original thrower of a squib which then was thrown away by the intended target and caused injury to a third party. The fact that the throwing of the grade 12 exam papers 2011 target was not voluntary meant that it couldn’t break the chain of causation. In the cover application salutation cases surrounding Assault occasioning actual bodily harm we can see the causation element become of rainforest biome research paper, great importance.
In R v. Roberts the assault was an letter salutation attempt to remove a woman’s coat which occasioned her to jump out of revolution essay, a car and sustain injury. The court again upheld the dicta that the action had to be so unreasonable or irrational that it was unforeseeable. The clear theme arising from these cases is that the voluntary action of a victim must be caused by the criminal act of the accused. This can be established in these ‘escape’ cases such as Roberts because the facts bear out that it was the cause, however it is clear in drug supply questions the implied assertion and the one accepted in cover letter application, Dias is that the supplier cannot be said to cause the death. The foreseeability issue that Finlay raised was taken in the wrong context, it is clear the stressed mindset of the victim was what made the harm foreseeable. It is a warning as to why principles of causation ought not to be treated holistically in that they are often fact sensitive and can be used as they were in applications grade 12 exam, Finlay to distort their intention.
It is arguable that the principles in other result crimes such as assault ought not to be treated as being binding on the approach in manslaughter. We will see that the crime can make a difference to the way causation is established in the next section when we turn to look at the approach in other jurisdictions. 3:Comparisons to other Jurisdictions. The issue of the supply of drugs has been raised in a few cases north of the border and it is interesting to look at their approach as a comparator. The courts have taken a similar view to the courts in England but based on different grounds. However, the decisions north of the border have consistently found suppliers to be guilty and that the Novus Actus Interveniens of cover for online salutation, voluntary behaviour doesn’t break the chain of causation. In both Khaliq v. HMA and practice case study - harvard Ulhaq v. Cover? HMA the supply of solvents was enough to establish the crime of ‘Culpably and recklessly endangering life and applications technology papers health’.
In Lord Advocate’s Reference (No1 of 1994) the cover letter for online court considered a directly analogous case to those of the drug supply when the accused was charged with the Scots Law equivalent of manslaughter, Culpable Homicide. On Appeal to the High Court after an initial acquittal the High Court upheld the views of Khaliq and Ulhaq and specifically stated: ‘The purpose and the intention of the supply libelled was that the between oxymoron antithesis solvents should be abused, employing the means of abuse provided. The solvents were, it is averred, abused, and this could be regarded as the expected, intended and probable consequence of the supply’ This knowledge of abuse thus in Scots Law was held to be vital because the foreseeability of the use meant that the cover letter chain of causation was not broken. They argued that the distinction between supply and oxymoron administration was so negligible where ‘supply is closely related to cover application the use by words of instigation or by some act of instigation on the part of the panel’ . Frenchay? The proximity and foreseeability of use therefore negate the Novus Actus Interveniens on that basis. The argumentation is more convincing than in the English cases although it is submitted this is because of the double test requirement of Manslaughter by Unlawful Act. It seems quite clear that the letter for online supply of drugs can constitute a murder charge in certain states of America. In particular two cases are pertinent on this issue and these are State of Iowa v. Albertson and tropical rainforest biome research paper Lofthouse v. Commonwealth of for online, Kentucky the courts came to consider very similar issues as we have discussed in the cases above. In the computer technology 12 exam latter case the accused was charged with reckless homicide under the Kentucky Penal Code. The courts in Kentucky made a distinction as far as supervening factors were concerned between an ‘independent intervening cause’ and a ‘’dependent intervening cause’.
The latter did not relieve the accused of criminal responsibility unless the human act was completely abnormal, the former would relieve unless it was ‘reasonably foreseeable at for online application, the time of his conduct’ . Mastercard Best - Harvard? The issue of causation was thus circumvented on the basis of foreseeability based on the inherent dangerousness of the drugs: ‘The Commonwealth posits that, as a matter of law, the act of letter for online application, furnishing narcotic drugs to another creates a substantial risk of death to the transferee sufficient to convict of either second-degree manslaughter (awareness of and conscious disregard of the risk) or reckless homicide (failure to perceive the risk)’ The test is industrial revolution essay questions and answers very similar to the Empress and Finlay approach and cover application the distinction between ordinary and practice case extraordinary occurrence that was made in the latter case, however the main issue here is that whilst foreseeability is the test they have specifically attuned the offence so that the cover for online issue of causation is uwe dissertation binding frenchay correctly centred on the foreseeability of the cover letter for online salutation harm resulting from an action. Computer Applications Grade? The crime is reckless homicide and the only way the cover letter for online application salutation novus actus interveniens can intervene was held to be, much like our escape cases such as R v. Roberts and R v. Mackie was where the act of the victim was abnormal or completely irrational in the situation. Interestingly the US has completely rejected what was known as the felony murder rule which is defined as: ‘If death ensues as a consequence of the commission of industrial essay, a dangerous felony, the intent to application commit the dangerous felony provides the element of intent necessary to paper convict of the homicide’ The court in Lofthouse discussed the case law surrounding this crime which bears obvious analogies to manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act. It appears as though the approach has been abandoned in Kentucky and other states for a number of reasons. One of the main reasons is that many states have their own statutory crime of homicide caused by the supply of narcotics this includes states such as Connecticut, New Jersey and Florida. However the letter use of the felony-murder doctrine is identical in most respects to the manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, including the attendant difficulties of establish a causal relationship between the felonious conduct and the death. The approach in the seminal case of Heacock v. Commonwealth was too hold that the distribution of cocaine was an inherently dangerous act enough to establish second degree murder under the felony murder rule. It has subsequently been held in numerous cases that the supply of drugs under the felony murder rule will constitute a crime see Ingleton v. Difference? State , State v. Whitted and Sheriff, Clark County v. Morris . The South African approach to causation issues seems to be very similar to the one in this country.
In two particular cases; S v. Grotjohn and S v. Hibbert the South African Courts fell to consider the effect of the voluntary act of the cover victim on difference between antithesis the accused’s liability in homicide cases. Salutation? In both these cases the victim had committed suicide but the accused had handed her a gun in a manner where it was very foreseeable that they would shoot themselves., Steyn CJ stated in the case of Grotjohn that the important issue was that the novus actus interveniens be ‘a completely independent act, in computer technology 12 exam papers 2011, the sense that it should be totally unconnected and has no relationship to the act of the perpetrator’ . The cases are not completely analogous because in the cases there was an intention or desire to bring about a fatal result and they had a particularly close involvement in letter for online application salutation, the instigation of the actions of the victim. In a situation very similar to Cato the court in the New Zealand case of R v. Bennett found that a young man who had injected drugs into his friend at a party was guilty of manslaughter. Continental Approach to Causation. In surveying the foregoing case law it becomes apparent that in both Scotland and the U.S.A the law is in rainforest biome research paper, effect much the same as the result in cover salutation, Kennedy (No 2). However, what we see is that both on the continent and in these other jurisdictions is uwe dissertation binding frenchay that undoubtedly any liability is letter based upon the idea of negligent manslaughter or culpable homicide because death was reasonably foreseeable. In all the jurisdictions the interrelation between foreseeability and causation is that the causal link can be established by negligence. This is because in those situations the seemingly voluntary action of the victim is foreseeable, or ought to be, so the accused is deemed to have been aware of the dangers and continued any way. The English approach to the question has seemingly been correct then in embracing the Empress Cars foreseeability test in criminal law. The problem is computer applications grade papers that this is not really relevant in manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act.
The act must have caused the death, the cover letter for online application foreseeability of the papers issue isn’t relevant because if the act was unforeseeable then it is established that the chain of cover salutation, causation can still be established (i.e. the person had a thin skull or a rare disorder). However, in other jurisdictions the foreseeability issue goes to negligence not causation and this avoids the problems. In all jurisdictions the supply of drugs is a causa sine qua non however the chain of causation is held not to be broken because the crime is consequent upon negligence by definition whereas the uwe dissertation binding manslaughter cases require a standard causational link between the act and death. This work has concentrated predominantly on the drug supply cases in manslaughter; this mirrors the domination that is given to them in letter for online, all the textbooks and articles on the issue. Biome Paper? It is well understood that there are numerous things which could potentially break the chain of causation in manslaughter such as failure to cover for online application be a causa sine qua non, intervention by an act of nature, intervention by a third party, it may not be a substantial cause of death. The intervention of a third party, particularly where that third party is the victim himself, is a foundational principle of causation and as mentioned above the basis for accessorial liability. The drug supply cases seem to offend these principles and yet there is a paucity of good authority to tropical rainforest biome contradict their conclusions.
In many ways the conclusions in Kennedy (No 2) defy logical explication, however it is an obvious attempt at maintaining the policy that drug dealers can be guilty of manslaughter. This principle is letter application recognised both north of the border and in the USA which in turn creates pressure for conformity. However, the detriment to causational principles seems to lie in the fact that it in many respects completely bypasses the operation of causation. It doesn’t pay attention to the fact that causation is difference oxymoron a mixture of fact and law, the one cannot exist without the other, and furthermore it is simply not tenable to argue that once de minimis factual cause is established that the facts have no effect. Cover Letter For Online Application Salutation? Kennedy (No 2) tried to create some kind of legal chain of the awakening essay, causation, whereby the establishment of ‘administration’ by constructing the facts so as to fit into the definition somehow changed the facts from cover what they were, thus legally all administration causes death where in fact it does. The chain of mastercard practice study - harvard university, causation can be broken in cases of manslaughter; it is clear from American authorities such as People v. Elder and Smith v. State that where the cover application salutation accused commits a minor crime which is then followed by a grossly disproportionate killing by industrial essay questions and answers, a third party then this will break the chain of causation. However there are virtually no examples in cover for online salutation, English law and if we follow the approach under R v. Dear as we discussed above the chain of causation in cases concerning homicide may be incredibly difficult because even the most unreasonable behaviour of the victim in computer applications technology 2011, exacerbating an initially trivial harm are not relevant in breaking the chain of causation. It is as well to remember however that this doesn’t necessarily entail a conviction of manslaughter, causation is primarily concerned with the actus reus of a crime and the mens rea may have a very important bearing on the outcome. Allen, Michael Textbook on Criminal Law 2005 / OUP / 8th ed.
Fletcher, George Rethinking Criminal Evidence 2000 / OUP Hart, HLA Causation in the Law 1985 / OUP / 2nd ed. Honore, T McCall Smith, R Scots Criminal Law 1997 / Butterworths / 2nd. Sheldon, D 2nd ed. Ormerod, David Smith Hogan Criminal Law 2005 / OUP / 11th ed. Heaton, Russell Dealing In Death 2003 CLR 497 Principals?
No Principles 2004 CLR 463 Ormerod, D Drug Suppliers As Manslaughterers (Again) 2005 CLR 819. Fortson, R Padfield, N Clean Water And Muddy Causation: Is 1995 CLR 68 Causation A Question Of Law Or Fact, Or Just A Way Of Allocating Blame. Phippen, L Drugs and letter application manslaughter 2005 NLJ 1054. Radlett, D Reed, Alan Involuntary Manslaughter And Assisting 2003 JCL 431. Drug-Abuse Injection Court of Appeal: Causation and Assisting 2005 JCL 384. Drug-abuse Injection Toczek, L Is the supplier also the tropical biome research killer? 2002 NLJ 595 Weait, M Taking the blame: criminal law, social 2001 JSWFL 441. responsibility and the sexual transmission of HIV Williams, R Policy And Principle In Drugs Manslaughter Cases 2005 CLJ 66.
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