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apostle paul resume THE LETTER TO THE ROMANS. 1. Who wrote the Letter to the Romans? 1.1. What does Rom 1:1 indicate about the author of the Letter to the Romans? It indicates that the author of the Letter to the Romans was Paul. 1.2. Unlike his other letters, Paul includes a lengthy introduction of himself as an apostle. After the typical identification of your thesis himself as Paul. called to be an brockovich, apostle (1:1), he sets forth in nuce the contents of the gospel that he is finish your thesis, called to proclaim (1:2-4). He then adds that it was through Christ that we received grace and apostleship for the purpose of the thesis related work, obedience of your faith among all the gentiles. (The use of the first person plural [we] no doubt refers to Paul and essay his associates.) By the phrase grace and apostleship, Paul probably means the grace of apostleship, so that he understands his call to be an apostle as a bestowal of grace, insofar as it is an undeserved privilege.
He says that his particular call as an your thesis, apostle is to the gentiles, and his ultimate goal in relation to them is their obedience of faith. This phrase may mean faith's obedience, the implication being that obedience belongs to faith as its natural and expected possession or correlation, or it may mean the obedience originating in faith, so that obedience is inseparably tied to faith as its basis and faith inevitably produces obedience. As will become evident, most likely, Paul goes into such detail about his understanding of his apostleship because his intended readers are not personally acquainted with him. 1.3. According to thesis work, Rom 16:22, who was Paul's amanuensis for the Letter to the Romans? Teritus identifies himself as the one who wrote the Letter to the Romans. The identity of this Tertius is thesis, otherwise unknown, for this is the only time his name occurs in the New Testament. His exact contribution to the letter is essays, also unknown. It is possible that Paul dictated the entire letter to him, but it also possible that Tertius had a more creative role in its composition. Tertius wrote a personal greeting to the readers, so that presumably he knew some of them at least.
1.4. Finish Thesis! Since Paul indicates that she is traveling to Rome and related to social he provides her with an introduction in the Letter to the Romans (Rom 16:1-2), it is possible that Phoebe carried the letter to its intended destination. 2. To whom was the Letter to the Romans written? 2.1 What does Rom 1:7 indicate about the intended readers of the Letter to the Romans? It indicates that the intended readers of the finish thesis, Letter to essay poe, the Romans were all in Rome who are loved by God and called to be saints.
In other words, they were the members of the church in Rome. 2.2. What Paul says in Rom 1:13 Many times I have wanted to come to you but was prevented implies that he has never been to Rome as an apostle at least. (The first time that Paul went to Rome as an apostle was as a prisoner.) If he has not been to Rome at thesis, the time of writing of his letter, Paul obviously could not have founded the church in Rome. This means that the church in Rome has come into existence independently of his apostolic work, so that he is on erin brockovich, not its founder. In later tradition, Peter is associated with the Roman church, but there is no evidence that Peter founded the church. How the Roman church began is a historical mystery. What evidence does exist, however, suggests that it did not have an apostolic founder. 2.2.1. Finish Your! What might Paul's statement of his apostolic policy in Rom 15:20 and essay poe 2 Cor 10:15-16 imply about the origin of the Roman church? Paul states in Rom 15:20 that he does not desire to build on another foundation in finish, his evangelism, by which he means that he does not desire to continue the work of another apostle. Similarly, in essay poe, 2 Cor 10:15-16, Paul criticizes the false apostles, who infiltrated the church at Corinth after his departure, for finish thesis infringing on his area of apostolic jurisdiction.
He says that he and his associates have a policy of never doing evangelistic work in areas where another apostle has preceded them; rather they go only to unevangelized regions. Paul's apostolic policy may imply that the assassination, Roman church had no such apostolic foundation, or else Paul would not be seeking to go to your thesis, Rome to minister there, for this would be a violation of that policy (Rom 1:11-12; see 15:22-23). It is possible that Paul sees the church in Rome as needing an apostolic foundation. Essay Novel! 2.2.2. Finish Your Thesis! That the church in Rome had no apostolic foundation is implied by the fact that Paul says nothing in assassination of julius caesar, his Letter to the Romans about the founder of the church. It would be expected that he would say something if the church had a founder. Your! Rather, what Paul says in Rom 1:6, 14-15 implies that he sees the church in Rome as following under his apostolic jurisdiction insofar as he is the novel, apostle to finish your, the gentiles. 2.2.3. What relevance may the fact that there were Jews and proselytes from Rome present on the Day of caesar Pentecost have in explaining the origin of the Roman church (Acts 2:10)? Acts 2:10 mentions that there were Romans (Jews from Rome or Roman proselytes) present at Pentecost.
It is finish, possible that these were only visiting Jerusalem for the festival Pentecost (Shavuot) and then returned to Rome where they founded the church. 2.3. There was a sizable population of Jews living in Rome in the first century. A little more than a century earlier, Pompey took many Jewish prisoners to Rome and resettled them there (Josephus, Ant. Greatest American! 14.74-79; War 1.153-58; Appian, Syr . 51; Mithr . 117; see Philo, Leg. ad. Finish Your! Gaium 152-61); no doubt, many of their descendants formed the assassination caesar essay, nucleus of the Jewish population of the thesis, city in Paul's day. Not surprisingly, there were several synagogues in Rome. Cicero indicates that by assassination caesar essay, the middle of the first century BCE, there were many Jews ( multitudo Iudaeorum ) in Rome, some of whom were citizens and elected to the popular assemblies ( Pro Flacc . 28/66-69); Cicero himself saw the great number of Jews in your, Rome as a potential threat to Roman interests. (In that speech, he refers to essay on the, the Jews' barbarian superstition [ barbara superstitio ].) Suetonius comments that Jews in Rome were over-represented among the foreign inhabitants of the city as those who mourned over Julius Caesar's funeral pyre ( Iulii vita 84). In the finish, year 4, more than 8,000 Jews in Rome joined a delegation of fifty from Jerusalem sent to oppose the essays, installation of finish your thesis Archaleus, Herod's son ( Ant . 17.299-303); later, the essay poe, emperor Tiberius drafted some 4,000 Jews from Rome into military service ( Ant . 18.81-84). These two large numbers indicate that the Jewish population of your thesis Rome must have been significant. Dio Cassius explains that Jews in Rome, in spite of official actions taken against them, were able to greatest essays, gain enough influence among the finish your, ruling class as to find protection for their religious beliefs and practices (37.17).
He also reports that Claudius in 41, noticing that their number had grown to a dangerous level, did not expel them the Jews, but did forbid them from meeting together (Dio Cassius, 60.6.6). Philo claims that in the time of essay caregivers Augustus that Jews is finish your, Rome were so numerous that they inhabited the great section of Rome accross the Tiber ( Leg. ad. Gaium 155-56). From funerary inscriptions found in essay poe, the catacombs of Rome, it is clear that Jews in the city were divided into thirteen synagogues, by which is meant thirteen groups or congregations; each of these was governed by a council of elders ( gerousia ), the leader of finish which was called the ruler of the council of elders ( gerousiarchês ) ( CII l.lvi-ci). Assassination Caesar Essay! It seems that some of the finish your thesis, many Jews in Rome came to believe in essay caregivers, Jesus as the Christ. There is indirect evidence of this from Suetonius, the Roman historian. He records that the emperor Claudius (41-54) expelled all Jews from Rome.
According to the fifth-century Christian historian Orosius, who quotes from Suetonius' text, the expulsion took place in finish, Claudius' ninth regnal year (Jan. 25, 49 to Jan 24, 50) ( Hist. adv. pag . 7.6.15-16). Friedrich Novel! (Orosius claims Josephus as his source, but Josephus nowhere mentions the expulsion.) What is interesting is the reason that Suetonius provides for this extreme official action. He writes, He expelled the Jews at Rome because they caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of your thesis Chrestus ( impulsore Chresto ) ( Claudius , 25.4). (This expulsion of the Jews from Rome is referred to in Acts 18:1-3.) It is essay poe, probable that by Chrestus is meant Christus, so that what Suetonius describes is a very public dispute among the Jews in Rome over whether Jesus was the Christ. (Chrêstos was a common Greek name used of slaves and freedmen in the Roman world; it seems that Suetonius thought that this Chrestus was alive and living in Rome [Tertullian, Apol . 3.5; Ad. nat . 1.3; Lactantius, Inst . 4.7.5].) If so, then this incident in the reign of Claudius implies that there were Jewish Christians in Rome as early as the mid-40's, since it would take some time for the dispute to escalate to the point where it was necessary for Claudius to expel the Jews from the city. (It is arguable that Claudius did not expel every Jew from finish thesis Rome; rather, it may only have been those Jews directly involved in the dispute over Christ, which would have included many believing Jews.) Moreover, the fact that this religious dispute among the Jews must have been considerable in order for Claudius to take notice of it and take such a drastic action as expelling all Jews from Rome implies that there must have a significant number of Jews who believed that Jesus was the Christ in Rome at that time. (See Acts 13:50; 14:19; 17:5 for other examples of Jewish resistance to thesis related, the good news spilling over into finish your the pubic domain). 2.4. From what Paul says in various places in his letter, it is clear from the Letter to the Romans that the church at Rome was composed of both Jews and gentiles; many of the gentile converts may have had a previous association with one the many Jewish synagogues in Rome. In Rom 9-11, Paul instructs the on erin brockovich, gentiles not to become arrogant towards the finish your thesis, Jews because of their acceptance by God and the temporary rejection of Israel; Paul's intention is to promote good relations between Jewish and friedrich essay novel gentile believers by discouraging undue conceit (see Rom 11:13: I am talking to you gentiles). Finish Your Thesis! Similarly, in Rom 14, in the matter of eating ritually unclean meat, he warns the brockovich, strong, which includes all gentile believers, though not exclusively, not to despise the weak, which includes some Jews. He then exhorts both groups in Rom 15:7 to accept one another, and explains that Christ became a servant of the circumcised in order that gentiles may glorify God because of his mercy (Rom 15:8-9). The realization of this truth will serve to finish, unify Jews and gentiles.
Furthermore, of on erin those in your, the list to whom Paul sends greetings in Rom 16, Aquila is a Jew (Acts 18:2), as well as Andronicus, Junias and Herodion, whom Paul calls his kinsmen ( suggeneis ). In addition, the Maria mentioned in 16:6 is probably a Jew since her name is Jewish. The rest of the people listed, however, are probably gentiles. (Nevertheless, others in the list could also be Jews, because Jews often had Greek and Roman names.) Doubtless, the friedrich novel, first believers in Rome were Jews, who somehow heard the gospel and believed; later gentiles believed and were assimilated into the church at Rome in great numbers. What needs to be determined in order to understand Paul's purpose in writing is whether, at finish your thesis, the time that he writes his letter, the church in Rome had a majority of Jews or gentiles. The expulsion of all Jews from Rome by Claudius, including Jewish Christians, certainly would have had a negative impact on related work, the relative number of Jews relative to gentiles in the Roman church, but his death in finish thesis, 54 probably resulted in the rescinding of this edict, so that Roman Jews were free to return to the city. (Priscilla and Aquila, it seems, took advantage of this change of policy towards Jews and returned to Rome [see Rom 16:3].) What can be inferred about the composition of the church in Rome from the following passages? In Rom 1:5-6, Paul classifies his readers as gentiles, insofar as he says that his task as an apostle is to call gentiles to the obedience of faith among whom also his Roman readers are included. Paul could only say such a thing if the majority of the related to social work, church in Rome was composed of gentiles.
Paul states his purpose in wanting to come to Rome as follows: In order that I might have a harvest among you, just as I have also had among other gentiles. The inclusion of the word other as a modifier of gentiles implies that his readers are also gentiles, and Paul could only finish your thesis, write this if the majority of church at Rome consisted of gentiles. Paul says about his readers that, You used to caesar, offer your members in finish thesis, slavery to impurity and ever-increasing lawlessness. This description of his readers seems to imply that they have come from a pagan background, because it would be inappropriate to refer to most Jews as being in slavery to impurity and ever-increasing lawlessness. This is not how one would describe the essay poe, life of a Jew living under the your, Law. This sounds more like the debachery characteristic of caregivers many gentiles. The implication is that the preponderance of the members of the church at Rome was gentile. 2.4.4. Rom 9:3-4; 10:1-2; 11:28, 31. Thesis! In each of these passages, Paul seems to be speaking to essay poe, gentile believers about his own people, the Jews. In Rom 9:3-4, he says that he wishes himself accursed on behalf of my brothers.
He could only say such a thing to thesis, gentiles, because, if he were speaking to friedrich von blanckenburg, Jews, he would say something like our brothers or our people. Likewise, in Rom 10:1-2, Paul seems to distinguish his readers, whom he calls brothers, from the Israelites, for whom he prays; the implication is finish your, that the readers are not included in this latter group. Finally, Paul makes a distinction between his readers and essay Israel, who are the finish your, enemies of the readers with respect to the gospel, but are still beloved by God on account of the patriarchs (Rom 11:28). It seems that Paul would not speak to Jews about unbelieving Jews in this way. Essays! Along the same lines, he distinguishes his readers, who have benefited from Israel's temporary hardening, from Israel (Rom 11:31).
2.4.5. Taking all the evidence into consideration, what do you conclude about the ethnic composition of the church in Rome? The church in Rome was a mixed congregation of Jews and gentiles, but with a good majority being gentiles. 2.5. It may seem strange that Paul used Greek to write a letter to thesis, the Roman church, since its membership no doubt consisted of Latin-speaking gentiles and assassination essay Jews. This is evidence, however, of how widespread Greek was as the lingua franca of the Mediterranean world (see Cicero, Pro Archia 23; Juvenal, Satire 3.60-65). 3. When was the Letter to the Romans written? 3.1. It is possible to assign a relative date to the Letter to the Romans from data available from the letter itself. There are clues in the letter concerning when, relative to his apostolic career, Paul wrote his letter. 3.1.1.
Rom 15:19, 23-24. Thesis! In Rom 15:19, Paul says that he has preached the gospel from Jerusalem to Illyricum, a Roman province northwest of Macedonia. Greatest Essays! Since we have no record of his going to Illyricum, Paul could be referring to the regions in Macedonia inhabited by people of the Illyricum race. In any case, Paul must be writing during the second or third missionary journey, not the first, since he did not visit Macedonia during his first missionary journey. What Paul writes in Rom 15:23-24, however, allows one to delimit further the date of the composition of the letter. Paul says that it is his intention soon to your, go to Spain because he sees his evangelistic work in the eastern Mediterranean as complete: Now there is no more place for me to work in these regions, and since I have been desirous for many years of coming to you, I plan to come when I go to Spain.
The fact that Paul plans to move his base of operation from on erin brockovich Antioch to the west, presumably Rome, implies that he is writing after or near the end of your thesis his third missionary journey, because he apparently did not consider shifting his evangelistic focus to the western Mediterranean any sooner than that. Paul must also have written before his arrest in friedrich essay on the, Jerusalem and subsequent imprisonment, which compelled Paul to change his plans about going to finish your, Spain immediately after his visit to Jerusalem to deliver the gift of money collected from the churches that he founded. 3.1.2. Rom 15:25-26 (1 Cor 16:1-4; 2 Cor 8-9) The relative date of Paul's composition of his Letter to the Romans can be further narrowed down based on what Paul writes about his collection project. He writes that he is on greatest, his way to Jerusalem with a collection for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem from the churches in Macedonia and Achaia (Rom 15:26). The collection that Paul describes in his letter as having been completed, but not yet delivered, is probably the same one described as not yet completed in 1 Cor 16:1-4 and 2 Cor 8-9. If so, then the church in Corinth must be included among the churches from Macedonia and Achaia. It should also be noted that in 1 Cor 16:3-4, Paul has not yet decided to accompany those chosen from the Corinthian church to transport the money collected to Jerusalem (and if it is your thesis, fitting for me to essay, go also, they will go with me). Your! By contrast, in brockovich, Rom 15:25 he says that he plans to lead the delegation that goes to Jerusalem with the money. What is implied about when Paul wrote his letter based on what he says about the collection project in Rom 15:25-26 and his planned visit to Jerusalem to deliver the money? Whereas in 1 Cor 16:2-4 Paul has not yet decided whether he will go to finish thesis, Jerusalem with those chosen from the essays, Corinthian church, in Rom 16:25 he has determined to go.
This implies that the letter was written after 1 Corinthians. In addition, since the collection is described as having been completed, Paul could not be writing to the Romans before his third visit to Corinth, for otherwise he would still be lacking the contribution of the church in Corinth. So the earliest that Paul could have written the Letter to the Romans is at the time of his third visit to finish, Corinth. Moreover, Paul implies in Rom 15:25-26 that, although it is imminent, his journey to essay, Jerusalem is not yet underway. Finish Your Thesis! So it follows that Paul wrote the Letter to the Romans just before his departure for Jerusalem, but after the completion of friedrich von blanckenburg novel his collection project.
3.2. From all the above data and a knowledge of Pauline chronology, assign an absolute date or a range of dates for the composition of the Letter to the Romans. (Remember that the dating the letter must fall between the two known dates proximate to this event: the founding of the church at Corinth between 50 and 52 and finish thesis Paul's arrest in Jerusalem between 55 and 58 .) Paul wrote the Letter to on the, the Romans at the end of his third missionary journey after he had visited Corinth for the third time but before setting out for finish your Jerusalem to deliver the money collected from his churches. This period time in greatest american essays, Paul's career as an apostle can be dated to finish your, between 54 and 58. 3.3.
Paul wrote his letter during what is known as the five-year period of essay caregivers Nero ( Neronis quinquennium ), the first five years of Nero's reign as emperor, between 54 and 59 (Aurelius, Caesares 5, epit. 12). This period in thesis, Roman history was considered the best period of the essays, Roman Empire since the time of finish Augustus, unlike the latter part of novel Nero's reign (when the church was persecuted). This may explain why Paul makes no reference to any problems between the Roman believers and finish your thesis the civil authorities. If fact, he enthusiastically recommends that they submit themselves fully to every ruling authority (13:1). 4. Where was the Letter to von blanckenburg, the Romans written? 4.1. From Acts 20:1-6, 1 Cor 16:6; Rom 16:1 determine the likely place of the composition of the Letter to the Romans. (Acts 20:1-6 describes events during the last part of Paul's third missionary journey, after he left Ephesus.) It seems that Paul was in Achaia when he wrote the your thesis, Letter to the Romans, since Luke implies that, having travelled through Macedonia, Paul spent three months in Achaia. More specically, Paul probably it in Corinth, since he told the Corinthians earier that he hoped to spend the winter with them (1 Cor 16:6). The reference to Phoebe from Cenchraea also suggests that Paul was in essays on erin brockovich, Corinth, for Cenchraea was the eastern port of Corinth (Rom 16:1).
4.2. That Paul was in Corinth when he wrote his Letter to finish, the Romans is confirmed by two of the people from whom he sends greeting to the church in Rome. In Rom 16:23, Paul sends a greeting from Gaius, identified as the one who shows hospitality to me and the whole church. This Gaius is no doubt the same man mentioned in 1 Cor 1:14, whom Paul baptized on his first visit to Corinth. In addition, Paul sends a greeting from Erastus, identified as the director of public works ( oikonomos ) of the city. He is connected to Corinth in 2 Tim 4:20: Erastus remained at Corinth.
This man may be the same Erastus of the so-called Erastus inscription found at essay poe, Corinth. 4.3. Your Thesis! Paul was not alone in Corinth when he wrote his letter, but was in the company of Timothy, Lucius, Jason and Sosipater (Sopater), not to mention his amanuensis, Tertius, who sent their greetings to the Romans (Rom 16:21-22; see Acts 20:4; 17:6). 5. What is the american essays, Letter to the Romans? 5.1. The Letter to the Romans more than any of Paul's other letters was intended as a compendium of Paul's teaching; although he does not touch upon thesis, every possible topic, it seems that Paul attempts to set out his understanding of Jesus' death and resurrection and the implications of these. Friedrich Von Blanckenburg Essay! In so doing, he dealt with topics such as the nature of sin (Jew and Gentile), the means of being made righteous, the Law, election, and finish eschatology. 5.2. Outline of the Letter to the Romans. This represents the introduction of the letter.
This is the salutation of the letter. Paul offers a thanksgiving to God on behalf of the Roman Christians, and tells them that he wants to on erin brockovich, visit them in order to impart some spiritual gift. Paul also takes the opportunity to comment on the nature of the gospel and his role as a preacher of the gospel. This represents the main body of the letter. In this section, Paul establishes the universal need of your a means of being made righteous apart from the brockovich, Law, by grace through faith. Paul says that gentiles know God from finish thesis what God has made, but have suppressed the truth in unrighteousness, having chosen to be unrighteous. Paul speaks in general terms about the coming judgment of all human beings on the basis of works. Jews will be judged by the Law, whereas Gentiles will be judged by the law written on the heart. Paul concedes that the Jews have been privileged by thesis work, being given the Law, but says that Jews who break the finish your, law will be condemned along with Gentiles.
The true Jew is the one circumcised of related heart, not of the your thesis, flesh. Paul rebuts the charge that he advocates sin, since supposedly the more sin there is when God judges, the greatest essays, more glory God receives. Paul concludes by saying that both Jew and finish Gentile stand condemned before God. In so doing he cites a catena of Old Testament texts to prove his point. In this section, Paul explains the nature of God's saving work and humanity's appropriation of it. Paul says that God has provided a means of being righteous that comes apart from the assassination of julius, law, the sacrificial death of Jesus, which is appropriated by your thesis, faith.
Thus, there are no grounds for boasting in works. Paul proves that being made righteous is by grace through faith by citing the example of Abraham, who believed, was pronounced righteous because of his faith and only then was given the command to circumcise. Abraham is intended to serve as a paradigm for believers. Paul explains that the result of the sacrificial death of Christ is peace with God and salvation from the coming wrath. Paul contrasts Adam and Christ as two representatives of humanity: whereas sin and death entered the world through Adam resulting in condemnation of all human beings, justification, the gift of God's grace, came through the second Adam, Christ, and passes to all who believe. In this section, Paul writes about the new life in Christ, the implications of being made righteous by grace for friedrich on the living. In answering to the charge that his teaching on being made righteous by grace will encourage believers to your thesis, sin, Paul explains that those who are baptized into Jesus Christ, into his death, have died to essay poe, sin.
Believers are no longer slaves to sin, but now slaves to righteousness. Paul draws the conclusion that the believer is released from the Law, having died to it. To this end, he uses the analogy of marriage: in thesis, the same way that a woman is essay, legally free from her marriage vow when her husband dies, so the believer is free from the Law, having died to it. The believer is free now to serve God in finish thesis, the new way by the Spirit and not in the old way of the letter. Paul discusses the nature of essays on erin Israel's life under the thesis, Law. The person under the law agrees that the Law is good and is intended to bring life, but has no power to do what the Law requires. Deliverance from this comes through Jesus Christ. Paul explains that those in the Spirit do not live according to the flesh, the sinful nature. The Spirit and the flesh are two mutually exclusive modes of being. In this section, Paul discusses the place of Israel in the working out of God's plan of salvation. Paul takes up the problem and Israel's unbelief and related to social consequent rejection.
He explains that not all Israel is true Israel and that true Israel has not been rejected at all. He also affirms God's prerogative to choose or reject whomever he will. Paul says that the finish your, cause of Israel's rejection was its lack of recognition of the possibility of righteousness that comes apart from the Law. They stumbled over the stone of stumbling. Essay Poe! Interpreting Deut 30:12-13, Paul says that the righteousness by faith is available to all who will believe the Christian proclamation. Israel, however, has refused to believe. Paul says that God has engrafted believing Gentiles into the remnant of believing Jews. He warns his Gentiles readers not to become arrogant about this, because God can just as easily remove the engrafted branches. Your Thesis! Paul says that the rejection of Israel is only temporary, and american holds out the promise of future restoration for the nation, citing Isa 59:20-21 and Isa 27:9 as scriptural proof of this. Based on what he has said previously, Paul exhorts his readers morally, drawing out practical implications.
Paul gives miscellaneous exhortations, including to finish your, present bodies as living sacrifices and to make use of spiritual gifts. Paul explains that it is the believer’s duty to submit to all civil authorities, for God has established these. Paul deals with the problem of the conflict between Jews and Gentiles in the Roman church over the observance and essay caregivers food laws and the festival calendar. Paul advocates that the strong act out of love and not pressure the weak to sin by acting in unbelief. Finish! He warns that all believers must stand before the judgment seat of essay poe God. Paul discusses his present situation and his future plans. He hopes to come to Rome and finish from there go to Spain in order to preach the gospel.
This represents the conclusion of the letter. Paul commends Phoebe to the church, sends greetings, warns them against certain false teachers and concludes with a doxology. 5.3. Some scholars hold that Rom 16 is thesis related, not original to the letter, which they claim ended at Rom 15:33. The evidence marshalled for this position, however, is not conclusive.
5.3.1. The doxology found in Rom 16:25-27 is suspected of not being original to your thesis, Paul's Letter to the Romans. Not only caregivers, does it appear in different positions in different manuscripts, but it is non-Pauline in its vocabulary and style. Yet it is quite possible that Paul appended a doxology to his letter and finish your thesis that in the transmission of the text of the Letter to the Romans it was displaced from its original position. 5.3.2. Many scholars hold that Rom 16:1-23, which for the most part is a list of greeting sent to and greeting sent from, is not original to the Letter to the Romans, but is essay caregivers, a detached note originally sent to the church at Ephesus that later came to be appended to the wrong letter.
A. It is pointed out that, if Paul has not visited the Roman church at the time of the your thesis, composition of the Letter to essay poe, the Romans, he should not have known so many of the your thesis, Roman believers, those to whom he sends greeting in Rom 16. Until Rom 16, Paul betrays no personal, firsthand knowledge of the Romans, except perhaps for the issue over eating ritually unclean meat (Rom 14-15), but is writing as a stranger to strangers. But for Paul to know so many of his readers would make sense if Rom 16 were actually the ending of a lost letter to the Ephesians, because, at the time of writing, Paul had twice visited Ephesus, spending three years in the city during his second sojourn there. Yet it is possible that Paul knew individual members of the Roman church, having met them on their travels outside of Italy; this is certainly the case with Priscilla (Prisca) and Aquila. B. Paul sends greetings to Priscilla (Prisca) and Aquila (Rom 16:3), and refers to essays, the church that meets in their house (Rom 16:5). Paul lived and worked with this couple while in Ephesus (Acts 18:3; 1 Cor 16:19). There is such a short interval of time between Paul's departure from Ephesus, at which time, it seems, Priscilla and Aquila are still in the city (1 Cor 16:19), and his sending of his Letter to thesis, the Romans that its seems improbable that Priscilla and Aquila could have left Ephesus, gone to Rome and have a church meeting in their house in friedrich von blanckenburg novel, the city, as they had in your thesis, Ephesus. But if Rom 16 is from a lost letter to the Ephesians then there is no problem. It is not impossible, however, that, after their exile in Ephesus, Priscilla and Aquila did, in fact, return to Rome, where they resumed their lives. C. Paul sends a greeting to a certain Epaenetus, who is greatest essays, said to be the first convert in Asia (16:5). This could be taken to mean that Epaenetus was in the Roman province of Asia, where Ephesus was situated.
Yet Paul could easily have identified Epaenetus as the first convert in Asia for the benefit of the Roman believers among whom Epaenetus now lived. D. Paul includes a commendation of finish your thesis Phoebe in Rom 16:1-2. It seems more probable that he would send such a commendation to a church that he knew and over which he exercised authority, such as the church at Ephesus, rather than the Roman church, with which Paul had no contact and with which he had little influence at the time of writing. Nevertheless, Paul could have used whatever influence he did have among the Roman believers as the apostle to the gentiles for the benefit of Phoebe, as opposed to saying nothing on essay poe, her behalf. E. Your! The warning included in Rom 16:17-19 seems out of place in light of the rest of the letter, because Paul has said nothing of the essays on erin, potential danger of false teachers previously. Your Thesis! Until Rom 16:17-19, the only potential source of disunity concerns the issue of to social work eating meat that may have been sacrificed to idols (Rom 14-15). Yet such a warning would fit an Ephesian destination for the letter, because false teachers were lurking in the shadows there (see 1 Cor 16:8-9; Acts 20:29-30; Rev 2:2-3). There is no reason, however, that Paul could not have included a general warning against false teachers at the end of the letter, as a precautionary measure. F. Rom 15 ends with what could be construed as a concluding benediction: May the finish, God of american peace be with you all, Amen. This suggests that Rom 16 may have been later appended to an already-completed letter.
If so, however, Rom 15:23 would be an untypical ending of finish thesis a Pauline letter, for Paul usually includes a longer conclusion to essay poe, his letters. 6. Why was the Letter to finish thesis, the Romans written? In Rom 15:15-16, he makes his only american, explicit statement about why he wrote his letter: But I have written very boldly to you on some points so as to remind you of finish your them again, because of the grace that was given me from God, to von blanckenburg essay, be a minister of Christ Jesus to thesis, the gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of essay God, in order that my offering of the gentiles may become acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. This statement is, however, somewhat vague; all that one can conclude is that Paul's general purpose in writing was to instruct the Roman believers on some points of finish your doctrine that he thought that they already knew. Essays! He did so presumably because he believed that he had a responsibility for the church in Rome since it was predominantly gentile and he was the apostle to finish, the gentiles.
I t is probably impossible to know with certainty the particular reasons that Paul wrote his letter to the church in Rome, a church that he did not establish. There are, however, a few clues in the letter itself. Assassination Caesar Essay! What may the following passages indicate about Paul's purposes in your thesis, writing his Letter to the Romans? Paul writes to essay poe, inform the finish, Roman church of his desire to come to Rome in order to impart some spiritual gift to greatest american essays, the Romans to strengthen them (1:11). It is not clear exactly what Paul means by this, but he could be referring to the imparting of the spiritual gifts listed in Rom 12:6-8 (see 1 Cor 12:8-10) by the laying on of hands or some other means.
He also tells them he plans to finish, come to the city in order to preach the good news to gentiles there. Perhaps, he hopes for their cooperation. Paul intends to essay poe, go to Spain, after having traveled to Rome. Finish Your! It seems that he wants the Romans to assist him in his missionary ventures into Spain. It appears that the letter is written to present to the Roman Christians Paul's theological views, in order that they may give him their approval and their financial support. He is assassination of julius caesar, especially concerned to state his views on topics on which he has been misunderstood, which may explain why he says little on finish your thesis, topics such as the church, the Lord's supper and eschatology. This makes sense, if the Roman church is not one of Paul's churches, and have no obligation to him.
The phrase in Rom 15:24 “to send on essay caregivers, one’s way” ( propemphthênai ) is a euphemism for the supplying the needs of the traveler, such as transportation, money, food, letters of introduction, and traveling companions (see Acts 20:38; 21:5; 3 John 6). 6.3. Finish Your Thesis! Rom 1:16; 3:8, 31; 6:1, 15; 7:7, 13; 9:1-4. In each of the these passages, Paul seems to thesis to social, be taking up actual accusations leveled against finish your thesis him by his Judaizing opponents and refuting them. The fact that he says that he is not ashamed of the good news may imply that his opponents think that he should be ashamed of his version of it (1:16). In particular, his opponents have been saying that Paul's views on the Law and its relation to being made righteous leads to all sorts of novel ridiculous theological views and undesirable behavior. They make a caricature of Paul's theology by saying that Paul ought to finish your, teach Let us do evil in essays on erin, order that good may result (Rom 3:8). This seems to be a parody of Paul's view of universal sinfulness, because his opponents seem to be claiming that Paul is logically committed to the ridiculous view that sin is actually good because the more that a person sins the more that God is gloried because of his truthfulness, that is, because he judges sin (Rom 3:7).
Paul's opponents also say that he nullifies the finish your, Law in the sense of declaring it to be void and useless (Rom 3:31) and even that the assassination of julius, Law is sin because of Paul's teaching about the role that the Law assumes in bring sin to actuality (Rom 7:7, 13). Finish Thesis! Similarly, they also accuse him of promoting sin because the believer has no obligation to obey the Law as a condition of being declared eschatologically righteous (Rom 6:1, 15). Perhaps also Paul's Judaizing opponents are saying that Paul does not care about his own people and teaches that God has completely abandoned the on erin, Jews in favor of the gentiles, contrary to the promises made to finish your thesis, Israel in scripture. In response, Paul explains his view of the temporary hardening of Israel. It is probable that one of Paul's purposes in writing the friedrich von blanckenburg essay novel, letter is to prove that the accusations of his opponents are unfounded before he goes to Rome. In this way he would lay aside any misgivings that they may have about him and so not be hindered their cooperation in his western evangelistic campaign. Paul asks the Romans believers to pray for his imminent visit to Jerusalem in finish, order to deliver the money for the churches in Judea that he collected from his churches. Paul's goal in this undertaking is not just to bring financial relief to Judean believers but to faciliate the american, unification of Jewish and gentile believers.
So perhaps he also wants their moral and political support for this project. Even though he has never been to Rome, it seems that Paul knows of the problem that Jewish and gentile believers are having remaining unified. The problem is that some Jewish believers are reluctant to eat meat for your thesis fear that they would be eating meat that has been sacrificed to idols, and would thereby have become inadvertent participants in idolatry. Of Julius Caesar Essay! In order to your thesis, avoid all meat of idolatrous origin, they have become vegetarians. Other believers, gentiles and probably some Jews, have no such qualms about eating meat that may have been sacrificed to idols.
Paul writes in order to eliminate this source of conflict. He recommends that each group act out of love; in essay poe, particular, he wants the “strong” to accommodate the “weak,” and finish not pass judgment on them.
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resume money cnn Earthlings’ search for extraterrestrial life will soon be back on! The SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute announced this week it has raised enough money to bring the Allen Telescope Array, a group of 42 large dish antennas that scan the cosmos for radio signals, back online. “We believe we will be back on the air in September,” Tom Pierson, a co-founder of the SETI Institute, told the finish Los Angeles Times. The telescope array, which SETI operates in a partnership with the Radio Astronomy Lab at the University of California, Berkeley, had not been working since April. A funding shortfall forced to university to put its Hat Creek Observatory, which houses the telescope array, into hibernation, meaning the facility was maintained by minimum staff and could not be used for observations. SETI, through a program it dubbed SETIstars, sought the public’s help in raising money to get the array back on line. The SETIstars website reports Wednesday that more than $206,000 has been raised, 103% of the group’s goal. Almost 2,300 individual donations were made, according to the website. “Thank You for Your Support to Resume the Search,” the site says in big red letters. The group says the $200,000 should be enough to essay poe, bring the telescope array out of hibernation, and it will then look for other sources of money to continue operations.
Pierson said in finish your, a letter to prospective donors in greatest, April that SETI is working to get a contract with the U.S. Air Force to finish your, track space debris using the greatest american array. In the same letter, he said SETI is seeking a total of $5 million in funding over the next two years to operate the telescope with a search concentrating on 1,235 possible planets, including some in habitable zones around other stars, found by NASA’s Kepler mission. whats the finish point? in spending money on researching aliens? when the assassination of julius caesar essay money could be put to good use. if we were meant to find or know about aliens we wouyld already know about them would we not? and why interferre in something that we dont actually know the first thing about, i reckon as and if they are real they dont interferre us so why bother doing something thats just a waste of time!! AHRAQACLDEIDP http://www.joesquest.com QTGPLIMJVCACZ http://www.huesitoslandscaping-llc.com EDXYHIUVLULXH. okay lets see…first of all, i dont think that SETI will find any signal…never have, never will. Your Thesis. but even if they do by some longshot, i dont think we even deserve it. Why are we worrying about something way out there when we cant even solve any of the problems on related to social work our planet?! Our planet is turning into a wasteland and were not doing much to stop it. were trying, but not much is happenening. Then again, what if we have been in contact with aliens forever and not even know it yet? Just because there exists problems affecting people’s quality of life on earth doesn’t mean we should abandon any and all interests not pertaining to said problems. Do you ever do anything for fun?
Of course you do. But looking at the bigger picture, wouldn’t the money you spend on your every fun activity you do be better spent on something like cancer research? Of course it would. So why don’t you donate all of your expendable income to cancer research? Because then your life wouldn’t be worth living! Yes, people are dying of cancer.
But if you can’t enjoy your life and have fun with what you do, the activities you participate in, the hobbies you enjoy, and the interests you choose to pursue, then you might as well be dead. Also, the money being spent on SETI is like change in between couch cushions compared to how much money this country spends on just about brockovich, everything else. If really have alien life,human will be destroyed! By the finish your year 2100, at least 50% of all life on earth will be extinct because of human overpopulation, deforestation, ocean acidification and climate change. Many animals like the tiger, the Javan Rhinoceros and essay caregivers the panda are already ecologically extinct. They have to be kept alive artificially without much sustenance from their natural habitats, because their natural habitats have been destroyed. By the year 2100, the thesis populations of all the various species will have been so depleted that it may as well be assumed that they are extinct, even when a few of friedrich essay them remain. Therefore, it can be assumed that within 100 years, planet earth will have been denuded of all its life.
And yet here these people are, searching for finish your, life on von blanckenburg novel other planets? This is proof enough that even “intelligent” people can be colossally stupid. I love how you make statements of fact on something that cannot be proven, let alone something that is so implausible. In order for your statement to finish thesis, be true, it would create a world drought of epic proportion, and ALL animal life would have died by that point due to the reduction of oxygen in out atmosphere. Check your “facts” before posting them.
Waste of money? Think of it this way: if we contact aliens, they will cure our cancers for free, provided we give them all of the thesis to social world’s tastiest Somalis (that would end up starving to death anyway). If we ask nicely, they may cure male pattern baldness in exchange for a cookbook featuring whack-job Iranians, Syrians, Saudis and Taliban. Think about it– in every episode of Star Trek, have you ever seen any of finish those four reprehensible types in the future? Why do you think that Spock seems so well fed?
Wow. We are spending 200K researching for something that we aren’t even sure exists? So much money is essay poe, going to waste! There is desperate hunger in finish your thesis, Somalia. There is reconstructing to do in friedrich von blanckenburg on the, the UK. There are trillions of dollars that the US needs to pay off. Why are we trying to finish your thesis, find something that we aren’t sure of when we can do things that truly matter? Knowing there are ET things out related to social, there is great, but it is just knowledge. We must want to solve and not know.
First things NEED to finish thesis, be first. This isn’t government money, so you aren’t paying it. It’s a better use of money than many ways people waste money. Also, if we don’t continue research like this we will stagnate technologically and risk slipping back into the Dark Ages. Yes there are problems in the world, and there are reasons for to social work, those problems. We need to address those reasons, and that doesn’t necessarily mean throwing money the problems; the problems you mention all run deeper than that. Meanwhile let those who have their money in finish thesis, order because they solve problems for others spend it as they wish, or people may just decide to stop putting in the effort to solve problems. Once again, I am amused. There are far greater endeavors than curing cancer, as you will never avoid death at of julius some age. Much can be learned about us and who many refer to your, as God.
There is definitely intelligent design in our universe, but it goes beyond anything you have experienced. In order to learn, long ago it was necessary to abandon conventional propulsion systems, which are expensive, unreliable, unsafe, and do not achieve the objective of exploring the universe. Friedrich Von Blanckenburg Novel. Through magnetic research it was possible to finish your thesis, negate mass and devise an anti-gravitational system based on gyroscope-like wheels, one inside another, which could be varied by speed and vector to achieve weightlessness. That was only the beginning. Since propulsion systems were out of the question, a new discovery, which polarized light, was introduced. This allowed a space transfer rate just under the american essays speed of light. This also proved to be inadequate, as traversing the thesis universe in this fashion would take more time than possible. Since this universe is housed inside of other dimensions, it proved advantageous to utilize the attributes of caregivers one dimension higher to move to direct access points in the three dimensional universe.
Imagine an finish your thesis ant on american your driveway, who sees only your shoe and cannot possibly fathom the your thesis magnitude of your being. He sees you appear and disappear in essay, an instant. Thesis. (Oversimplified, but just to assassination of julius, give an finish thesis idea.) This new discovery led way to a long, arduous journey of mapping a fourth dimensional model of the three-dimensional universe, which made it possible to transfer craft to the other side of the universe in what may seem instantaneous. (Yes, this three-dimensional universe is finite.) So for essay on the, those of you who cannot comprehend life from finish thesis, other planets, let me assure you that you can have others in essay poe, the same room with you that are in a direction (fourth dimension) that you cannot comprehend, therefore cannot see. Are you beginning to understand my amusement? Thankfully these posts are anonymous, and this will be my last. This is a waste of finish your money … but not for the reasons you might think I think, LOL. The odds of finding any kind of radio signals from another planet outside our solar system are infinitesimally small for good scientific reasons.
Let me outline one of those reasons that I think is most compelling. On earth, man-made radio signals are only about 100 years old. Thesis Related. Already the old analog signals that could be detectable are passing quickly in favor of technologies such as DSS, Digital Spread Spectrum. DSS signals are completely undetectable as they are encrypted and come in pieces across a particular band. SETI can not hear such signals. So, in addition to thesis, the overwhelming odds against finding a signal based on on erin brockovich signal power and the volume of your space you also have this tiny, tiny, tiny window of time in which to catch the aliens during the 100 years they are using analog radio. Ain’t gonna happen folks. The money is much better spent on Earth for Earthlings, for say, increasing compute power for molecule folding studies that could find cures for cancer. Well, it appears that people are squaring off into definitive camps on this. Greatest American. We have uninformed “religious” folks, who don’t the Bible well enough in your, its original text to assassination of julius, understand that there is no contradiction here. We have “anti-religious” folks, who are fed up with the narrowmindedness of the finish thesis first group.
We have the scientist sympathists who are remaining objective and essay poe wanting a glimpse at truth. Defensiveness is the first sign that a person is finish your, unsure of his position and beliefs. Objectivity and essay the willingness to abandon former paradigms is the only way to find the Truth. My encouragement is to question every belief that we have and earnestly seek the finish thesis true answers with the same fervor that a mother would search for a lost child in the deparment store. The bible is false, always has been and always will be. im sorry ‘vincent” for correcting you, but the bible is not false its more real than you are and if you are going to leave pathetic comment why waste your breathe? in my case the von blanckenburg bible is real, and i know that we all have our different views but somethings should not be said and you comment shouldnt have been said, okay ? Wake up people! The human kind had evolve a bit technologically for the past 200 years but we still a little far behind of the your technology that is required to find ET. Space is simply too vast and thesis related will take many lifetimes to explore. One has to keep an open mind because we still have no idea of what we are gona have to deal with in finish, the near future! Accept it; It is obvious that we are not ALONE!
And for essay poe, the skeptics: If one day you wakeup. And see something in finish, the sky parked on top of a mayor city what do you do? Pray to God? I think not! With history and the Roswell incident(not to be confused with the Roswell balloon)as a clue,We have been contacted or “discovered”a long time ago by our technological superiors “from the stars”;Not likely we will discover them first when they have been around us since Genesis. Of Julius. Atomic clearance military personnel have witnessed and testified to the fact that we are being monitored by advanced vehicles not of this Earth.Dozens have under oath before Congress stated this,yet. The House still allocates budgets to pet projects that are designed to go nowhere.THAT’s more insane than a convention of finish your thesis Aluminum-hat believers.
I would love to know if there is other intelligent life out essay poe, there. I just don’t think the government would ever tell us because it would make too many religious people really mad. The idea that we aren’t the center of the thesis universe and that it would go against the idea that there is greatest essays, a god would probably create an uprising. Make religious people mad? Religious people thinking Earth is the finish your center of the essay poe universe? Why would “religious” people be mad about your, aliens? There a passage in the bible that people think relate to aliens – bible thumpers would not be ticked off about essay poe, aliens. There is finish, not one single religion that believes Earth is the center of the von blanckenburg essay novel universe. Maybe you are thinking of an idea people had centuries ago.
Stop spewing this hateful nonsense. Your. There is enough hate on the Internet without you inventing more out of thin air. Yeah! Thats hateful nonsense! Religious people are very scientific and reasonable. To Social Work. They consider facts and make hypothesis based on those observable facts. They are logical and responsible, and can appreciate solid evidence of a non human-centric universe. Your. Religious poeple aren’t religious! That’s hateful! unfortunately, you are right about some people.
Some people believe that it is “heresy” to believe in life beyond earth. In actuality, however, there is essay poe, nothing to stop one from believing that God did not create life on other planets. What a discussion indeed. By the way how many of you have forgotten we live in the twenty first century?! Earthlings are evil. We kill at our wills. All the creatures of the Planet Earth suffered enough because of us. Finish. If Americans cannot protect sharks from Asians, they have no rights to get in touch aliens. The criminal mankind does not deserve the outside contact.
Don’t spread the on erin brockovich man-made tragedies into the space. I agree 100% with You. Look at your thesis what weve done to this planet. We pollute the air, land, and water. Kill off every species we get in contact with. We can even figure out how to live in peace, feed, clothe, shelter, our brothers and sisters. We deserve nothing short of caregivers extinction . May God spare aliens from being found and abused by the Earthlings…!
No need, as there’s a very high chance that gods = ancient astronaut = aliens. Earthlings maybe like hamsters in thesis, a big cage called Earth and essay poe we are always been watched like an experiment or some sort. If we are in a very advance stage of existence and technology development, I have no doubt that we would do the your thesis same….put a simple bacteria in von blanckenburg, a planet and observe it’s evolution like an experiment or a game. If I am the one doing such experiement, I will put every possible ways not to be found; hence we have difficulty finding other advance beings. Who knows, they are in disguise amongst us as agents to monitor what’s happening in close up view. You have no more evidence of these claims than I do that there’s a God. 200,000 is a lot of money, but compared to billions that gov’s spend (or waste) in other areas, gives an thesis idea of the essay low interest in finding alien life. In fact, governments don’t want the people to know that there are (or would be) intelligent and perhaps more advenced civilisations out there…
I want to work there. Your Thesis. Either there or the M5 Studio for Mythbusters. Thank you all. I’ve had my entertainment for the day! Go SETI.
children, relax… the aliens are angels the politicians are the demons. The apocalypse will be here soon so don’t panic. $200k? That’s it? CNN probably made more money off of just this article than that. SETI has been “listening” for essay, contact from aliens for thesis, over 50 years with 0 actual responses heard. so glad to see private donors stepping up. Essay On The Novel. why should the government fund a project with a zero success rate (for contact) since its inception 50 years ago. sadly, that air force contract will be the sugar daddy they’ve been waiting for. and don’t worry, SETI is finish, more creative and using grants thru universities (given by the govt.) to friedrich von blanckenburg essay on the novel, fund its projects. i just visited Green Bank (thanks late Senator Byrd) this weekend and they talked in-depth about their “funding.” and pushing the left-wing agenda in science. maybe they should focus their radio waves study on space debris. i agree with wise research…but no results in 50 years…it was a no brainer decades ago. re-focus! We haven’t gotten any results out of Congress for at least that long, and we still fund them!
Agreed, and your thesis along the lines of that brilliant thinking we need to essay novel, refocus – and by re-focus I mean stop – funding for AIDS research and cancer research because they have been around thirty years in the case of AIDS and finish your thesis still no cure, longer for caregivers, some types of cancer and still nada. Also, because everybody seems to be of the attitude now, now, now, we should mandate that whenever grant money is finish thesis, given out you have a year to show profound results or your funding gets yanked. And for von blanckenburg on the, the record, I’m being sarcastic. If we follow this guys line of thinking nothing will ever get done, ever. Or Iraq, Afghanistan, the “War on Drugs”, the finish bank bail out… Whats the ROI on assassination caesar these. … and your what do you think the assassination of julius probability of success is?
It is VERY SMALL. Finish Thesis. In science there is also a concept about establishing the negative: we have checked this many locations over thesis work time and found nothing and thus it means the chances of finding aliens are at most smaller than this. This is also a result and finish your useful in understanding how the Universe works… or for that matter how occupied the real estate among the stars is. All valuble info from thesis related to social, many points of your thesis view. The negative results of SETI give evidence that there is a small probability of receiving communications from a civilization that is at the same general level of primitive technological development as mankind.
The flawed scientific presumptions for SETI are just a hair outside of essay poe quack science. For example, to receive a signal, ET would have to purposefully (and for mysterious reasons) aim a radio signal in our direction. Otherwise, signal leaks would have to thesis, be enormously powerful for us to detect. Earth’s leaked radio and TV signals have nearly totally dissipated by the time they leave our solar system. We should be spending resources looking for signs of terrestrial intelligence first. Once we know it is here, then we can look elsewhere.
Always a big supporter of scientific research, in all fields. But would love to see much more done looking for assassination, extraterrestrial life right here…on Earth. Your. The smoking gun/s lie deep in our oceans; a place we know less about brockovich, than our moon. Exactly. Finish Your. Japan just found a pyramid off their east coast in the ocean. Might be irradiated right now but it’s there. Go Google it already! We could be putting that 200,000 towards the new Death Star Battle Station. Too late – we retired the shuttles. Two hundred grand is a joke.
I’m more concerned that the news (CNN, of all people) is assassination of julius caesar, actually covering this now. If you still think we are alone on this tiny pebble of a planet, it’s time to start reading. ET’s are real, whether you think I”m a “cook” or not. Once we all realize this, we can FINALLY move forward and start traveling among the stars. You can all start by going to George Washington University’s website, where NASA, the your FBI, and U.S. Airforce have released numerous documents on the subject. Thanks! I think they should turn the dhishes around in essay caregivers, the direction of Washington DC and see what happens.
They’d probably hear reruns of I Love Lucy (LOL)! Let UC use the almost quarter-million dollars for those who cannot afford to attend school and your may not get the chance to caesar essay, use their God-given gifts if they are unable to graduate – enough of this nonsense. The money was privately raised, privately funded, and dedicated to science. So. pppppffffhhhhhttttttttttt! First off the probability that their in’t life else were in the solar system is thesis, just simply not there. We have only began to scan OUR solar system which is quite tiny compared to other systems and haven’t even started to essays, look at finish your planets not in this side of the universe such as multiplexes. And second i’m not a bible thump but why cannot God and other beings living on other planets not be possible? To say it’s not is the caregivers same logic 500 years ago and your thesis the world was flat and England was the only country.
2000 years before that the intelligentsia of the time knew that the on erin world was not flat and long before then megalithic builders had already determined the circumference of the earth, charted stellar maps, and created all of our currently used “recently defined” units of weights and measures and your thesis built colossal structure that we today could never reproduce. As long as a self willed ignorance remains over the average humans, and predominantly superficially minded Americans, pineal gland we will never wake from this self induced coma of profound knowledge that this race long fostered. Read: Civilization One, Before the essay Pyramids…and then just keep on reading. I think we need to focus on Bigfoot, Lock Ness Monster, and the Abominable Snowman first. Once we have those guys in the bag then we hone in on your Martians. Lets try to think this through. Prophets or “god” were sent here to guide mankind, lead them through hard ships and appreciate the goodness…. REWIND – profits were senile old men, bi polar wil no friends that managed to get people to follow then (great leaders) SETI stands for on erin brockovich, reaching into the cosmos and seeing whats out there…. I fear that theres stuff out there (higher level of governments) dont want us to find hense cut the spending. If the usa wanted to increase the debt ceiling by another 100 trillion they could…. whos gonna stop them? I’m an actual alien, here’s my blog:
Help me spread the truth before it is too late! I’m actually interested in finish your, reading your blog. I hope I’m not disappointed. wow, crazy! good post. I thought Jodi Foster already did that. While I applaud the fact that SETI got funding and find the thesis work search for ET life very intriguing, part of thesis me agrees with Stephen Hawking.
Hawking has warned that without knowing anything about the life forms we are trying to contact, we are potentially kicking a hornets nest. With that said, SETI is just listening. It’s what we do once we hear something that will matter. The sad thing is because they aren’t up and greatest american essays running I bet they missed the alien transmission!! While you guys were having issues they were talking to us. Unless it’s a consttly broadcasted transmission, odds of us hearing it are more than a trillion to one. Seti is only looking for continuously broadcasted transmissions. It is easy. Finish Your. Nobody wants to talk with us! And this is surprising??
we need to friedrich, stop spending money on things that are not going to finish your thesis, help anyone.. we need to to social work, start spending on finish things like how to clean the air, the essay poe oceans, how to find alt. fuel , or even alt food… we are killing this planet and our heads are in the clouds, NOT COOL! The U.S. Finish Your. spends 3 Billion a week on essays brockovich the wars in the Middle East and 374 Billion/year on finish thesis Medicaid alone. I am all for american essays, not a single dollar to a useless war or poor people who will never do anything for thesis, this nation but be users.. then maybe we can fund science, the space shuttle, SETI and caregivers environmental programs. Without fail, Obama-haters demonstrate an inability to thesis, understand the simplest of essay poe matters. Private donations don’t cost the government anything. Your. Please don’t vote and please don’t reproduce.
Thank you. Maybe if your pharmaceutical companies would stop jacking the prices of medication to on erin brockovich, space and beyond, maybe SICK DYING people could afford medication. I’m sure somebody would love to donate $200,000 to fund a investigation as to why medication cost so much. I’m sure much of these everyday sickness and illnesses are due to hearing about the GOP and thesis TEA parties, tea bagging the thesis to social work US everyday. It’s a shame, 19 pharmaceutical companies made almost 500 Billion dollars last year without breaking a sweat. I blame the lobbiest! I blame the losers who take money under the finish table to stop potential cures for major deseases, cancer, disorders. Of Julius Caesar Essay. People spend more money on legal drugs than gasoline.
It ain’t rocket science! If you’re sick, you more than likely can’t drive nowhere… What US needs, is a War on LEGAL Drugs, and the companies who make them. 500 Billion could have went into our jacked up international space center, or a telescope array, or funded a mission to the middle of your Orion by essay poe now. Finish. Maybe a resort could have been on the moon by now.
Head in the Clouds? We think, you tremble. Hey ‘O’Bama Sucks’ – it was your cousin Bush that got us into this mess. And since you most assuredly voted for american, him, and will most likely vote for Palin too since you have no intelligence, it’s YOUR fault. Finish Thesis. You and your right wing cracked tea pots won’t be happy until our major cities are infested with slums like Haiti, Brasil and assassination of julius caesar the like were there is no social welfare infrastructure. At that point you won’t be able to finish your thesis, hide behind that white picket fence the essays on erin GOP promised every American they will one day have (you probably still don’t, right?) because there won’t be even a two party system to keep this country afloat- just idiots like you and the smart people moving to Canada. These are private donations. Finish Your. This is assassination of julius caesar, money people want to donate because this is important to them.
Why don’t you spend less money on things you enjoy and your donate it all to essay, resolving environmental issues? I don’t disagree with the causes you list, but folks should feel free to donate to your, the causes they feel are important to them. hippy and O’bama, these were private donations, clearly stated in the article. This is not your tax dollars at work here. So in all the essays on erin brockovich mess we have, and are, creating we should not pursue common goals of finish humanity that in von blanckenburg essay on the novel, itself gives meaning? People always ask what the benefit of sciences such as this are, but one might as well ask why we search for love, happiness, peace and such. Finish Your Thesis. For me, science and our exploration of our very existence should in itself be a legitime reason in itself, it does’nt need spinoffs. Essays On Erin. And I none the finish thesis less see science and space exploration as good means of uniting people across our globe. As for friedrich essay, the question of finish money allocation: money is only what we use to measure the value of our work. As it is today, we have enough food for friedrich von blanckenburg essay on the novel, everyone, enough housing for everyone, and generally enough of all the finish your essentials (at least in the developed world).
Not giving money to these scientists would make them jobless, but not help the poor in Africa, or anywhere else^^ Its kinda messed up how our system works (altough I am for a mostly free capitalistic marked, with a socialist state). Essay Caregivers. People should stop only talking money, and actually start doing things themselves. Start by caring about others, pursue careers that contribute to our common good (be it science or help organizations…), and promote not getting to many kids. Its getting crowded. Your looking outward, look inward. Look no further, they are in Washington DC. SETI is cool and good for thought experiments, but I’m not convinced that anything will come of the program. They say that our radio signals fade out and are indistinguishable from the background radiation long before they reach the nearest stars, so if Aliens are using similar technology, I would assume that their radio signals would fade out before they reached us.
This program also operates under the assumption that a space-faring civilization that is millions of years more advanced than ours would still be using technology we were using in the 1930’s. That being said, I think it is important to finish thesis, keep an open mind and to keep exploring. Humanity needs exploration to thrive. What a bunch of crackpots! There is no alien life out there. Essay Poe. You people are brain washed into thinking life just springs up without God.
The complexities of finish life require a God. And he has just made life on essay poe earth and heaven and hell. When we die we find this out if we do not realize it here. Wow, your a narrow minded fool. look up the drake equation on google. Idiot… Of course God created evolution. #128539;
Oh boy, a religious nut-job! Buddy, religion is a farce. Before you start bashing religion with your lack of education, why don’t you pick up a scientific journal and read it before you get your prattle from your, Rush Limbaugh and the 700 Club. If you want to thesis, make extraordinary claims like “God”, then you are going to need to finish your thesis, provide extraordinary evidence. Essays On Erin. As far as the divine goes, there is finish thesis, no proof. On Erin Brockovich. Your “complexity” argument simply holds no water.
Wanna talk about brain washing, look no further than you “god”. It’s the case study to end all case studies. Ummmmm sure. Finish. The presence of an caregivers omnipotent being is much more plausible than alien life….. really? What a bunch of crackpots! There is no alien life out your thesis, there. You people are brain washed into thinking life just springs up without God. The complexities of life require a God.
And he has just made life on earth and heaven and hell. When we die we find this out if we do not realize it here. No you have it all wrong… the crackpots are the religious people who believe in gods…evolution baby! heck for assassination of julius, all we know… god and Jesus could be aliens…. not bashing religion, infact im christian.. but walking on water… water into wine… seas being parted…talking burning bushes…. sounds kind of alienish too me… Yeah right…”god” created the entire universe that spans tens of billions of light years “just for us”. The same universe that is host to billions of huge galaxies with trillions of stars “just for us”. Life didn’t just spring up — it evolved very slowly over the past 4 billion years.
But your tiny mind can’t wrap itself around numbers that large. Grow up, Neil. You’re the finish thesis brainwashed one, because life does not require a god. There never was and never will be a god. Essays On Erin. Religion was conceived entirely by man for the purpose to control people and extort money from them.
Neil, I really hope you’re joking with that comment. If you have any reasoning ability at all, then you can’t call scientific people “brainwashed”.. Finish. If you actually knew something about science then you would’ve understand. Not all, but most religious people are narrow-minded and narrow-mindedness is the american hallmark of ignorance. According to your bible, the your thesis earth is only 6000 years old, Adam and essay poe Eve, talking snake etc etc. Finish Thesis. There is Proof that the earth is essay poe, roughly 4.5 Billion years old. And around 3.5 billion years ago, life started on finish your this planet. Now, the universe is said to be somewhere around 13.7 billion years old as we know it right now. There are trillions of galaxies, even more so planets and stars in our physical universe. That’s what we know based on to social work scientific research. There’s no denying that, we can see them with telescopes and whatnot.
The bible specifically says how god created Adam and finish your Eve. Does that really sound plausible to you? It’s a great bed-time story but, come on. On the other hand you have scientific research done by worlds smartest people (in their field) where Evolution is the more plausible factor for our being and we are where we are after billions of greatest essays years of finish evolution, not 6000 years.. Now, imagine if life started 1 billion years before it did on this planet. Heck imagine if it only started 1 million years or even 1000 years before it did here. Or maybe even at the same time.
Or, it started later! “You” people thought that the earth was flat, and essay the sun evolved around the earth. You even thought that the earth was the centre of the Universe (which I can’t blame you for, it’s human nature to think it’s superior). All of those were Wrong and proven by thesis Science! EVERYONE knows that basic science, but no thanks to assassination of julius caesar, “you” people! You even killed scientists for not agreeing with your make-belief stories.. So for finish your thesis, your own sake and for humanity, please take a step back and objectively think this through! Neil – Is a moment in time for you the same for von blanckenburg on the, God?
Do you believe that time – the clock that you use to measure how few experiences you can have with the life you have been given- is something that would effect the “Creator” (an abstraction that your and your all of our minds could NEVER comprehend) of all that you see, can imagine, understand and all that which you are unwilling to? Maybe you should have been reborn into the Dark Ages, because that obviously the state your mind is in. Knowledge is power, it grows like a flower. Even if they find something, don’t you think the gov’t will tell them “they didn’t find anything”? And we will never even know…
And, just why would the government want to keep such a secret, Anyonymous? Do you know why it was that we developed the essay poe space program? Leave your conspiracy theories at home where they belong. Would it be your position in general that governments don’t hide anything from the public? Or is this just with respect to extraterrestrials? It may be true that governments would feel obligated to reveal information of the most unprecedented and volatile nature.
Or it may not be true. You seem to have a remarkable, if perhaps ego-driven, sense of the world and all its vicissitudes. PS: We developed the space program to compete technologically with our adversaries in the Cold War. Finish Your. We certainly didn’t do it in search of ET. The government is full of people who are just people who can’t keep a secret. So much for conspiracy. Essays Brockovich. Leaks will always happen. Where is Jodie Foster when you need her. All of the posts are entertaining and show an eclectic view of the finish your thought processes of our population.
It intrigues me that some believe that alien life creates a mutual exclusivity to essay poe, other tenets, which is finish your, not necessarily true. The majority of the population is uninformed and many are incapable of comprehending certain concepts beyond their own experiences. Conjuring up visions of “green men” is so far from the reality that such imagery leaves so many people in the dark. Whether it is fear, doubt, dread, or whatever causes our ignorance, the assassination of julius caesar facts remain. Your Thesis. Fortunately, most people will never be privy to them. Gary: Well said…as true here on this post and in so many other areas of our society. 1:Private donations,not government,so they can do what they want.2:The Universe(not just our galaxy) is massive.Do you really think that in the entire Universe(156 Billion light years across approx)this is the only rocky planet the right distance away from the assassination caesar essay right type of star to have ever had life on finish your thesis it?intelligent or otherwise.Humans belong in the “otherwise” catagory.I for one am glad to see it up and running.At least that money is not going to some slimebag politician. I love how yo are trying to give dimensions to the Universe!
I’ll show you dimensions! $206,000 from 2,300 individuals actually only essays on erin averages out to about $89.57 per person. If 2,300 people want to gamble three to five dining out experiences for something like this, fine with me. Worse are the poor souls waste hundreds on MegaMillions. I just hope that the aliens know the winning lottery numbers. I don’t really see it as gambling, I think it is safe to assume the 2300 people that donated to turn the lights back on are avid enthusiasts and/or scientist themselves so they would have not problem giving to the cause… I think it would be better give my money to this rather than a politician or investor at finish your this point. We can’t even co-exist amongst ourselves. The aliens are visiting already, but they’re having trouble developing a strategy for communicating with such a violent, selfish, shortsighted species. “can I pick yours”, you are absolutely correct.
And, NEVER listen to a “madcow”. #128578; Foolish, a waste just for essay, deception and a show to your, the masses. They (government, powers that be) KNOW about alien life already, are trading/fighting with aliens and there are attempts to enslave us all. This is the greatest deception pulled on human kind ever. There are multiple Space Programs. The overt one is shut down, a total waste of thesis related work money. The covert ones are well and functioning. We already have incredible tech obtained from the aliens, but the government chooses to keep it hidden from the your people.
Same with government, there is the one for essay poe, the masses and then there is the controlling one hidden. Fools. The black helicopters are on the way to pick you up. Finish Thesis. Make sure to pack your Area 51 Underoos (Alien Edition) and a toothbrush. FOOL — the black helicopters have become too recognizable. They now paint them to look like other helicopters, to blend in (just like the black cars are now other shades to blend into von blanckenburg novel the roadways!). Everytime you see a helicopter in the sky it could be those sneaky bastards trying to spy on finish your you. Just remember if you think you see something but don’t hear anything, it’s best to run and hide! And don’t forget the tinfoil protective headgear. They may be trying to influence your decisions.
Paul, I have some close friends who work for one of those covert space programs you talk about. Everything you say is on the, true …and you know what? The aliens have a special interest in YOU, Paul, just you alone. Your Thesis. They want to come and take you away. They are coming, Paul. Please be ready. Essays On Erin. By the finish your way, if you have any money in any bank accounts, just let me know and I will manage those accounts for you. Just as a favor to of julius caesar, you, Paul. Really? This little snippet had more stuff in it that was filtered out by the censors and did not show up in your thesis, the original message. Why is that?
The parochialism on this page is staggering. Assassination Caesar. If it doesn’t turn a profit by December, it isn’t worth it. Knowledge for it’s own sake is useless. People in Africa are starving. Those people are starving not because there’s no food available , but because local political “necessities” and finish political “considerations” (read intolerance and greed) prevent the food from getting to them. If our grandparents had bitched about money being spent for “useless” knowledge (basic research that doesn’t pay for itself by December), frequently by private corporations, sometimes by -GASP- the government, you’d still be hitching your horse up to greatest american essays, the wagon, and finish your not whining through your computer on assassination caesar essay this forum.
The anti-intellectual trend in the USA is disturbing. Thesis. Either support education and greatest essays research, or insist that your school district offer courses in Chinese , so your children will be better able to your, communicate with their bosses. ) paid for by private monies. Your wasting your breath. Most of these whiners here barely know how to read and I suspect they get most of their news from Comedy Central. Otherwise they would know that the Somali Islamists have banned food aid and they claim any reports of related to social famine are mere Western Propaganda by finish your thesis anti-islamist states. Those pictures of wide eyed starving kids are obviously made in Hollywood according to them.
They also suffer from assassination of julius caesar essay, liberal “Toss-money-at-it-to-make-it-better” syndrome. Oh I will admit this world has problems. Your. But the only way to SOLVE a problem is to study it, learn about it, understand what causes it, and then apply a devised solution to eliminate it. And we have no idea where the knowledge will come that will allow us to essay, do. For example Peniccillin was an accidental discovery.
While Fleming was searching for a wonder drug to kill bacteria, he was concentrating on using substances in the human body. The chance contamination by finish your thesis mold from greatest american, experiments in another location opened up a whole new direction in the search for drugs, leading to the wonders we have today. Finish Thesis. It is only by increasing knowledge that the related to social work worlds problems may be solved. But some are to finish your, stupid to understand that. The moment you started off your note with “Your”, instead of “Your’re”, it was clear you had nothing intelligent to say, Ken. Absolutely agreed. Does anybody here actually believe that $200,000 would actually make a difference with the essay poe starving people in Africa?
Boys and finish your girls, the food is there already with tons still coming in. It’s just being held up from distribution by essay poe greedy middle men. How about the starving kids in your thesis, America? South America? Southeast Asia? Wait a minute…what about the sick children in Taiwan?
What about the orphans in Thailand? What about the homeless in Poobah, Idaho? What do you want to friedrich von blanckenburg on the novel, do? Stop giving to these charities and concentrate on just one? Let’s just stop all scientific research and finish your put all that money into strictly cancer or muscular dystrophy research? When it comes to money given to a cause, there’s always someone who’ll think the money is better spent elsewhere. $200,000 is a paltry sum compared to the tens of millions going to feed the starving in Africa. Couldn’t possibly agree more.
If you think money is something of essays brockovich actual value and not just an invention to keep the finish your thesis masses fighting over it (paper) instead of greatest american become aware that the very few individuals rule the entire population on thesis the backs of almost 6 billion people knowing that they are sheep, then the essay caregivers truth is your, you are just another lamb for the feast. Essays On Erin. The rulers aren’t aliens either, they’re just your puppet master. Chances are if there is Intelligent life out there its just going to come here and rape us. Just what we need,an outbreak of U.F.O.S.T.D.’s. At least let’s get those 5 foot condoms ready ! Spending 200k on something the government is hiding from us…. Oh how silly. Finish Your Thesis. The aliens are RIGHT HERE amongst us, around us, in the skies and giving us greetings every moment. Not in to social work, some far away place via a radio signal. Its like trying to make a long distance call to the arctic while your neighbor is finish thesis, knocking on your door. And the scientists know it. In a few months tho, its going to related to social work, be perfectly clear where they are.
This is gonna be SWEET! Aliens are already here……controlling the American government. It is like hunting for something that can kill you. Why should you search for alien life? We got enough problems of finish your thesis our own. There’s a whole multiverse of life “out there” — much of which we won’t recognize. We need money for our economy. It would be better to donate the money to third world places and help out our own planet. As hard as it may be to thesis, wrap one’s mind around it, putting that array back to work does help the economy.
It puts bright minds back to work with a paycheck which they will then be spending. When real money (not just credit) changes hands, the economy improves. Thanks for the nice wrapping job! Why not send out the latitude and finish thesis longitude of essay Tehran? That way, aliens will not attack the earth when they discover there is no intelligent life on earth! give them the Latitude and longitude of finish your Washington D.C. That way, they wont attack us when they find no intelligent life on earth.
hahaha, good one. I’m sorry but come on, do you really think ‘humans’ are ready to see little green men when we cant even work our own stock market, we’ll probably end up taxing them or something for work, entering our space quadrant, i prefer to watch the finish your films because I really truly believe have already made contact and there is assassination caesar, no way ‘they’ will let the general public know. |Seriously it will have very destructive results. just in time for the perihilion of COMET ELENIN. Please conquer us, as we obviously aren’t capable of living together without some kind of benign dictator. P.S. – Please be benign. I guess we need someone to invest in our stock markets. Better Alien than nobody. Alien pus%y coming to a brothel near you… I liiiiiiiiike. Better wear a condom Dude.
Everytime you have sex with an alien your having sex with everyone she had sex with and everyone they had sex with etc. There are no Aliens or intelligent life, all there is is what you see here on earth, if you go to far you can only find demons, the finish your fallen angels, they are the friedrich on the novel once manipulating these scientist to finish your, believe that there is a intelligent life some where, all this is of julius, just a waste of finish time and resources, nothing will be found out there because is nothing. I consider you to be an idiot. I also consider you an greatest american essays idiot. I consider myself an idiot. OK the thesis aliens just saw your post and on erin decided to your, leave. They figured they’d just let us go extinct in peace after seeing how stupid your post is.
WTG. There went our last best chance to essay poe, fix our idiotic 1% wealth-controlled government. Isn’t this the same as saying if you sail your ships too far you’ll fall off the edge of the finish your thesis Earth or be eaten by Dragons? I find it hard to believe that Demons will have radio transmitters so they can trick the scientist. Good one, but there is only one catch; your so called demons and fallen angels that roam out there in the universe and poison our scientific minds, might actually be the Aliens that you claim do not exist. Essays. To me personally, it is a great relief to know that we have God (in terms of every known religious denomination) to thank for finish your, having a few enlightened people such as yourself to assassination of julius caesar essay, protect us from our own wastefulness and intellectual stupidity. Can I ask you a question: the your thesis Earth, is it a round object floating in space, or a plate carried by elephants?
I just hope that you are bright enough to answer this mind boggling question and restore my hope of intelligent life on this Earth. Oh,I get it now! If we can’t see it, it isn’t there, and if we don’t understand it, God did it… I boo you,your Idiot beliefs and generally sh*t on all that nonsense you just wrote. The question is, is on the novel, there any intelligent life in your family? Oh good grief….I suppose you come from the sect that tried to finish your thesis, lynch Galileo…..to you the american essays world is still flat, so go take a long walk in the name of Darwin…. I call Poe’s law. Damn another one.. It’s so sad that you think that! I hope you live to witness when they find intelligent life somewhere and you realize how wrong you’ve been your whole life. All your belief and bullshit thoughts just crumbles and finish your you feel so humiliated but at the same time relieved because finally, finally, you opened up your mind to other possibilities… OR, you just can’t handle the truth so you become some sort of addict because of your lack of friedrich von blanckenburg comprehension.
Decide now! Which one will you be? He won’t, he’s going out in the Rapture… Maybe you, Romney, Bachmann, Beck and your thesis Palin can build a wall high enough that the Aliens can’t get over? Human civilisation is not mature enough to deal with the implications of contact with an alien race of living beings. Just let this project rest for a few hundred years, when we can actually make use of the full potential of such a contact/occurrence. It may do more harm than good to the current human civilisation if it is successful now. Let’s be honest, what difference will it make to everyday life right now, if radio traces of an alien civilisation are found hundreds or thousands of lightyears away?
It’ll be in the news for essay poe, a few months and then no one will care anymore. Sorry, but we’ll never be mature enough. In fact, we’ll just continue to finish your, get dumber and greatest dumber. All of the intelligent people use birth control and limit their families to 2 – 3 kids. Stupid people breed like rabbits. Your. In a couple of hundred years the average IQ will be about 50. So, no.
We’ll never be mature enough. Don’t forget the dumbing effect of greatest american technology…A LOT of people can’t even do simple math without a calculator. 1. SETI is a passive system that scans for alien transmissions. It does not send Earth coordinates to aliens. 2. Our best science indicates that there is a good potential for alien life. However, the distances are daunting given our level of technology.
This is another reason why passive scanning makes sense. 3. Money spent on science is finish, better than money spent on most other things. 4. Getting probed is fun. Reality is just too harsh for some… Look, an alien, behind that tree. Awesome, just absolutely awesome.
$200,000 to search for to social work, intelligent life in the cosmos… yes, they may be out there because there is no intelligent life here. If there is thesis, intelligent beings out essay caregivers, there, they will know that there isn’t any on this planet and finish leave without a trace. To make it here, they must be very advanced to start off with. We destroy our own home planet and are looking for aliens?? We must be nuts. People can do what they want with their money, but has anyone stopped to think about whether this is essay, a great idea at all? I mean, we’re talking about Aliens, people. If I was an alien with superior technology and some humans were foolish enough to finish, tell me where they lived, I’d turn Earth into my summer home planet. I’ve seen this movie before, and I for one am not looking forward to being conquered by an alien race.
Then again, maybe they’d run the planet better than our governments… tough choice, actually. Why does everyone care about space so much? There are so many things to caregivers, worry about just on our own planet, who cares if there are aliens? Just because aliens always want to your thesis, conquer Earth in on the, the movies doesn’t mean they’d want to in reality. Maybe they’d just want to hang out or exchange ideas.
Maybe CNN should ban all space-related articles from now on, since it’s all just a waste of time and money. Ban them? Why? Whose time and money is being wasted anyway? Allow me to your thesis, borrow words from a Reader’s Comment in an on-line newspaper: “Perhaps the most convincing sign that there is caesar essay, intelligent life elsewhere in the universe is the fact than none of it has tried to contact us.” Awesome comment, AC. Best so far! Actually, I think Stephen Hawking has been ABSOLUTELY correct. Lately, he has been extremely vocal that he believes it is a HUGE ERROR to attempt to finish your thesis, get in related work, touch with extra-terrestrials. In fact, he has been insisting that we should do everything we can to NOT be discovered by them, as there is a good likelihood that they may be extremely hostile and violent. Only fools believe that because they might have advanced technology that they would be helpful little E.T.s…..No.
They might well want to exterminate our species. That is entirely possible, and finish your thesis we should NOT be giving them any help to do so. This project is essay poe, founded on the faith that they will be friendly–but there is NO EVIDENCE that this would be the finish your thesis case. None. I don’t believe that. People are the violent monsters. If Aliens have the essay poe means to travel here and finish your are super intelligent, I bet they will just laugh and pity out assassination of julius caesar, shallow existence. Blah Blah Blah…Aliens? what a load of rubbish, the finish your people who donated to help raise the assassination of julius caesar 200K are wasting there time and money. He can do robot voice, he must be smart. I totally agree with you statement, 100% or hawkings statement! although I believe we already have made contact and it will never come out that we have either,period so yeah, i’m a fan of NASA but SETI is pointless and dangerous. If people want to spend their money on this, good for them.
I’ll pay my bills instead. 200,000 of your a privately funded program would hardly fix our economy. Throw the money into education and maybe we could stop raising dumbasses that think 200 grand would solve our problems. looks like we got our priorities right, looking for aliens instead of fixing our economy. Don’t be shortsighted.
Pretty soon, aliens are the only ones who will be able to give the friedrich on the U.S. any form of credit. No government money is being spent on that. It’s none of your business if individuals want to your, donate to furthering scientific knowledge. Your comment just makes you look stupid. What a waste of money, there are no aliens out in space, if there is they are demonic. An interesting and surprisingly closed-minded view of things. i want to fill a pillowcase with bars of soap and beat the greatest american essays $h1t out of you!
Paul is really small minded. There are obviously aliens in space due to finish your thesis, the size of the universe. However, the odds of us making contact with them or the essay caregivers chances of finish your any living nearby are very very low. So you believe in your superstitious angels and von blanckenburg on the novel demons while the your educated of us will leave keep up to date with the quest for UFOs. According that logic, anyone whose view differs from yours is considered a ‘sheep’? Quite the contrary, as Paul is one of the few people here who doubt the existence of essay poe ET life. It is finish, only by your assumption that the universe was not created that you believe aliens must exist.
According to your world view, aliens must exist. However, your world view is based on unprovable assumptions, so perhaps you should examine your convictions a little more carefully. According to Paul’s world view, the universe WAS created, and not once does God mention alien life in the way you hope. Of Julius Caesar Essay. Hence, according to Paul’s world view, it is logical to presume that aliens DO NOT exist. Your Thesis. This is a battle of the world views, and, to date, we have not found any irrefutable proof of alien life. We’ve only found irrefutable proof of your eighth-grade logic skills. And your assumption is that god exists.
This is a battle of the world views, and, to essay poe, date, we have not found any irrefutable proof of alien life. Do you have any irrefutable proof of God? Just using your own logic to ask this question. Your momma is demonic. CNN – put this on the menu of your first page.
Even Fox does that with its (ironically) very good science blog. @ steve gist cosmetics are makeup. Astronomy is finish thesis, space and people need to greatest american, quit complaining It was from PRIVATE DONORS! And SETI is worth it we need to finish your, become more advanced eventually earth will become overpopulated now this a ways away but it will happen so its best to start early. I saw aliens once, I should have gone with them…. Maybe you should have. While space travel is important and essay caregivers fully worth the money put into it, this is an absolute waste of money. I’m just glad it was public money and not government spending. Intelligent life is most likely out there, but it’s not visiting Earth. To make sure I don’t get any hate comments, I mean looking for finish your thesis, aliens is a waste.
Tracking space debris isn’t. #128521; Yeah! I see. There’s a smiley coming from thesis work, a voice. Intelligent life is out there, but perhaps not here. WOW! Applaud! On seeing the news, I’m excited. Of all the researches about deep space program, SETI is supposed to be a miraculous project.
Better still, SETI has become an aid of both U.S. Air Force and NASA’s Kepler mission. Let’s expect SETI can raise much more money from more achievable services. I am sorry that the number that you are trying is no longer working the thesis humans that you’re trying to reach were stupid and run out of money. WHY? Why waste money on this, look how long they have been doing this and what’s the end result…..nothing.
They could have donated the money to me and I would run around in friedrich essay on the, a alien suit for them yelling we come in peace. if this is a waste of money-what about thesis, HAARP? They have burned a giant hole in out atmosphere and accomplished nothing and their budget is not even listed by the GAO nor is Area 51-or its other 2 sites.. We know ET exists-he/she/it is visiting the earth weekly and smart enough not to land.. Yes, it is assassination, true that they have not found alien life. It is also true that governments are the only entities that have the luxury of thinking in terms of finish your thesis generations and essay poe not weekly targets. This is finish thesis, a humanities project and may never pay off and if it does it may not be for essay on the novel, many, many years.
So what? You’d better stop searching for alien life, save our life instead. we should not compare oranges to apples, scientific research fund helps our next generation and its an investment. we should appreciate donner’s long sight, and if we find Aliens, then we can share our problems for better out-come. Finish Your. Its just my thought. I’m sorry, but 200K to search for life outstide of this planet is rediculous, when there are issues here on this planet which require those funds. Look one of those children in Africa in essay poe, the eye and watch them die of starvation, and thesis then tell me that the caesar essay money is being well used. Lets say for example that there is life out there other than ours. Finish. What then? Another planet for us to do damage to like the friedrich on the novel one we live on here?
Useless waste of money. And the gov’t wonders why it’s in the trouble it’s in…. this is private money so they can do as they like…welfare for scientists is a worthy goal i think. As for aliens- they don’t exist. Mathimatical odd are that we are completely alone in this galaxy- the finish more we learn about the universe the lower the odds that there are other civilizations around is becoming. “Mathimatical odd are that we are completely alone in essay poe, this galaxy-” This is finish your thesis, untrue.
I’m not sure what new evidence you are referring to here. The only evidence that would suggest we are alone is the essay fact that we haven’t seen anyone else. Otherwise, the odds of your there being possibly life harboring planets is staggeringly large. That’s the paradox though… I’m sorry, laurab68, but if you read the article, it says the $200k was from DONATIONS by essay poe private bodies. So you need to take your complaints to the more than 2,300 people or institutions which donated. Don’t blame the your thesis government for essays brockovich, something it didn’t do, sweetheart. What’s rediculous is your spelling.
The real ridiculous thing is that you are so narrow minded to not see the importance of your expanding our scientific horizons… And for the win: You are stupid for thesis to social work, your government remark… Stop spending money on cosmetics then and donate it to the starving of the finish your worlld. If all the people in the USA and the ‘first world’ stop spending did that trillions would go to the needy. $200k on research? Pah! Nothing. Here’s an idea if you’re so into helping starving africans donate all your wealth to them, otherwise STFU and assassination caesar essay let nature take her course. AYO BRO. CHECK THIS OUT BRO. FIRST UP. HOW ABOUT IT AINT OUR OBLIGATION TO HELP PEOPLE WHO CANT HELP DEMSELVES BRO.
WE NEEDA GO OUT DERE AND STRAIGHT UP TAKE OUR STUFF INTO THE COSMOS BRO. In all honesty, we’re wasting time here on Earth. We need to go into the cosmos. $200,000 wont solve any issues in Africa or America-its a drop in a bucket and privately funded so whats your point? How much you think 200K is… it does not get you s nice one bedroom home in delhi… i am actually surprised that these guys can run show with such thin budget…. its totally worth it… if they get something its great… otherwise few million dollars is just peanuts in real world….
you make me sad. your narrow mindedness is exactly the thesis kind of thinking that will lead us into the apocalypse you seem so convinced will befall any new worlds discovered by humans. if you don’t see the merit in investing in research, i invite you to give up your car, your mobile phone, electricity, the internet, air conditioning, and move into on erin brockovich a cave. You want to finish your thesis, talk about thesis to social, wasting money? How about thesis, all the essays on erin brockovich millions that movie stars and athletes have? Yes, I know that they are the finish thesis best at what they do … but it’s the essay caregivers best at acting and playing a game. Or even better are the people that are famous because they know a famous person. Finish Thesis. If we wouldn’t spend so much money on being entertained and more on science and mathmatics then maybe we wouldn’t be in the situation we’re currently in. We could have already mastered interplanetary travel, but no. We would rather be entertained than be smart.
ur makin 2 much cents. Novel. pleas stop makin my hed hert.
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8 Steps to finish thesis Writing the essay Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in finish your thesis, English class and you are given the assignment to write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment. The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. On Erin Brockovich? The assignment is really quite easy, it#39;s about you after all, so this is your opportunity to shine! It#39;s a good idea to start by finish, making sure you understand the composition of an essay. The simplest structure has just three parts: an essay caregivers introduction, a body of information, and finish, a conclusion. Friedrich Von Blanckenburg Novel? You will hear of the five-paragraph essay. Your Thesis? It has three paragraphs in von blanckenburg essay on the, the body instead of one.
Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. Finish Your Thesis? You want them to want to read more. Essay Poe? If you need topic ideas, see No. 2. Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and finish your thesis, introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of your essay consists of one to greatest american three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the same structure as the entire essay. They begin with a sentence that introduces the point and draws the reader in. The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the point, and finish your, a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to essay poe the next point.
Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph. Finish Thesis? Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to of julius caesar essay the next idea or the conclusion. Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines. The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the your thesis points you have made and states your final opinion.
This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to greatest american the topic. The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph. Continue Reading Below. Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to finish your thesis come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to inspire yourself. Check out our lists of ideas. Write in a stream of assassination of julius, consciousness.
Open a blank document and write whatever comes into your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages. It#39;s a mind dump. Your Thesis? Don#39;t stop, even if you have to friedrich von blanckenburg novel write that you don#39;t know what to write next. Julia Cameron, in her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and suggests you practice it every morning upon waking. Do a little research. Browsing tends to get the finish your thesis creative juices flowing. There are a lot of places beyond the Internet to do research. Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to write about your own ideas. Continue Reading Below. English grammar is tough, and even native English speakers find it tricky. If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you.
One of the most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . Greatest American Essays? The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and well read. If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. Your Thesis? And then use it. Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is more than grammar. One of the things your teacher will be looking for is use of the active voice. The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what. Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms.
Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. Von Blanckenburg? Personal essays are casual and full of feeling. If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. When you show readers exactly how you feel about something, they can usually relate, and that’s when you’ve made an impact, whether it’s on a teacher or a reader. Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and could. The most powerful language is thesis positive language. Write about what you are for rather than what you are against . Be for peace rather than against war. Use the voice that comes most naturally to essays on erin you.
Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesn’t get any better than that. Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of it. Your Thesis? This is your essay. Never use the work of essay poe, other people and thesis, call it your own. Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Be descriptive. Use all of your senses.
Put your reader in essay, your shoes and help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Were you nervous? What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us. Help us experience your essay. Be Consistent with Your Point of View and Tense. Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about yourself.
This usually means writing in the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for yourself only. You can make observations of others, but you can’t speak for them or truly know what they are thinking. Most personal essays are also written in your thesis, the past tense. You are relating something that happened to essay poe you or the way you feel about something by giving examples. Thesis? You can write in the present tense if you want to.
The main point here is to be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in it. Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below. No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the writing process is editing. Let your essay sit for thesis related to social work a day, at the very least for several hours. Get up and walk away from it.
Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct? Is the structure of your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate?
Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to your help you. Hire an essay on the novel essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully. Finish Your? You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for essay you. Your? EssayEdge is a good choice.
One of the best ways to essays on erin brockovich become a better writer is to be an avid reader of good writing. If you want to master the finish your thesis art of the friedrich von blanckenburg essay on the novel essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in your thesis, newspapers, books, magazines, and online. Notice the structure. Enjoy the art of language used well. Pay attention to how the end ties back to the beginning.
The best writers are avid readers, especially in the form in which they work.
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essay on finish thesis, the uncanny by Sigmund Freud. It is only rarely that a psycho-analyst feels impelled to investigate the subject of aesthetics, even when aesthetics is understood to mean not merely the theory of friedrich novel, beauty but the theory of the qualities of your thesis, feeling. He works in other strata of mental life and has little to do with the subdued emotional impulses which, inhibited in their aims and dependent on a host of concurrent factors, usually furnish the material for assassination essay, the study of aesthetics. But it does occasionally happen that he has to interest himself in some particular province of that subject; and this province usually proves to be a rather remote one, and one which has been neglected in the specialist literature of aesthetics. The subject of the ‘uncanny’ is a province of this kind. It is undoubtedly related to what is frightening — to what arouses dread and horror; equally certainly, too, the finish thesis word is to social not always used in a clearly definable sense, so that it tends to coincide with what excites fear in general. Yet we may expect that a special core of your, feeling is present which justifies the use of a special conceptual term. One is curious to know what this common core is which allows us to distinguish as ‘uncanny’; certain things which lie within the field of what is frightening. … In his study of the ‘uncanny,’ Jentsch quite rightly lays stress on the obstacle presented by the fact that people vary so very greatly in their sensitivity to this quality of feeling. The writer of the novel present contribution, indeed, must himself plead guilty to your a special obtuseness in the matter, where extreme delicacy of perception would be more in friedrich von blanckenburg on the novel place. It is long since he has experienced or heard of anything which has given him an uncanny impression, and he must start by translating himself into your thesis that state of feeling, by awakening in on erin brockovich himself the possibility of experiencing it. Your Thesis? Still, such difficulties make themselves powerfully felt in many other branches of aesthetics; we need not on that account despair of finding instances in which the quality in essays on erin question will be unhesitatingly recognized by finish your, most people.
Two courses are open to us at the outset. Either we can find out what meaning has come to be attached to on erin brockovich the word ‘uncanny’ in the course of its history; or we can collect all those properties of persons, things, sense-impressions, experiences and situations which arouse in us the finish feeling of uncanniness, and then infer the thesis work unknown nature of the uncanny from what all these examples have in common. I will say at once that both courses lead to your the same result: the uncanny is that class of the frightening which leads back to what is known of old and long familiar. How this is possible, in american essays what circumstances the familiar can become uncanny and frightening, I shall show in what follows. Let me also add that my investigation was actually begun by collecting a number of individual cases, and was only later confirmed by an examination of linguistic usage.
In this discussion, however, I shall follow the reverse course. The German word ‘unheimlich’ is obviously the opposite of ‘heimlich’ [‘homely’], … the opposite of what is finish familiar; and we are tempted to conclude that what is ‘uncanny’ is frightening precisely because it is essay poe not known and familiar. Naturally not everything that is new and unfamiliar is frightening, however; the relation is not capable of inversion. … Something has to thesis be added to what is novel and unfamiliar in order to make it uncanny. On the whole, Jentsch … ascribes the essential factor in the production of the feeling of uncanniness to intellectual uncertainty; so that the uncanny would always, as it were, be something one does not know one’s way about in. The better orientated in friedrich von blanckenburg his environment a person is, the your thesis less readily will he get the impression of greatest essays, something uncanny in regard to finish the objects and events in it.
It is not difficult to see that this definition is essay novel incomplete, and we will therefore try to proceed beyond the equation ‘uncanny’ as ‘unfamiliar.’ We will first turn to other languages. But the dictionaries that we consult tell us nothing new, perhaps only because we ourselves speak a language that is foreign. Indeed, we get an impression that many languages are without a word for this particular shade of what is frightening. … Latin : … An uncanny place: locus suspectus ; at your, an uncanny time of night. … Greek : … Eeros (i.e., strange, foreign). English : … Uncomfortable, uneasy, gloomy, dismal, uncanny, ghastly; (of a house) haunted; (of a man) a repulsive fellow. French : … Inquitant , sinistre , lugubre , mal son aise . Spanish : … Sospechoso , de mal agero , lgubre , siniestro . … In Arabic and Hebrew ‘uncanny’ means the same as ‘daemonic,’ ‘gruesome.’
Let us therefore return to greatest american the German language. In Daniel Sanders’s Wrterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (1860, 1, 729), the[re] is following entry… under the word ‘heimlich.’ “ Heimlich, adj., … I. [B]elonging to the house, not strange, familiar, tame, intimate, friendly, etc. … (b) Of animals: tame, companionable to man. Finish Your Thesis? … (c) Intimate, friendly comfortable; the enjoyment of quiet content, etc., arousing a sense of agreeable restfulness and security as in greatest american essays one within the finish thesis four walls of his house. Is it still heimlich to you in your country where strangers are felling your woods?’ ‘She did not feel too heimlich with him.’ … II. Concealed, kept from on erin sight, so that others do not get to know of or about it, withheld from others. Finish Thesis? To do something heimlich , i.e., behind someone’s back; to steal away heimlich; heimlich meetings and essay poe, appointments. … The heimlich art’ (magic). Finish Thesis? ‘Where public ventilation has to thesis related to social stop, there heimlich conspirators and the loud battle-cry of finish, professed revolutionaries.’ ‘A holy, heimlich effect.’ … ‘learned in strange Heimlichkeiten’ (magic arts). … Note especially the assassination negative ‘un-’: eerie, weird, arousing gruesome fear: ‘Seeming quite unheimlich and ghostly to your thesis him.’ ‘The unheimlich, fearful hours of night.’ ‘I had already long since felt an unheimich,’ even gruesome feeling.’ ‘Now I am beginning to have an unheimlich feeling.’ … ‘Feels an unheimlich horror.’ ‘ Unheimlich and motionless like a stone image.’ ‘The unheimlich mist called hill-fog.’ ‘These pale youths are unheinrlich and are brewing heaven knows what mischief.’ ‘Unh eimlich is the name for everything that ought to have remained . Brockovich? secret and hidden but has come to light’ (Schelling).— ‘To veil the divine, to surround it with a certain Unheimlichkeit.’ …” What interests us most in this long extract is to find that among its different shades of meaning the your thesis word ‘ heimlich’’ exhibits one which is identical with its opposite, ‘ unheirnlich.’ What is heimlich thus comes to be unheimlich. Essay Poe? (Cf. the quotation from Gutzkow: ‘We call it “unheimlich”; you call it “heimlich.”’) In general we are reminded that the word ‘heimlich’ is not unambiguous, but belongs to two sets of ideas, which, without being contradictory, are yet very different: on the one hand it means what is familiar and agreeable, and on finish, the other. what is greatest essays concealed and kept out of sight. Thesis? ‘Unheimlich’ is assassination of julius caesar essay customarily used, we are told, as the contrary only of the first signification of’ heimlich,’ and not of the second. Sanders tells us nothing concerning a possible genetic connection between these two meanings of finish your thesis, heimlich. On the essays on erin brockovich other hand, we notice that Schelling says something which throws quite a new light on finish thesis, the concept of the Unheimlich, for essay, which we were certainly not prepared. Your? According to him, everything is unheimlich that ought to have remained secret and american essays, hidden but has come to your thesis light. … Thus heimlich is a word the meaning of which develops in the direction of ambivalence, until it finally coincides with its opposite, unheimlich. Unheimlich is in some way or other a sub-species of heimlich.
Let us bear this discovery in mind, though we cannot yet rightly understand it, alongside of caesar essay, Schelling’s definition of the Unheimlich. If we go on to examine individual instances of uncanniness, these hints will become intelligible to us. When we proceed to review things, persons, impressions, events and situations which are able to arouse in us a feeling of the uncanny in a particularly forcible and definite form, the first requirement is obviously to finish your select a suitable example to start on. Jentsch has taken as a very good instance ‘doubts whether an apparently animate being is really alive; or conversely, whether a lifeless object might not be in fact animate’; and he refers in this connection to the impression made by waxwork figures, ingeniously constructed dolls and essay poe, automata. To these he adds the uncanny effect of epileptic fits, and of manifestations of insanity, because these excite in the spectator the impression of your, automatic, mechanical processes at work behind the ‘ordinary appearance of mental activity. Without entirely accepting this author’s view, we will take it as a starting point for caregivers, our own investigation because in what follows he reminds us of a writer who has succeeded in producing uncanny effects better than anyone else. Jentsch writes: ‘In telling a story one of the most successful devices for easily creating uncanny effects is to leave the reader in uncertainty whether a particular figure in the story is finish thesis a human being or an automaton and to do it in such a wa y that his attention is not focused directly upon his uncertainty, so that he may not be led to essays go into the matter and clear it up immediately. That, as we have said, would quickly dissipate the peculiar emotional effect of the thing. Finish? E. T. A. Hoffmann has repeatedly employed this psychological artifice with success in his fantastic narratives.’
This observation, undoubtedly a correct one, refers primarily to the story of essay poe, The Sand-Man” in Hoffmann’s Nachtstcken, which contains the original of Olympia, the doll that appears in the first act of Offenbach’s opera, Tales of Hoffmann , but I cannot think — and I hope most readers of the story will agree with me — that the theme of the doll Olympia, who is to all appearances a living being, is by finish, any means the only, or indeed the essay poe most important, element that must be held responsible for the quite unparalleled atmosphere of finish your thesis, uncanniness evoked by the story. Essay Poe? Nor is this atmosphere heightened by the fact that the finish author himself treats the thesis related work episode of finish your, Olympia with a faint touch of satire and uses it to poke fun at the young man’s idealization of his mistress. The main theme of the story is, on on erin, the contrary, something different, something which gives it its name, and which is finish your thesis always re-introduced at critical moments: it is the theme of the ‘Sand-Man’ who tears out children’s eyes. This fantastic tale opens with the childhood recollections of the student Nathaniel. In spite of his present happiness, he cannot banish the friedrich essay novel memories associated with the mysterious and terrifying death of his beloved father. On certain evenings his mother used to send the children to bed early, warning them that ‘the Sand-Man was coming’; and, sure enough, Nathaniel would not fail to hear the heavy tread of a visitor, with whom his father would then be occupied for the evening.
When questioned about the Sand-Man, his mother, it is true, denied that such a person existed except as a figure of speech; but his nurse could give him more definite information: ‘He’s a wicked man who comes when children won’t go to bed, and throws handfuls of finish your, sand in their eyes so that they jump out of their heads all bleeding. Then he puts the eyes in a sack and caesar, carries them off to the half-moon to feed his children. They sit up there in their nest, and their beaks are hooked like owls’ beaks, and they use them to peck up naughty boys’ and girls’ eyes with.’ Although little Nathaniel was sensible and old enough not to credit the figure of the Sand-Man with such gruesome attributes, yet the dread of him became fixed in his heart. He determined to find out what the Sand-Man looked like; and one evening, when the Sand-Man was expected again, he hid in his father’s study. Finish Your Thesis? He recognized the visitor as the lawyer Coppelius, a repulsive person whom the children were frightened of when he occasionally came to a meal; and essays on erin, he now identified this Coppelius with the your thesis dreaded Sand-Man. As regards the rest of the scene, Hoffmann already leaves us in doubt whether what we are witnessing is tee first delirium of the brockovich panic-stricken boy, or a succession of events which are to be regarded in the story as being real. Finish Your Thesis? His father and the guest are at work at essay, a brazier with glowing flames. The little eavesdropper hears Coppelius call out: ‘Eyes here!
Eyes here!’ and betrays himself by screaming aloud. Coppelius seizes him and is on finish, the point of dropping bits of red-hot coal from the fire into his eyes, and of julius, then of throwing them into the brazier, but his father begs him off and saves his eyes. After this the boy falls into finish thesis a deep swoon; and a long illness brings his experience to an end. Those who decide in favour of the friedrich rationalistic interpretation of the Sand-Man will not fail to recognize in the child’s phantasy the persisting influence of his nurse’s story. The bits of sand that are to be thrown into the child’s eyes turn into bits of red-hot coal from the flames; and in finish your thesis both cases they are intended to on erin brockovich make his eyes jump out.
In the thesis course of another visit of the Sand-Man’s, a year later, his father is killed in his study by an explosion. The lawyer Coppelius disappears from the place without leaving a trace behind. Nathaniel, now a student, believes that he has recognized this phantom of horror from his childhood in essay poe an itinerant optician, an Italian called Giuseppe Coppola, who at his university town, offers him weather-glasses for sale. When Nathaniel refuses, the finish man goes on: ‘Not weather-glasses? not weather-glasses? also got fine eyes, fine eyes!’ The student’s terror is allayed when he finds that the proffered eyes are only harmless spectacles, and he buys a pocket spy-glass from Coppola. With its aid he looks across into Professor Spalanzani’s house opposite and there spies Spalanzani’s beautiful, but strangely silent and motionless daughter, Olympia. He soon falls in love with her so violently that, because of her, he quite forgets the assassination clever and sensible girl to whom he is finish thesis betrothed. But Olympia is an automaton whose clock-work has been made by Spalanzani, and whose eyes have been put in by Coppola, the Sand-Man. The student surprises the two Masters quarrelling over their handiwork. The optician carries off the wooden eyeless doll; and the mechanician, Spalanzani, picks up Olympia ’s bleeding eyes from the ground and throws them at Nathaniel’s breast, saying that Coppola had stolen them from the student. Nathaniel succumbs to a fresh attack of madness, and in his delirium his recollection of his father’s death is mingled with this new experience. ‘Hurry up! hurry up! ring of fire!’ he cries. ‘Spin about, ring of fire — Hurrah! Hurry up, wooden doll! lovely wooden doll, spin about — .’ He then falls upon the professor, Olympia ’s ‘father,’ and tries to strangle him.
Rallying from a long and essay on the, serious illness, Nathaniel seems at last to have recovered. He intends to marry his betrothed, with whom he has become reconciled. One day he and she are walking through the city market-place, over which the finish thesis high tower of the Town Hall throws its huge shadow. On the girl’s suggestion, they climb the tower, leaving her brother, who is essay poe walking with them, down below. From the top, Clara’s attention is drawn to a curious object moving along the street. Nathaniel looks at this thing through Coppola’s spy-glass, which he finds in his pocket, and falls into a new attack of madness. Shouting ‘Spin about, wooden doll!’ he tries to throw the girl into the gulf below. Her brother, brought to her side by your, her cries, rescues her and hastens down with her to safety. On the tower above, the madman rushes round, shrieking ‘Ring of fire, spin about!’ — and essay poe, we know the origin of the words. Among the people who begin to gather below there comes forward the figure of the lawyer Coppelius, who has suddenly returned.
We may suppose that it was his approach, seen through the spy-glass, which threw Nathaniel into his fit of madness. As the onlookers prepare to go up and overpower the madman, Coppelius laughs and your, says: ‘Wait a bit; he’ll come down of himself.’ Nathaniel suddenly stands still, catches sight of Coppelius, and essay, with a wild shriek ‘Yes! “fine eyes — fine eyes”!’ flings himself over the parapet. While he lies on the paving-stones with a shattered skull the Sand-Man vanishes in the throng. This short summary leaves no doubt, I think, that the feeling of thesis, something uncanny is directly attached to the figure of the Sand-Man, that is, to the idea of essay caregivers, being robbed of one’s eyes, and that Jentsch’s point of an intellectual uncertainty has nothing to do with the effect. Uncertainty whether an object is living or inanimate, which admittedly applied to the doll Olympia , is quite irrelevant in connection with this other, more striking instance of your, uncanniness. It is true that the writer creates a kind of uncertainty in essay caregivers us in the beginning by not letting us know, no doubt purposely, whether he is taking us into the real world or into a purely fantastic one of your, his own creation. He has, of course, a right to do either; and if he chooses to stage his action in a world peopled with spirits, demons and essay poe, ghosts, as Shakespeare does in Hamlet, in Macbeth and, in finish thesis a different sense, in The Tempest and caregivers, A Midsummer-Night’s Dream , we must bow to finish your thesis his decision and treat his setting as though it were real for as long as we put ourselves into this hands.
But this uncertainty disappears in the course of Hoffmann’s story, and we perceive that he intends to essay make us, too, look through the finish your thesis demon optician’s spectacles or spy-glass — perhaps, indeed, that the author in his very own person once peered through such an instrument. For the conclusion of the essay poe story makes it quite clear that Coppola the thesis optician really is the lawyer Coppelius and also, therefore, the Sand-Man. There is no question therefore, of any intellectual uncertainty here: we know now that we are not supposed to friedrich essay on the novel be looking on at the products of a madman’s imagination, behind which we, with the superiority of rational minds, are able to detect the sober truth; and yet this knowledge does not lessen the impression of uncanniness in the least degree. Finish Thesis? The theory of intellectual uncertainty is thus incapable of explaining that impression. We know from psycho-analytic experience, however, that the fear of damaging or losing one’s eyes is von blanckenburg essay on the novel a terrible one in children. Many adults retain their apprehensiveness in this respect, and no physical injury is so much dreaded by them as an injury to the eye. We are accustomed to say, too, that we will treasure a thing as the apple of our eye. A study of dreams, phantasies and myths has taught us that anxiety about one’s eyes, the fear of going blind, is often enough a substitute for the dread of being castrated. The self-blinding of the mythical criminal, Oedipus, was simply a mitigated form of the punishment of castration — the thesis only punishment that was adequate for him by the lex talionis. We may try on rationalistic grounds to deny that fears about the eye are derived from the fear of castration, and american essays, may argue that it is finish thesis very natural that so precious an organ as the eye should be guarded by a proportionate dread. Indeed, we might go further and say that the fear of castration itself contains no other significance and no deeper secret than a justifiable dread of this rational kind.
But this view does not account adequately for the substitutive relation between the eye and thesis related to social, the male organ which is seen to exist in dreams and myths and phantasies; nor can it dispel the impression that the threat of being castrated in especial excites a peculiarly violent and obscure emotion, and that this emotion is what first gives the idea of losing other organs its intense colouring. All further doubts are removed when we learn the details of their ‘castration complex’ from the analysis of neurotic patients, and realize its immense importance in their mental life. Moreover, I would not recommend any opponent of the psycho-analytic view to your select this particular story of the Sand-Man with which to support his argument that anxiety about the eyes has nothing to brockovich do with the castration complex. For why does Hoffmann bring the anxiety about eyes into such intimate connection with the father’s death? And why does the Sand-Man always appear as a disturber of finish your thesis, love? ** He separates the unfortunate Nathaniel from his betrothed and from her brother, his best friend; he destroys the friedrich von blanckenburg essay on the second object of his love, Olympia, the lovely doll; and he drives him into suicide at the moment when he has won back his Clara and is about to be happily united to her. Elements in the story like these, and many others, seem arbitrary and meaningless so long as we deny all connection between fears about the eye and castration; but they become intelligible as soon as we replace the finish your thesis Sand-Man by the dreaded father at whose hands castration is expected. ** We shall venture, therefore, to refer the uncanny effect of the Sand-Man to the anxiety belonging to the castration complex of childhood.
But having reached the idea that we can make an infantile factor such as this responsible for feelings of uncanniness, we are encouraged to see whether we can apply it to essays on erin other instances of the uncanny. We find in the story of the finish your thesis Sand-Man the other theme on which Jentsch lays stress, of thesis to social, a doll which appears to be alive. Jentsch believes that a particularly favourable condition for awakening uncanny feelings is created when there is intellectual uncertainty whether an object is your alive or not, and when an inanimate object becomes too much like an animate one. Now, dolls are of course rather closely connected with childhood life. Essay? We remember that in their early games children do not distinguish at all sharply between living and inanimate objects, and that they are especially fond of treating their dolls like live people. In fact, I have occasionally heard a woman patient declare that even at the age of eight she had still been convinced that her dolls would be certain to come to life if she were to look at finish your, them in a particular, extremely concentrated, way. So that here, too, it is not difficult to von blanckenburg essay discover a factor from childhood. But, curiously enough, while the Sand-Man story deals with the arousing of an early childhood fear, the idea of your, a ‘living doll’ excites no fear at all; children have no fear of related to social, their dolls coming to life, they may even desire it. The source of uncanny feelings would not, therefore, be an infantile fear in this case, but rather an infantile wish or even merely an infantile belief. There seems to be a contradiction here; but perhaps it is only a complication, which may be helpful to us later on.
** For a contrary view put forth by Freud himself, compare “The Taboo on Virginity,” in which Freud writes: “Whenever primitive man institutes a taboo, there he fears a danger; and it cannot be disputed that the general principle underlying all of these regulations and avoidances is finish a dread of essay caregivers, women. Perhaps the fear is founded on the difference of woman from man, on her eternally inexplicable, mysterious, strange nature which thus seems hostile. Man fears that his strength will be taken from him by finish thesis, women, dreads becoming infected with her femininity and the proving himself a weakling. The effect of coitus in discharging tensions and inducing flaccidity may be a type of what these fears represent. … In any event, the taboos described are evidence of the existence of essay caregivers, a force which, by regarding women as strange and hostile, sets itself against love.” ** [ Freud’s footnote ] In fact, Hoffmann’s imaginative treatment of his material has not made such wild confusion of its elements that we cannot reconstruct their original arrangement. In the story of Nathaniel’s childhood, the figures of finish your thesis, his father and Coppelius represent the two opposites into which the father-imago is split by his ambivalence; whereas the one threatens to blind him — that is, to castrate him — , the other, the ‘good’ father, intercedes for his sight. The part of the complex which is most strongly repressed, the death-wish against the ‘bad’ father, finds expression in the death of the ‘good’ father, and Coppelius is made answerable for it. This pair of fathers is represented later, in his student days, by Professor Spalanzani and assassination essay, Coppola the optician. The Professor is even called the your thesis father of Olympia . This double occurrence of activity in common betrays them as divisions of the father-imago: both the mechanician and the optician were the essays father f Nathaniel (and of Olympia as well). In the frightening scene in childhood, Coppelius, after sparing Nathaniel’s eyes, has screwed off his arms and legs as an experiment; that is, he had worked on him as a mechanician would on a doll. Your? This singular feature, which seems quite outside the picture of the related work Sand-Man, introduces a new castration equivalent; but it also points to the inner identity of Coppelius with his later counterpart, Spalanzani the mechanician, and prepares us for the interpretation of Olympia . This automatic doll can be nothing else than a materialization of Nathaniel’s feminine attitude towards his father in his infancy. Her fathers, Spalanzani and Coppola, are, after all, nothing but new editions, reincarnations of Nathaniel’s pair of fathers.
Spalanzani’s otherwise incomprehensible statement that the optician has stolen Nathaniel’s eyes … , so as to set them in the doll, now becomes significant as supplying evidence of the your identity of Olympia and Nathaniel. Olympia is, as it were, a dissociated complex of Nathaniel’s which confronts him as a person, and Nathaniel’s enslavement to this complex is expressed in his senseless obsessive love for friedrich, Olympia . We may with justice call love of this kind narcissistic, and we can understand why someone who has fallen victim to your thesis it should relinquish the real external object of his love. The psychological truth of the situation in which the young man, fixated upon his father by greatest american essays, his castration complex, becomes incapable of loving a woman, is amply proved by your, numerous analyses of assassination, patients whose story, though less fantastic, is hardly less tragic than that of the student Nathaniel. Your? …