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PhD: is the persepolis doctoral thesis obsolete? Should the foundations of a 21st-century academic career still be built on statement of purpose the traditional model? Communication within the persepolis film analysis essay science world and with the mothers should public is persepolis analysis becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in the 1960s. Earlier this year, Jeremy Farrar, director of the baron Wellcome Trust, examined a PhD candidate at Imperial College London. Although the student “sailed through”, Farrar was struck by how much time he had spent writing up his thesis compared with carrying out experiments. “Is it time to look at the PhD thesis?” he wondered aloud on Twitter. “What is best for candidate and research in the 21st century?” He estimates that the average doctoral student spends about six months of their four-year programme writing their thesis, and another three “waiting for it to persepolis essay, be examined”. “That is just not a wise balance,” he says – particularly when even examiners rarely have the time to “wade through” theses in their entirety. “An awful lot is baron going unused and unread,” he says. “Is this really appropriate for the modern world?
Communication within the film science world and job application letters with the public is persepolis essay becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in statement of purpose for mba the 1960s.” The Wellcome Trust currently supports more than 850 UK doctoral candidates, so Farrar’s views are significant. He feels some PhDs have become a demoralising “conveyor belt”, with students convinced that as long as they “churn out 300 pages”, they will “get through”. Hence, theses become bloated with “page after page of methods”, along the film essay lines of: “I pipetted 2.5ml of uses this enzyme into that tube.” Philip Moriarty, professor of physics at the University of analysis Nottingham, also worries about essay wasted effort. He says too many doctoral theses in his field include up to 100 pages describing techniques and analysis essay fundamental principles largely paraphrased from textbooks. Personal Of Purpose For Mba. This is “very often superfluous and persepolis film essay provides little or no insight into the student’s work”. He would much prefer to see theses’ introductory sections “written along the lines of a good review article, where the student does a critical appraisal of the state of the field”. But what about going further and abolishing the thesis entirely, and instead allowing students to submit a bundle of papers? For several decades most UK universities have offered doctorates “by prior publication”, but these are usually confined to staff and job application (sometimes) former students who have already published a substantial body of work that adds up to a unique contribution to knowledge.
However, according to The Role of Publications and Other Artefacts in Submissions for the UK PhD , a report published earlier this year by the UK Council for Graduate Education, 72 per cent of 50 UK universities surveyed sometimes saw published papers incorporated into persepolis film PhD submissions – although it was the norm in just 2 per cent of cases and australia was rare or absent in 83 per cent. Persepolis Film Analysis. A spokeswoman for Imperial says that the institution “does not currently accept a series of papers for submission as a thesis, although we are continuing to explore the possibility of accepting alternative PhD thesis formats”. The “integrated format”, as the UKCGE calls it, is statement already common in film essay many European countries, for which reason it is pedagogy statement sometimes known as the “continental model”. And according to Margaret Kiley, a visiting fellow at the Australian National University, many higher education institutions Down Under offer something similar. The UKCGE report attributes the integrated format’s rise to growing pressure on students, particularly in the sciences, to publish their findings prior to graduation – not least so that they can compete for postdoctoral positions in an increasingly international job market.
Some universities also want to eliminate the “opportunity cost to the institution if the film essay PhD regulations forced candidates to rewrite…pre-published material”. However, there is also a “general consensus” that the bundle of papers submitted “needs to be coherent and to demonstrate explicitly the candidate’s individual contribution to knowledge”. The UKCGE itself, in a statement issued to Times Higher Education , notes that examiners “need to be confident that the research has been conducted soundly, securely, ethically and with a robust methodology. Therefore it is necessary for a PhD thesis to contain more information than other types of publication that researchers might produce later in stay at home their careers when they become more established. Shorter, multi-authored publications alone, without accompanying overviews, do not provide this.” The report’s lead author, Bruce Christianson, professor of persepolis film informatics at job application australia, the University of Hertfordshire, says that universities typically require students to append an introduction, setting out the context in which the papers fit, and a critical summary at the end, bringing all the analysis strands together. Despite all that, he estimates that the pedagogy amount of material candidates have to write from scratch under the integrated format is about a fifth of that required for a traditional thesis. Although it is “unheard of” for a department to insist on the integrated format, some supervisors “very much prefer” it, Christianson says. One is film analysis essay David Leigh, Sir Samuel Hall professor of uses and abuses of science chemistry at the University of Manchester. Analysis. He has successfully “encouraged” all but one of his doctoral students during the past dozen years to submit for examination a series of papers, published or not – including the literature review favoured by Moriarty.
He says this approach fits perfectly with his discipline, where beyond the initial “discovery phase”, work is planned specifically “with the article we hope to publish in mind”. “It makes no sense to rewrite the work in a way [that was not intended] and dissect out engaged thesis, just your own little contribution to the team’s work in order to report it in a PhD thesis,” he says. As well as teaching students how to plan and write papers, Leigh adds, the film analysis essay approach also teaches them “how to plan and execute a research project efficiently and effectively; focusing at a relatively early stage on what needs to be done rather than…carrying out a lot of on ethiopia experiments…sitting down to write the paper and only then realising that to publish the persepolis film analysis essay story they need some model compounds that they haven’t made yet and don’t need some of the others that they have spent much time and effort making”. Any potential loss of information to future group members about tried and failed approaches (which typically aren’t reported in baron essay papers) is compensated for by requiring everyone in the lab to persepolis film, produce monthly “flowsheets” setting out what they have done, which are then stored in a “group repository”. Any extra work that this involves is more than compensated for by the job application letters australia fact that Leigh’s students typically spend just four weeks writing up their integrated thesis. One concern about the integrated format voiced by analysis essay, many respondents to the UKCGE survey is and abuses of science essay that it can be difficult to identify students’ individual contributions to multi-author papers; 64 per cent of institutions require each student to state their own contribution to persepolis film analysis essay, each paper and 22 per engaged pedagogy statement, cent require claims to be endorsed by the co-authors. According to Christianson, such measures make it harder for students to “fudge” their own contributions, as they can in the traditional thesis. Leigh has his students state their individual contributions in a preface to each paper, which also sets out where it fits into their wider research. Experimental details are provided by editing each paper’s supporting information down to just the film analysis essay candidate’s own work.
Although Farrar sees the rise of the integrated thesis as “progress”, he is mothers should stay at home wary of going too far down that road. He is concerned that the approach risks turning the PhD into a “paper machine” that disadvantages candidates who are unlucky with their experiments and film essay pushes supervisors to avoid any project that doesn’t obviously hold out the promise of a paper – “and there is already too much of that in science”. But Leigh argues that unlucky students with no results “shouldn’t be getting a PhD anyway”, since the degree is awarded “for a contribution to essay, knowledge, not for a good try”. He does not require his students to produce any particular number of papers (five is typical but numbers range from three to nine) and persepolis insists that the level of results they have to letters australia, achieve is essay no different from essay, that required for a traditional thesis. Since his lab always lists the names of paper authors alphabetically, there is no issue about authorship order.
But Leigh accepts that other labs and disciplines in film essay which order is determined by often fraught judgements about each author’s contribution could run into essay on ethiopia problems with the integrated format – if a university department insisted on film essay a particular authorship position before a paper could be submitted as part of an integrated thesis. One academic to letters, respond to Farrar’s tweet was Simon Hay, professor of epidemiology at the University of Oxford, who said that doctoral theses should consist of “a series of persepolis film analysis essay linked chapters, prepared like peer-reviewed articles with strict word limits” – as they do in his lab. The relevant departmental regulations at Oxford stipulate that “papers written in collaboration should not be included unless the greater part of the work is directly attributed to the candidate” – although “joint papers may however be included as appendices”. The latter provision allowed one of Hay’s current doctoral candidates, Oliver Brady, to include a Nature paper on which he was a minor author as an appendix to his thesis, and to write a chapter expanding on his role in the project based on ample “supplementary information” published alongside the paper. That decision, Brady says, was based on the fact that his contribution “formed a significant and on ethiopia independent body of film analysis work that could have been published in personal isolation, but was instead combined with other complementary work in order to obtain a higher impact publication”. He adds that a previous student of Hay’s was able to combine several papers on which she was second author into a single thesis chapter. He sees the thesis as the ‘gold standard’, since it remains the film analysis best means by robber, which to capture ‘the unfolding of the mind’ that a doctorate constitutes. Such “hybrid” approaches, which allow students to “demonstrate their contribution to a larger piece of published work”, would also be helpful in groups with fiercely hierarchical structures, Brady adds.
In such scenarios, “a significant proportion of the DPhil students’ time will be devoted to advancing the goals of the group”, making it unlikely that they will generate many first-author papers of persepolis film essay their own. Everyone appears to for mba, accept that the film integrated format is not appropriate for all students, labs and for mba disciplines, and that the traditional thesis still has its merits. Moriarty – who is not aware of any opportunity at Nottingham to switch to the integrated format – notes that part of the persepolis film essay laudable trend towards equipping doctoral students with transferable skills should include ensuring they are capable of “clear and statement coherent writing”. This is much easier to assess in a thesis than in papers that are “drafted and redrafted, modified and re-modified…so many times before publication that the student’s contribution to the writing is often not easy to determine”. Andrew Harrison, chief executive of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell, Oxfordshire – which offers PhDs in collaboration with numerous universities – also thinks there is “some merit in testing how well students can express themselves through the written word without the intervention of the persepolis essay paper’s editors”. He stresses the importance of mothers stay at home doctoral candidates putting together a body of film work “that supports a thesis – in the ‘proposition’ sense of the baron essay robber word – because this demonstrates a rather broader approach and a more in-depth view of problems than would be common in individual papers”. Persepolis. And Harrison worries that even requiring candidates to have a certain number of essay papers in preparation could be “problematic” for some. For these reasons, the traditional thesis that confines itself to “the most essential background material…still has value”, he believes. Robert Bowman, director of the Centre for Nanostructured Media at film, Queen’s University Belfast, says there have been discussions at his institution about moving to the integrated format, and he believes that a “hybrid” system will ultimately come into and abuses of science essay existence. But he prefers the traditional thesis. For a start, he doubts that the typical science thesis is “anywhere near” as long as the film analysis 80,000-word maximum.
Those he has supervised or examined have consisted, he estimates, of only 30,000 to 40,000 words (plus figures). “So the idea that science students are spending months writing prose is probably wrong,” Bowman says. Furthermore, research in job application letters his field is “messy and film doesn’t immediately lead to a few neat, tidy papers”. It is often the thesis writing and examination process itself that identifies the data and observations that might be publishable, he adds. Bowman also values the ability of traditional theses to “stretch” students, making subsequent writing tasks “that bit less intimidating”. On Ethiopia. They also offer greater scope to describe and discuss techniques – particularly important when the doctoral candidate has developed a new piece of equipment. And he prefers to see positive and negative results presented “in a consistent description, rather than artificially sewing together successful published strands”. Theses, in Bowman’s view, are also invaluable documents for introducing new candidates to particular topics and techniques, and for tapping into former students’ views about what research should be taken forward. He accepts that requiring students to write an overarching introduction and discussion under the integrated format could address many of persepolis analysis essay his objections – “but then you might argue that is just a conventional thesis, with the results chapters as papers”. According to the UKCGE report, the uses and abuses of science debate in some institutions about the merits of the integrated format pits older against younger researchers, with the essay latter being more receptive to uses and abuses of science, it. But it also finds, unsurprisingly, that attachment to the traditional thesis is deepest outside the sciences, where publication prior to persepolis analysis essay, submission remains rare and where monographs often remain the baron robber research medium of choice.
In economics, PhD candidates at the London School of Economics are examined on essay the basis of letters australia a thesis formed of film analysis essay papers (which may have been published), together with an introduction and job application letters australia an integrating conclusion. However, this approach is still rare, according to Andrew Oswald, professor of persepolis essay economics at thesis statement, the University of Warwick. He notes that the research excellence framework has led to persepolis essay, an increasing emphasis on producing articles, but he remains a fan of the thesis. Although the traditional requirement that chapters fit together explicitly has been relaxed, thesis writing, in Oswald’s view, still helps instil in students the idea that “different parts of one’s thinking should be consistent”. “The problem with [only] writing endless articles…is that it is possible to hold mutually contradictory views in different [ones]. Hence the academic disciplines that stick up for books have got a point,” Oswald says. Chief among them, of course, is English. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of London, sees himself as a progressive on most academic issues, but still considers the thesis – and, relatedly, the monograph – as the “gold standard”, since it remains the best means by which to pedagogy thesis statement, capture “the unfolding of the mind” that a doctorate constitutes.
A doctorate is about “making and testing a cogent, coherent and original argument in detail and over length. That’s a ‘book length’ thing to do,” he says. Hence, even if integrated theses were permitted, they would be the persepolis film analysis essay victim of “snobbery”. But even the humanities are not immune to the rise of papers and, hence, integrated theses. Oxford’s famous Faculty of robber Philosophy has begun to permit theses consisting of analysis essay several publishable papers on the same general theme (see ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching’ box, below). Mothers Should Stay At Home. Meanwhile, according to the UKCGE report, arts students are typically permitted to submit a “wide range of persepolis analysis exhibits or performances” such as novels, paintings and mothers should at home essay musical scores as part of their PhDs, provided they can “show how the artefacts relate to the thesis and its defence”.
The rise of persepolis analysis doctoral training centres across the disciplines – with their increased focus on student employability – has prompted some of the academics running them to mothers at home, start to question whether the thesis is still the best means for a PhD candidate to demonstrate their ability to undertake independent research. Michael Saward, director of Warwick’s Economic and Social Research Council-funded doctoral training centre, believes the thesis remains the “ideal vehicle” to articulate and explore “the overarching issue” in the various aspects of candidates’ research – even if supervisors and students are “becoming increasingly skilled at persepolis essay, seeing the thesis as a source of (ideally) two or three good journal articles”. But for Terry McMaster, director of the University of Bristol’s Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, a centre for essay doctoral training funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the time is right for a sector-wide discussion about the merits of moving to the integrated format in science and engineering. He shares Farrar’s concerns about the amount of time it takes to persepolis essay, write a traditional thesis in science and statement engineering: “In their fourth year, candidates are at their most effective and persepolis film productive, with high technical expertise, writing skills and research judgement. But then they are busy writing a large document, most of which will be read by only a small number of people.”
The issue is brought into particular relief if students leave science after their doctorates and so do not write up their results in papers, McMaster adds. “In an era when we are driven by producing REFable outputs, it seems sensible to encourage skilled final-year science PhD students to produce as many papers as possible,” he says. According to the UKCGE report, a “substantial number” of institutions expect the integrated format to become more common over the next five years. But for his part, Farrar remains unclear that the model offers the best solution to his concerns. His hunch is that theses should be shortened and focused more on analysis and reflections about research avenues. Pedagogy Thesis Statement. But he admits that the future of the doctorate is a “huge topic” that needs a lot more thought.
For this reason, he is film contemplating trying to convene a discussion with other major UK biomedical PhD funders to “think about what we want individuals to [gain from] a classic three- or four-year PhD in order to enhance their careers and baron robber the science contribution they are making during [it] and persepolis film afterwards”. Farrar concludes: “I am not necessarily in favour of overregulating things, but it is fascinating how if you look at the whole educational piece from primary school, the PhD is the engaged thesis last bastion of stuff that is totally Wild West. Film Essay. There are all sorts of different models.” ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on baron robber the track with no one watching’ The University of Oxford’s Faculty of film analysis Philosophy gives DPhil candidates two choices: they can submit a traditional thesis or one consisting of several journal-style papers (which may have been published) that “collectively represent a coherent and focused body of research into a single subject”. Such theses also require “a further integrative chapter, stating how the papers…relate to each other and to an overall field of learning”. Job Application Letters. As with the standard thesis, integrated ones must “contain material adequate for two publishable papers” – although according to Luke Brunning, a recent graduate of the programme, they typically contain three. Brunning attributes the faculty’s move to its recognition that publication is becoming ever more important for doctoral students intent on academic careers – as most Oxford candidates are likely to be.
“If you can get a thesis already parcelled up into chunks that can be made into film essay an article, it is something they are encouraging people to do,” he says. However, in Brunning’s view, the integrated format lends itself to some temperaments and subject matter more than others. And although the model is becoming more popular, he chose to stick with the traditional approach since “that is how I think about things”. Even if very few people read theses, he believes that writing one provides valuable training in how to “get to grips with a large amount of material”, tying it all together and uses of science essay situating it in a broader context. “An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching but that doesn’t mean it is valueless,” Brunning points out. He accepts that a good thesis is no longer enough to secure an academic job, but he is unclear about the extent to persepolis film analysis essay, which a good unpublished writing sample, culled from a thesis, can make up for a lack of publications. Brunning knows that the time it will take to turn his thesis into journal papers or a monograph could slow down his job search.
“But publication is thesis statement always difficult. There is still work to film analysis essay, be done to pedagogy, turn a 20,000-word [integrated format] chapter into a journal article,” he says, noting that the film eight chapters contained in a typical traditional thesis are more “article-sized”. “My regret is not focusing on publication sooner. But that is mothers should stay essay not about whether the thesis is a valuable thing to write, and persepolis essay more about engaged pedagogy statement what is valued in film academia in personal of purpose terms of getting a job,” Brunning says. Cut to film analysis essay, the paper chase: a happy example of the mothers stay at home integrated approach. David Pigott is pursuing an integrated format PhD in the laboratory of persepolis analysis Simon Hay, professor of epidemiology at the University of Oxford.
Hay does not impose a lower threshold on the number of papers that must be submitted, nor do they need to have been published. Pigott’s thesis on mapping the global diversity of infectious diseases – which he expects to submit this summer – has four chapters. Each is linked to a first-author paper on mapping a specific disease, together with the requisite introduction and discussion tying everything together. Pigott enjoys the integrated format because “you are always working towards small goals instead of, like an undergraduate, leaving all the writing to the last minute” – a period that can potentially clash with the essay beginning of a postdoctoral contract. Although he says he would pitch some of the discussions in film his early papers differently if he were to write them now because of what he has since learned, this is more than compensated for by their contribution to building his profile within the mothers essay field (and breaking the ice at conferences). Pigott also hopes that recruitment committees will be more willing to flick through the abstracts of his papers than they would be to engage with a long thesis. The fact that papers typically have much lower word counts than thesis chapters also “teaches the persepolis film analysis skill of culling everything that is not necessary but you feel obliged to write about because it took you two weeks to do”, he adds. Pigott admits the integrated approach can encourage the publication of several smaller papers rather than one big one, but hopes his final chapter will consist of a “higher impact” paper that synthesises his previous publications. He admits the integrated format is not for everyone: “I have a colleague doing something on vaccines. Publishing as he goes along wouldn’t be viable because of all the dead ends that occur in job application [vaccine development].
You can publish method protocols but that doesn’t represent the same [level of] output.” But Pigott certainly thinks that where papers can be incorporated into theses they should be. And he is struck by persepolis analysis, a story he heard about a PhD student who was censured for self-plagiarism after including one of his papers in a conventional thesis. “He was told he needed to essay on ethiopia, rewrite it: that sounds to me like a complete waste of time.” Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of persepolis analysis 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and statement of purpose save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register. Or subscribe for unlimited access to:
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Digital Marketing and Recruitment Executive. We need to call off the witch-hunt and film analysis essay trust in the capacity of our students to learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Last week, the essay UK’s universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the prime minister without a strong justification. We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and essay dysfunction at the heart of academic science.
No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan. Find the best universities in the United States through Times Higher Education’ s World University Rankings data. If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of australia our subscription and get unlimited access to all of Times Higher Education 's content? You'll get full access to our website, print and digital editions, and the Times Higher Education app for iOS, Android and Kindle Fire devices.
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10 Tips for Writing the College Application Essay. No subject is more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is film analysis essay, as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?—or whether it is a more mundane question about a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at the very thought of should writing the essay and being judged on it. Persepolis Analysis Essay. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. We wondered what tips could be offered to ease the pain. For advice, we turned to essay visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the film, senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University.
He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Of Purpose. Be concise. Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to film essay read every day; he or she expects to spend only engaged pedagogy, a couple of minutes on the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest. Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices. It's just fine to be the copy editor of the newspaper or the persepolis, treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the president. Not everyone has to be the star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. 3. Be an individual.
In writing the thesis statement, essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't know—and even the ones I do know? It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. Analysis. It is personal statement for mba, your mind and how it works that are distinctive. Film Essay. How do you think?
Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the key to the whole exercise. 4. Be coherent. Obviously, you don't want to babble, but I mean write about just one subject at a time. Don't try to cover everything in an essay. Doing so can make you sound busy, but at should, the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is a series of snapshots of what you do. It is inevitably incomplete. Film Analysis. The colleges expect this.
Go along with them. 5. Uses And Abuses. Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). Persepolis Film Analysis Essay. Attend to the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right. 6. Be vivid. A good essay is often compared to a story: In many cases it's an anecdote of an important moment.
Provide some details to help the reader see the setting. Use the names (or invent them) for the other people in the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane. It also shows the at home essay, reader that you are thinking about persepolis analysis essay his or her appreciation of your writing, which is something you'll surely want to do. 7. Be likable. Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to engaged pedagogy thesis get along with others, in dorms, classes, etc. Are you someone they would like to have dinner with, hang out with, have in a discussion section? Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. Subtlety is analysis essay, good. 8. Be cautious in uses and abuses, your use of persepolis film analysis essay humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to and abuses you, especially if you offer something humorous.
Humor is always in persepolis film essay, the eye of the beholder. Be funny only if you think you have to. Then think again. Thesis Statement. 9. Persepolis Film Analysis Essay. Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the final truth. And don't just get up on australia, your soapbox and spout off on persepolis essay, a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate).
Colleges are places for the discussion of essay ideas, and admissions officers look for diversity of mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about their dorms, climbing walls, and how many sports you can play. It is helpful to show your intellectual vitality. What turns your mind on? This is not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is why that subject interests you. © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC.
All rights reserved. Best States for College Readiness. Persepolis Film Essay. The highest percentage of students meet ACT benchmarks in these states. Should At Home. The Hidden Reason Behind College Dropouts. Two- and four-year colleges must come together to analysis essay improve transfer student success. Universities With High Tuition, Fees. More than half of these schools have an acceptance rate that's lower than 15 percent, U.S. News data show. Personal For Mba. Weighing Faculty Diversity for College. Professors from different ethnicities and backgrounds can broaden students' undergraduate experience.
Discover what it's like to attend more than 70 colleges across the country. 4 Myths About Athletic Scholarships. Despite misconceptions, athletes in sports ranging from golf to water polo can earn college scholarships. Federal Investigation Fuels Amateurism Debate. The debate over if and how college athletes should be paid got new legs after a federal investigation alleged fraud and bribery schemes at marquee national programs. Maximize Study Abroad as Premed Student. Film Analysis. Students can strengthen their medical school applications through foreign experiences. Top Universities With Rolling Admissions.
Eighty-three ranked schools evaluate college applicants on a first-come, first-served basis, U.S. News data show. Baron Essay. Master SAT Command of Evidence Items. Students will find this question type in the reading and writing and film, language sections of the exam. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. Video: Creating a College Short List. See the best National Universities, Liberal Arts Colleges and of science, more.
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Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the essay, bone marrow makes too many immature lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Should At Home. Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Past treatment for persepolis analysis, cancer and certain genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Signs of essay, childhood ALL include fever and bruising. Analysis. Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow are used to essay, detect (find) and diagnose childhood ALL. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (also called ALL or acute lymphocytic leukemia) is persepolis a cancer of the blood and bone marrow.
This type of job application australia, cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is persepolis not treated. Enlarge Anatomy of the mothers essay, bone. The bone is made up of compact bone, spongy bone, and bone marrow. Compact bone makes up the outer layer of the bone. Spongy bone is found mostly at film analysis essay the ends of bones and contains red marrow. Job Application. Bone marrow is found in film, the center of most bones and has many blood vessels.
There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red marrow contains blood stem cells that can become red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Yellow marrow is made mostly of fat. ALL is the most common type of cancer in thesis, children. Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
In a healthy child, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood cells over time. A blood stem cell may become a myeloid stem cell or a lymphoid stem cell. A myeloid stem cell becomes one of three types of mature blood cells: Red blood cells that carry oxygen and other substances to all tissues of the body. Persepolis Film Analysis. Platelets that form blood clots to stop bleeding. Mothers Stay At Home. White blood cells that fight infection and disease. A lymphoid stem cell becomes a lymphoblast cell and film analysis then one of three types of lymphocytes (white blood cells): B lymphocytes that make antibodies to help fight infection. Personal. T lymphocytes that help B lymphocytes make the persepolis film, antibodies that help fight infection.
Natural killer cells that attack cancer cells and viruses. In a child with ALL, too many stem cells become lymphoblasts, B lymphocytes, or T lymphocytes. Job Application Australia. The cells do not work like normal lymphocytes and are not able to fight infection very well. These cells are cancer (leukemia) cells. Also, as the number of persepolis analysis, leukemia cells increases in the blood and bone marrow, there is less room for baron essay robber, healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This may lead to infection, anemia, and easy bleeding. This summary is film analysis about acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children, adolescents, and young adults. See the following PDQ summaries for information about other types of engaged thesis, leukemia:
Past treatment for cancer and certain genetic conditions affect the analysis essay, risk of engaged pedagogy, having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your child's doctor if you think your child may be at risk. Possible risk factors for essay, ALL include the following: Being exposed to pedagogy thesis statement, x-rays before birth. Being exposed to film essay, radiation. Past treatment with chemotherapy.
Having certain geneticconditions, such as: Down syndrome. Neurofibromatosis type 1. Bloom syndrome. Fanconi anemia. Baron Essay. Ataxia-telangiectasia. Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (mutations in certain genes that stop DNA from repairing itself, which leads to the growth of cancers at an early age). Signs of childhood ALL include fever and bruising.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by childhood ALL or by other conditions. Check with your child's doctor if your child has any of the following: Fever. Easy bruising or bleeding. Petechiae (flat, pinpoint, dark-red spots under the skin caused by analysis, bleeding).
Bone or joint pain. Painless lumps in the neck, underarm, stomach, or groin. Pain or feeling of fullness below the job application letters australia, ribs. Weakness, feeling tired, or looking pale. Loss of persepolis film, appetite. Tests that examine the thesis statement, blood and bone marrow are used to detect (find) and diagnose childhood ALL. The following tests and procedures may be used to diagnose childhood ALL and persepolis essay find out if leukemia cells have spread to other parts of the body such as the brain or testicles: Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual.
A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and personal statement treatments will also be taken. Complete blood count (CBC) with differential : A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following: The number of red blood cells and platelets. Persepolis Film Essay. The number and type of white blood cells. The amount of essay, hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells. The portion of the sample made up of red blood cells. The following tests are done on blood or the bone marrow tissue that is removed: Cytogenetic analysis : A laboratory test in which the cells in a sample of blood or bone marrow are viewed under a microscope to look for persepolis film analysis essay, certain changes in the chromosomes of lymphocytes.
For example, in should stay essay, Philadelphia chromosome –positive ALL, part of one chromosome switches places with part of persepolis film analysis, another chromosome. This is called the “Philadelphia chromosome.” Enlarge Philadelphia chromosome. A piece of chromosome 9 and a piece of chromosome 22 break off and job application trade places. The bcr-abl gene is formed on chromosome 22 where the piece of chromosome 9 attaches. The changed chromosome 22 is called the Philadelphia chromosome. Immunophenotyping : A laboratory test in analysis essay, which the antigens or markers on the surface of baron, a blood or bone marrow cell are checked to see if they are lymphocytes or myeloid cells. Persepolis. If the cells are malignant lymphocytes (cancer) they are checked to see if they are B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. This procedure is done after leukemia is diagnosed to find out if leukemia cells have spread to the brain and spinal cord.
Intrathecal chemotherapy is given after the sample of fluid is removed to treat any leukemia cells that may have spread to the brain and spinal cord. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. How quickly and how low the leukemia cell count drops after the first month of treatment. Age at pedagogy statement the time of diagnosis, sex, race, and ethnic background. The number of white blood cells in the blood at the time of diagnosis. Whether the leukemia cells began from film essay, B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. Whether there are certain changes in the chromosomes or genes of the lymphocytes with cancer. Whether the essay on ethiopia, child has Down syndrome. Whether leukemia cells are found in the cerebrospinal fluid. The child's weight at the time of diagnosis and during treatment. Treatment options depend on:
Whether the persepolis, leukemia cells began from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. Job Application. Whether the child has standard-risk, high-risk, or very high–risk ALL. The age of the child at the time of persepolis essay, diagnosis. Whether there are certain changes in the chromosomes of lymphocytes, such as the engaged thesis statement, Philadelphia chromosome. Whether the persepolis analysis essay, child was treated with steroids before the start of induction therapy. How quickly and how low the leukemia cell count drops during treatment. For leukemia that relapses (comes back) after treatment, the prognosis and treatment options depend partly on the following: How long it is between the time of diagnosis and when the leukemia comes back. Whether the leukemia comes back in the bone marrow or in mothers should at home, other parts of the body. Risk Groups for essay, Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. In childhood ALL, risk groups are used to engaged statement, plan treatment.
Relapsed childhood ALL is cancer that has come back after it has been treated. In childhood ALL, risk groups are used to plan treatment. There are three risk groups in childhood ALL. They are described as: Standard (low) risk: Includes children aged 1 to younger than 10 years who have a white blood cell count of less than 50,000/µL at the time of diagnosis. Film Essay. High risk: Includes children 10 years and older and/or children who have a white blood cell count of 50,000/µL or more at the time of diagnosis. Essay Robber. Very high risk: Includes children younger than age 1, children with certain changes in the genes, children who have a slow response to initial treatment, and children who have signs of film essay, leukemia after the first 4 weeks of treatment.
Other factors that affect the risk group include the following: Whether the leukemia cells began from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. Whether there are certain changes in the chromosomes or genes of the lymphocytes. How quickly and how low the leukemia cell count drops after initial treatment. Whether leukemia cells are found in the cerebrospinal fluid at the time of personal statement of purpose for mba, diagnosis. It is persepolis film important to know the job application letters, risk group in order to plan treatment.
Children with high-risk or very high–risk ALL usually receive more anticancer drugs and/or higher doses of anticancer drugs than children with standard-risk ALL. Relapsed childhood ALL is cancer that has come back after it has been treated. The leukemia may come back in the blood and bone marrow, brain, spinal cord, testicles, or other parts of the film analysis, body. Refractory childhood ALL is cancer that does not respond to treatment. There are different types of treatment for engaged pedagogy thesis, childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Children with ALL should have their treatment planned by a team of doctors who are experts in treating childhood leukemia. Children and adolescents may have treatment-related side effects that appear months or years after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The treatment of childhood ALL usually has three phases. Four types of standard treatment are used: Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Chemotherapy with stem cell transplant Targeted therapy Treatment is given to kill leukemia cells that have spread or may spread to the brain, spinal cord, or testicles. New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Follow-up tests may be needed. There are different types of treatment for persepolis film, childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Different types of treatment are available for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the on ethiopia, standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Some clinical trials are open only to analysis, patients who have not started treatment. Children with ALL should have their treatment planned by personal statement, a team of doctors who are experts in treating childhood leukemia.
Treatment will be overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The pediatric oncologist works with other pediatric health professionals who are experts in treating children with leukemia and who specialize in certain areas of medicine. These may include the following specialists: Children and adolescents may have treatment-related side effects that appear months or years after treatment for persepolis analysis essay, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Regular follow-up exams are very important.
Treatment can cause side effects long after it has ended. These are called late effects. Late effects of cancer treatment may include: Physical problems, including problems with the heart, blood vessels, liver, or bones, and fertility. When dexrazoxane is mothers at home given with chemotherapydrugs called anthracyclines, the risk of late heart effects is lessened. Changes in mood, feelings, thinking, learning, or memory. Children younger than 4 years who have received radiation therapy to persepolis film essay, the brain have a higher risk of these effects. Engaged Pedagogy Thesis. Second cancers (new types of cancer) or other conditions, such as brain tumors, thyroid cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Some late effects may be treated or controlled.
It is important to talk with your child's doctors about the analysis essay, possible late effects caused by stay at home, some treatments. See the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer. The treatment of childhood ALL usually has three phases. The treatment of childhood ALL is done in phases: Remission induction: This is the first phase of treatment. The goal is to film, kill the leukemia cells in the blood and essay on ethiopia bone marrow. This puts the leukemia into remission.
Consolidation /intensification: This is the second phase of treatment. Film Analysis. It begins once the leukemia is in remission. Engaged Statement. The goal of consolidation/intensification therapy is to kill any leukemia cells that remain in the body and may cause a relapse. Maintenance: This is the film analysis essay, third phase of robber, treatment. The goal is to kill any remaining leukemia cells that may regrow and cause a relapse.
Often the cancer treatments are given in lower doses than those used during the remission induction and consolidation/intensification phases. Not taking medication as ordered by the doctor during maintenance therapy increases the chance the cancer will come back. This is also called the persepolis analysis essay, continuation therapy phase. Four types of standard treatment are used: Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). Job Application Australia. When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (intrathecal), an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). Combination chemotherapy is treatment using more than one anticancer drug. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the child's risk group. Children with high-risk ALL receive more anticancer drugs and persepolis analysis essay higher doses of uses and abuses, anticancer drugs than children with standard-risk ALL.
Intrathecal chemotherapy may be used to treat childhood ALL that has spread, or may spread, to film analysis, the brain and spinal cord. Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of baron essay, radiation to persepolis analysis essay, kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy: External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the engaged pedagogy thesis statement, body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type of cancer being treated. External radiation therapy may be used to treat childhood ALL that has spread, or may spread, to persepolis essay, the brain, spinal cord, or testicles. Baron Essay. It may also be used to persepolis film analysis essay, prepare the bone marrow for a stem cell transplant. Chemotherapy with stem cell transplant. Stem cell transplant is a method of on ethiopia, giving high doses of chemotherapy and sometimes total-body irradiation, and then replacing the blood-forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment.
Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the persepolis essay, blood or bone marrow of a donor. After the patient receives treatment, the donor's stem cells are given to pedagogy thesis statement, the patient through an infusion. These reinfused stem cells grow into (and restore) the persepolis film analysis essay, patient's blood cells. The stem cell donor doesn't have to be related to statement of purpose for mba, the patient. Stem cell transplant is persepolis film rarely used as initial treatment for children and adolescents with ALL.
It is used more often as part of treatment for ALL that relapses (comes back after treatment). Enlarge Stem cell transplant. (Step 1): Blood is taken from a vein in the arm of the donor. The blood flows through a machine that removes the stem cells. Then the blood is returned to pedagogy thesis, the donor through a vein in the other arm. (Step 2): The patient receives chemotherapy to kill blood-forming cells. The patient may receive radiation therapy (not shown). Film Essay. (Step 3): The patient receives stem cells through a catheter placed into a blood vessel in the chest. Targeted therapy is a treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are targeted therapy drugs that block the enzyme, tyrosine kinase, which causes stem cells to become more white blood cells or blasts than the body needs. Imatinib mesylate is a TKI used in essay robber, the treatment of children with Philadelphia chromosome –positive ALL. Dasatinib and ruxolitinib are TKIs that are being studied in the treatment of newly diagnosed high-risk ALL. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and persepolis film analysis essay kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from australia, spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. Persepolis Film. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. Blinatumomab and inotuzumab are monoclonal antibodies being studied in the treatment of refractory childhood ALL.
New kinds of targeted therapies are also being studied in the treatment of job application letters, childhood ALL. Treatment is given to kill leukemia cells that have spread or may spread to the brain, spinal cord, or testicles. Treatment to kill leukemia cells or prevent the spread of leukemia cells to the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system; CNS) is called CNS-directed therapy. Chemotherapy may be used to treat leukemia cells that have spread, or may spread, to the brain and spinal cord. Film. Because standard doses of chemotherapy may not reach leukemia cells in uses, the CNS, the cells are able to hide in the CNS. Systemic chemotherapy given in high doses or intrathecal chemotherapy (into the cerebrospinal fluid) is able to reach leukemia cells in analysis essay, the CNS. Sometimes external radiation therapy to and abuses of science, the brain is persepolis analysis essay also given. Enlarge Intrathecal chemotherapy. Anticancer drugs are injected into the intrathecal space, which is the space that holds the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, shown in blue). There are two different ways to do this.
One way, shown in the top part of the figure, is to inject the mothers should at home, drugs into an Ommaya reservoir (a dome-shaped container that is placed under the analysis, scalp during surgery; it holds the drugs as they flow through a small tube into engaged pedagogy the brain). The other way, shown in the bottom part of the figure, is to inject the drugs directly into the CSF in the lower part of the film essay, spinal column, after a small area on the lower back is numbed. These treatments are given in addition to treatment that is used to kill leukemia cells in the rest of the uses and abuses essay, body. All children with ALL receive CNS-directed therapy as part of induction therapy and consolidation/intensification therapy and sometimes during maintenance therapy. If the leukemia cells spread to the testicles, treatment includes high doses of persepolis, systemic chemotherapy and letters australia sometimes radiation therapy. New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials. This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is persepolis analysis essay available from the should stay at home essay, NCI website.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. CAR T-cell therapy is a type of film essay, immunotherapy that changes the patient's T cells (a type of immune system cell) so they will attack certain proteins on the surface of cancer cells. Uses And Abuses Of Science. T cells are taken from the patient and film essay special receptors are added to their surface in the laboratory. The changed cells are called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. The CAR T cells are grown in the laboratory and given to the patient by infusion.
The CAR T cells multiply in the patient's blood and attack cancer cells. CAR T-cell therapy is being studied in the treatment of childhood ALL that has relapsed (come back) a second time. Patients may want to think about personal statement for mba, taking part in a clinical trial. For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Persepolis Film. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out uses essay, if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the persepolis film analysis essay, standard treatment. Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in uses of science essay, a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment. Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future.
Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward. Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Analysis. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. Letters Australia. These have been retrieved from NCI's listing of clinical trials. Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the persepolis essay, cancer or to find out the stage of the engaged thesis statement, cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working.
Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on film essay, the results of these tests. Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. Australia. The results of these tests can show if your child's condition has changed or if the persepolis, cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups. Bone marrow aspiration and engaged thesis statement biopsy is done during all phases of persepolis, treatment to see how well the statement of purpose, treatment is working. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Newly Diagnosed Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Standard Risk) The treatment of standard-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the remission induction, consolidation /intensification, and maintenance phases always includes combination chemotherapy. When children are in remission after remission induction therapy, a stem cell transplant using stem cells from a donor may be done. Analysis. When children are not in remission after remission induction therapy, further treatment is usually the thesis statement, same treatment given to children with high-risk ALL. Treatments being studied in clinical trials for standard-risk ALL include new chemotherapy regimens. Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients.
You can search for trials based on the type of film, cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available. Newly Diagnosed Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (High Risk) The treatment of high-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the remission induction, consolidation /intensification, and maintenance phases always includes combination chemotherapy. Essay. Children in the high-risk ALL group are given more anticancer drugs and higher doses of anticancer drugs, especially during the consolidation/intensification phase, than children in the standard-risk group. Intrathecal and persepolis analysis essay systemic chemotherapy are given to prevent or treat the spread of leukemia cells to the brain and spinal cord. Sometimes radiation therapy to mothers should stay at home, the brain is also given. Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on film analysis essay, the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done.
General information about clinical trials is also available. Newly Diagnosed Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Very High Risk) The treatment of very high–risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the remission induction, consolidation /intensification, and maintenance phases always includes combination chemotherapy. Children in the very high–risk ALL group are given more anticancer drugs than children in and abuses of science essay, the high-risk group. It is not clear whether a stem cell transplant during first remission will help the child live longer. Intrathecal and film analysis essay systemic chemotherapy are given to prevent or treat the on ethiopia, spread of leukemia cells to the brain and spinal cord. Sometimes radiation therapy to the brain is also given.
Treatments being studied in clinical trials for film analysis essay, very high–risk ALL include new chemotherapy regimens with or without targeted therapy. Use our clinical trial search to letters australia, find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the persepolis film analysis essay, patient, and where the mothers at home, trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available. Newly Diagnosed Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Special Groups) T-cell childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The treatment of T-cell childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the remission induction, consolidation /intensification, and maintenance phases always includes combination chemotherapy.
Children with T-cell ALL are given more anticancer drugs and higher doses of anticancer drugs than children in the newly diagnosed standard-risk group. Intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy are given to prevent the persepolis film essay, spread of leukemia cells to the brain and spinal cord. Robber. Sometimes radiation therapy to the brain is persepolis also given. Treatments being studied in clinical trials for T-cell ALL include new anticancer agents and chemotherapy regimens with or without targeted therapy. The treatment of infants with ALL during the remission induction, consolidation /intensification, and maintenance phases always includes combination chemotherapy. Infants with ALL are given different anticancer drugs and higher doses of statement of purpose for mba, anticancer drugs than children 1 year and older in the standard-risk group. It is not clear whether a stem cell transplant during first remission will help the child live longer. Treatments being studied in clinical trials for infants with ALL include the film essay, following: A clinical trial of chemotherapy followed by a donor stem cell transplant for infants with certain gene changes.
Children 10 years and older and adolescents with ALL. The treatment of ALL in children and personal of purpose adolescents (10 years and older) during the remission induction, consolidation /intensification, and maintenance phases always includes combination chemotherapy. Children 10 years and older and adolescents with ALL are given more anticancer drugs and higher doses of anticancer drugs than children in the standard-risk group. Intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy are given to prevent the spread of leukemia cells to the brain and spinal cord. Sometimes radiation therapy to the brain is also given. Treatments being studied in film analysis essay, clinical trials for children 10 years and pedagogy thesis older and adolescents with ALL include new anticancer agents and film essay chemotherapy regimens with or without targeted therapy. Philadelphia chromosome–positive ALL. Combination chemotherapy and baron essay targeted therapy with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (imatinib mesylate) with or without a stem cell transplant using stem cells from a donor.
Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on persepolis analysis essay, the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and on ethiopia where the persepolis film essay, trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available. Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Some of the treatments being studied in clinical trials for refractory childhood ALL include: Relapsed Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Combination chemotherapy. Chemotherapy with or without total-body irradiation followed by a stem cell transplant, using stem cells from baron essay robber, a donor. Standard treatment of relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that comes back outside the bone marrow may include the following: Systemic chemotherapy and essay intrathecal chemotherapy with radiation therapy to the brain and/or spinal cord for job application, cancer that comes back in the brain and spinal cord only. Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer that comes back in the testicles only. Stem cell transplant for cancer that has recurred in the brain and/or spinal cord. Some of the treatments being studied in clinical trials for relapsed childhood ALL include: New anticancer drugs and new combination chemotherapy treatments. Combination chemotherapy and persepolis film analysis essay new kinds of targeted therapies (blinatumomab or inotuzumab). Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients.
You can search for on ethiopia, trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. For more information from the National Cancer Institute about childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, see the following: For more childhood cancer information and other general cancer resources, see the following: Physician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and persepolis analysis essay alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in essay on ethiopia, technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language.
Both versions have cancer information that is persepolis essay accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish. PDQ is a service of the NCI. Of Science Essay. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Film Analysis Essay. NIH is the essay robber, federal government’s center of analysis essay, biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH. This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of pedagogy, childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Persepolis Film Analysis Essay. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.
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Persepolis analysis essay - Essay …
Paul Willis, “Aprendiendo a trabajar. Film! Como los chicos de la clase obrera consiguen trabajos de clase obrera”, Akal (Madrid, 1988) Paul Willis, “Aprendiendo a trabajar. Engaged! Como los chicos de la clase obrera consiguen trabajos de clase obrera”, Akal, Madrid, 1988, 232 pags. Por Alejandro Damian Rodriguez*
Aprendiendo a trabajar , de Paul Willis, fue publicado por primera vez en 1977. Persepolis Film Essay! A pesar de los mas de treinta anos transcurridos, el libro conserva una excepcional vigencia. Pedagogy Statement! Su lectura es recomendable, por un lado, para docentes interesados en el analisis de las relaciones al interior de la escuela -sobre todo para los de los niveles medios y altos- y, por el otro, para investigadores dedicados a estudiar la reproduccion social de las sociedades modernas. Persepolis Essay! Aprendiendo a trabajar no es un simple manual para entender “la vida en el aula”. Thesis! Por el contrario, la pregunta central de la obra es mucho mas profunda y se encuentra expresada en el titulo: ?Como los chicos de clase obrera consiguen trabajos de clase obrera? Este libro es producto de una investigacion llevada adelante por el autor en un barrio obrero ingles, ficticiamente denominado Hammertown , de alrededor de 60.000 habitantes.
El trabajo se centro en estudiar a los jovenes del barrio que estaban cursando los ultimos anos de escuela, a la par que comenzaban a hacer sus primeras experiencias laborales. Aprendiendo a trabajar constituye un aporte sustancial para la comprension de la reproduccion social en las sociedades modernas. Persepolis! Su importancia radica en que ofrece una interpretacion de la vida en la escuela que evita, por un lado, la mirada de las biografia individuales de quienes recorren sus aulas, asi como tampoco reduce, por el otro lado, la escuela a la mecanica estructural de los aparatos ideologicos de estado -en sentido althusseriano- que junto a la familia y otras instituciones “clasicas” funcionan para garantizar la reproduccion de la fuerza de trabajo. La obra se estructura en dos partes y un apendice final. Should Stay At Home Essay! En la primera parte se encuentra la etnografia “en crudo” y, por lo tanto, alli estan tambien los significados y sentidos mas ricos. Persepolis Film Analysis Essay! La segunda parte, en cambio, esta dedica al analisis de la etnografia, mientras que el apendice final es un agregado donde se recogen las apreciaciones de varios de los “sujetos de estudio”, despues de haber leido algunos de los materiales que finalmente compusieron la obra. En la primera parte de la obra se presenta una division fundamental entre dos tipos de alumnos: los “pringaos” y los “colegas”.
Los primeros son los sujetos que se adaptan de forma pasiva a las normas de la escuela, en cambio, los segundos son los que no se conforman con lo que la escuela tiene previsto para ellos y elaboran estrategias de accion propias. Essay On Ethiopia! El trabajo de Willis esta centrado en explorar la cosmovision de los “colegas”, mas que estudiar a los “pringaos”, ya que los primeros son quienes van a elaborar la cultura contra-escolar. Persepolis Analysis! Existen diversos elementos de esa contra-cultura; sin embargo, la oposicion a la autoridad es, segun Willis, “la dimension mas explicita, mas evidente y basica”. Mothers Should Stay Essay! La contra-cultura tambien se expresa a traves del modo en que se recorre la escuela, la constante apariencia de estar “haciendo nada” o la vestimenta. Essay! A traves de estas practicas, los “colegas” se distancian de las normas imperantes en la escuela.
A la utilizacion del uniforme escolar, ellos proponen vestimentas que los “representan”, a la prohibicion de fumar, ellos responden fumando. Job Application Australia! De esta manera, se distancian de los “pringaos” que reproducen de manera conformista las reglas que la escuela pretende imponer. Film! Asi tambien, se auto-situan por encima de los “pringaos”, creen ser mas “experimentados” que ellos en distintas materias, pero sobre todo en “la vida misma”. Otro de los elementos de la cultura contra-escolar refiere a la diferencia entre lo formal y lo informal. Essay Robber! El ambito formal es el de la institucion escolar, donde existen estructuras espaciales y temporales que ordenan el ambito, asi como jerarquias entre los actores que indican quienes dan ordenes en el espacio -las autoridades- y quienes las obedecen -los alumnos-. Film Essay! A la cultura escolar, los “colegas” le confrontan la informalidad de su grupo. For Mba! Mientras que la matriz escolar piensa al alumno individualmente, los colegas anteponen el grupo al individuo. Persepolis Film Essay! Justamente, su unidad reside en la solidaridad y en la imposibilidad de concebirse de forma individual: no existen los “colegas” separadamente, existen “los colegas” como conjunto. And Abuses Of Science Essay! Asimismo, la informalidad del grupo reside en la inexistencia de normas, reglas y/o sanciones institucionales. Para entender la cultura contra-escolar tambien hay que prestar atencion a las actitudes de los “colegas” frente a la violencia, el sexo opuesto y el “otro” -estereotipado en el extranjero-. Persepolis Film! Respecto de las actitudes violentas, los “colegas” diferencian entre lo que es “aburrido” y lo que es “emocionante”.
Dentro de la primera categoria se encuentra practicamente todo lo que la institucion escolar propone, en cambio, dentro de lo “emocionante” se ubica el “desafiar a la ley, quebrarla”. Uses Of Science! La violencia, lejos de representar tan solo la anomia o la desviacion social, contribuye a construir la identidad de los “colegas”, asi como regula el “honor” dentro del grupo. Analysis! Respecto de la actitud de los “colegas” frente a las mujeres, ellos diferencian entre dos tipos: las “faciles” y las “potenciales novias”. Australia! Si bien una “potencial novia” debe ser deseada sexualmente por todos, tambien debe ser no “experimentada” en la “materia”, caso contrario, quedaria reducida a la categoria de “facil”. Analysis Essay! Esta division de roles y representaciones sexuales es reproducida tambien por las chicas de la escuela. For Mba! Sobre la actitud de los “colegas” frente al “otro” extranjero que tambien transita la escuela, se observan actitudes claramente racistas.
En la escuela confluyen grupos etnicos blancos, asiaticos e hindues. Persepolis Film! La actitud frente a las dos minorias es de total rechazo, basado exclusivamente en el color diferente de la piel. La pregunta excluyente es: ?De donde surgen los elementos que caracterizan a la cultura contra-escolar? Segun el autor, y fundamentado en el trabajo de campo que realizo en las fabricas donde los “colegas” asisten despues de clases, la cultura contra-escolar se nutre de los principios de la “cultura de fabrica”. Uses And Abuses! De la misma manera que en la escuela, en la fabrica, el grupo informal es la unidad basica de la cultura obrera. Persepolis Essay! Frente a las normas patronales, los obreros plantean estrategias para trabajar segun sus tiempos.
Asimismo, poseen representaciones muy parecidas a las de los “colegas” respecto al sexo opuesto, la masculinidad, la violencia o el honor. Aunque esta primera parte del libro es de indole descriptiva, existen algunas categorias conceptuales importantes. Personal Statement! En este sentido se inscriben los conceptos de diferenciacion e integracion. Film Analysis Essay! Mientras que el primero alude al proceso por el cual la cultura obrera se manifiesta dentro de una institucion formal como la escuela o la fabrica y, al mismo tiempo, se diferencia por las reinterpretaciones que los actores realizan segun sus propios intereses, la nocion de integracion refiere al proceso mediante el cual diversos elementos informales de la cultura contra-institucional son integrados al paradigma formal de la escuela o la fabrica. Las actitudes de los “colegas” respecto al trabajo los conduce a rechazar frontalmente la escuela y todo lo que ella involucra, desde la orientacion profesional hasta los titulos, asi como creen que el trabajo manual es siempre preferido al intelectual. On Ethiopia! Es solo “una manera de ganarse la vida” sostienen, por lo que carece de sentido esforzarse, ya que de todas maneras terminaran trabajando en la fabrica, donde de poco les servira lo aprendido en la escuela. Analysis! Todas estas representaciones son forzadas por el entorno familiar y obrero, permitiendo la idealizacion del trabajo manual y de la fabrica, denostando el trabajo intelectual asociado a la figura del docente, que representan modelos lejanos no validos que no saben “nada de la vida”. La segunda parte de la obra es de mayor envergadura teorica; intenta buscar una explicacion a todo lo descrito en el apartado anterior, ya sea el rechazo de los “colegas” a la institucion escolar, o la aparicion de una cultura contra-escolar que termina por reproducir la fuerza de trabajo al guiar a los “colegas” a la fabrica. Essay! Willis utiliza dos conceptos para interpretar la cuestion: penetracion y limitacion.
La primera categoria refiere a los impulsos de parte de los miembros de una determinada cultura que, si bien poseen un caracter emancipador, son inarticuladamente expresados. Persepolis Film Essay! Estos impulsos intentan penetrar las condiciones materiales de existencia de los miembros de la cultura y conducirian a una mejor compresion de su situacion de clase dominada. Job Application Letters Australia! Las principales penetraciones en este caso son el rechazo de los “colegas” a los titulos o la educacion formal, la nocion de trabajo-mercancia cambiada por un salario y la no diferenciacion entre trabajos. Film Essay! Potencialmente, las penetraciones culturales de la contra-cultura podrian poner en tela de juicio todo el esquema escolar, ya que introducen la critica en puntos clave: la idea de esforzarse por un titulo, o el hecho de que la formacion escolar carece de sentido, ya que, de todas formas, tanto “pringaos” como “colegas” van a terminar en las fabricas. Respecto de las limitaciones, se trata de elementos de la contra-cultura que tienden a desorganizar y deprimir la potencialidad revolucionaria de las penetraciones. Thesis! El autor menciona como ejemplo las divisiones culturales de la contra-cultura escolar -que se nutren de la (contra) cultura obrera- referidas a la separacion del trabajo manual y el trabajo mental o intelectual, que a su vez refuerza la division entre lo masculino y lo femenino. Film Analysis! Mientras que los trabajos masculinos son todos aquellos manuales y de fuerza, los femeninos son los mas “dociles”. And Abuses Essay! Esta division revela tambien una separacion de roles sexuales dentro del nucleo familiar: el hombre trabaja por un salario en la fabrica; la mujer encuentra su lugar dentro del hogar.
Otra de las limitaciones que actua sobre la potencialidad de las penetraciones de la contra-cultura refiere a la division racial. Analysis Essay! Muchas veces, los inmigrantes realizan trabajos “duros”, al igual que los “colegas”, incluso mas pesados que el de ellos, por lo que podrian ser percibidos como pares. Baron Essay Robber! Sin embargo, la respuesta es el rechazo hacia este tipo de labores por desagradables o indignas. Persepolis Essay! Esta limitacion racial de la contra-cultura impide percibir el caracter dominado que une tanto a “colegas” como a inmigrantes en el sistema escolar. Job Application Letters Australia! Como resultado, lo que se produce, segun Willis, son “penetraciones parciales”, producto de la mezcla entre los impulsos revolucionarios de la contra-cultura y los elementos limitantes culturales, que tambien pertenecen a ella.
A modo de cierre, el autor presenta dos conceptos que deben ser analizados en relacion a la influencia de la ideologia: confirmacion y dislocacion. Persepolis Analysis Essay! Willis propone el servicio de orientacion profesional de la escuela como un espacio en el cual la ideologia surte efectos. Engaged Pedagogy Thesis Statement! En este espacio de preparacion pre-laboral, muchas de las limitaciones de la contra-cultura obrera, entre ellas la division sexual de roles o la separacion entre trabajo manual e intelectual, son confirmadas y/o reforzadas mediante un trabajo ideologico que es llevado adelante, por ejemplo, a traves de la proyeccion de peliculas. Persepolis Film Essay! Respecto al proceso de dislocacion, Willis sostiene que los efectos de la ideologia, tambien ejemplificados a traves del servicio de orientacion profesional, desarticulan las penetraciones culturales de la contra-cultura. Australia! Asi, las penetraciones del grupo relacionadas con la nocion de trabajo son descentradas mediante la sobreexposicion a una variedad de trabajos existentes que terminan siendo funcionales para representar la similitud con el trabajo “en si”. Film Analysis Essay! Y lo mas importante del proceso de dislocacion es que al resaltar el caracter individual del trabajo termina minando la solidaridad en que se basa el grupo de “colegas”.
Por ultimo, el apendice final esta dedicado a reflexionar sobre las posibilidades de la presente investigacion para contribuir a algun tipo de cambio en el sistema educativo britanico. Essay On Ethiopia! Ademas, tambien intenta mostrar las opiniones de algunos de los “colegas”, sobre los “borradores” del autor, que despues desembocaron en la obra. El libro de Willis es sumamente interesante para contrastarlo con otras obras clasicas del marxismo, como pueden ser las de Althusser o Gramsci, por ejemplo. Essay! Desde una perspectiva althusseriana, la escuela deberia ser considerada como uno de los aparatos ideologicos fundamentales de la dominacion de clase burguesa, sin embargo, esta mirada impide analizar reacciones puntuales como la de los “colegas” que, antes que producto de la “falsa conciencia”, son tambien respuestas, aunque inconexas, inmersas en la lucha de clases. Baron! Tambien es pertinente contrastar este texto con los clasicos aportes de Gramsci.
El concepto de “hegemonia”, por ejemplo, permite entender mejor el trabajo de Willis, ya que el ambito escolar no es un espacio puramente coercitivo, sino que implica tambien cierto grado de aceptacion de parte de quienes transitan las aulas como alumnos. Film Analysis Essay! En definitiva, el libro de Willis, a pesar de los anos transcurridos desde su primera publicacion, conserva una vigencia excepcional, porque hace parte de la mejor tradicion marxista, dedicada a estudiar la reproduccion social a traves de la cultura, sostenida en un fuerte trabajo de campo empirico.