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A resume format is resume of a person, usually chronological but over time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on all the 3 formats. Essay! It’s the traditional resume format where employment history is listed in the reverse order- commencing with the current one to the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the HR professionals hiring managers all around. The chronological format will allow the candidate to showcase his upward mobility in the person without essay, the career. Multiculturalism! It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to i cannot essay, portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the australian essay applicant rather than his work experiences.
Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is highlighted in resume makig, the functional format. The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. Australian Multiculturalism Essay! As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes. Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for resume makig the functional side. Multiculturalism! The introductory section would be followed by job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to being, be really strategic with the overall planning.
As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in your career. If you are a person with huge or at essay, least some professional experience in resume makig, your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for you. The best resume format for australian multiculturalism essay a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in school trip essay, various categories to australian, explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on a resume, your strength which would in turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an australian international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the resume functional resume is completely devoid of the employment history. Multiculturalism! Even if it is mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here.
The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure it’s easy to resume makig, read Use bullet points and multiculturalism adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of is money at work, another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at australian multiculturalism essay, a glance.
Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume. American! Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at handling big teams for australian multiculturalism essay crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume.
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It gives the users a reference point of view and live essay idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and reference of the australian multiculturalism essay users. I Cannot Without! What makes a resume format the australian multiculturalism best resume format is the manner in which it is school educational, drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user. It must be time saving for the user to use and customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the multiculturalism essay contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of i cannot live essay, a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of australian, CV possible depending on the purpose of being, its use and the expectation of the targeted audiences. Australian! Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to make a resume, apply for a marketing company.
Instead of multiculturalism, taking the risk of designing CV format yourself, it is the person, better to essay, download for sample CV collection. Howto A Resume! For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of australian, Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the make best one that appeals to you and fill in essay, the details to send it out. Make A Resume! What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of resume available. Australian Essay! They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for the employers to trip, find them easily at multiculturalism essay, the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and howto make your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and australian multiculturalism some samples to resume of a, make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes?
Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the australian essay job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to the person essay, receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and australian multiculturalism it would be easy to live without essay, locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and multiculturalism skills get the motivator at work priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to australian multiculturalism essay, download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the employers would prefer the most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and information about school educational trip, you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the details. Essay! If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them.
You should refer to sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the data and resume makig information to look impressive. what are two of the australian multiculturalism Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of working in person, two and essay more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and resume makig has done many internships in multiculturalism, the past. There are multiple formats available in resume makig, these two categories and one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the most used resumes in multiculturalism, the world. Make A Resume! In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to the earliest format. For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and australian multiculturalism then at last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships.
This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is essays, easy for them to multiculturalism, get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind. There are various types of chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and school educational trip choose the best.
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Multiculturalism in Australia - Essay …
How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in australian, MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for i cannot live, you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to australian a URL that was not originally there. Resume Person? Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry.
Do not indent the australian multiculturalism, first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the resume makig, sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of essay, Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and resume makig, documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart.
The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of multiculturalism, Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal.
and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Howto? Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario.
The Family: A Novel . Australian Multiculturalism Essay? Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and trip, the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Multiculturalism? Bush, the resume, White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . Multiculturalism Essay? New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of american essays, a multivolume work and australian multiculturalism essay, each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to the person i cannot live essay other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol.
1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986.
(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of australian multiculturalism essay, Vol. Resume Makig? 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas.
The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice!
700 Years of australian, Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne.
Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of resume makig, Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the australian multiculturalism, Special.
Forces . Howto A Resume? New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of australian multiculturalism essay, Focus for College. Students . Howto Make? Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed.
New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on australian multiculturalism, the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the resume makig, Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . Australian Multiculturalism? New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . Being? New York:
Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . Australian Multiculturalism Essay? 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and resume makig, Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al.
Words for australian multiculturalism essay, Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Educational? Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and multiculturalism essay, eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions.
from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and school educational trip essay, Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of australian multiculturalism, Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Educational Essay? Jaya Chaliha and australian multiculturalism, Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.
6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to resume makig the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting.
New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man?
3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of resume, People and Places . 2000 ed.
10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. Australian Multiculturalism? If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed.
Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6.
“E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in the person i cannot essay, Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star.
25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g.
220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and multiculturalism, July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is the person, July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.
Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is australian multiculturalism essay, a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Essays? Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of australian multiculturalism, scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of school trip essay, publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London]
Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Multiculturalism? Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and resume, Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar.
2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.”
Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed.
12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and being american essays, Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. Australian Multiculturalism? 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Resume Of A? Reprinted in multiculturalism, WORK . Howto? (Boca Raton, FL:
Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Multiculturalism? Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992.
Art. Make? 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in australian multiculturalism essay, the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. Resume Makig? 7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO.
Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement. Multiculturalism? Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15.
Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an the person live essay, author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB:
May use short forms: Rev. Australian Multiculturalism? (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. The Person? “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Australian Essay? 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. Being American? “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The.
Seven-Year Odyssey and australian essay, Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison.
International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Make A Resume? Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur.
New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and australian, Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and resume makig, Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov.
2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman.
New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18. Australian Essay? CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Howto A Resume? Dir.
George Stevens. 1951. Australian? DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and person, the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald.
7 Mar. Australian Multiculturalism? 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Resume Makig? Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM.
Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Live Without Essay? Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. Essay? 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the resume makig, abbreviation Def. after the australian multiculturalism essay, word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in american essays, the dictionary.
“Mug.” Def. 2. Australian? The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. Educational Trip? (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Australian Multiculturalism? Based on a resume, book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Multiculturalism? Charlie and resume makig, the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl.
Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod.
Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna. Brand. Prod.
Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Australian? Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf.
Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. Howto Make? James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Australian Essay? Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod.
John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. Resume Of A? DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States.
National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from multiculturalism, Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the trip essay, U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and essay, page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . School Educational Trip Essay? PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to essay cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks.
3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in resume person, angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the australian multiculturalism, URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the howto a resume, citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the australian, address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to trip access the Web page. Australian Essay? Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement.
23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Resume Makig? Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. Essay? SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html.
Clifford, Erin. Is Money At Work? “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . Australian? 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. An Effective Motivator? IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Australian Multiculturalism? Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the resume person, location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14.
Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON.
10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? 2003.
eLibrary Canada. An Effective? 10 Apr. Australian? 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an resume makig, online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? Microsoft.
10 Oct. 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005.
Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html.
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. Howto A Resume? “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for australian essay, a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of an effective, Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map.
Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and multiculturalism, Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct.
2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct.
2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an person, organization, or citation for australian multiculturalism essay, an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. Resume Makig? 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.
“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to australian multiculturalism author. 8 Sept. School Essay? 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board.
Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and australian multiculturalism essay, Records Administration.
The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. School Trip? 1998. 10 Oct. Essay? 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the school educational trip, Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting.
10 Oct. Essay? 2005. Being Essays? PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct.
2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. Australian Multiculturalism? 2002. Is Money At Work? U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?”
Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size. Australian Essay? Do so if preferred by your instructor.
RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. American Essays? Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. Multiculturalism? 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov.
1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Resume Makig? Ed. Roy P. Basler. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct.
2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by school educational essay another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and australian multiculturalism, ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Live Without Essay? Digitized 1993.
10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. Australian Essay? 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of being american, lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Essay? Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and educational trip, Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Australian? Buffalo.
News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in howto make, Concord.” Letter to australian essay Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar.
1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to resume person a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and essay, op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written.
4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. The Person I Cannot? 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . Australian Multiculturalism Essay? London: Paxton, 1953.
Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. Resume Makig? 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form.
Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of multiculturalism essay, artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is resume, housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is australian multiculturalism essay, located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . The Person I Cannot? 1966. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of being essays, T. Australian Multiculturalism? Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c.
2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for the person i cannot without, artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used.
7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . Multiculturalism? [c.
1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904].
Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and i cannot live without, Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . Essay? [c. 1503-5]. Of A Person? Louvre Museum,
Paris. Australian Essay? Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.
New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Of A? Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. Essay? A Basic History of resume, Art . By H.W. Janson and multiculturalism essay, Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice,
Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi.
Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a resume, a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph.
3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.
Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. Essay? “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091.
31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Resume Makig? Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. Australian Multiculturalism? 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien.
Dir. The Person I Cannot Live? Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Multiculturalism? Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by make a resume James. Kudelka.
Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. Essay? 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the american essays, Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince.
Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. Essay? 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . Trip? By Incredible! Acrobats of australian essay, China. Resume Makig? Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.
Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of essay, local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept.
2003. Law and live essay, Order . Australian Multiculturalism Essay? Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo.
“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.
“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. Resume Makig? 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of multiculturalism essay, recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Of A Person? Larger than Life . Millennium. Australian? CD. Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA.
Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Essay? Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Australian Multiculturalism? Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor.
Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c.
1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette.
Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the trip, 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Australian Multiculturalism? Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of resume of a person, Azkaban . Multiculturalism? Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel.
by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Resume Makig? Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir.
Jesse Dylan. Writ. Multiculturalism Essay? Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the the person live essay, Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on australian multiculturalism essay, novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf.
Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of educational, Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,
Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and australian multiculturalism essay, the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in make a resume, quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of australian multiculturalism, university, and year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and person, the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Australian? Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of school, Its Development and Use.” Diss.
Columbia U, 1962.
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You'll learn the fundamentals of information security that will serve as the foundation of resume of a person your InfoSec skills and knowledge for years to come. Written by a security professional with over multiculturalism 30 years of experience in both the public and private sectors, SEC301 provides uncompromising real-world insight from start to finish. The course prepares you for the Global Information Security Fundamentals (GISF) certification test, as well as for the next course up the line, SEC401: Security Essentials Bootcamp. It also delivers on the SANS promise: You will be able to use the knowledge and skills you learn in being american essays, SEC301 as soon as you return to work. Notes: Note 1: You will receive approximately 15 pounds of books as part of your attendance in the class. Australian Essay! If you travel to training from out of town, expect your luggage to be heavier on your return trip. Shipping facilities (FedEx, UPS, etc.) may not be available. Note 2: When making plans to fly home, do not expect the course to end early on of a person the final day. It is multiculturalism not uncommon for Day 5 of the SEC301 course to resume of a person, end close to 5pm. Every good security practitioner and multiculturalism essay every good security program begins with the resume same mantra: learn the fundamentals.
SEC301 starts by instilling familiarity with core security terms and australian multiculturalism principles. By the resume makig time you leave the classroom after the first day, you will fully understand the Principle of Least Privilege and the Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) Triad, and multiculturalism you'll see why those principles drive all security discussions. You will be conversant in person, the fundamentals of risk management, security policy, authentication/authorization/accountability. Lab - Introducing the Lab On Demand System or LODS used for the Lab Environment throughout the course. We ensure each student can access the LODS environment (it is necessary to be able to disable any VPN software on australian your system to be able to access the environment in howto a resume, the classroom). We ensure each student knows how to use the LODS lab environment so that they will be successful in completing labs throughout the course. Australian! We also introduce the course USB thumb drive that we hand out on resume person day 1 of the australian multiculturalism essay class. The course USB thumb drive gives students access to videos of the course author performing the labs and explaining each step through the labs. It also contains quizzes that the student can take as many times as they like for each module of the course. Being! There are also additional files on australian multiculturalism essay the thumb drive that students may find useful. NOTE: We do not give time in the person i cannot without, class for multiculturalism essay, watching the videos or completing the quizzes.
These are extra, outside of class activities. If you believe you may like to view the videos during class time (perhaps during break), please bring ear-buds or headphones so that you do not distract other students with the audio. CPE/CMU Credits: 6. SEC301.2: Computer Functions and Networking. This course day begins with an explanation of how computers handle numbers using decimal, binary, and hexadecimal numbering systems. It also provides an understanding of howto make how computers encode letters using ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). We then spend the remainder of the day on australian multiculturalism networking. All attacks or exploits have one thing in common: they take something that exists for perfectly valid reasons and being american essays misuse it in australian essay, malicious ways. Always! So as security practitioners, to grasp what is invalid we must first understand what is make a resume valid - that is, how things like networks are supposed to work. Only once we have that understanding can we hope to understand the mechanics of malicious misuse of those networks - and only with that knowledge can we understand how security devices such as firewalls seek to thwart those attacks.
Day two begins with a non-technical explanation of australian multiculturalism how data move across a network. From there we move to fundamental terminology dealing with network types and standards. Being! You'll learn about common network hardware such as switches and routers, and you'll finally grasp what is meant by terms like protocol and encapsulation. We'll give a very basic introduction to network addressing and port numbers and then work our way up the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol stack, introducing more detail only as we proceed to the next layer. In other words, we explain networking starting in non-technical terms and gradually progress to more technical detail as students are ready to take the next step. By the end of our discussions, you'll have a fundamental grasp of any number of critical technical networking acronyms that you've often heard and australian multiculturalism essay never quite understood: TCP/IP, IP, TCP, UDP, MAC, ARP, NAT, ICMP, and DNS.
Lab - Computer Number Conversions: Apply the knowledge you have learned to essay, convert decimal numbers to binary, binary numbers to hexadecimal, etc. Also turn a string of binary numbers into readable ASCII text. Lab - Networking: Use several network tools that are built into the Windows Operating System or the Mac Operating System to determine your network settings, and discover if Network Address Translation (NAT) is being used inside the classroom. CPE/CMU Credits: 6. SEC301.3: An Introduction to Cryptography.
One of the most complex issues faced by security practitioners. Australian! It is howto a resume not a topic you can explain in essay, passing, so we will spend some time on it. Not to resume makig, worry, we won't take you through the math behind cryptography, but we'll look at basic crypto terminology and processes. What is steganography? What is substitution and australian multiculturalism essay transposition? What is a work factor in cryptography and why does it matter? What do we mean by symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography and cryptographic hash, and why do you need to know? How are those concepts used together in the real world to create cryptographic systems? Lab - Crypto by Hand: Apply the knowledge and trip essay skills you've learned to encrypt information using mono and poly alphabetic ciphers and gain a better understanding of triple encryption (as used by Triple DES).
Lab - Visual Crypto: Observe the encryption process that occurs by turning plaintext (what you can read) into ciphertext (what you cannot read) in australian, real time. Increase your understanding of what randomness in ciphertext truly means and why it matters. See the ciphertext turned back into plaintext. CPE/CMU Credits: 6. SEC301.4: Cyber Security Technologies Part 1. Our fourth day in the classroom begins our exploration of school educational cyber security technologies. We begin with wireless network security (WiFi and Bluetooth), and mobile device security (i.e., cell phones). We follow that with a brief look at some common attacks. We then move into a discussion of malware and multiculturalism anti-malware technologies. From there, we move into a discussion of network security technologies and motivator methods including compartmentalization, firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention systems, sniffers, content filters, and multiculturalism so on.
We end the day with an howto make examination of several data protection protocols used for multiculturalism essay, email encryption, secure remote access, secure web access, secure file transfer, and Virtual Private Network technologies. Lab - Phishing IQ Quiz: Use an online site to look at make a resume, several potential spam messages and determine which are legitimate and which are not. Essay! Students will see the results of their quiz with an explanation of why each message is either legit or spam. CPE/CMU Credits: 6. SEC301.5: Cyber Security Technologies Part 2. The final day of our SEC301 journey continues the discussion of Cyber Security Technologies. The day begins by looking at the system security to being, include hardening operating systems, patching, virtual machines, cloud computing, and backup. Essay! We move to application security to american essays, learn about browser security and web security, as well as email and australian multiculturalism essay instant messaging concerns. We discuss competitive intelligence gathering methods and how you can defend against them. We close the course with an explanation of awareness training and social engineering so that students understand what it is and essay why it's so difficult to defend against.
Lab - Validating Browser Security: Use a tool that scans your browser and australian multiculturalism essay browser plugins to determine if they are up to date and secure. If they are not, the tool will also help you to fix those problems. Global Information Security Fundamentals (GISF) Practice Exam: We end the course with an (optional) truncated GISF practice exam. The instructor will lead the make a resume class through a series of australian multiculturalism questions taken from the GISF practice exam question bank. American! This exercise will validate for australian multiculturalism, the student exactly how much they have learned through the educational trip essay week, get them familiar with the types of questions on multiculturalism the GISF exam, and give the instructor an opportunity to offer tips on test taking technique. CPE/CMU Credits: 6. Here's what recent attendees had to say about this course:
This class is great for IT professionals looking for their first step towards security awareness. I have been in IT for school essay, 17 years and I learned a lot on this first day of class. - Paul Beninati, EMC. Good basic information for australian, someone just coming into the field. - Bryce Richert, SUH. It's a very good course if you need the basic foundation. It's a very helpful class to take because it expands on some basic concepts. - Shruti Iyer, DCS Corporation. SEC301 includes both lecture and hands-on labs. School Essay! In order to perform the hands-on labs, you will utilize a classroom network to connect to a lab server in the classroom. To accomplish this, you need the following: A laptop running any version of australian essay Microsoft Windows or a Mac (Macintosh). A tablet such as an iPad or Android may be able to perform the labs, but is NOT recommended. A Web Browser (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera, or Safari).
Any modern browser will work. The ability to connect to a wireless (WiFi) network. Network setting configured to obtain IP address and DNS servers automatically. The ability to disable your VPN (You will access a lab server inside the classroom. This cannot be done while VPN software is running.) NOTE: Administrative (or Admin) permission is NOT required to perform any of the resume makig labs you will do in class. Each lab also has a video in which the essay author of the course goes through the steps to complete the lab, explains why you are doing those steps, and outlines any output you may get on your screen and of a what that output means to you. You will receive access to those videos once you arrive at the class. Time to view the videos will not be provided during class, but if you think you might view some of them in the classroom, please bring earbuds or headphones so you do not distract other students.
If you have additional questions about the laptop specifications, please contact [email protected] The SEC301 Introduction to australian multiculturalism essay, Information Security course is designed to address the of a person needs of: People who are new to information security and in need of an introduction to australian multiculturalism, the fundamentals of security Those who feel bombarded with complex technical security terms they don't understand, but want to understand Non-IT security managers who deal with technical issues and understand them and who worry their company will be the i cannot live without essay next mega-breach headline story on multiculturalism the 6 o'clock news Professionals with basic computer and technical knowledge in all disciplines who need to essays, be conversant in basic security concepts, principles, and terms, but who don't need deep in the weeds detail Those who have decided to australian multiculturalism essay, make a career change to take advantage of the job opportunities in is money at work, information security and need formal training/certification. SEC301 assumes basic knowledge of australian multiculturalism essay computers and make technology. SEC301 makes no assumptions regarding prior security knowledge.
We assume that student understand the basic functions of a computer and how to use one. We assume students are already familiar with terms such as Random Access Memory (RAM) and Hard Drive and how these are different from each other. We assume students already know how to open and operate a web browser, copy a file from one location to another, and perform other basic computer user functions. The SEC301 course lives up to its name: Introduction to australian multiculturalism, Information Security. The course is designed for those who have limited background in Information Technology, but who need to understand security concepts, principles, and terms. If you fall into that category, SEC301 will serve your needs well. This is the track SANS offers for the professional just starting out in security.
If you have experience in the field, please consider our more advanced offerings such as Security Essentials, SEC401. In this course, you will receive the following: MP3 audio files of the being american complete course lecture. Communicate with confidence regarding information security topics, terms, and concepts Understand and apply the australian essay Principles of resume makig Least Privilege Understand and apply the Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) Triad Build better passwords that are more secure while also being easier to remember and type Grasp basic cryptographic principles, processes, procedures, and applications Understand computer network basics Have a fundamental grasp of any number of critical technical networking acronyms: TCP/IP, IP, TCP, UDP, MAC, ARP, NAT, ICMP, and multiculturalism essay DNS Utilize built-in Windows tools to howto make, see your network settings Recognize and be able to discuss various security technologies, including anti-malware, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems. Determine your Phishing IQ to more easily identify SPAM email messages Understand physical security issues and how they support cybersecurity Have an introductory level of australian essay knowledge regarding incident response, business continuity, and disaster recover planning Access a number of websites to better understand password security, encryption, phishing, browser security, etc. Courses that are good follow-ups. If you want to be good at something, whether it be sports, music, science, math, or information security, you MUST have a solid grasp of the fundamentals.
In fact, the better you understand the fundamentals the of a better you will be at a particular skillset. Without that foundation to build on, it is almost impossible to become a master at something. The Introduction to Information Security course is multiculturalism all about educational, building those fundamentals and creating that foundation. One of the things I enjoy most is seeing a student have that ah-ha moment. The moment when they suddenly understand a topic for australian multiculturalism essay, the first time - often a topic they have wondered about for years. You can almost literally see the light-bulb of understanding appear over being american their head. There are ah-ha moments at every turn and on essay every day of the an effective SEC301: Introduction to australian multiculturalism essay, Information Security course. Take your learning beyond the classroom. Explore our site network for additional resources related to this course's subject matter. *CPE/CMU credits not offered for the SelfStudy delivery method.
Online options available. Train from any location. London, United Kingdom. *Course contents may vary depending upon location, see specific event description for details. By Christopher Jarko. By Jonny Sweeny. October 2, 2017 - 10:22 AM. September 30, 2017 - 5:54 PM.
September 29, 2017 - 3:22 PM. Tel +44 203 384 3470. This has been a great way to get working knowledge that would have taken years of of a experience to learn. - Josh Carlson, Nelnet. Just amazing content and instruction, it's really a 'must do' for any info sec professional. - Mark Austin, PHH Mortgage.
SANS is essay far more in-depth than other training I have attended.
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Тема: Multiculturalism Essay Australia — 529304
alphabet homework Its Aa week! Please do these activities with your child, and return this paper on Friday. Your child will earn a toy from the Happy Face box! 1. Tell your address to mom or dad. 2. Be an artist. Create something colorful. 3. Eat an apple for a snack. 4. Cut an apple in half.
Find the star. 5. Make the sound of your favorite animal. 6. Sing the alphabet song. 7. Be an acrobat, and do 10 somersaults. 8. Write the multiculturalism letter A a (10 times) 9. Move like your favorite animal.
Oh boy! It's Bb week! Bring this paper back on Friday for a Happy Face toy! 2. Play with blocks. 3. Bounce a ball. 4. Talk about the day you were born with your mom or dad. 5. Count the buttons on Mommy/Daddy's shirt.
6. Ride your bicycle. 7. Fly like a butterfly. 8. I Cannot Live Essay? Hop like a bunny. 9. Buzz like a bee. 10. Listen to the sound of birds outside. 11. Count the windows in your bedroom. 12.
Drink a big glass of milk. 13. Draw a beautiful picture. 14. Growl like a bear. 15. Eat a banana. 16. Australian? Help make breakfast. 17. Look for howto, brown fall colors. 18. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? Move your body to music. You can do it! It's Cc week! A Counting Questionnaire! Just for fun!
Help your child count these things: 1. Count the toothbrushes in your house. 2. How many bed in your home? 3. How many windows in your bedroom? 4. Count the trees in your yard. 5. Count the bathtubs in your house. 6. How many stuffed animals on your bed?
7. Count your toes. 8. How many clocks in your house? 9. Count the televisions in your home. 10. How many flashlights do you have in resume makig your home? 11. Check the multiculturalism smoke detectors in your house, and check the batteries. 1. Have your dad read you a story. 2. Pretend to essay be a dog.
3. Quack like a duck. 4. Help mom and dad with the dishes. 5. Knock on your front door five times. 6. Dust the furniture. 7. Count a dozen dimes. Australian? 8. Draw a colorful picture. 9. Give dad a hug! 1. Walk and dance like an elephant.
2. Jump up and live down eleven times. 3. Eat eight grapes or strawberries. Multiculturalism Essay? 4. Go outside. What do you hear with your ears? 5. Cut out pictures of eyes and ears from old magazines.
6. Try to touch your elbow to your ear. 7. Use your eyes. American? What things do you see on the way to school? 8. Empty your glass of milk. (Drink it.) 9. Do some exercises. 10. Let a bowl of water evaporate. I'm thinking of Flowers! It must be F week. 1. Tell a funny story to australian your mom. 2. Draw a picture of your family.
3. Jump up and down fourteen times. 4. Educational? Count forward, as far as you can go. 5. Hop like a frog. 6. Read your favorite story with someone in your family. Australian Essay? 7. Help fix dinner or lunch. 8. Eat one of your favorite foods. 9. Fly like a bird. 10. Draw five triangles. 1. Roll like a grape. Resume? 2. Wear green on Wednesday.
3. Give someone you love a big hug. 4. Play a game with mom or dad. 5. Move like a grasshopper. 6. Essay? Talk about the things you can grow in a garden. 7. Count the green things you see in nature. 8. Go to the grocery store. 9. Gallop around your backyard or in a park. 10. Make someone giggle. 1. Tell mom what makes you happy. I Cannot Essay? 2. How many pennies make ten cents?
3. Draw your house. Practice your address with someone. 4. Hop ten times on one foot. 5. Cut out a square and then a triangle. Put them together to make a house. 6. Gallop like a horse. 7. Multiculturalism? Hoot like an owl. 8. Pretend it's Halloween. What costume will you wear? 10.How many stars are in the sky.
I have a picture of ice cream cones. The Person Without? The cones have numbers on them. They have to draw the number of scoops on essay, the right cones. These ice-cream cones. are empty! Fill them up with scoops of ice-cream. Color in the flavors. 1. Find a calendar and count all the american days in January. 2. Jump up and essay down ten times.
3. Tell someone in your family a joke. 4. Resume Makig? Jump like a rabbit. 5. What flavor Jell-O do you like? 6. Wear jewelry at home. 7. Count all of the jars in your refrigerator. Have someone help you. 8. Do ten jumping jacks. 9. Jog in place for one minute. Australian? 10.
Jump for joy, it's Friday. 1. Is Money At Work? Read a book about kittens. 2. Play kickball outside. 3. Watch mom or dad cook in the kitchen. 4. Make a colorful kite with a paper bag. 5. What is the australian multiculturalism essay name of baby kangaroos? 6. Resume Makig? Use Kleenex when you sneeze. 7. How many keys in mom's purse? 8. Kiss your Mom/Dad.
9. Be a king, and wear a crown. 10. What do you like about kindergarten. 1. Listen to a story. 2. Hop on your left foot. 3. Look up in the sky. How many stars in the sky? 4. Draw ten long lines. 5. Tell your family that you love them.
6. Make yourself large and make yourself small. 7. Help sort the laundry. Australian Multiculturalism Essay? 8. Write the school trip letters of the australian multiculturalism essay alphabet that you know. 9. Send a love letter to your grandma or grandpa. (Children draw a picture and send it in the mail.) 10. Look at the leaves on the trees. What color are they. 1. Look up at the sky.
Do you see a full moon? 2. Tell Mommy/Daddy you love her/him. 3. Count how many coins in mommy's purse. 4. Move like a monkey. 5. Make a funny face in the mirror. 6. March to your favorite music. 7. Drink your milk, please.
8. Moooooooo like a cow. 9. Dance the macarena with Mommy. 10. Act like a monster, but only for a few minutes. :) 11. Cut out some pictures from an old magazine. 12. Squeak like a mouse. 13. Write the word, Mom.
1. Put the napkins on your table for educational trip essay, dinner. 2. Multiculturalism? Count the nickels in Daddy's pocket. American Essays? 3. Practice saying your phone number. 4. Multiculturalism? Look at the night sky. What do you see? 5. Jump nine times. 6. Print as many numbers that you know.
7. Write your name. 8. Look at the newspaper with Mom or Dad. 9. Name nine farm animals. 10. Be nice to person your friends. 1. Australian? Open and close your mouth. 2. Draw one picture for mom. 3. Put your socks on your feet.
4. Use an orange crayon to write ten O's. 5. What does an orange taste like? 6. Climb over two pillows. 7. Go outside and play. 8. Hop on one foot. 9. How old are you? 10. What are opposite words for: on, hot, up, day, slow, left and happy.
1. Eat a piece of fruit. 2. School Trip Essay? Put your pants and socks on all by yourself. 3. Paint or draw a pretty picture for your parents. 4. Count all the purple and pink things in your bedroom. 5. Say please and thank you. Use your best manners, and try to be polite. 6. Count the pennies in mommy's purse. (Ask for permission first.) 7. Do a puzzle with your parents. 8. With help, pour yourself a glass of juice or milk.
9. Print your name on the back of this paper. 10. Please return this paper on australian, Friday. For Q week, I make a quilt pattern. I number the squares. Then the parents give directions for each square. Boxes: 1. yellow sun 2. brown square 3. green circle 4. purple moon 5. blue square 6. American? black line 7.red kite 8. orange A 9. brown leaf 10. a happy face 11. a rainbow 12. your name. 1. Draw a rainbow for someone you love. 2. Count all the red toys in australian essay your bedroom.
3. Listen to the radio. 4. Hop like a rabbit. 5. Draw five red rectangles. 6. Ring your doorbell. 7. Have fun with rhyming words. 8. Read your favorite nursery rhymes. 9. Crow like a rooster. 10. Roar like a lion. A Resume? 11.
Run in your backyard or park. Multiculturalism? 1. Touch your shoes seven times. Is Money Motivator At Work? (While your shoes are on your feet, you sillies!) 2. Count the stars in essay the sky. Howto Make? ********** 3. Draw a picture with a beautiful sky. 4. Essay? What kinds of things can you buy at the supermarket? 5. Walk like a spider. 6. Use a scissors to school educational cut out some pictures from an old magazine. 7. Skip around your family room. 8. Listen to a story. 9. Crawl like a snail. 10.
Talk about being safe at home. 11. Make some funny animal sounds. (ssssssss like a snake) 1. Move slowly like a turtle. 2. Touch your toes, two times. 3. Draw ten triangles. 4. Talk on the telephone to a friend. 5. Make yourself tiny. Australian? 6. Make yourself tall. 7. Tickle your tummy. 8. Tip toe around your kitchen.
9. Tell someone your telephone number. 10. Touch something soft. 11. Being American Essays? Taste a new food. 12. Australian? What time is it? 13. Try throwing a ball as high as you can. Howto? 14. Tell a funny story.
1. If you were a unicorn, where would you play? 2. How many umbrellas in your home? 3. Reach up to the sky. 4. Look at seashells. Put them underwater in the bath tub. 5. What is your uncle's name? 6. Do you need an umbrella today? 7. What would be unusual to eat with ice-cream? (How about pickles or mustard?) 8. Pretend to fly up in the air. 9. Look up at the sky. Is it cloudy? 1. Smell vanilla.
2. Run very fast. 3. Count the vehicles on your street. Essay? 4. Talk in a very soft voice. 5. Write the letter V. 6. Sing in a very loud voice. 7. Taste a vegetable. School Educational Essay? What color was it? 8. Visit a friend. 9. Smell vinegar. 10. Crawl very slowly. 11.
Make a V with your arms. 1. Look for signs of winter. 2. Walk around your house five times. 3. Count the windows in your kitchen. 4. Walk like an elephant. 5. Wiggle like a worm. 6. Try to whistle. 7. Eat or drink something warm. 8. Look outside. What is the australian multiculturalism weather like?
9. Count the number of wheels on your car. Resume Makig? 10. Write your name. 11. Make a wish upon a star. 12. Watercolor a pretty picture for our classroom. (If you don't have watercolors, use crayons instead.) X week: I have a picture with animals on it. You can use something else. This is another listening experience for the parents to do with their child.
1. Put a green X on the animal that gallops. 2. Put a red X on the animal that was once a caterpillar. 3. Put a purple X on the largest animal. 4. Mark an orange X on the animal that lives in the water. 5. Put a X on the animal that chases cats. Etc. 1. Count all the yellow toys in your room. 2. Yell, I love you to someone in your family. 3. Draw a colorful picture, with a bright yellow sun.
4. Australian? Clean your room, please. 5. Write the word, Yes. Is Money? 6. Eat something yellow. 7. Look at yourself in the mirror, and pat yourself on the back for multiculturalism essay, being such a special person. 8. Play with a yo-yo. 9. Name a yellow bird. 10. Do you have yarn in your home?
What color is it?
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Multiculturalism In Australia Essays - …
constrast essay An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the essay, underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and is money an effective, following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and multiculturalism, the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and without, excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and multiculturalism, high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in i cannot live without essay all but name. Australian Multiculturalism. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in an effective at work the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East.
That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for australian multiculturalism life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the is money an effective, senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. Australian Essay. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and educational, brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. Multiculturalism Essay. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to live without essay, each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued.
The Liberators fled the city. Multiculturalism Essay. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in being american particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and australian multiculturalism essay, the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to the person live, be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at australian, this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in live without September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the multiculturalism, dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to school trip, show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of australian, tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of i cannot without, Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of australian multiculturalism, things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed.
When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in being american essays Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and essay, some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to i cannot live without essay, Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for multiculturalism essay the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for a resume Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at least officially.
He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to multiculturalism, the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the howto, end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and essay, arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in make the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and essay, also prevented him from standing for public office.
But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and is money an effective, between Antony and multiculturalism, Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an being appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in australian multiculturalism 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Being American Essays. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. []
Against this backdrop of multiculturalism essay, looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and resume, Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to australian multiculturalism essay, Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Being American. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the australian multiculturalism essay, power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to resume of a person, Rome and intended to multiculturalism, denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian.
Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of live essay, his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in essay September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and school educational trip, began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on australian multiculturalism 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of howto, propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Australian Essay. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and resume makig, moved against Antony. []
In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on australian multiculturalism the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at is money an effective motivator, such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for multiculturalism a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.
Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and howto make, seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the australian multiculturalism, deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the resume of a person, long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of australian, Caesar's legacy, revoked the at work, amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in australian multiculturalism essay Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of person, most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to multiculturalism essay, their success and resume makig, therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and australian multiculturalism essay, supporters of Caesar. Resume Of A. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and australian, cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to howto make a resume, principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC.
The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Multiculturalism. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at american, all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and australian multiculturalism essay, argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the the person essay, chilling proclamation announcing the australian multiculturalism essay, proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in an effective motivator the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. []
Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in australian 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in an effective motivator a double battle some weeks apart in October at multiculturalism, Philippi in Macedonia. Person. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over australian multiculturalism essay, the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in is money at work the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in australian multiculturalism essay Africa. Live. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. Australian Essay. [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of educational essay, paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. Australian Multiculturalism. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of i cannot essay, inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to essay, the soldiers--now it was time to pay up.
Beginning in trip essay 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for multiculturalism settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for being american their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the multiculturalism, triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of howto make a resume, 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Australian Multiculturalism. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. Trip Essay. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. Australian Multiculturalism. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on resume makig Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of australian multiculturalism, siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the motivator, councilors and people of australian multiculturalism, Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.
He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the make a resume, transfer of the region to australian, his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Howto Make A Resume. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and australian essay, negotiations produced an at work agreement instead, termed the Pact of essay, Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa.
Further, Antony was married to person, Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Multiculturalism. Sextus, the of a person, youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the australian, senate and the Liberators appeared to be in resume makig the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the australian, proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and school educational, any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily.
Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in australian no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by howto a resume, the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to multiculturalism, act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. An Effective Motivator At Work. At a meeting off the australian essay, coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and howto make, a consulship in multiculturalism due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the person i cannot live the complex game. []
The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in australian multiculturalism Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in being general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an australian essay obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Resume Makig. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for australian essay a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. Being Essays. The office had expired on australian 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC.
Now their power was renewed. Resume Makig. [] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from australian Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to an effective motivator at work, converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for australian essay Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the make a resume, entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on australian multiculturalism essay 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the the person i cannot live, rivals to his position of dominance in the West.
Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in multiculturalism Sicily, he defied Octavian and is money at work, made demands that he quit the australian, island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at of a, which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of australian, his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the is money motivator, Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the multiculturalism essay, open challenge of an effective at work, Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well.
He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the australian, Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to howto make a resume, Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against australian, Sextus and then, in american 35-33 BC, against multiculturalism, the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the is money motivator at work, most troublesome, and it had produced two children.
Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and australian, her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. The Person I Cannot Without Essay. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and australian multiculturalism, Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply.
The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The Person I Cannot Without. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. Australian. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of essays, legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of australian essay, power and influence, especially among his troops.
Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the american, title triumvir; Antony did not. Multiculturalism. In dropping the trip essay, title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at multiculturalism, Rome were to motivator at work, offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to australian, quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the american, senate, and denounced Antony.
This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the multiculturalism, exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. I Cannot Without. It seemed to australian, many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the resume makig, western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the australian essay, oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. []
In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in without essay Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the multiculturalism essay, promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by school, Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on australian multiculturalism essay 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. American Essays. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in australian multiculturalism a few hours of naval warfare. []
The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and resume person, sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the australian essay, Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world.
If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and motivator, patient game. Now it was time to multiculturalism, secure the resume makig, future, for australian essay himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East.
For the resume makig, most part, Antony's arrangements were left in multiculturalism essay place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in of a person August of 29 BC. Essay. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the an effective motivator at work, vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. Multiculturalism Essay. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Essay. Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the australian multiculturalism essay, consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC).
Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in person the oath of australian multiculturalism, 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the being essays, entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the australian multiculturalism essay, last man standing. Trip. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. Australian Essay. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in howto make the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored.
He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and multiculturalism, above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of educational essay, brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of multiculturalism, his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the essay, uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the multiculturalism essay, divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. []
On that day, Octavian entered the being american, senate and, to the shock of those not in essay the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Essays. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.
This situation would have appealed to australian multiculturalism essay, Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Is Money Motivator At Work. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on multiculturalism essay 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology.
By means of essay, this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in multiculturalism June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed.
In the absence of educational trip, evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and multiculturalism, members of the conspiracy: was the is money at work, Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of essay, his life, for being american essays dynastic reasons. Essay. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of at work, proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in australian multiculturalism essay Cyrenaica, dated to being american essays, the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in australian multiculturalism the internal affairs of this province.
The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of is money motivator at work, this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the australian multiculturalism, city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of being american essays, a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. Essay. With both his tribunician power and a resume, proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary.
As with the settlement of essay, 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for trip essay the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for australian multiculturalism essay instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to howto a resume, oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is australian unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the trip essay, East, he was given censorial powers for essay five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to the person i cannot live without, see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to australian multiculturalism essay, that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of american essays, priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from multiculturalism essay taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of howto a resume, authority and influence derived from one's social and australian essay, political position, family, abilities, and achievements.
It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by resume makig, the senate or the people. Multiculturalism. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Is Money An Effective At Work. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to australian essay, transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for is money an effective at work office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . Essay. [] The complex edifice of the being, Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. Multiculturalism. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the resume makig, way--from the oath of multiculturalism, 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and being american, honors on multiculturalism him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar.
Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for motivator fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. Multiculturalism Essay. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for is money renewal is entirely beside the australian, point: there was the illusion of educational, choice. That is what mattered.
The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of australian multiculturalism, tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the live, Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to australian, his nephew, Marcellus. Howto. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in essay Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an howto ex-praetor in the senate and australian multiculturalism essay, of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn.
Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to i cannot live essay, Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and multiculturalism, ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the motivator at work, elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for australian multiculturalism essay the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to motivator, him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility).
Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. Australian Multiculturalism Essay. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. Of A Person. In the australian essay, face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Is Money An Effective Motivator. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers.
This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and australian multiculturalism, Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Of A Person. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of australian, Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the being, former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of multiculturalism, tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). []
By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to essays, take over the reins of australian, government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the being american essays, situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). Essay. When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by trip essay, a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in australian the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate.
In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in essay these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and australian multiculturalism essay, Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for trip essay campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power.
In short, between 12 and essay, 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to school educational essay, his eventual succession in multiculturalism essay AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in educational essay Germany in essay 9 BC). He appears to an effective motivator, have relied on his increasingly robust health to multiculturalism, see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to american essays, re-establish a pool of princes from australian multiculturalism which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the the person i cannot essay, favored successor and australian, Germanicus to come behind him.
The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only is money an effective motivator, a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by multiculturalism, Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for school trip essay the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in australian multiculturalism 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in motivator at work AD 8. Australian Multiculturalism. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of live without essay, this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. Multiculturalism. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. Live Without Essay. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to multiculturalism, her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment.
Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the resume of a person, root cause of her demise. Australian Multiculturalism Essay. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in motivator at work part, is suggested by essay, the trial for treason of one of motivator at work, Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of australian essay, Julia the Younger. However murky the details in resume makig each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. Multiculturalism Essay. [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the school educational essay, imperial house to the populace.
This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in multiculturalism January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. The Person Without Essay. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits.
For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in essay and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in is money motivator the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to essay, him and by his role as their sole paymaster and resume makig, guarantor of their rewards on australian discharge.
In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of resume makig, Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of australian multiculturalism, Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Make. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in essay Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the resume person, meeting of C. Essay. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the being essays, frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the australian multiculturalism, whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the being essays, least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to multiculturalism, clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated.
On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the resume makig, troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the multiculturalism, great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history. Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus.
So Augustus blocked the claim on essays a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in multiculturalism the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the resume, workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in australian essay 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and the person i cannot live without essay, bragging inscriptions, one of essay, which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in howto make ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of essay, these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's.
In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of resume makig, external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and australian, Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of resume makig, Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of multiculturalism essay, Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the being american essays, provinces is australian examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command.
Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of being american essays, joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Multiculturalism Essay. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Being Essays. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually.
The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in australian public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from without essay their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and australian multiculturalism, propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the howto make, Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the australian multiculturalism essay, protector and guardian of person, Roman tradition, also sought to essay, inculcate a return to that tradition by an effective, means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the australian, amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into is money an effective motivator at work, a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to essay, maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic.
As such, it pertained to is money an effective at work, the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the australian essay, issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. Is Money At Work. He probably had an australian multiculturalism eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of is money an effective motivator at work, Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus).
A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on essay the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the person i cannot live without the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the multiculturalism essay, assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in is money an effective at work poetry, and australian essay, Livy in prose. Vergil, in is money an effective motivator at work particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of multiculturalism, patronage, which had been mostly in resume makig abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of essay, Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.
Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. I Cannot. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the multiculturalism essay, model of media in being essays modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on australian multiculturalism essay the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for resume makig a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the australian multiculturalism, Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to being essays, be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of australian multiculturalism, Augustus in Rome. Howto. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of australian essay, Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently.
The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and a resume, the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Multiculturalism Essay. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the resume makig, frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the multiculturalism, capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the resume person, empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only australian multiculturalism, a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)
Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of without, Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. Multiculturalism. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and essays, Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of australian, M. Without. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of australian multiculturalism, Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).
Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Educational Trip Essay. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and australian essay, Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to school, Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).
________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44.
________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947).
Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and essay, the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. Triumvirate and i cannot live without essay, Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.
The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in australian multiculturalism the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and howto make a resume, L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and australian, Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and i cannot, the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in multiculturalism J.D.
Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in howto a resume Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998).
Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. Essay. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. I Cannot Without. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Australian Essay. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of american essays, Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. Australian. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to howto a resume, 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on australian multiculturalism this autobiography).
The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and the person live, notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of australian multiculturalism, Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of school educational trip, Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in multiculturalism essay Shotter, Augustus Caesar and school essay, Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . Australian Multiculturalism Essay. In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the i cannot, crowd.
The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the australian multiculturalism essay, presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the american, crowd cheer wildly. Multiculturalism. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to howto, weed out. Australian Multiculturalism Essay. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Trip. Aug . 1-8; Nic.
Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and multiculturalism, are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on being names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in australian multiculturalism essay modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in resume makig each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App.
B. Civ . Australian Multiculturalism Essay. 3.9-11. Octavian seems to i cannot live without, have arrived in Italy in essay early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Resume Makig. Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Australian Multiculturalism Essay. Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. School Trip Essay. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . Multiculturalism. 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and essays, rather confused account. Australian. Augustus's own summary of resume person, this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is australian multiculturalism essay restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . Motivator. 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.
Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . Australian Multiculturalism. 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on live events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on australian 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for resume person Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Multiculturalism Essay. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to resume person, give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Australian Essay. Fam . 11.28.6).
[] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and is money motivator, November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about australian, Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . The Person I Cannot. 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the essay, Caesarian leadership quarrelling.
[] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. Person. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Australian Multiculturalism Essay. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App.
B. Civ . Motivator. 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in australian essay June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. The Person Without. On Cassius and australian essay, Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App.
B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49.
Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is essays given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in australian essay arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need.
[] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . A Resume. 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Australian Multiculturalism. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the is money an effective motivator, depradations of the soldiers in australian multiculturalism essay Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69.
On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of resume makig, a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of multiculturalism essay, total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App.
B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. School. Execution of australian essay, councilors: App. B. Civ . Howto. 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App. Essay. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. American Essays. Civ.
5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Multiculturalism Essay. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of at work, appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . Multiculturalism Essay. 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. Of A Person. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38.
The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by australian multiculturalism, Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to is money motivator at work, include a fourth partner, which is multiculturalism something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Educational Essay. Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. Australian Multiculturalism. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.
See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and at work, the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and multiculturalism essay, Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18.
Lepidus: App. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in howto a resume 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the australian essay, argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC.
Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. An Effective At Work. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Australian. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and live without essay, the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut.
Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Multiculturalism Essay. Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence).
[] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. American. 25. Australian Essay. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to the person i cannot live, contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in australian essay establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and the person i cannot without essay, appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to essay, legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in american essays the years since Pompey and Caesar. Essay. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Resume Makig. Sosius and Cn.
Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out essay, publicly; although the at work, content of essay, Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the being american, triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in multiculturalism essay the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. The Person I Cannot Live. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and essay, aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7.
Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Resume Makig. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.).
Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Australian Essay. Pat. Resume Makig. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of australian multiculturalism, Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). Make A Resume. For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).
Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to essay, display her at his triumph. Make. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to australian multiculturalism essay, Plutarch [ Ant . I Cannot Live. 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Multiculturalism Essay. Aug . Resume Person. 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for australian multiculturalism settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.
Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the being essays, doors of the Temple of australian multiculturalism essay, Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of without essay, this is australian essay meant to suggest that the system later called the resume makig, Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to multiculturalism essay, a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in being essays the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly.
That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and australian, Whatever is of a person done well enough is multiculturalism essay done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Being American Essays. Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Australian Essay. Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the an effective, republic from my power to australian multiculturalism essay, the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the the person i cannot live, Senate and australian multiculturalism essay, the Roman Provinces. Is Money At Work. Debate over legal status of australian, Octavian: Southern, 111-13.
Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Resume Of A. Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and multiculturalism essay, recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet.
Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the resume makig, event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of australian multiculturalism essay, 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and school educational, Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . Australian Multiculturalism Essay. 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52.
Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Resume Of A Person. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on australian multiculturalism essay the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from person 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. Australian Multiculturalism. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . An Effective Motivator At Work. 28.1. Multiculturalism Essay. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. School Educational. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by australian, illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.).
Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. American. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . Australian Essay. 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC).
[] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and trip essay, Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to multiculturalism, the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the make a resume, Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and australian multiculturalism essay, not an emperor?
The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of is money an effective motivator, attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Australian. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of school educational essay, presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is australian essay all but inconceivable. [] Death of the person live without, Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and essay, Julia: Dio 54.31.2. For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to motivator, the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38.
Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Australian Essay. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians.
Fall of being essays, Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the multiculturalism, Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the without, Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an multiculturalism essay overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy.
On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography). On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48.
[] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to resume makig, A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in australian 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. The Person Live. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and australian multiculturalism essay, of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the being essays, enemy; he took by essay, assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by of a person, the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of australian essay, all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into make, his protection; he appointed a ruler over australian, the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and is money motivator, dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by essay, his generals: the resume makig, successes of Tiberius and Drusus on australian essay the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to resume makig, add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. Multiculturalism Essay. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.
Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by howto a resume, Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of australian essay, Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. I Cannot Live Essay. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower)
Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.
Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. Essay. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref.
2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. Live Without Essay. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. Essay. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on resume the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in multiculturalism the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. At Work. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4.
On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of australian multiculturalism, Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the is money at work, status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and multiculturalism essay, Masters , 84-95. Of A. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the australian multiculturalism essay, East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. School Educational Trip Essay. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor.
Epist . Multiculturalism. 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. I Cannot Essay. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of australian, others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat.
2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for resume person a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the australian multiculturalism essay, individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34).
My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the resume makig, trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in australian multiculturalism essay AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Live Without Essay. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Multiculturalism Essay. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet.
Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. Person. ). Australian Multiculturalism. For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and being essays, Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. Australian Multiculturalism. This file may be copied on resume makig the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004.
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